Shabbos Chanukah-Part 1
1. Mincha Erev Shabbos?
Mincha is prayed [early] on Erev Shabbos, prior to lighting the Chanukah candles. [In a time of need, however, one may light the candles prior to Mincha. If one is unable to Daven Mincha with a Minyan prior to candle lighting, it is better to light before Mincha and then Daven Mincha with a Minyan.]
2. Lighting the Chanukkah Candles on Erev Shabbos:
A. When are the Chanukah candles lit?
The earliest time of lighting: The candles are lit with a blessing even though they are being lit while still day. [The earliest time one can begin to light the Chanukah candles is from Plag Hamincha. Plag Hamincha is 11/4 Zmaniyos hours [75 Zmaniyos minutes] prior to sunset. Some Poskim, however, rule the candles are to be lit near sunset, within a half hour to sunset. Based on this, the custom in Jerusalem is to light the Chanukah candles 25 minutes before sunset, and then immediately afterwards to light Shabbos candles.]
Q&A on when to light
May a wife light the Shabbos candles prior to the husband lighting the Chanukah candles?
Initially, the wife is to only light the Shabbos candles once the Chanukah candles have been lit by her husband. However, in a time of need, she may light the Chanukah candles prior to her husband lighting. She may certainly begin the lighting after her husband has lit one candle, if she is pressed for time.
If a man already lit the Shabbos candles, may he still light the Chanukah candles?
So long as he did not explicitly have in mind to accept Shabbos upon lighting the candles, he may still light the Chanukah candles. [However, he must make sure to accept Shabbos within ten minutes of the initial lighting of the Shabbos candles.]
If a woman already lit Shabbos candles, may she still light the Chanukah candles if no one else is lighting for her?
No [unless she made a Tnaiy]. However, she may ask a Jew who has not yet accepted Shabbos to light the candles for her, having him say the first blessing in her presence while she recites the remaining blessings [of Sheasah Nissim, and Sheheciyanu if this occurred on the first night].
If it is very close to Shabbos and one has not yet Davened Mincha or lit candles, what should he do?
One should first light candles and then Daven Mincha.
B. Remaining close to the candles:
On Erev Shabbos, we are not particular to remain close to the burning candles for a half hour.
C. How much oil must the candle contain/How long must the candles last for?
On Erev Shabbos one is to place enough oil in the candles for them to remain lit for at least 30 minutes after nightfall. [If one does not have enough oil to last for all the candles, then at least one candle should contain this amount of oil. Preferably, this should be the added candle that corresponds to that night. If one did not place enough oil for any of the candles to last 30 minutes past nightfall, he does not fulfill his obligation.]
Wax candles: One who is using wax candles, must verify that the candles are long enough for them to burn until 30 minutes after nightfall. Thus, practically the candles must be long enough to last a minimum of 70 minutes, if not more, depending on country. If one does not have enough long candles available, then it suffices to have at least one candle which is long enough to last this amount of time.
D. If the candles extinguished before Shabbos:
If the Chanukah candles that were lit Erev Shabbos extinguished before Shabbos had begun, some Poskim rule one is nevertheless not required to relight the candles. However, other Poskim rule that in such a case one must relight the candle without a blessing. Practically, one should always relight candles that extinguished before their time, especially on Erev Shabbos. If one has already accepted Shabbos, he is to ask another person to relight the candles.
E. The materials of the wicks, oil:
[From the letter of the law] all oils and wicks may be used for the Chanukah candles. Even on Erev Shabbos Chanukah, it is permitted to light the Chanukah candles using oils and wicks that are forbidden to use for Shabbos candles. This however only applies if one only places enough oil to last a half hour after nightfall. If, however, there is enough oil to last more than a half hour after nightfall, it is forbidden to light Chanukah candles using oils and wicks that are forbidden to be used for the Shabbos candles. Likewise, the Shamash must be made of oil/wax that is permitted to be used for the Shabbos candles.
F. May one light the Shabbos candles from the flames of the Chanukah candles?
Some opinions rule that Shabbos candles, Shul candles, and Chanukah candles are all considered candles used for a Mitzvah, and one may hence light them from each other. [Practically, one is to use the Shamash for this purpose. This especially applies if one already lit a single Shabbos candle and desires to light a second candle from the Chanukah flames]
G. Where in the house to light:
The Menorah is initially to be placed within the doorway of a room [or entrance of the house for those who light outside], between the doorposts, and this applies on Shabbos as well.
