A. Blowing Shofar Erev Shabbos:
One does not blow the Shofar on Erev Rosh Hashanah. This applies beginning from the night of Erev Rosh Hashanah [the night of the 29th of Elul]. This applies even when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos. It is forbidden to blow the Shofar, even for practice, in an open area. One is however allowed to practice blowing the Shofar in a closed room. [This applies whether one is learning how to blow or is trying to get used to blowing from a new Shofar. However one may not blow the Shofar for no reason even in a closed room.]
B. Mincha Erev Rosh Hashanah that coincides with Erev Shabbos:
When Erev Rosh Hashanah falls on Erev Shabbos one recites the paragraph of Hodu and Patach Eliyahu prior to Mincha as usual. [One does not recite Hodu or Patach Eliyahu prior to Mincha of Erev Rosh Hashanah if it does not fall on Erev Shabbos.]
The Blessing: When Erev Rosh Hashanah falls on Erev Shabbos one recites “Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech Haolam Asher Kidishanu Bimitzvosav Vetzivanu Lehadlik Neir Shel Shabbos Vishel Yom Hazikaron” and then Shehechiyanu.
What is the law if one said only Shel Shabbos by the Yom Tov candle lighting?
If one accidently said in the blessing “Shel Shabbos” without saying “Shel Yom Tov”, then if one remembers right away, within Kdei Dibbur, she is to correct herself and say Shel Yom Tov/Shel Yom Hazikaron. If one only remembered after Kdei Dibbur, some Poskim rule that she is nevertheless Yotzei. Other Poskim, however, rule that it is questionable as to whether she fulfills her obligation of the blessing. Other Poskim rule that she is not Yotzei and must repeat the blessing. Practically, Safek Brachos Lihakel, and she is thus not to repeat the blessing. Nonetheless, if she wants, she may ask her father/husband to light another candle with a blessing and have her in mind to be Yotzei the blessing without doubt.
Said only Shel Yom Tov:
If by the candle lighting of Rosh Hashanah that falls on Shabbos one accidently said in the blessing only “Shel Yom Tov” and not also “Shel Shabbos”, then if one remembers right away, within Kdei Dibbur, he/she is to correct herself and say Shel Shabbos. If not then it is a dispute if the blessing must be repeated and practically, it is not to be repeated.
Preparing a 48-hour candle:
One must prepare a 48-hour candle on Erev Rosh Hashanah in order to have a preexisting flame available to use on the second night of Yom Tov for the sake of lighting candles.
Those that have a Yartzite on Rosh Hashanah are to light the Yartzite candle before Shabbos.
The Arizal would cry profusely during the prayers of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, and so was the custom of the Chabad Rabbeim, and the city of Lubvatich. The Arizal said that if one is not drawn to cry during these days [of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur] it is a sign that his soul is incomplete, G-d forbid. One is to cry on Rosh Hashanah even if it coincides with Shabbos.
B. May one pray for physical matters on Rosh Hashanah that falls on Shabbos?
Yes. One may make requests of physical and spiritual matters on Rosh Hashanah even if it coincides with Shabbos.
3. Maariv-Order of Maariv when Rosh Hashanah falls on Friday evening:
When [the first night of] Rosh Hashanah falls on Friday evening one begins the Maariv prayer from Mizmor Ledavid [psalm 29], [omitting all the Psalms from Lechu Neranina until Mizmor Ledavid]. [One recites the entire dialect from Mizmor Ledavid and onwards, including Ana Bekoach; all the stanzas of Lecha Dodi; Mizmor Shir, Kegavna. In Lecha Dodi the normal dialect of Berina is recited. After Shemoneh Esrei one recites Vayechulu, and Meiyn Sheva. Following the recital of Meiyn Sheva one recites Ledavid Mizmor and then Kaddish with Tiskabel. This Kaddish is then followed by “Mizmor Ledavid Hashem Roiy” as is usually recited on Friday night. One then recites half Kaddish, Barchu and Aleinu.]
Meiyn Sheva: See Halacha 5!
A. Yom Teruah versus Zichron Teruah:
When Rosh Hashanah falls on a weekday, we say the words Yom Teruah in Kiddush and Shemoneh Esrei. When Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, we recite Zichron Teruah [as we do not blow Shofar when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos].
What is the law if on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah one said Yom Teruah or on a regular Rosh Hashanah one said Zichron Teruah? He fulfills his obligation and is not required to go back and repeat the blessing.
B. Mentioning Shabbos in the middle blessing of “Mikadesh Yisrael” in Shemoneh Esrei:
If Rosh Hashanah coincides with Shabbos one must mention Shabbos in the concluding blessing. If he did not mention Shabbos at all in the middle blessing he does not fulfill his obligation [and is to follow the order explained above by Mikadesh Yisrael Vehazmanim]. If he mentioned Shabbos either in the middle of the blessing or in the concluding blessing of “Mikadesh Hashabbos Yisrael…” then he fulfills his obligation. The same law applies regarding if he concluded only with Mikadesh Hashabbos and did not mention Mikadesh Yisrael etc.
5. Mieiyn Sheva after Maariv Shemoneh Esrei:
When Rosh Hashanah fall on Shabbos, the Chazan recites in the blessing of Mieiyn Sheva recited [after Shemoneh Esrei of Maariv] on Friday night, Hamelech Hakadosh in place of Hakeil Hakadosh. [Likewise, when the congregation customarily recites the paragraph of Magen Avos they say the words Hamelech Hakadosh in place of Hakeil Hakadosh.] The Chazan however concludes only with the blessing of Shabbos [i.e. Mikadeish Hashabbos] even if Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur falls on Shabbos.
If in Meiyn Sheva the Chazan said Hakeil Hakadosh instead of Hamelech Hakadosh must he repeat the Meiyn Sheva?
This matter is disputed amongst Poskim. Some Poskim rule if he completed the blessing, then the blessing must be repeated from the beginning. Others rule it is not to be repeated. Practically the Chazan is not to repeat the blessing. Nevertheless if the Chazan remembers prior to saying G-d’s name in the blessing of Mikadeish Hashabbos then he is to go back and say it.
A. Avinu Malkeinu when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos:
B. Saying Hashem Hashem:
On Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur [when the Ark is opened to remove the Torah scrolls] the 13 attributes [i.e. passage of Hashem Hashem] is recited three times prior to Berich Shmei. [This applies even when [the first day of] Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos.
C. Mi Shebeirach-When saying a Mi Shebeirach for the sick on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah is one to say Shabbos Hi Milizok?
D. Mila-When is the Mila to take place if Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos?
7. Shofar blowing-The law of blowing Shofar when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos:
One does not blow Shofar on Rosh Hashanah that falls on Shabbos.
Is the Shofar Muktzah on this Shabbos? The law regarding moving the Shofar on this Shabbos [on which Rosh Hashanah coincides with] is similar to the law of moving a Shofar on all the Shabbosim of the year, [in which the law is that] it may only be moved for the sake of [using] its space or for the need of using it [for a permitted purpose], such as to lean a plate on it and cases of the like.
May children blow Shofar on this Shabbos? A child may not blow Shofar on this Shabbos even if he has not reached the age of Chinuch. Thus, if a Beis Din hears a child blowing Shofar on Shabbos they must stop him from doing so.
Wearing a new garment on the second day: When the first day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, in which case the Shofar was not blown on the first day, there is no need to wear a new garment during the blows of the second day.
The sages decreed against blowing the Shofar on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah. The Shofar is categorized as Muktzah Machmas Issur and thus may only be moved if one needs its space, or if one wants to make a use of it.
