The Rebbe’s opinion on vaccinations

The following segment is an excerpt from a future, broader, article about vaccines and Halacha which is currently under research and in the process of being written. Iy”h it will be published in the near future.

The Rebbe’s opinion on vaccinations:[1]

As is known a Jew is obligated according to Torah law to guard his health.[2] According to Halacha, the opinion of professional doctors and health care providers are the sole authorities in regard to all health matters.[3] Accordingly, the Rebbe throughout his life encouraged people who turned to him for advice to follow the directives of the doctors and medical community and explained that the Torah gave them the power to heal, and one is Halachically[4] obligated to adhere to their directives due to the principal that guiding ones health is a Torah command.[5] The case of vaccinations is no different. The Rebbe encouraged people to immunize themselves and their children with the recommended vaccinations that are customarily taken by the masses to prevent the spread of disease and negated those who argued that it should not be done due to worry of possible side effects, or death. The Rebbe also encouraged that the vaccine used should be produced by the most medically reliable and professional pharmaceutical companies. While the Rebbe’s opinion is not necessarily intended to be universal and all-inclusive for all people and for all manufactured vaccines, in all situations, it does give a general perspective that one should not shrug off and ignore the recommendations of vaccinating oneself and his children, and as in all matters that relate to health, one is to speak to his professional health care provider to receive guidance in any cases of doubt or question. It is both strange and ironic that there exist those who refuse to use contact lenses and perform sonograms due to the Rebbe’s undocumented [i.e. not written] testimonial based position on this matter, and at the same time refuse to give their children vaccines despite the Rebbe’s very well documented position on its necessity. The following are excerpts from the letters and talks in which the Rebbe discussed vaccinations. The full text is available in the PDF posted on our site.

1. Listen to your Doctor! Vaccines prevent illness-Take them:[6]

“The Torah obligates that in matters of health one must consult with a doctor and obey his instructions. Now, there are two approaches to medicine, one being healing through finding a cure for a current illness, and the second being preventive medicine. It is clearly understood that preventive medicine is the ideal and most desirable any way you look at it, including cost, not to mention the fact it prevents illness and suffer r”l. In addition, it prevents needing to resort to more complex medical intervention such as surgery, which is sometimes necessary when dealing with an existing condition. In order for preventive medicine to be most beneficial, it requires one to commence prevention at the earliest possible age, beginning with vaccinations, brushing the teeth to prevent cavities, and a balanced diet etc.”

2. Doctors have the Torah right to administer preventive medicine in the form of vaccines:[7]

In reply to your query as to whether doctors are [according to Torah] only permitted to heal a current condition or may also administer preventive medicine, such as vaccines. Preventive medicine has been administered by the most distinguished Gedolei Yisrael on a regular basis.”

3. One is to take vaccines and rely on the medical community and its successful administration:[8]

“The deaths that resulted in America from vaccinations occurred at the early onset of the use of the vaccine, prior to its conclusive ingredient list being established. Now, however, after several months of experience with the vaccine [this is no longer the case]. Thus, after verifying the reliability of [the company who] manufactured the vaccine, there is no worry at all against taking it, and on the contrary [one is to do so].”

4. If most people in one’s country and city vaccinate, one is not to exclude himself from doing so:[9]

“That which you write regarding vaccinations, in this country it is customary to vaccinate all the children. Nonetheless, prior to doing so, the manufacturer of the vaccine and its ingredients should be verified that it has been tested and successfully administered. Being that you write that many people in your city vaccinate their children, you should not exclude yourself from doing so.”

5. Urgent! I have already answered many people that since most people do it, one should do so as well:[10]

“Due to the urgent nature of your query regarding vaccinations, I am replying to your question before even the other most pressing letters. It is a wonder that you ask your question [regarding whether you should vaccinate] as many have already asked me this in Eretz Hakodesh and I have replied in the affirmative, that since close to all people vaccinate, and successfully [therefore, you too should do so].

 

6. Vaccinate your child if it is done to majority of the children in his class:[11]

“In reply to your query regarding my opinion on vaccinations that are currently given to young children, with regards to these matters the Talmudic dictum of “Al Tifrosh Min Hatzibur/Do not separate from the community” applies. Therefore, you should act according to that which is practiced by the majority of children who are in your children’s class.