Fear of fire hazard-Kids nocking down? In times of danger, it suffices to simply light the Menorah on one’s table. Thus, if one fears to light the Menorah by the doorway due to children and the like, then he is to light it by the window or on a table.
Wind: The candles may not be lit opposite or near a door or window which one plans to open and close on Shabbos while they are still lit, due to the that this may cause them to become extinguished due to the wind. Rather, they are to be lit elsewhere, or placed in a glass container to protect them from the wind.
H. May one move the Menorah on Shabbos?
Moving the Menorah itself: It is forbidden to move the actual Menorah even after it has extinguished, due to the Muktzah prohibition. It may be moved with an irregularity, just as is the law regarding all Muktzah.
Moving a tray or chair that contains a Menorah: If the tray or chair has become a Basis [see below] then it is Muktzah, and may not be moved unless one uses an irregularity. If the tray or chair is not a Basis, then the tray or chair may be moved together with the Menorah even regularly [without touching the menorah], if one needs the space [as is usually the case when by a doorway]. The tray/chair however may not be moved in a regular fashion simply to prevent the Menorah from getting damaged.
Moving the Menorah while still lit: In the above case [that the tray or chair is not a Basis] one may move the tray or chair gently, even if the Menorah that is on it is still lit, even if it contains oil. However, by an oil candle, this is only allowed if one is able to do so very gently to the point that no oil swerves in the process.
I. Moving the table/chair/stool/tray that the Menorah was lit on-How does one effect that the tray/chair does not become a Basis?
An item which intentionally contains a Muktzah item on top of it, becomes Muktzah over Shabbos just like the item itself. Thus, the chair and tray of the Menorah are Muktzah just as is the law of the Menorah. This status of Muktzah is called a Basis. Nevertheless, there are ways to prevent the chair or tray from becoming a Basis as explained next: A tray or chair does not become a Basis if one places bread [of the Shabbos meal] or another non-Muktzah item [such as a Siddur or Tehillim] of more importance than the flame resting on the tray/table during the entrance of Shabbos [sunset/ candle lighting], and the tray was not manufactured specifically for candles. [Some say this means if the candle tray is not specifically manufactured to be used for candles, then it may have bread [of the Shabbos meal] or another permitted item of more value than the Muktzah items, placed on the tray. Others say that even if the tray was not manufactured for this purpose, but was designated to now be used only for this purpose, then it is always a Basis.]
What is one to do if the tray has become a Basis? One may only move it with an irregularity [Shinuiy].
J. Shabbos guests-Where to light:
If one is traveling for Shabbos, where is he to light the candles on Erev Shabbos? If one is traveling on Erev Shabbos to go away for Shabbos, then if he is leaving his home prior to Plag Hamincha, he must light candles at the area that he will be staying for Shabbos. If, however, he will be leaving after Plag Hamincha, then he may choose to light candles either at home, or by his destination. However, some say that those who are accustomed to light inside their homes, should only light the candles at home if there will be family members who will remain to watch the candles, and to whom the miracle can be publicized to. Otherwise, one is to light the candles specifically by his destination, even if he travels after Plag Hamincha.
On Erev Shabbos, where is one to light the Chanukah candles if he and his family will be eating out for the Friday night meal? Example: One will be leaving his apartment with his entire family for a Shabbos meal on Erev Shabbos. Where is he to light? What if he will only return home very late when the candles are already extinguished. He is to light the candles at home after Plag Hamincha, prior to leaving, and secure them in a safe area to avoid a fire hazard. However, in a time of need that one cannot light the candles at home [such as if a secure area against fire cannot be secured, or if his entire family must leave the home before Plag Hamincha] then he may light the candles in the area that he will eat the Friday night meal, in the presence of his family.
If one is traveling back home on Motzei Shabbos, where should he light the candles? Some say that one is to delay lighting the candles until he returns home, and he is thus to try and return home right away. Others however say that he may light the candles at his current location where he stayed for Shabbos, and does not have to wait until he returns home. This especially applies if he will be returning home very late at night, in which case he should specifically light by his current location.