If one transgressed and blew the Shofar on Shabbos, has he fulfilled the Biblical Mitzvah?
In the above case, is Shehechiyanu recited by the blowing of the next day?
According to the Ashkenazim this has no relevance and the blessing of Shehechiyanu is to be repeated the next day. However, according to the Michaber and Sephardim they are not to recite Shehechiyanu the next day.
If one began blowing on Shabbos and then realized the prohibition is he to complete the sounds?
This matter is discussed in Poskim.
|The Chassidic and Kabbalistic explanation:
In the Chassidic teachings, the above Rabbinical decree which prohibits the Shofar from being blown when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos is questioned in terms of why the sages would make such a decree. While it is clear that the Torah gave them authority to do so, the reason explained behind the decree seems very weak, and unjustified. As stated above, the entire worry of the Sages which prompted them to make this decree was the fact that perhaps an ignoramus will come to carry the Shofar on Shabbos in an area that is a Reshus Harabim, and Biblically forbidden to be carried. Now, why would the Sages abolish a positive command ion the Torah simply due to worry of the ignoramuses. Why should all the righteous of the Jewish people lose out from a Mitzvah simply due to chance that an uneducated Jew may sin? This is even more puzzling regarding the Mitzvah of Shofar which carries such importance Divine significance. The Talmud itself explains that we crown G-d as king on Rosh Hashanah through blowing the Shofar, and in Kabbalah it is explained how the entire Divine energy for the coming year is affected by the blows. How then can such an important and significant Mitzvah be abolished for such a weak reason? The explanation is as follows:
The effect that the Shofar has above in heaven is that it arouses the pleasure that G-d has with his monarchy and with his reign over the Jewish people, thus revealing a new set of Divine energy for the coming year. Now, when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, that pleasure which needs to be aroused within G-d for Him to desire the coronation is automatically aroused by Shabbos itself. Every Shabbos Hashem experiences pleasure for Kelal Yisrael, and when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos this pleasure alone suffices to renew the coronation. Thus, since the effect of the Shofar is not needed on Shabbos, therefore the Sages felt that it could be differed and abolished even due to a weak reason of that it may cause an uneducated Jew to stumble, as in any event its resultant accomplishments are already there.
A. Hayom Haras Olam:
The custom is to recite the paragraph of “Hayom Haras Olam etc Areshes Sifaseinu etc” each time the Shofar is sounded during Musaf. [Some have the custom to slightly bow upon reciting this paragraph in order to show their subjugation and arouse mercy in their judgment.]
R”H that coincides with Shabbos: The paragraph of Hayom Haras Olam is recited even when R”H falls on Shabbos and the Shofar is hence not blown. However the paragraph of Areshes Sifaseinu is omitted.
The custom is to bow on the ground in the paragraph of Aleinu Lishabeiach that is said within the Chazan’s repetition. One bows by the words “Veanachnu Korim”. One bows on the floor by the above words even when Rosh Hashanah coincides with Shabbos.
A. The night Kiddush:
When [the first night of] Rosh Hashanah falls on Friday evening, the following passages prior to Kiddush are read in an undertone: shalom aleichim, eishes chayil, mizmor ledavid Hashem ro’i, da hi se’udasa.
Extra words of Shabbos: When Pesach falls on Friday evening, one is required to add the extra words that mention Shabbos, in the paragraph of Kiddush, and conclude the blessing of Kiddush with Mikadesh Hashabbos ViYisrael Vihazmanikm.
Forgot to mention Shabbos in Kiddush: If one forgot to add any of the parts for Shabbos in the Kiddush, then he does not fulfill his obligation, and must repeat the Kiddush. Likewise, If one accidentally said the Friday night Shabbos Kiddush and not the Kiddush for Yom Tov, he does not fulfill his obligation and must repeat the correct Kiddush. [If he already drank the cup of wine, then he is to pour a new cup and recite Kiddush again.] However, if he concluded the blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, then even if he did not mention Shabbos in the main paragraph the Yom Tov Kiddush, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation. Furthermore, if he mentioned Shabbos anywhere in the main paragraph, then even if he did not conclude the blessing with Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation according to some Poskim, and is hence not to repeat it. This applies whether he concluded with only Mikadesh Hashabbos, or only Mikdesh Yisrael Vihazmanim.
B. The day Kiddush:
By the day Kiddush of Rosh Hashanah one says the verse Tiku and Ki Chok etc. One does not say Eileh Moadei or Askinu. When Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, the following passages are said prior to the verse of Tiku. They are to be said in an undertone: Mizmor Ledavid; Askinu; Veshamru; Im Tashiv; Da Hi; Zechor; Al Kein.
Yaleh Veyavo and Ritzei: One recites Ritzei and Yaleh Veyavo within Birchas Hamazon on Rosh Hashanah that falls on Shabbos.
Harachaman: By the Harachaman’s one recites the Harachaman for Yom Tov “Harachaman Hu Yanchileinu Leyom Shekulo Tov”. Afterwards one recites the Harachaman for Rosh Hashanah “Harachaman Hu Yechadesh Aleinu Es Hashanah Hazos Letovah Velivracha”. On Shabbos Rosh Hashanah one recites first the Harachaman for Shabbos and then the Harachaman for Yom Tov and then the Harachaman for Rosh Hashanah.
Forgot Ritzei and Yaaleh Veyavo on Rosh Hashanah that coincides with Shabbos:
In the event that Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos one is to say Ritzei and Yaleh Veyavo. If one forgot to say both Ritzei and Yaleh Veyavo and remembered prior to beginning the word Baruch then he is to say:
ברוך אתת ה’ אלקינו מלך העולם שנתן שבתות למנוחה לעמו לשראל באהבה לאות ולברית וימים טובים לזכרון את יום הזכרון הזה. ברוך אתת ה’ מקדש השבת וישראל ויום הזכרון.
If one forgot to say only Ritzei or only Yaleh Veyavo then he only mentions the additional blessing of the skipped part. If one already said the word “Baruch” or already finished Birchas Hamazon-see Q&A.
What is the law if on Shabbos R”H one said Ritzei but forgot to say Yaleh Veyavo?
If he said Ritzei and forgot Yaleh Veyavo, then if he remembers prior to saying Baruch of the fourth Bracha then he should say the extra Bracha for Rosh Hashanah. If, however, he already recited the word “Baruch” then if this occurred by the night meal of R”H he must repeat Birchas Hamazon, reciting also Ritzei [for a second time]. [If he forgot to say Ritzei this second time it is questionable whether he fulfills his obligation and it is thus best to wash again on a Kezayis of bread and recite Birchas Hamazon.] If this occurred during the day of Rosh Hashanah, he fulfills his obligation as stated above.
What is the law if on Shabbos R”H one forgot to say Ritzei?
If one said Yaleh Veyavo but did not say Ritzei, or he omitted both Ritzei and Yaleh Veyavo, then if he remembers after saying “Baruch” of the fourth blessing, or after completing Birchas Hamazon, then he must retract to the beginning of Birchas Hamazon and recite both Ritzei and Yaleh Veyavo. [Seemingly this would apply even by R”H day. However some Poskim rule that one is not to repeat Birchas Hamazon by Rosh Hashanah day.]
Veani Sefilasi: When Rosh Hashanah coincides with Shabbos the verse of Veani Sefilasi is recited by Mincha of Shabbos as is usually done.
Saying Tzidkascha Tzedek by Mincha of Shabbos R”H: When [the first day of] Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos we are accustomed to omit the recitation of Tzidkascha from the Mincha prayer of Shabbos.
