The obligation to eat immediately after Kiddush-How much time does one have?

The obligation to eat immediately after Kiddush-How much time does one have?[1]

Introduction:

In order for Kiddush to be valid [whether of night or day of Shabbos and Yom Tov] one is required to eat a “meal” afterwards [which consists of at least a Kezayis of Mezonos/Hamotzi or Revius of wine[2]].[3] The question dealt with in this article is in regards to the definition of “afterwards” and as to how much time after Kiddush must the “meal” be eaten, and the law Bedieved if a delay took place.

Within how much time after saying/hearing Kiddush must one eat Mezonos/Hamotzi?[4]

One is required to eat [a Kezayis of Mezonos/Hamotzi or Revius of wine[5]] in the area Kiddush was recited, immediately[6] after Kiddush.[7] One is not to delay eating for even a short time.[8] [Practically, one is to eat the above foods within four minutes of Kiddush.[9] Accordingly one is not to hold conversations that do not pertain to the meal between Kiddush and eating.[10] One however may delay for purposes relating to the meal.[11]]

Bedieved if one did not eat right away or did not intend to do so:

Coming up in Part 2

Summary:

After Kiddush one is required to eat [a Kezayis of Mezonos/Hamotzi or Revius of wine] right away, [within four minutes of Kiddush]. [However, one may delay for purposes relating to the meal.] If one ate right away within the area he made Kiddush, then he fulfills his obligation even if he did not have in mind to do so at the time he made Kiddush.

Q&A

May one delay eating after Kiddush for the sake of matters that pertain to the meal?[12]

If one delayed eating after Kiddush due to involvement in matters pertaining to the meal then it is not considered an interval, even if he delayed a long time.[13] Thus, the interval that takes place between the conclusion of Kiddush and the start of Hamotzi is not considered problematic, as explained next. Likewise, one may remove his upper clothing between Kiddush and eating.[14]

If it takes several minutes until the entire family says Kiddush, washes hands and says Hamotzi, is one to go ahead and say Hamotzi on his own, or eat Mezonos prior to washing?[15]

One fulfills his obligation even if a long time passes after Kiddush until all the men are finished making Kiddush and everyone is done washing.[16]

May one go to the bathroom between Kiddush and eating?[17]

Yes.[18] However, it is best to initially avoid the situation and be careful to do so prior to Kiddush.

May one change a baby between Kiddush and eating?

If the diaper smells and is disturbing the meal, then one may do so after Kiddush. However, it is best to initially avoid the situation and do so prior to Kiddush.

May one go to another room to wash hands for the meal?[19]

Yes.[20] However, it is best to initially avoid the situation and be careful to wash in the same room as where one recited Kiddush.[21]

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[1] Admur 273:5

[2] See Admur 273:7-8; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 9

[3] Admur 273:1; Michaber 473:1; Shmuel Pesachim 101a

[4] Admur 273:5

[5] See Admur 273:7-8; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 9

[6] Lit. “Lialter”

[7] Admur ibid; Rama 273:3; Iggur 387 in name of Maharil; Maharil 32; Ginas Veradim 2:20, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 273:2; Ben Ish Chaiy Bereishis 2:4; Kaf Hachaim 273:29

[8] Admur ibid; M”A 273:5; Darkei Moshe 273; Maharil ibid; M”B 273:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 10

[9] Ketzos Hashulchan 81:3 footnote 10

The reason: Certainly, the word “Lialter/immediately” does not mean a second later. [Aruch Hashulchan 273:4; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid] Thus, it seems that its time limit is the same amount for Achilas Peras which is equivalent to four minutes. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that he is to eat the food within the amount of time it takes to walk 22 Amos [30 seconds]. [Siddur Yaavetz, written by publishers] Other Poskim write that within a half hour it is still considered “immediately”. [Or Letziyon 2:20-24] Other Poskim rule one may delay even for one to two hours. [Poskim brought in Birkeiy Yosef 273 Shiyurei Bracha 1 and Kaf Hachaim 273:29, see footnotes below regarding Bedieved]; See Tzitz Eliezer 11:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4

[10] Mor Uketzia and Siddur Yaavetz

[11] See Q&A!

[12] M”B 273:14; Kaf Hachaim 273:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 10; Ashel Avraham Butchach 273; Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4

[13] The proof: The night of the Seder we delay several hours between Kiddush and Hamotzi, and the reason it is not an interval is because it pertains to the meal. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; Ashel Avraham Butchach ibid]

[14] Aruch Hashulchan 273:4

[15] Piskeiy Teshuvos 273 footnote 36 in name of Minchas Yitzchak

[16] The reason: As the delay of washing is considered a preparation for the meal, which is not counted as a delay, as explained above.

[17] M”B 273:12; Kaf Hachaim 273:25

[18] The reason: As this is considered done for the need of the meal, which is permitted to delay on its behalf even if one goes from room to room. [M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid that this applies even according to Admur ibid who rules that delay plus change of room is an invalidation; See Biur Halacha 273:3 “Oh Sheyihei”]

[19] Kaf Hachaim 273:25

[20] The reason: As this is considered done for the need of the meal, which is permitted to delay on its behalf even if one goes from room to room. [M”B 273:12; Kaf Hachaim ibid that this applies even according to Admur ibid who rules that delay plus change of room is an invalidation; See Biur Halacha 273:3 “Oh Sheyihei”]

[21] Tehila Ledavid 273:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4 footnote 38

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