7. Salk-Polio vaccine-Since close to everyone already does so, it is proper to do so:[12]

“To Nishei Ubenos Chabad. In response to your query regarding the Salk [Polio] vaccine for children [and if the residents of Kfar Chabad should be vaccinated for it], it has already been administered in many countries, and in the USA close to everyone does so, and successfully, and therefore it is proper to do so. Regarding the company brand that you should choose for the vaccine, this is dependent on quality and reliability, and one should choose the best one after doing the proper research.”

8. No Kashrus issue involved in taking vaccines-but choose a reliable brand:[13]

“That which you ask if one may use vaccines if they contain non-Kosher ingredients, every day people do so even amongst the G-d fearing without any question, as it is permitted to benefit from non-kosher foods. Regarding the Polio shot, it is done even by the most G-d fearing and there is no Kashrus worry of doing so, although one should verify that the vaccine comes from a reliable company.”

 

 

 

  1. The lesson in Avodas Hashem from vaccines:[14]

“Several decades ago, medicine discovered that the body could avoid certain diseases through vaccination. The vaccination works through stimulating the body, through injecting it with a weakened version of those diseases, to create antibodies to guard against them. The lesson in service of G-d that can be learned from this is that minor challenges and difficulties which people face in new endeavors should be viewed as a vaccine against a more severe challenge later on.”

 

The statistics:[15]

In Israel, 97% of children are vaccinated, holding one of the highest rates of vaccinated children in the world. In the USA 92% of children receive the MMR vaccine, while 99.3% of children receive at least some vaccines. The worldwide estimate of vaccinations against measles [MMR] stands at 85%.

An analysis of the Rebbe’s opinion:

While it is clear that the Rebbe’s looked positively upon the administration of vaccines as an integral duty of a Jew in preventive medicine, and thus advised people to do so, in a number of the above letters the Rebbe depends this on whether majority of people have taken the vaccine, and the question is asked as to why this point makes a difference. If according to medical science vaccines are a necessity for disease prevention, and one must heed their words according to Halacha, then why should it make a difference whether majority of people do the right thing or not. The following are several speculations on the possible intent of the Rebbe:

1.       The Torah follows majority: The successful administration of a vaccine to majority of the population shows that it works and does not have lasting side effects, thus proving its reliability according to Torah law, which follows the majority.

2.       Hashem guards the masses-Shomer Pesaim Hashem: When the majority of people and Jewry perform an action which carries certain health risks, they receive Divine assistance and protection against any harm coming as a result of it.[16] Accordingly, there is no need to worry of any possible long-term side effects of a vaccination, as one receives Divine assistance regarding it, and thus the long-term benefits of disease prevention override.

3.       Not to separate from the community practice-Halacha: The Torah does not take lightly the fact that one disengages from the common practice of the community and it thus encourages one to join their efforts.[17] Doing so may have both Halachic and spiritual ramifications. In Halacha we find that if a certain standard of living is accepted in a neighborhood, then people who live in that neighborhood must adhere to those public standards.[18] In the case of vaccines, one who does not vaccinate his children in a community where this is the standard practice makes that community susceptible to potential outbreaks due to their unimmunized child who walks around the neighborhood and attends in their schools and classes.

4.       Not to separate from the community practice-spiritual:[19] Another reason for why one should not separate from the community practice is spiritual, as doing so can cause undue personal observation and scrutiny of the spiritual attribute of judgment. A community receives certain Divine protection that is not afforded to one who separates himself from them. Accordingly, one who does not vaccinate possibly places himself under the eyes of scrutiny of the attribute of judgment, heaven forefend.[20] 

Q&A

Does this mean that according to the Rebbe everyone should immunize themselves and their children? What if I know people who had bad side effects, or I or my children had bad side effects? In fact, I even know someone whose child passed away r”l right after an immunization!