12. Tashlich-When is Tashlich recited if the first day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos?
If the first day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos some Poskim rule that Tashlich is recited on the second day of Rosh Hashanah which is Sunday. Other Poskim rule one is to recite Tashlich on Shabbos. Practically the Chabad custom is to recite Tashlich on the second day of Rosh Hashanah. It is to be performed after Mincha [prior to sunset] on Sunday.
13. Preparing on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day of Yom Tov or Shabbos:
It is forbidden to do anything on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the next day, including on behalf of the 2nd day in the Diaspora. This applies even for the two days of Rosh Hashanah which is considered like one long day. This prohibition applies even against doing acts of preparation that do not contain any forbidden Melacha at all. [Rather, all the preparations for the 2nd night are to be done after Tzeis Hakochavim/nightfall of the first day. However, some Poskim rule that in a time of need, such as to prevent loss, and for the sake of a Mitzvah, one may be lenient to prepare on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day, if one completes the preparation with much time left in the day, and the preparation does not involve any Melacha normally forbidden to be done on Yom Tov.]
Examples: One must beware not to bring wine on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of Kiddush of the second night. Likewise, one is not to search in a Sefer Torah on the first day of Yom Tov for the reading of the second day, or for Shabbos, even if one performed Eiruv Tavshilin. Likewise, one may not wash dishes on the first day on behalf of the second day [until after Tzeis Hakochavim]. [Likewise, one may not make the beds [or tidy the home] on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the next day, unless it is also done for the sake of having a clean home on the first day of Yom Tov. Likewise, one may not set the table or prepare the candles until after Tzeis Hakochavim.]
It is forbidden to do anything on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day, even if the action does not involve any forbidden Melacha. This applies until after Tzeis Hakochavim of the first day.
May one remove food from the freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the second night meal?
Some Poskim rule it is permitted to remove foods from the freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the meal of the second night of Yom Tov. Other Poskim, however, rule that it is forbidden to remove the food even in such a case. [See footnote for opinion of Admur in this matter. Practically, it is best to avoid removing the food from the freezer until after Tzeis Hakochavim. This especially applies in light of the fact that the food can be defrosted after nightfall on top of a source of heat, and be ready for the night meal. Nonetheless, if these options are not viable and delaying the removal until Tzeis Hakochavim will cause a real delay to the meal, then one may be lenient to remove the foods from the freezer with much time left in the day of Yom Tov, so it does not appear to others that it is being done for the night.]
May one place drinks in the fridge or freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the second day?
This follows the same dispute as above. Practically, it is best to avoid doing so unless one plans to taste the cold drinks while it is still the first day of Yom Tov, in which case it is permitted according to all.
When are the Yom Tov candles to be lit on the 2nd night of Yom Tov?
On the second night of Yom Tov, the candles are lit after nightfall, and not before sunset of the first day.
May one prepare and do Melacha on the night of Yom Tov on behalf of the day meal?
May one ask a gentile to prepare on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the second day?
It is permitted to have a gentile perform preparations on the first day of Yom Tov, on behalf of the second day, so long as the action does not involve any Melacha that is generally forbidden on Shabbos. Thus, one may ask a gentile to wash dishes or sweep the floor, or set up the table, on behalf of the second day.
A. Saying Bein Kodesh Lekodesh:
When the second day of R”H falls on Motzei Shabbos one may not begin doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov until he says Havdala, or recites Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh, after the conclusion of Shabbos. It is of importance to remind women of this requirement, and have them say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Yom Tov preparations or lighting candles. [Some write that it is best for women to Daven Maariv with Vetodieinu prior to lighting candles and doing Melacha.]
When to light? On the second night of Rosh Hashanah the candles are lit after nightfall. [If the second night of Rosh Hashanah falls on Motzei Shabbos some write that it is best for women to Daven Maariv with Vetodieinu prior to lighting candles and doing Melacha. See Halacha 10 and 26!]
When [the second night of] Rosh Hashanah falls on Motzei Shabbos [i.e. Saturday night], then in the evening prayer of Shemoneh Esrei the paragraph of Vetodieinu/ותודיענו is added prior to the paragraph of ותתן לנו, after the paragraph of Ata Vechartanu.
If one forgot to say Vetodieinu in Shemoneh Esrei what is he to do?
Some Poskim rule that once he has begun saying “Vatiten Lanu Hashem” he is not to go back to say Vetodieinu and is rather to continue with Shemoneh Esrei as usual. In such a case he must beware to say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov. Other Poskim, however, rule that one who does go back to say it has upon whom to rely so long as he has not yet finished the blessing of Mikadeish Yisrael Vehazmanim.
D. Yaknaha”z in Kiddush:
When the second day of R”H falls on Motzei Shabbos one says Yaknaha”z in the order of Kiddush. The order of the blessings are: 1) Hagafen 2) Kiddush Hayom 3) Ner 4) Havdala 5) Shehechiyanu. In acronym form, this is called Yaknaha”z.
Haeish: If one has a candle available one is to recite a blessing over it, after the blessing of “Kiddush” but prior to the blessing of Havdala. [The custom is to say the blessing of Meorei Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together, and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather we simply look at the candles after the blessing and then continue with Yaknaha”z.]
Standing or sitting: [From the letter of the law] one may recite Kiddush of Yaknaha”z in a sitting position. [However the Chabad custom is to stand for Kiddush by all times, whether on Shabbos or Yom Tov.]
The Nussach of the Havdala: The dialect of the blessing of Havdala recited on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov contains seven stanzas of “Havdalos” and concludes with Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.
If one did not say the correct order above: If one did not say the blessings in the above order, and rather preceded one of the latter blessing to one of the earlier blessings, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not to repeat any of the blessings already said. This however is with exception to if one preceded the blessing of Kiddush to the blessing of Hagafen, in which case one must repeat the blessing of Kiddush.
Q&A on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov
If one recited “Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol” instead of “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh” on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov may he do Melacha?
If a woman lit Yom Tov candles on the night of Yom Tov and after saying the blessing remembered that she did not yet say Baruch Hamavdil, what is she to do?
Some write she is to think the words in her mind and then light one candle, and then verbalize the Baruch Hamavdil. Afterwards she may light the other candles.
May women drink from the wine of Kiddush on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov?
The custom is to allow women to drink from the wine of Kiddush of which Havdala was said over on Motzei Shabbos that coincides with Yom Tov. This is despite the fact that also Havdala was recited over this wine and in general women do not drink from the leftover Havdala wine.
If during Kiddush of Yaknaha”z one accidently concluded the blessing “Bein Kodesh Lechol” what is he to do?
If he remembers right away, within “Kdei Dibur”, he is to correct himself and recite “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh”. If he did not remember within this time, he is to repeat the blessing of Hamavdil. If he already drank the wine, he is to say Havdala again over wine. Regarding if he should repeat the blessing of the wine, this matter is disputed in Poskim.
What is one to do if he forgot to say Havdala in Kiddush of Yom Tov which falls on Motzei Shabbos?
He is to say Havdala over wine immediately upon remembering, whether he remembers that night or the next day. If he remembered before the Yom Tov day meal, he is to say Havdala over a cup of wine and then eat the meal. If one remembered only on Sunday night which is also Yom Tov, then he is to say Havdala within Kiddush.
If one remembered by Bein Hashmashos on Sunday: If Sunday night is Motzei Yom Tov then he is to wait until then, and when he recites Havdala for Motzei Yom Tov he fulfills Havdala also for Shabbos. If however that night is the second night of Yom Tov then he is to say Havdala by Kiddush of the Yom Tov night meal.