K. Laws of precedence for pauper:
Precedence-Shabbos candles versus Chanukah candles: One who is unable to afford to purchase both Shabbos candles and Chanukah candles, Shabbos candles receive precedence. He is to purchase only one Shabbos candle for the dining table [to last until after the meal], and if any money remains, he is to use it to purchase Chanukah candles. [This however only refers to the candles of Erev Shabbos, if however one has enough money to either purchase candles for Thursday’s lighting, or save the money to purchase candles for Shabbos, then the Chanukah candles receive precedence. Furthermore, some Poskim rule that possibly in today’s times that we anyways light the Chanukah candles inside the house, the Chanukah candles always receives precedence. Other Poskim however argue that this law that the Shabbos candles receive precedence applies even today. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, that even in today’s times the Shabbos candles receive precedence.]
Precedence-Wine for Kiddush/Havdala versus Chanukah candles: If one has Shabbos candles, but is unable to afford to purchase both Chanukah candles and wine for Kiddush, Chanukah candles receive precedence. He is to purchase only one Chanukah candle and use any leftover money towards wine for Kiddush. Likewise, if one has Shabbos candles and wine for Kiddush, but is unable to afford to purchase both Chanukah candles and wine for Havdala, Chanukah candles receive precedence. [If, however, one does not have money to afford both Chanukah candles and bread for the meal, then some Poskim rule that the bread receives precedence. Other Poskim however rule the Chanukah candles receive precedence. If a roommate cannot afford to purchase both wine for Shabbos and Chanukah candles, he/she is to ask the other roommate to acquire him/her some of the oil and wicks as a present, and be included in their lighting. He/she may then use the leftover money to purchase wine for Kiddush.]
Shalom Bayis precedes Chanukah candles-The lesson in Divine Service:
The Shabbos candles represent Shalom Bayis, bringing peace into one’s home. The Chanukah candles represent bringing peace to the world. The above law states that if one is unable to enter the energy into both spreading peace in his home and into the world, then his home takes precedence. One is to precede his efforts in making his home a dwelling place for Hashem. This especially to one’s wife, who can at times be a Knegdo [adversary] and needs to be reversed to become an Eizer.
L. Saying the blessing of Sheasa Nissim if one did not light candles before Shabbos:
One who did not light Chanukah candles and will not be able to do so that night, and was not Yotzei with the lighting of his wife or household, is to say the blessing of “Sheasah Nissim” upon seeing the lit Chanukah candles of another Jew. On the first night of Chanukah, he is to also recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon seeing the lit candles of another Jew. In such a case, he does not repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon lighting candles on any subsequent night. [Some Poskim however rule that regarding Erev Shabbos, if one did not light the Chanukah candles on Erev Shabbos then he may not say the blessing upon seeing the candles on Shabbos. However, before Shabbos, the blessings may be recited.]
3. Lighting Chanukah candles in Shul on Erev Shabbos:
When to light: It is customary to light the Menorah in Shul between Mincha and Maariv [in the presence of a Minyan]. However, on Erev Shabbos some are accustomed to light the Menorah in Shul prior to Mincha. It is not necessary for the congregation to wait until all the candles are lit, and rather as soon as one candle is lit the Chazan may begin Shemoneh Esrei. [Others are accustomed to light the Menorah on Erev Shabbos between Mincha and Maariv, as is usually done during the week. Practically, the Chabad custom is to light the Menorah after Mincha and then return home and light the Chanukah candles and Shabbos candles. It is customary to Daven an early Mincha on Erev Shabbos for this purpose.]
What to do if no Minyan by lighting: On Erev Shabbos it is lit with a blessing in Shul even if a Minyan is not yet present.
 See Nitei Gavriel Chapter 44-47
 P”M 671 A”A 10; Birkeiy Yosef 679:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671; Moed Lekol Chaiy 27:45; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 20; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 671:79; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]
Other customs: Many are accustomed to Daven Mincha after the Chanukah lighting, as it is difficult to arrange a Minyan prior to the Chanukah lighting. [Tzur Yaakov 1:136; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:2; Tzur Yaakov 1:136]
 The reason: As the allowance to light the Chanukah candles prior to sunset follows the opinion that from Plag Hamincha is considered night, and thus if one were to afterwards pray Mincha it would contradict to the lighting of the Chanukah candles. [P”M 671 A”A 10; Shaar Hatziyon 679:7; Kaf Hachaim 671:79] Alternatively, the reason is because in the Mikdash, the Karban Tamid was offered prior to lighting the Menorah. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid] See however Tzur Yaakov ibid who answers how these reasons do not contradict the above custom.