As in everything in life, there is no one shoe that fits all, and specific medical conditions and/or family history require special scrutiny by a medical professional regarding the question of whether vaccines are in their best health interest. This concept can be found in the Torah itself. While, the Torah obligates every male child to receive a “spiritual vaccine” called the Bris Milla on the 8th day, it recognizes special cases and situations of illness where this cannot medically be done and thus must be pushed off indefinitely until the child is deemed healthy. Likewise, we find parents with a family history of death caused by circumcision to at least two of their children, are required to push off the great Mitzvah of circumcision and not circumcise their child until, if at all, it is deemed medically safe.[21] From here we can learn a number of Halachic perspectives: a) Don’t ignore family history or a medical condition when it comes to taking a normally accepted medication or treatment. b) Don’t abstain from taking medication [in our case vaccines] just because you know of a case where it had negative or lethal effects. The Torah speaks to the majority, and for every case of negative consequences due to vaccines you have millions of others who attest to their reliability and health benefits. One cannot sabotage the norm due to the exception, without medical reason to believe that he is part of that exception group. A simple example of the above is with regards to peanuts. About 1.4 percent of children in the U.S. are said to be allergic to peanuts, and between 150-200 people die each year as a result.[22] Now, does this mean that the average and normal child is to avoid peanuts and is Halachically mandated to do so. Absolutely not! Since 99% of children are not allergic, we follow the majority, and only in a case of a medical reaction witnessed in one’s child is one required to avoid it.

Perhaps the Rebbe’s opinion is “outdated” and was correct at the time based on the information known. However, today, where new medical research has shown and proven the potential damaging effects of vaccinations, the Rebbe would reverse his opinion?

Without getting into the subject of belief in the words of a Tzadik and the immortality of his teachings, the statement above is factually and Halachically misleading, misguided, and incorrect. As stated in the opening of this discussion, according to Halacha, the opinion of professional doctors and health care providers are the sole authorities regarding all health matters, and it is forbidden to take an amateurs opinion into account. Halacha does not give credence to conspiracy theorists, or any other amateur opinion, regarding medicine. Accordingly, a Halachically valid medical opinion regarding vaccines must come from a medical professional and not a conspiracy writer, or an individual with a prior agenda, or even from an unbiassed medical novice who is analyzing the subject to the best of his ability. Any and all information that the non-medical community provides regarding the danger of vaccines is to be given to the medical community for them to review and establish or reject. Many people read various articles of propaganda against vaccinations and become convinced with the “facts” and statistics they read. Once, again, the Torah gave the authority of digesting this information, and giving medical advice based on it, solely to professional doctors, and not to the amateur writer irrelevant of how convincing his one-sided arguments may seem.

With that said, aren’t there MD’S and people in the medical community who have voiced the dangers of vaccines, past the Rebbe’s times?

Yes. From amongst the over 1,000,000 medical doctors in the United States[23] and between 10,000,000- 15,000,000 doctors around the world[24], there do exist credible doctors from within the professional medical community who have shared different concerns regarding vaccines, with some opposing it in its entirety. There have also been clinical studies performed which show links between vaccines and other medical issues. Nonetheless, this represents but a mere fraction of the medical community, and medical research. The overwhelming majority of research and clinical studies, including reports by the most prestige and professional scientific medical research firms, contradict these findings. Likewise, the overwhelming majority of doctors in the medical community are in agreement that vaccinations are necessary to prevent disease and should be administered. It is their opinion that is followed by all nations and governments throughout the world, and the vast majority of people place trust in the medical community and administer vaccines to themselves and their children [see statistics above].  Accordingly, since the Torah instructs that a Jew must follow the majority and most expertise opinion amongst doctors[25], and the Rebbe instructs not to separate from the community, the Rebbe’s directive and the Halachic ruling stands strong likewise today.

 

Showcase Rabbinical response to anti-vax community members voicing frustration at the Rabbinical authorities for not taking their position:

This letter is a response by Rabbi Yeshaya Braun Shlita, Member of Crown Heights Beis Din, to the question of an anti-vax mother pushing back against his Pesak to vaccinate, reprinted here with his permission  [we did not bring the original letter of the questioner due to reasons of privacy]:

I have read your email several times. Your pain and anguish is clearly noticeable and very well understood. At the same time, I don’t want my reply to come across as an off the cuff answer coming from someone who wishes to give you a wishy-washy answer, just to get you off my back. Therefore, I was seriously considering the notion that it might be better not to answer at all, because the answer might be perceived as though not taking your considerations seriously.