E. Wearing a new garment for Tekias Shofar of the second day when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos:
By the Shofar blowing of the second day the Baal Tokeia should initially wear a new garment and have it on him while reciting the blessing of Shehechiyanu, intending to exempt it with the blessing of Shehechiyanu. [Upon saying Shehechiyanu one is not to intend only on the new garment and is to mainly intend that the Shehechiyanu is being said over the Mitzvah of Shofar.] When the first day of Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, in which case the Shofar was not blown on the first day, there is no need to wear a new garment during the blows of the second day.
 Rama 581:3 in name of Minhagim; Hashlama of Reb Nechemia 581:2
 The reasons:
- To make a separation between the Tekios of the custom and those Biblically required on Rosh Hashanah. [Levush 581:1; Taz 581:4; M”A 581:14; Hashlama of Reb Nechemia 581:2]
- To confuse the Satan so he think that R”H has already passed. [M”A ibid in name of Minhagim; Elya Raba 581; Hashlama of Reb Nechemia 581:2]
- To be able to say Shehechiyanu on the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah. [Chochmas Shlomo 581; Ashel Avraham 581]
- To show that the next day is Rosh Hashanah. [Chochmas Shlomo 581]
The practical ramification-Blowing at home: The M”A ibid writes that according to the first reason one may blow the Shofar for practice in the privacy of his home. However according to the second reason of the Minhagim one must completely avoid blowing the Shofar at all.
 M”A 581:14
 M”B 581:24; Kaf Hachaim 581:77
The reason: As by reciting the words “Zichron Teruah” on Shabbos it is considered as if the Shofar was blown. This especially applies due to the fact that in the Mikdash the Shofar was blown. [ibid]
 M”A ibid; P”M 581 A”A 14
 Elya Raba 581:4 in name of Amrakel; First opinion in M”A 581:14; P”M 581 A”A 14; M”B 581:24; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 2 [“One who needs to practice is to do so in a closed room or in a pit”]; Hashlama of Reb Nechemia 581:2
Other opinions: The M”A ibid writes that according to the reason that this custom is done in order to confuse the Satan, then one may not blow at all. This implies that one may not blow even for practice and even in a closed room. However, from the P”M ibid and M”B ibid it implies that even according to this reason in a closed room it is permitted to blow for practice.
 Kaf Hachaim 581:76
 So is implied from Poskim ibid to suspect for the second reason of the Minhagim as rules the M”A ibid.
 Shaar Hakolel 17:2; Shevach Hamoadim p. 14; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 55
Other Opinions: Some are accustomed not to recite Hodu before Mincha of Erev Rosh Hashanah even if it coincides with Erev Shabbos. [Darkei Chaim Veshalom 704; See Shulchan Hatahor 262:12]
 Alef Hamagen 581:135; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 57
Other Opinions: Some are accustomed to recite Hodu before Mincha of Erev Rosh Hashanah even if it does not coincide with Erev Shabbos. [Mateh Efraim 581:57]
 Siddur Tehillas Hashem; Sefer Haminhagim p. 117 [English]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:17; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 16:2
 Maharam Brisk 2:44; Halichos Bas Yisrael 17/11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:17; Kitzur Dinei Neshek p. 40; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 16:2
 The reason: As Yom Tov is also called Shabbos, as the verse states Mimacharas Hashabbos. In addition, the wording of the blessing has no source in Shas. [Poskim ibid]
 Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:112
 Nachalas Yoel Zev 1:16; Halichos Beisa p. 158
 The reason: As Admur rules in 487:1 that one is not Yotzei Shemoneh Esrei if he said Mikadesh Hashabbos, as he changed the dialect of the Sages. [ibid] However, in truth one cannot compare the cases, as we do not find anywhere that the Sages established a dialect for the blessing said over candle lighting, and hence we see that the Chabad custom is to change the wording for candle lighting of Rosh Hashanah!
 Nitei Gavriel ibid
 Nitei Gavriel 16:1
 See Admur 514:14; Biur Halacha 514 “Ner”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 514:14
 Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 70; See SSH”K 13 footnote 27
 Shaar Hakavanos 90a “My teacher the Arizal cries profusely during the prayers of R”H even though it is a Yom Tov and certainly during the prayers of Yom Kippur”; Peri Eitz Chaim 25:5; brought in Beir Heiytiv 584:3; Mateh Efraim 582:28; Kaf Hachaim 582:60
Other Opinions: In Maaseh Rav 207 it is written of the Gr”a that one is not to cry on Rosh Hashanah, as the verse in Nechemia [8:9] states “Al Yivku” “Do not mourn or cry. Go eat fatty meats and sweet beverages. Don’t be sad as joy of G-d is your rock.” However see the following footnotes for those that interpret the Gr”a to refer only to a cry of pain.
 Toras Menachem 1951 Vol. 2 p. 4; Sefer Hasichos 1947 1st night R”H “The Alter Rebbe once said that the Avoda on the night of R”H must be accompanied with joy. The Tzemach Tzedek and Reb Nachum then asked the Alter Rebbe “Why is it then that you cry” He replied that it is a cry of joy”; Sefer Hasichos 1941 p. 27 “The Rebbe Rashab’s holy face was soaked with tears”; Hatamim 2 p. 131-132 “The Rebbe Rashab Davens and cries. There isn’t one word he recites that isn’t immersed in a river of tears
 Sefer Hasichos 1944 p. 5 “Even the citizens of the town of Lubavitch, men, women and children on the two days of Rosh Hashanah were filled with cries of repentance.”
 Shaar Hakavanos 90a; Peri Eitz Chaim 25:5; brought in Beir Heiytiv 584:3; Mateh Efraim 582:28; Kaf Hachaim 582:60; See Birkeiy Yosef Y.D. 394- that one may refrain from crying oin order so the tears do not damage his eyes, as the main thing is a broken heart.
The reason: The reason for this is because on Rosh Hashanah one is to naturally feel the attachment of his soul to its root in G-d, and this feeling is so intense that the body sheds tears out of inability to contain it. Hence one who does not cry shows that his soul is no longer sensitive to its attachment to G-d. Hence the cry which is required is one of passionate longing for G-d. One is however not to cry on Rosh Hashanah due to a loss in physical or even spiritual matters, as explained in sources in next footnote. One who is not brought to tears on Rosh Hashanah shows that he has a hard heart and a cruel personality. [Alef Hamagen 582:47; Piskeiy Teshuvos 584:2]
 M”E ibid; implication of Shaar Hakavanos ibid, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Mateh Efraim 584:25 [regarding an ill person]; Az Nidbaru 14:21; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582:7
 Although asking for one’s physical needs is ordinarily forbidden on Shabbos and Yom Tov [See Admur 294:1; 299:15; 188:4; 584:5] nevertheless it is permitted to do so on Rosh Hashanah being that this day was established to be a day of judgment which requires prayer and supplication. [ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun from the ruling in 584:5 regarding Avinu Malkeinu, that it is omitted on Rosh Hashanah due to Bakashas Tzerachav! Some suggest that only a set prayer of request was negated on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah while a private request is not only allowed but is motivated to be done. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 582 footnote 21]
Where in Shmoneh Esrei are the requests to be made? The requests are to be made after the first Yehiyu Leratzon but prior to reciting the second Yehiyu Leratzon. [See Admur 122:1; M”B 12:3]
 Siddur Admur regarding Yom Tov; Ketzos Hashulchan 77:2; Shaar Hakolel 17:6 states that this was mistakenly omitted from certain prints of the Siddur
Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In the Shulchan Aruch 619:10, Admur rules that Kabalas Shabbos is not recited, although Mizmor Shir Leyom Hashabbos is recited before Barchu. So also brings M”E 625:41 as the customs of some communities. In the Siddur, however, Admur rules to begin from Mizmor Ledavid, and so is the Chabad custom.