 Shaar Hatziyon ibid
 Kitzur Shlah Chanukah; Elya Raba 679; Kaf Hachaim 671:79; There were times that the Rebbe lit Chanukah candles, and then Shabbos candles and only then Davened Mincha with the Minyan. [Hiskashrus 908 footnote 77] See Dvar Moshe 1:15
 Michaber ibid; Tur 679; Bahag; Darkei Moshe 679; Bach 679; Birkeiy Yosef 679:1; Radbaz 757; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Bigdei Yesha; Kaf Hachaim 679:1; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]
 The reason: As there are opinions who hold that after one has lit the Shabbos candles he has fully accepted Shabbos and thus may no longer light the Chanukah candles. Now, although most Poskim argue on this ruling [regarding men] it is nevertheless proper to first light the Chanukah candles in order to fulfill one’s obligation in accordance to all opinions. [M”B 679:1] Also, according to Kabala, the Chanukah candles are to be lit first. [Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev]
Other opinions: Some rule one may light the Shabbos candles first and then light the Chanukah candles. [Tosafus, brought in Tur ibid]
 Rama ibid; Terumos Hadeshen 102; M”A 679:5
 M”A 679:1; Bach; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Peri Chadash 679; Derech Hachaim 1; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:5
 M”B 672:3
This means that one calculates the amount of day hours in the day and then divides that by 12. One then times that by 1.25 hours, which is the number of hours in Plag Hamincha [1 hour and 15 minutes]. Thus, if there are 14 day hours in the day, then each hour when divided into 12 contains 70 minutes, and thus Plag Hamincha would be 1.25 hours times 70 minutes which equals 87.5 minutes prior to sunset.
 Admur in Siddur Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4; Gr”a; Ketzos Hashulchan 76:1
Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 263:6 Admur rules that Plag Hamincha is1 hour and 15 minutes before nightfall. This is based on 58:3; 89:1 in which Admur rules the day is from Alos until Tzeis. Likewise, in 261:5 where Admur rules that although one may be stringent to accept Shabbos from 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, he may not be lenient to light candles until 1 and ¼ hours prior to nightfall. However, in Admur 443:4 he rules it is counted from sunrise until sunset and so rules Admur in the Siddur.
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Plag Hamincha is 1.25 Zmaniyos hours prior to nightfall. [M”B 672:3; 679:2; 692:13; Kaf Hachaim 692:29]
 Moadim Uzmanim 2:152 based on Rishonim and Biur Hagra 679
 Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Mivakshei Torah ; Moadim Uzmanim 6:84; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 679 footnote 3
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:1
 Binyan Shlomo 53; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev based on Kaballah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:1
 Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev
 Elya Raba 679:2; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:3
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a man may not light the Chanukah candles after lighting the Shabbos candles. [Taz 679:1]
 Kuntrus Achron 263:2 [brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 26] “a lot less than 15 minutes”; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 17 “This is approximately 10 minutes” and so writes Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32 and Kitzur Dinei Hadlakas Neiros 4:10 and 15; Eretz Tzevi 1:113 says it’s about 8 minutes
 M”A 679:1; Taz 679:1; Chayeh Adam 154:35; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:3; See Admur 263:7
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a woman may light the Chanukah candles even after lighting the Shabbos candles. [Levush, brought in M”A ibid]
 P”M 679 A”A 1; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:4
 Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv that on Erev Shabbos the Rebbe Rashab would not do so; See Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; Toras Menachem 2:618; Shulchan Menachem 3:281; Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair “The main Mitzvah is to remain near the candles for a half hour”; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:394; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:5
 Michaber 672:1; P”M 679 A”A 2; Mamar Mordechai 67:2 Machatzis Hashekel 679:2; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Derech Hachaim 4; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:6
 M”B 672:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:6
 Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Chayeh Adam ibid
 M”B 679:2
 As one begins to light the Chanukah candles prior to the Shabbos candles which are lit 18 minutes before sunset, and following sunset until nightfall is approximately 20 minutes, depending on country. In some places the candles must last much longer due to a longer twilight period. Likewise, the earlier one lights the candles before Shabbos, the longer they must last.