An additional point noteworthy of consideration here is: What I have encountered in many such discussions is the fact that the two sides often have strong opinions on the matter and they’re hardly convinced by hard facts, rationale or evidence. The different opinions are often based on cultural differences, personalities or backgrounds and other similar distinctions. A verbal or written exchange of ideas often results in further disillusionment, disappointments and widening the gap even more. This is no good for anyone. Obviously, this does not preclude my responsibilities as a Rav to express my opinion clearly on the matters I believe are governed by Halacha, especially when dealing with issues of potential Sakanas Nefashos. I understand that you’re well aware that I have done so already and that you appreciate the fact that my sole motivation for doing so was in order to act in accordance with my responsibility as a Rav.

(The fact that these rulings aren’t popular, or make me unpopular, is really not relevant. Many a time, a Rav has the Achrayus to give a communal Psak which won’t sit well with some members in the community. Of course, the Rav has to assess the situation well and reach a decision whether it’s better to speak or to remain silent. But once a decision has been reached that it’s incumbent upon him to state his opinion he may not shy away from it due to fear of reprisals or even of people being alienated by the Psak. Some recent examples come to mind: the Eruv controversy, call of the Shofar etc. In all these cases, the Rabbonim have researched the issue and have given a Psak which many people didn’t like. But that wouldn’t be a reason to withhold the Psak from the public.)

At the same time, repeating this Psak again and again won’t accomplish much and will only serve to alienate further those who have already been alienated, or even those who have not been alienated so far.

The same applies to a point by point rebuttal of the arguments mentioned: in my opinion they serve no purpose. There’s enough information available out there for those who wish to avail themselves of it in order to know the response that the pro-vaccination establishment, or in my opinion more correctly stated as the position of those who follow credible science, would say – and have said – about all the points raised. There are many doctors and professionals who could give you satisfactory answers to all these points, much better than anything I would write.

Another important point: responding to the specific arguments would mean that I’m engaging in medical and scientific issues, which is not my field or specialty. This would also take away time from my primary duty to teach Torah and Pasken Halachic Sha’alos. It is self understood that it makes no sense for a doctor to engage in Halachic research in order to reach a Halachic decision; if he would be doing so he will be overstepping his boundaries and would undermine even his medical standing. Likewise, the Rav must indeed seek out medical information from doctors and professionals and form a Halachic ruling. But it would be wrong for him to be involved in medical discussions and medical research on his own.

Incidentally, this is one of the core issues at the heart of the so-called vaccination debate. Society has reached a point where everyone has at their fingertips a wealth of information on the subject and can now form their own decisions without having the requisite training to know how to distinguish between fact and fiction or pseudoscience vs. real science. Even a simple matter such as statistics is a very thorough and comprehensive field, and stats can often be manipulated to achieve the desired result, something very different than the real truth. Only someone with a real understanding of the issues would be able to see things for what they really are.

Many of us experience this issue with our kids, specifically teenagers. The little bit of knowledge that they have makes them think they know better than us and should be making their own decisions. At times they are right, but unfortunately sometimes their choices can be quite dangerous.

A healthy dose of humility is in place for one to recognize their standing and know about which matters they’re capable of reaching decisions on their own and when they should rely on those wiser or more experienced than them to decide what the correct strategy is.

This is something we have heard countless times from the Rebbe about the delineation and demarcation of the various different professions and how it’s important that only the specialist in each field is consulted in order to form an opinion. When it came to territorial concessions in Eretz Yisroel, the Rebbe made it clear on many occasions that only the military experts are to be consulted and it should not involve politicians who have a different agenda. The Rebbe compared this to medicine that only doctors are the ones trusted according to Torah to rule what’s medically necessary.

As a general rule, the Rebbe has requested that the following formula be followed regarding all future questions that people wish to ask him: When it comes to business matters, friends who understand the situation should give advice; for Halacha matters – Rabbonim should Pasken; for medical issues we should follow the opinion of the majority of doctors, and in issues of Avodas Hashem the opinion of one’s Aseh Lecha Rav should be sought.