 The reason: Some write the reason is because there is a Mitzvah of Simcha on Yom Tov and we hence desire to speed the conclusion of Maariv. [Otzer Minhagei Yeshurun p. 64; See Admur 270:1 regarding Bameh Madlikin that it is omitted on Yom Tov in order to hasten Simchas Yom Tov] Alternatively the reason is because these Psalms contain the words Rina, and on Yom Tov we emphasize the words Simcha. [Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 13] Alternatively the reason is because the first five Mizmorim until Mizmor Ledavid relate to the five weekdays until Erev Shabbos while the psalm of Mizmor Ledavid relates to Erev Shabbos. Hence, we omit the first five Zemiros as it is not proper to relate them to Yom Tov. [Sichas Kodesh 2 p. 121] To note that the Mitzvah of Simcha does not apply on Rosh Hashanah, and hence we recite Berina in Lecha Dodi as a normal Shabbos, thus the only reason that explains why on Rosh Hashanah we omit these Psalms is the last reason mentioned. [Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 250]
 Shaar Hakolel 17:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 13; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 63
Other customs: Some are accustomed to only recite the first and last stanza of Lecha Dodi. [M”E 625:41] Others recite the first two stanzas of Lecha Dodi corresponding to Zachar and Shamor. [Alef Hamagen 625:56] Others recite the entire Lecha Dodi with exception to the stanza of Hisnaari Meiafar Kumi which is omitted. [Peri Megadim] Some are accustomed to omitting Kegavna being that it mentions that all the other days are filled with wrath which is untrue regarding Yom Tov. [Siddur Yaavetz; Likkutei Mahrich Pesach; Alef Lamateh 625:67; Divrei Torah 9:72; Piskeiy Teshuvos 487:3]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 52 [English]; Rebbe in Machzor Chabad; Luach Kolel Chabad [Edited]; Implication of instructions in Siddur Yaavetz; M”E 582:2; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 62; Glosses of Rav Raskin on the Siddur
The reason: The Rebbe [in a footnote on the Machzor ibid] explains that Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are not given for days of rejoicing [see Admur 582:10] and hence we do not change from the normal wording of Berina.
Other Yomim Tovim: By other Yomim Tovim the custom is to interchange the word Berina for Besimcha. [Hagahos Hasiddur of Rebbe Rashab; Ketzos Hashulchan 77:2; Mishnes Chassidim “Leil Yom Tov” 1:2].
Difference between Rina and Simcha: The term Rina denotes a bittersweet joy, a joy that comes as a result of a previous distance. However, Simcha does not have any bitterness mixed with it at all. [Magen Avos Vayishlach’ Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 13] Accordingly it is understood why on Rosh Hashanah we do not recite Besimcha, as there is bitterness involved in the repentance required.
Other customs: Some are accustomed to reciting Besimcha even on Rosh Hashanah. [Minhag Rav Ahron of Belz, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 582 footnote 20]
 Mateh Efraim 582:2; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 63
 The above order is written in Piskeiy Hasiddur footnote 40; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 69
 Admur 582:9; Michaber 582:7
 Peri Chadash; Mateh Yehuda; Kisei Eliyahu 582:7; Neve Shalom 582:4; P”M 582 M”Z 3; Machatzis Hashekel 582:6;Shalmei Tzibur p.307b; Zechor Leavraham “Reish”; Shaareiy Teshuvah 582:5; Chayeh Adam 139:4; M”E 582:15; M”B 582:19; Kaf Hachaim 582:47
 Admur 487:3
 A dispute on this matter is recorded in Admur: Some Poskim rule if one forgot to mention either Shabbos or Yom Tov by the concluding blessing, he does not fulfill his obligation. However others say that it is similar to saying a weekday prayer on Shabbos:Yom Tov, in which case if one said Yaleh Veyavo, then he fulfills his obligation, thus so too here, if one mentioned Shabbos:Yom Tov in the middle of the blessing, then one has fulfilled his obligation even if he does not mention it by the concluding blessing. Admur concludes that it is proper to suspect for the latter opinion and not repeat the blessing, in order not to enter oneself into a doubt of saying a blessing in vain. [ibid]
 Admur 582:4; 619:10; Michaber 582:3 [regarding Shabbos Teshuvah]; Rama ibid [adds Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur]
 Seemingly this latter statement is only relevant when Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur falls on Shabbos, and hence the novelty is that one does not add Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur in the concluding blessing. However on Shabbos Teshuvah there is no reason to think otherwise, that anything else should be added in the concluding blessing other than Shabbos, Upashut.
The reason: The reason why we do not mention Yom Tov [Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur] within this blessing of Meiyn Sheva is because its entire reason of being said only relates to Shabbos, as on a regular Yom Tov Meiyn Sheva is not recited. It is recited on Shabbos not due to the holiness of the day [which would thus warrant it to be recited also on Yom Tov] but rather due to Mazikin [damaging forces]. It is thus not similar to the law that requires Shabbos to be mentioned in Niela of Yom Kippur, that although Neilah is never recited on Shabbos and is only recited due to Yom Kippur, nevertheless one is required to mention Shabbos in the Shemoneh Esrei. This is because Yom Kippur obligates four prayers to be recited, which is Shacharis, Musaf, Mincha, and Neilah, and thus one must mention Shabbos in each prayer. However here the blessing of Meiyn Sheva was not instituted due to the holiness of the day [as was Neilah of Yom Kippur] but simply due to the Mazikin. [269:14]
 See Kaf Hachaim 582:18; Mateh Efraim 582:5; Alef Lamateh 582:1; Alef Hamagen 582:17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582:6
 M”B 582:10
 Kneses Hagedola 582:5; Elya Raba 582:2; Mateh Yehuda; Mateh Efraim 582:5; Shalmei Chagiga in name of Mahariy Iash [brought in Alef Lamateh ibid]; Machazik Bracha 582:3; Shalmei Tzibur 197; Zechor Leavraham 3:143; Shaareiy Teshuvah 582:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 18 The reason: The Chida in Machazik Bracha explains that according to Kabala there is a mystical reason behind reciting Meiyn Sheva and hence it must be repeated if not recited properly. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 If, however, he did not yet complete the blessing then he returns to the words Hamelech Hakadosh and reads from there and onwards. [ibid]
 Peri Chadash [brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]; Gan Melech 149; Siddur Derech Hachaim; Peri Megadim 582 A”A 2 ; Nishmas Adam; Yeshuos Yaakov; Pischeiy Teshuvah in name of Divrei David 55; Alef Hamagen 582:17; Kitzur SHU”A 129:4
The reason: As the entire blessing of Meiyn Sheva is only recited use to Sakana, and hence we do not require its repetition if a mistake was made. [Peri Chadash ibid]
 Likkutei Mahrich; Luach Eretz Yisrael; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582:6; The Kaf Hachaim ibid concludes that one who does not repeat the blessing is not to be protested, although it seems he leans like the stringent opinion viewed by the Chida, based on Kabala. See Yabia Omer 2:29.
 M”B ibid; M”E ibid; See Peri Chadash ibid that “although if he is still within e protest him and make him return”. Vetzaruch Iyun as to which part of the prayer he is referring to Kdei Dibbur of? The words Hakeil Hakadosh or the concluding blessing.