 Michaber 673:2; Terumos Hadeshen
 Taz 673:9; Rashal; P”M 673 A”A 9; M”B 672:26; Kaf Hachaim 673:57
 M”B 672:27; 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 673:57; See Admur 263:25
 Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b
The reason: The novelty of this ruling is that one would think that bad quality oils should not be used due to fear that the candle may extinguish prior to the half hour. The reason it is nevertheless permitted is because the law is that even if the candle extinguishes one still fulfills his obligation, as the lighting fulfills the Mitzvah. [M”B 673:1]
 Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b
The reason: This is because it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights either during the week or on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid] There is thus no reason to prohibit the forbidden wicks and oils being that the entire reason behind the prohibition was to prevent one from fixing the flame in the process of using it. [Tur 673; Kaf Hachaim 673:1
 Rama ibid; Rashba 170
 M”A 673:1; Bach 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:2; Elya Raba 673:4
 Michaber 674:2
 Tur in name of Sefer Hateruma
 Rama 671:7; Ohel Moed Shaar Moed Katan; Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65; Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Likkutei Maharich p. 106; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; The Rama ibid writes as follows “Today since we all light inside the house and there is no publication of the Mitzvah to the public, it is not of so much importance to light within a Tefach near the doorpost [of an inner room of the house]. Nevertheless, the custom is to light within a Tefach of the doorpost just as was done in previous times [when the Menorah was lit outside the house]. One is not to swerve from this custom.”
 Michaber 671:5; Shabbos 21b
 See Michaber 680:1; 277; Admur 277
 Admur 277:5-6; See Admur 279:8 regarding the law by candelabra made of assembled parts
 Admur 279:1; Michaber 279:1
 See Tehila Ledavid 308:22 that this allowance applies even for candelaberas which are made of assembled parts. Vetzaruch Iyun as moving with a Shinuiy still contains the suspicion, and even more so, that it may fall and one may come to reassemble it.
 Admur 311:14; 308:661-62; Michaber 308:27; 309:3-4; 310:8; 311:8
 Admur 311:14; Michaber 311:8
 Admur 277:3 “A door with an oil candle attached to it may be moved slowly in a way that will not cause the oil to extinguish the flame. 277:5 “If one needs to use the space under the tray then he may move the tray together with the candle which is on it, even if it is made of oil, to any place of his desire.”; Elya Raba 277:14; Elya Zuta 277:3 “It is possible to carry the table slowly in a way that the oil will not swerve, and it is hence not a Pesik Reishei”; Ketzos Hashulchan 112:14
 Admur 309:4; Michaber 309:4; Shabbos 142b;
 Admur 277:6; Michaber 277:3
 Admur 277:6; M”A 277:8; M”B 277:18
 Admur ibid; M”B 277:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10; Seemingly this is coming to teach that only the Shabbos Challahs are considered to oneself of more importance then the candles. This contrasts with weekday bread, to which the candles hold more importance in relation to, and thus the table would still remain a basis. This can seemingly answer why in the end of this Halacha Admur mentions that bread also must be of more importance then the flame, as if it is weekday bread then it is not of more importance. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 112 footnote 24; Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos 279 footnote 16]
 One follows whichever is of more importance to oneself, whether due to its value or its necessity. Thus, when Shabbos candles are on one’s table the permitted item placed on one’s table must be of more importance to oneself then is having the light on the table. [Ketzos Hashulchan 112 footnote 24
 Admur 309:4; Based on Michaber 310:8; brought in Admur 310:16
 Admur 279:4; Michaber 279:3
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the bread overrides the candle even in such a case. [Kol Bo, brought in Michaber ibid]
 Such as a simple metal or silver tray, or deposable baking pan. Now, although these have been designated to be used for the candles, nevertheless, since they were not specifically made for this use, they can become nullified to the permitted object over the Muktzah object. So is implied from the term used in Admur 279:5 “since the candle is made for the sake of the flame”, and not simply designated. So rules Piskeiy Teshuvos 279:2, however see the new Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10 brought below.