This brings me to the issue of the letters of the Rebbe you mentioned in passing. I take it that you, or others who are like minded, seek to interpret these letters in a different manner. I’ve heard many such arguments in the last few months from quite a few people. Truth be told, it seems to me that their interpretation is at best stretched, or worse an interpretation which is motivated by a preconceived notion. But none of this is germane to our discussion. It really makes no difference what I think of other people’s attempt to interpret these letters. The most important point for me is that as a Rav who’s been given the task to rule on such matters I must follow what I believe is the Rebbes’s position on these issues, even when others think their interpretation is superior.

(Moreover, the normative Torah approach is that Rabbonim are the one’s interpreting Torah and the laypeople follow their interpretation; it is surprising that people who always accept a Psak from a Rav in all matters of Torah are quick to point out in this matter the shortcomings of the Psak and attempt to impress upon the Rabbonim their own Peshat.)

As for the fact that some people are unfortunately alienated by this Psak, sadly there is not much that can be done about this. But there is a workable solution.

Under ordinary circumstances I wouldn’t take this approach. However upon reading your email over and over, I realize this is most suitable here, especially since we are dealing with an issue which involves saving lives and we cannot afford to sit back and relax. I don’t know who you are (at least, the name you used in this correspondence is not familiar to me), but the sincerity is clearly noticeable in your writing and indicates to me that you really desire to do the right thing Al Pee Torah. I therefore have taken the liberty to urge you to consider the following approach:

This can be understood by comparing it to the following scenario. One is involved in a heavy duty din Torah and has presented all their claims to the Beis Din, only to receive a Psak which deems them guilty and compels them to pay out of pocket thousands of dollars. The individual knows he is in the right. The Beis Din seems to have gotten it totally wrong. What is he to do in this situation? According to Torah, how is he supposed to perceive this situation? Unfortunately, there are many people who after losing a Psak in Beis Din were totally alienated from the Beis Din and Batei Dinim in general, refusing to accept the Psak and in some cases have even decided to take the issue up in secular Court, a grave offense according to Torah.

However, the Torah approach which many individuals have successfully mastered despite their initial misgivings and the obvious difficulty involved is to accept the Psak with humility and Bittul and appreciate that the Ratzon Hashem now is for him to pay the hard earned money to the other litigant, regardless of what he thinks about the matter. The same Torah that instructs him to wear Tefillin or her to wear a Sheitel wants him to pay out the money.

The only thing I can think of that can work over here is to do the same: accept the Psak with Bittul and Kabolas Ol and recognize that as “Chassidishe families” who understand “the integral role that Rabbonim play in leading a Frum life” we ought to follow them even when it doesn’t sit well with us. I know this might sound harsh and demanding, but anything else would really be untruthful to the perspective of Torah. It is plainly clear that the position that some Piskei Dinim are up to our discretion whether to accept or not is anathema to Torah.

The following might seem extreme to you but it is a real reflection of the truth according to Torah. I imagine that If you would have asked the Rebbe and received a clear answer to vaccinate here and now and to publicize this to others you wouldn’t hesitate for a second, despite all the issues you have raised. The truth is that a Psak from Rabbonim is exactly the same (aside from the fact that the Rebbe has already answered). For the sake of your kids’ lives and our kids’ lives, please take my words as they are intended, words from the heart which enter the heart.

Wishing you Hatzlacha.

Rabbi Yeshaya Braun

____________________________________________________

[1] See Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit Vol. 2. Chapter 11

[2] See Michaber Y.D. 116, 335:1 and C.M. 427:10; Admur C.M. Hilchos Shemiras Haguf Vihanefesh 4

[3] See Michaber Y.D. 335:1 “Do not involve yourself in medicine unless you are an expert and there is no one greater than you, otherwise you are a murderer”; Admur 618:9 “A doctor who does not have experience with the illness is viewed like any other amateur, of whom their medical opinion has no bearing or weight, neither to be lenient or stringent”; Admur 328:2 “Even if there is a definite danger one may only transgress Shabbos for medical treatment that is known to all or is done by a professional [doctor].”; Tzemach Tzedek Y.D. 81 regarding not to follow an amateurs advice on curing rabies; Igros Kodesh 7:303 See also our Sefer “Topics in practical Halacha Vol. 1 on the Hashkafa of alternative medicine and  http:::98.131.138.124:articles:ASSIA:ASSIA9:R0091090.asp

[4] See Admur 328:11 If [the sick person] refuses to accept the treatment because he does not want Shabbos to be desecrated on his behalf, then he is to be forced [into taking it] as this is a ludicrous form of [supposed] piety.”; This certainly applies during the week, that we force him to take a medicine or listen to doctors orders even to cut off a limb, even if he does not want to do it due to the pain and ridicule he will have to live with. [Mor Uketzia 328]

[5] The Rebbe’s directives to visit professional doctors and adhere strictly to their instructions are documented in literally hundreds of letters and talks printed in the three-volume series Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit.