 584:5; 602:2; Rama 584:1; 602:1; Rivash 512; Kneses Hagedola 584:2; Peri Chadash; Kisei Eliyahu 584:3
Other opinions: Many Poskim rule that Avinu Malkeinu is to be recited even on Shabbos. [Rashbatz 3:186 brought in Beis Yosef; Hatanya; Mateh Yehuda 584; implication of Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos; see Kaf Hachaim 584:8] Based on the Arizal ibid it appears that one is to recite all the stanzas of Avinu Malkeinu, with exception to the one’s that mention sin, even on Shabbos Shuva, and so is the custom of the Beis Keil community in Jerusalem. [Kaf Hachaim 582:16] The Kaf Hachaim 584:8 concludes: It seems that the Ashkenazi custom is to omit it while the Sephardic custom is to say it and for this reason the Michaber omitted this ruling from his Shulchan Aruch. Each community is to follow their custom.
 The reason: As it is forbidden to request one’s needs on Shabbos. [ibid; Ran] Alternatively the reason we omit it on Shabbos is because the entire reason that we recite Avinu Malkeinu is in correspondence to the middle blessings of Shemoneh Esrei that are omitted on Rosh Hashanah during the week. [Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 584:7]
Does this also apply to private requests? Some suggest that only a set prayer of request was negated on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah while a private request is not only allowed but is motivated to be expressed. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 582 footnote 21]
 602:2; Rama 602:1
 Siddur Admur
 It is not customary to recite the words “Vayavor Hashem Al Panav” prior to saying it being that the Hashem Hashem is recited as a prayer and not as a verse in the Torah. [Halichos Olam brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 584 footnote 16, unlike Mateh Efraim 584:584:16; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 206].
 Admur ibid
The background of the Aliyos:
It was established by Moshe Rabbeinu that on every Yom Tov there should be five people called up to read the Torah portion dealing with that Holiday. [282:1;488:5; M”A 135:1] The reason behind the different number of Aliyos [Three during the week; Four on Rosh Chodesh; Five0 on Yom Tov; six on Rosh Hashanah; seven on Shabbos] is based on the levels of holiness that each day contains over the other days. See 282:1 for further details on this matter.
 Mateh Efraim 584:25
 As Rosh Hashanah is the time to ask for blessings being that it is judgment day.
 Likkutei Mahrich Yom Kippur, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 582 footnote 21
 See Kaf Hachaim 584:31
 Levush 584; M”A 584:7
 Elya Raba 595:2 brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 584:4
The reason: In order to proximate the Mila to the Torah reading and in order not to make an interval between Ashrei and the Kaddish. [ibid]
 Yaavetz in Siddur; Derech Hachaim; Mateh Efraim 584:26; M”B 584:12
 Admur 588:4; Michaber 588:5; Mishneh Rosh Hashanah 29b
 The reason: Blowing the Shofar on Shabbos or Yom Tov is not a Melacha [Admur ibid; Levush 588; Rosh Hashanah 29b;] and is only Rabbinically forbidden to be done on Shabbos and Yom Tov [Admur ibid; Rambam 2:6] due to it being a mundane act [Uvdin Dechol]. [Admur ibid; Implication of Gemara and Rashi ibid; Rif and Ran 1b] Thus, seemingly it should be permitted to be blown on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah, being it is a minor Rabbinical prohibition versus a Biblical command, just like it is allowed to be blown every Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah due to it being a minor Rabbinical prohibition and not a complete Shvus. [If, however, the Sages would have made the blowing of a Shofar on Yom Tov a complete Shvus then even on Rosh Hashanah it would be forbidden to be blown being it is forbidden to transgress even a Rabbinical command for the sake of blowing Shofar.] Nevertheless the Sages decreed that it may not be blown on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah since everyone is obligated to hear Shofar and not everyone is expert in how to blow it there is worry that one may carry the Shofar in his hand on Shabbos and bring it to an expert to be taught how to blow and he will hence transgress the Biblical command of carrying four Amos in a public domain. [ibid[Admur ibid; Rambam ibid; Gemara ibid; M”A 588:4; Taz 588:5]
Why did the Sages not differ the day of R”H to after Shabbos in a case that it falls on Shabbos? When R”H falls on Sunday, Wednesday or Friday the Sages pushed it off to a different day, as explicitly stated in 428:1. The reason for pushing it off from Sunday is because otherwise the date of Hoshanah Raba can fall on Shabbos. Thus, so too they should have pushed it off from Shabbos in order so we can blow Shofar on both days? The reason for this is because this would cause R”H to be pushed to Monday and there is at times too many days between Monday and the Molad. Alternatively, since anyways the Shofar will be blown the next day the Sages did not feel such a need. [Beis Yosef in name of Kol Bo; Kaf Hachaim 588:33; See Levush 588:5]
 Admur 588:5; See also: Admur 308:20; Rama 308:4; Hgahos Ashri 2:24
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that in today’s time a Shofar is considered MMC”K. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 308:8; 588:2] Vetzaruch Iyun as what changed in this regard between then and now.
 Admur 588:6; 343:1 as explained in background
Background from 343:1: In 343:1 Admur rules that if one who sees a child under the age of Bar or Bas Mitzvah transgressing a prohibition one does not need to reprimand or stop the child from doing so, if the child is doing so for his own benefit, such as eating Treif foods or desecrating Shabbos for his own needs. Furthermore, even a Rabbinical court does not have the requirement to stop or reprimand him. However in a case that the transgression of the child will become public knowledge and there is suspicion that this may lead people to mistakenly think that what the child has done is in truth permitted being that no one protested, then the Beis Din is obligated to protest their actions even if they are doing so for their own benefit. For example, if the child was blowing Shofar on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah then since people hearing the Shofar may think that one is indeed meant to blow even on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah, therefore the child is to be reprimanded. [Admur ibid]
 Vetzaruch Iyun regarding if others including the father is obligated to protest the child’s actions. See Admur 334:26; 362:17; Ketzos Hashulchan 147:1.