 P”M 279 A”A 14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10; M”B Dirshu; Igros Moshe 5:22-11
 Admur 308:15; 311:15; 276:9-10; 266:19; 301:39 KU”A 10; So also rules: Mishneh Shabbos 141a; Rosh 3:19 in name of Rabbeinu Yonah; Michaber 311:8; Michaber 308:43; Rama 308:3 regarding blowing; M”A 308:7 regarding kicking Muktzah and 308:41 regarding his question on Michaber regarding sitting on Muktzah; M”B 276:31; 308:13 and 81 and 88; 311:30; 1st opinion in Chayeh Adam; Derech Hachayim; 1st opinion in Aruch Hashulchan 311:20; Kaf Hachaim 311:68 [although brings strict opinion in 69].
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4
 See Shevet Halevi 8:158
 Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 33 as one is required to perform the Pirsumei Nissa until a half hour after nightfall, and if no one remains at home, one is unable to perform the Mitzvah properly.
 As one who happens to be eating out on one of the nights of Chanukah, must return home to his family to light, and cannot light where he is eating [M”A 677:7; Taz 677:2; Kneses Hagedola 677; Bach 677; Elya Raba 677:3; M”B 677:12; Kaf Hachaim 677:21; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:] and perhaps this applies even if he comes with his entire family, as explained in the previous Q&A.
 Otherwise, whatever adult family member who can remain is to do so and light there even if the husband/father must leave the home before Plag.
 In a time of need one may rely on the implication of the Bach that when one is with his family, he may light in the area that he eats. To note that even the Taz ibid, from whom we implied that one may not light where he eats, he does not mention that doping so is a blessing in vain. [See Bach 677; Taz 677:2 and M”A 677:7; Peri Chadash 677; Biur Halacha 677:1 “Bemikom Sheochel”; Kaf Hachaim 677:17; Kinyan Torah 5:72; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4 footnote 25 and 29-30; Az Nidvaru 7:69]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4
 Chovas Hadar 2 footnote 65
 Koveitz Darcheiy Horah; See Shevet Halevi 8:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 35 in name of Rav SZ”A
 Michaber 678:1; Rava Shabbos 23b
The reason: As the purpose of Shabbos candles is to bring peace to one’s home [Michaber ibid] as one needs to eat near light, and the light prevents him from stumbling upon walking in the room. [See Rashi ibid; Taz 678:1; M”A 678:2] The Shabbos candle receives precedence even if he can afford to buy both Chanukah candles and wine for Kiddush with that money. [Radbaz 108; Erech Hashulchan 678:1; Kaf Hachaim 678:4] The entire Torah was given for the sake of peace, and hence if one cannot fulfill the Mitzvah of Chanukah due to a Mitzvah that brings peace, then even from the perspective of Chanukah, one should forgo its Mitzvah for the sake of the Mitzvah that brings peace. [See Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 372 [printed in Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 49]]
 See Kaf Hachaim 678:4
 M”A 678:1; Elya Raba 678:1; M”B 678:1; Kaf Hachaim 678:1
The reason: As one is only obligated to light one Shabbos candle to fulfill the Mitzvah of Ner Shabbos. The concept of lighting two candles for Shabbos is merely a proper act, and it is thus better to be Mihadeir in the Chanukah lighting [and light many Chanukah candles] rather than be Mihadeir in Shabbos candles. [P”M 678 A”A 1; M”B 678:1; See also Biur Halacha 263 “Shtei Pesilos”] As the concept of Mehadrin by Chanukah candles is brought in the Talmud, as opposed to the concept of lighting more than one Shabbos candle. [Shaar Hatziyon 678:3]
 Radbaz 13; Erech Hashulchan 678:2; Kaf Hachaim 678:5
The reason: As we do not delay the performance of a Mitzvah for the sake of performing a later Mitzvah. [ibid] Furthermore, Hashem could arrange that he make money the next day and hence afford to buy the candles. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 M”A 678:2; Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2
 The reason: As in upon lighting the Chanukah candles at home one will automatically achieve the Shalom Bayis affected by the Shabbos candles, as the Chanukah candle will give light to the room. Now, although it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights and eat near it, nevertheless, this is similar to a time of danger in which we rule the candles may be lit on the table, and due to lack of choice one is likewise allowed to eat near it. This law likewise applies during the week, if one only has one candle available. [M”A ibid]
 Elya Raba 678:2; Bigdei Yesha 678; Derech Hachaim; P”M 678 A”A 2 that so is implied from Michaber and Rama ibid; M”B 678:2; Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Shaar Hakavanos