[6] Letter of Rebbe 15th Tamuz 5746 [1986], printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit Vol. 1

[7] Igros Kodesh 14:107 printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

[8] Igros Kodesh 14:343, printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

[9] Igros Kodesh 14:426, letter 5203

[10] Igros Kodesh 14:357, printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

[11] Igros Kodesh 11:137, Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

[12] Igros Kodesh 14 p. 238, printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

[13] Igros Kodesh 14 p. 108, printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

[14] Igros Kodesh 11 p. 58, printed in Healthy in Body, Mind and Spirit ibid

The following incident was related by the Rebbe in Sicha Parshas Shoftim 1982. “A Jew visited me recently, and we discussed education. He told me that statistics have shown that a bad education harms only 5 percent of children. I asked him if he vaccinated his children for measles, polio, etc. He replied: “Of course! We are parents!” “Do you know what percentage of children who do not receive the vaccine actually contract the disease?” I asked. He happened to know the statistic—less than 3 or 4 percent. In other words, even for a possibility of 4 percent, and especially in these countries where these diseases are even more rare, it is still worthwhile to vaccinate, with all of the pain, etc., that it causes. Why? “Who cares about those minor inconveniences, as compared to what possibly could happen without vaccinating?” he responded. I said to him: “If for a doubt of 4 percent it is worth causing the child pain, enduring the child’s screaming and all the other effects of the vaccination, just to avoid the disease—even though for the most part there is not even a possibility of any life danger, but rather just severe discomfort for some time—how much more so is it worthwhile to ensure the health of the child’s soul, where the doubt is 5 percent, and where the vaccine does not cause any pain. All that is required is to sign the child up for studies in a Torah-true educational facility! This action will affect his entire life!” [https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/2870103/jewish/What-Does-Jewish-Law-Say-About-Vaccination.htm]

[15] See https://www.statista.com/topics/3283/vaccinations-in-the-us/ and http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/immunization-coverage

[16] See various instances where this rule has been used to allow a dangerous activity: Yevamos 12, 72; Kesubos 39; Avoda Zara 30a; Nida 31a; Beis Yosef E.H. 9; Chaim Sheal 59; Terumos Hadeshen 211; Machatzis Hashekel 260; Teshuvah of Tzemach Tzedek, elaborated on in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 3:13

[17] Hillel in Pirkeiy Avos 2:4; Bava Metzia 86b “A person should never swerve from the norm and common practice”; Tanya Igeres Hakodesh 16 and 23

[18] See Choshen Mishpat 156 and particularly Rama 156:7 for various powers a community has in preventing others who cause a potential financial risk from coming to live in the city, and certainly this would apply to a health risk

[19] The concept of a global protection provided to a community over that of an individual is well document in Torah literature and will Iy”h be referenced to in an updated version of this article

[20] So we see statistically that the first to become inflicted with a given disease are those who did not receive vaccinations against it. Meaning, the Satan who inflicts the plague focuses on them first and in majority r”l.

[21] See Michaber Y.D. 262:2 and 263:1-3

[22] See https://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/allergies/food-allergy/peanut/how-many-people-die-each-year-from-peanut-allergies.htm

[23] https://www.statista.com/topics/1244/physicians/ ; https://www.statista.com/statistics/209424/us-number-of-active-physicians-by-specialty-area/

[24] See https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2226.html

[25] See Admur 618:3-5 regarding fasting on Yom Kippur that if one doctor says the patient needs to eat while two doctors say the patient does not need to eat then he is not to be fed. If, however, the doctor who says that he needs to eat is a much greater physician than the other two doctors, then the patient is to be fed.

About The Author

Leave A Comment?