 Admur 600:7; Michaber 600:3
 The reason: As the blessing of Shehechiyanu has never yet been recited over the blowing. [ibid]
The law if one by mistake blew Shofar on Shabbos with Shehechiyanu: According to the Ashkenazim this has no relevance and the blessing of Shehechiyanu is to be repeated the next day. [Kaf Hachaim 600:9] However according to the Michaber and Sefaradim he is not to recite Shehechiyanu the next day. [Peri Haretz 2:10; Birkeiy Yosef 600:4; Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Rav Akiva Eiger brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 588:2; Avnei Nezer Yoreh Deah 1:141; Implication of Chochmas Shlomo; Roshei Besamim 144; Ketzei Hamaeth 588
 Toras Chaim 588; See also Mahrshag 1:36; Har Tzvi 2:88
 Kaf Hachaim 600:9
 Peri Haretz 2:10; Birkeiy Yosef 600:4; Kaf Hachaim ibid
 See Chochmas Shlomo 588 and Toras Chaim 588
 See Likkutei Torah Derushim Lerosh Hashanah page 56-57
 592:6; See Siddur Rashash and Kaf Hachaim 582:36 for the Kabalistic meaning of this paragraph
When was the world created? It is disputed in the Gemara between Rebbe Eliezer and Rebbe Yehoshua as to when the world was created, in Nissan or Tishrei. Hence, we see that by us saying this paragraph we rule like Rebbe Eliezer that the world was created in Tishrei. [Abudarham 101; Elya Raba 592:6; Zohar Emor; Levush] However the Tosafus rules [R”H 27] that we follow Rebbe Yehoshua that the world was created in Nissan. Nonetheless this statement still stands true as even according to Rebbe Yehoshua the world was created in thought in the month of Tishrei. [M”A 592:1]
 Seder Hayom; Shaareiy Teshuvah 591:3; Kaf Hachaim 592:9
 Admur 592:6; Rama 592:1; Rashbatz 3:290 and 309; Birkeiy Yosef 591:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 591:6; Machzor Chabad
 Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Machzor Chabad
 M”A 131:22 [“one kneels and bows on R”H by Aleinu”]; Rama 621:4 and Admur 621:12 [regarding Aleinu recited in Yom Kippur Davening-not mentioned in Shulchan Aruch regarding Rosh Hashanah; Also in Rama 131:8 only Yom Kippur is mentioned]; M”E 591:1; Alef Hamagen 591:2; Machzor Chabad; Shaar Tziyon 131:44 [“Our custom is to bow by Rosh Hashanah just like Yom Kippur]; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 318
 M”E 592:1; Machzor ibid
 Machzor Chabad; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 323
Other customs: The custom on many communities is not to bow or prostrate during Aleinu on R”H or Yom Kippur that coincides with Shabbos. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 621:4; Hagahos Chochmas Shlomo 592; See Divrei Yatziv 2:265]
 Hayom Yom 19th Nissan, p. 46 [in current print]; Sefer Haminhagim p. 118 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad Nissan p. 142; Mateh Efraim 583:1; Likkutei Maharich 3:40; Kaf Hachaim 583:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2; Custom of Vizhnitz, Belz, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 473 footnote 9
Original Chabad custom: In the earlier prints  of Hayom Yom p. 46, it stated that one does not say Shalom Aleichem or Eishes Chayil at all on Shabbos Yom Tov, or Shabbos Chol Hamoed. This was based on an explicit directive of the Rebbe Rayatz that one is not to say it and that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab and the Rebbe Maharash, although there were some years in which they said it, but this is not relevant for others. There is a reason of the Baal Shem Tov recorded regarding this matter. [Rebbe in Reshimos Hayoman 4:12 and 22, p. 173; See Hayom Yom Hamevuar p. 419] Practically, the final directive of the Rebbe was to say it quietly, as recorded in the updated printing of Hayom Yom.
 Admur 473:5; Michaber 473:1
 Siddur Admur; Admur 271:19
 The reason: This is said in order to fulfill the obligation of Vayechulu on behalf of one’s children and household who were not present in Shul and thus did not hear it being said by the congregation after the Davening. [Admur ibid]
 Siddur Admur; See Admur 487:3 regarding Shemoneh and the same applies regarding Kiddush, as brought in M”A 487:2 that Kiddush is even more severe, and M”B 487:2
 See Admur 487:3; M”B 487:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:2; 487:4
 Admur 487:3 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; M”B 487:2 that the same applies for Kiddush
 Admur 487:1 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; M”B 487:2 that the same applies for Kiddush
 This is not considered as if he is adding to the four cups of wine, as he is obligated to say Kiddush, and has not fulfilled his obligation from the current Kiddush recited. [See Seder Hearuch 52 footnote 15]
 Admur 487:3 in parentheses; Rama 487:3; Beis Yosef 487 in name of Orchos Chaim
 2nd opinion and conclusion of Admur 487:3 [that it is proper to not repeat the blessing due to Safek Brachos Levatala] regarding if did not mention Shabbos in concluding blessing but mentioned in middle of Shemoneh Esrei and the same applies for Kiddush; Kneses Hagedola 487; Chok Yaakov 487:4; M”A 487 regarding if mentioned in conclusion but not in middle
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one did not conclude Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, which mentions both Shabbos and Yom Tov, then he does not fulfill his obligation of Shemoneh Esrei [or Kiddush] even if he mentioned Shabbos in middle of the paragraph. [1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Elya Raba; M”B 487:2;]
 Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun if he read the Shabbos Kiddush for the main paragraph, and then concluded Mikadesh Hashabbos Viyisrael Vihazmanim, if he is Yotzei. Seemingly, however, according to the 2nd opinion ibid he would be Yotzei.
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 120 [English]; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 139-140
Other opinions: Some write that according to Admur in the Siddur which does not differentiate between R”H and other Holidays one is to recite Eileh Moadeiy also prior to the Kiddush of the day of R”H just like by any other Yom Tov. [Shaar Hakolel 40:18; Kuntrus Hasiddur p. 23; See Mateh Efraim 597:3]
 Yosef Ometz 1066 [brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 597:1]; Machzor Chabad and so was the Rebbe’s custom [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 155 and 159; Hamelech Bemisibo 1:239]; See Shaar Hakolel 34:14
Other customs: Some have the custom to omit the Harachaman of Yom Tov on Rosh Hashanah. [Noam Megadim 33b; Taamei Haminhagim 377]
 Current Nussach in Siddur Admur; Siddur Yaavetz; Yifei Laleiv 2:1; Kaf Hachaim 597:8
Chabad Custom: In certain prints of Siddur Admur the above Harachaman was printed while in others it was omitted. The Shaar Hakolel 34:14 writes that in the original Nussach of Admur this was omitted. He brings many proofs that argue against saying this Harachaman for R”H as why should it be different than the other Yomim Tovim. Especially being that some hold one is to fast on R”H. In Sichas 1956, 2nd day of R”, the Rebbe recited the Harachaman aloud and stated that he had asked the Rebbe Rayatz whether to enter it into the Siddur and was answered that the custom is to recite it silently. Practically however for some reason the Harachaman was placed in large letters in the Siddur. [See Glosses of Rav Raskin p. 381; Otzer Minhagei Chabad 156 -159] See Otzer ibid that the Rebbe Rashab omitted the Harachaman from one of the Siddurim printed in his time although he recited it silently. Practically the Rebbe recited the Harachaman out loud many years during the Rosh Hashanah Farbrengens and the congregation answered Amen. [Otzer ibid]
Other Customs: Some are accustomed to omitting this Harachaman. [Shaar Hakolel ibid] Some are accustomed to reciting this Harachaman throughout Aseres Yimei Teshuvah. [M”E 602:1] Others are accustomed to recite it until Simchas Torah. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 597 footnote 7] Some write that the Nussach is as follows: “Harachaman Hu Yechadesh Aleinu Shanah Tova Umetuka”. [Siddur Reb Shabsi]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 597:1; See P”M 490 A”A 1
 188:14; Sefer Haminhagim p. 129 [English]
 Admur 188:13-14; Ketzos Hashulchan 47:6; Sefer Haminhagim p. 129 [English]
 Ketzos Hashulchan ibid footnote 15
 See Admur 188:13-14; Ketzos Hashulchan 47:6 regarding a regular holiday.