 M”B 678:2
 Michaber 678:1; Rava Shabbos 23
The reason: As the Chanukah candles contains the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa. [Michaber ibid] Now, although the Mitzvah of Kiddush is Biblical, nevertheless, since one can make Kiddush on bread, the wine does not receive precedence. [Beis Yosef; Ran; Levush; Taz 678:2; M”B 678:6]
 M”A 678:3; M”B 678:5
 Rama 678:1
The reason: As the Chanukah candles contains the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa [Michaber ibid] and it is possible to recite Havdala in Davening. [Kaf Hachaim 678:10]
 Taz 678:2; Erech Hashulchan 678:4; M”B 678:4; See Kaf Hachaim 678:9
 The reason: As eating bread and Lechem Mishneh on Shabbos is a Biblical precept according to all, as well as that making Kiddush on bread [when wine is not available] is a Biblical command, while the Chanukah candles is merely Rabbinical. [Taz ibid;]
 Bach 678, brought in Beir Heiytiv 678:1; Peri Chadash 678; Ateres Zekeinim 678
 The reason: As the Mitzvah of Kiddush is only Rabbinical, and there is no Biblical command to eat Lechem Mishneh. [Ateres Zekeinim ibid; P”M 678 M”Z 2]
 P”M 678 A”A 2; Kaf Hachaim 678:8
 Likkutei Sichos 3:67 [Lashon Hakodesh]; See also Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 372 [printed in Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 49]
 Michaber 676:3; Shabbos 23a
Other opinions: Some Poskim write that today the custom is to no longer say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing candles. [Tzafnas Paneiach Chanukah 3:3]
 If, however, he plans to light the candles later on that night, then he should not recite the blessing upon seeing it. Taz 676:3; M”B 676:5]
 Michaber ibid; Rashi ibid
If one was not present at the lighting of the household: The above law applies even if one was not present at the time of their lighting. [Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing of Sheasa Nissim and Shehechiyanu is to be recited by the household members that were not present at the time of the lighting, upon seeing the candles. [Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9] Practically, the blessing is not to be recited as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190] However some Poskim rule that the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is to be recited by one who was not present at that time. [Ashel Avraham Tinyana 675 “even a girl over Chinuch who did not hear the blessing must say it upon seeing the candles.”]
 The reason: The Sages established for the blessing to be recited by one who did not light candles, as they knew that not everyone owns a home and has ability to light candles, and therefore they initially established when they made their decree for everyone to say a blessing upon seeing candles, if they did not light. [Tosafus Sukkah 46a] Alternatively, it is because the main purpose of the candle lighting is to publicize the miracle, and thus one who sees the lit candles is considered to be participating in the Mitzvah. [Sdei Chemed Chanukah 9:3]
 If he did not recite Shehechiyanu upon seeing the lit candles on the first night, he is to recite it on the second night. [Rashal 85; Kaf Hachaim 676:17]
 Michaber ibid
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he is to repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu on the second night. [Mor Uketzia 676] Practically, we do not rule this way. [Machazik Bracha 676:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:27]
 Pnei Meivin 227; Brought in Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:10
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may recite the blessing even on Shabbos itself. [Shraga Hameir 5:19]
 P”M 679 A”A 1 implies there is no difference between Shabbos and other days; Shearim Hametzuyanim ibid establishes this to be referring to before sunset.
 Rama 671:7; Rashal 85; Kol Bo; Abudarham
 M”B 671:46
 Rama ibid
 Rama ibid; Maharil
 Darkei Moshe 671:5; M”B 671:47; ; Implication of Levush and Chayeh Adam
 The reason: This custom is followed also on Erev Shabbos, in order to publicize the miracle to the public. Nevertheless, if there is not enough time left after Mincha to light the candles, then it is certainly to be lit prior to Mincha, even if there is no one around, as the miracle will be publicized when people come to Shul for the Minyan. [ibid]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]
 M”A 5671:10; M”B 671:47; Drashos Maharil Chanukah; Chayeh Adam 154:17; brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:78
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite a blessing if the Minyan is not present. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]