 As although the opinion that rules one is to fast on R”H holds one is to fast even on Shabbos Teshuvah, nevertheless we do not find anywhere in Poskim that there is a difference between Shabbos Teshuvah and other Shabbosim in terms of a case that one forgot Ritzei. The same lack of differentiation can be said regarding Shabbos R”H that since the Poskim do not discuss what to do if one forgot Ritzei it seems that according to all one is required to repeat Birchas Hamazon as is the normal rule. This is in addition to the discussion of whether one is to fast at all on Shabbos R”H or if even according to the stringent opinion they agree that when R”H falls on Shabbos one is not to fast. [See Sdei Chemed Mareches R”H 2:7 for a dispute between the Lev Chaim and Yifei Laleiv; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad 154] See also Mateh Efraim 583, brought in Grac”h Naah in Yagdil Torah 4 p. 1685
The reason: What remains to be understood is what is the reason for the difference in ruling between R”H and Shabbos R”H and Shabbos Teshuvah, as by all these days there are opinions that hold one is to fast and hence we should apply the rule of Safek Brachos Lihakel? Perhaps the explanation is as follows: On R”H itself there are opinions that hold one is to fast, which means that they hold the Sages never included R”H as part of the Holidays that require Lechem Mishneh and a meal. Hence according to them one who eats and Bentches cannot repeat it if he forgot Yaleh Veyavo, as R”H is not obligated in a meal. However on Shabbos, whether it be Shabbos Teshuvah or Shabbos R”H, even they agree that one is ideally obligated to eat a meal due to Shabbos, and it is only that due to R”H that one is to fast [according to those Poskim who hold one may fast on Shabbos R”H]. Thus one who did not fast and fulfilled the Mitzvah of eating a meal on Shabbos must repeat Bentching if he forgot Ritzei, as Shabbos requires him to eat a meal. This is similar to one who made a vow not to eat on Shabbos and nevertheless ate in which case certainly we would hold that Bentching must be repeated if he forgot Ritzei even though what he did was forbidden, as the prohibition was due to an external factor and not due to Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun. Another explanation: Perhaps even according to the opinion that holds one is to fast on R”H on Shabbos Teshuvah or Shabbos R”H they hold it is a mere choice and not obligation [so rules Sdei Chemed Mareches R”H 2:7] and hence even they agree one must repeat Bentching if he decided to eat and forgot Ritzei, similar to one who could have made a Taanis Chalom on Shabbos and did not do so.
 Grac”h Naah in Yagdil Torah 4 p. 1685
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 133 [English]; Levush 598; Mateh Efraim 598:3; See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 140
Although when a regular Yom Tov falls on Shabbos we omit Tzidkascha by Mincha, nevertheless on R”H that falls on Shabbos we say Tzidkascha being that it is a day of judgment and it is proper to say “Tziduk Hadin” on the day of judgment, and so is the custom of Sefardic Jewry. [Tur; Beis Yosef; Michaber 598:1] However there are opinions [Rama 597:1; Ran; Minhagim] that rule that even on R”H that falls on Shabbos one is to omit Tzidkascha being the verse states “Mishpatecha Tehom Raba” and one is to avoid arousing judgment on the day of judgment. Furthermore, this day is Rosh Chodesh and one does not say Tzidkascha on Rosh Chodesh as explained in chapter 292. Practically the custom is like this opinion in these provinces. [Admur ibid] Practically even amongst Sefardic Jewry some communities are now accustomed to omit it, and each community is to follow their custom. [Kaf Hachaim 598:1]
 For a list of Poskim on this matter see: Piskeiy Teshuvos 583:9; Kaf Hachaim 583:31; Sdei Chemed R”H 2:1; Shaareiy Teshuvah 583:2
 Kitzur Shlah; Birkeiy Yosef 583:6 in name of Ramaz; Yosef Ometz 17:3; P“M 583 A”A 5; M”Z 3; M”B 583:8; opinion in Mateh Efraim 598:6; Alef Hamagen 583:11 [that so is the custom]; Yabia Omer 4:47 rules one should say it on Sunday in an area that the Tashlich location is outside the Eruv.
 The Reason: We suspect that one may come to carry his Siddur to the river and a river is usually by a public area of which it is forbidden to carry into. [P”M ibid; M”B ibid] There are likewise Kabalistic reasons mentioned as for why Tashlich should not be said on Shabbos. [Alef Hamagen ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 584]
 Shvus Yaakov 3:42; Implication of Drashos Mahril and Teshuvos Mahril 136; Machazik Bracha 583:4 in name of Mekubal; [however in Yosef Ometz 17:3 the Chida writes it is better not to follow this opinion]; Shaareiy Teshuvah 583:6 [that so is the custom]; M”E 598:5; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 12 [in name of Rashash]; Torah Leshma 145; Ruach Chaim 583:6; Kaf Hachaim 583:31 [Custom of Beis Keil Jerusalem]; Yabia Omer 4:47 rules one should say it on Shabbos only in an area that the Tashlich location is included within the Eruv.
Beware not to carry: Those that are accustomed to recite Tashlich on the first day of Rosh Hashanah even when it falls on Shabbos must beware to avoid transgressing the carrying prohibitions. [M”E ibid]
 Sichas 6th Tishrei 1970 that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz and Rebbe Rashab, although the Alter Rebbe and previous Rabbeim and Chassidim did go on Shabbos.
Opinion of Shulchan Aruch Harav: The Rebbe ibid implies from the wording of Admur in the Siddur [that does not differentiate] that one is to say Tashlich on Shabbos. The Rebbe suggests that in the later generations our custom in Chabad changed due to that people would stumble with carrying on Shabbos.
 Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Reshimos 4:9; Otzer p. 146
 Admur 503:1-3; Michaber 503:1 regarding Melacha; Rama 667:1 regarding Hachana
 Admur 503:1-2 regarding Melacha from Yom Tov to weekday or Shabbos, and 503:3 regarding Hachana from Yom Tov Rishon to Yom Tov Sheiyni Shel Galiyos; Michaber ibid regarding Melacha
Is the prohibition Biblical or Rabbinical? All the Melachos of Ochel Nefesh were only permitted to be performed on Yom Tov for the sake of benefiting from it on Yom Tov. It is however forbidden to bake, slaughter, and cook on Yom Tov for the sake of eating it after Yom Tov. One who does so, transgresses a Biblical prohibition and is liable for lashes. [Admur 495:2 “For the sake of eating on Yom Tov”; 503:1-2; 527:8; M”A 518:1 “One who cooks on Yom Tov for the weekday gets lashes”; M”B 527:3; Rambam Yom Tov 1:9; Beitza 17a; Pesachim 46b; See Aruch Hashulchan 527:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 527:3 for other opinions in this matter] This however only applies if the Melacha was done on Yom Tov near evening in a way that one cannot benefit from it at all on Yom Tov itself [do to there not being enough time to receive the benefit]. If, however, it is possible for one to benefit from the food on Yom Tov itself, then he is exempt from a Biblical transgression even if he does not plan to benefit from it on Yom Tov and intended to do the Melacha for the sake of eating the food the next day. Nevertheless, the Sages prohibited this to be done, and one who does so is liable for Rabbinical lashes. Even if the Melacha is not needed at all for Yom Tov, being that one already ate all his meals in entirety, it is nevertheless only Rabbinically forbidden. [Admur 503:2; M”A 527:1; Razah Pesachim 14b; Ran ibid] The reason it is only Rabbinical, is because if he were to receive guests that did not yet eat that day, then this Melacha would be considered a need for the guests, and would have been permitted to be performed by him. Therefore, this Melacha is called Mileches Ochel Nefesh, and even though he does not have guests, its performance does not contain a Biblical prohibition. [Admur 503:2; M”A 527:1; Tosafus Pesachim ibid]
 Admur 503:3; Michaber 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Rosh Hashanah; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Semak
The reason: Although the two days of Rosh Hashanah is one holiness, and is considered long day, nevertheless, this only applies for purposes of stringency and not to leniency. The reason for this is because as we are expert in the date of the month, and we know that the first day is holy from a Biblical perspective, while the 2nd day is completely mundane according to the Biblical perspective, and it is thus found that one is preparing on Yom Tov for a weekday. [Admur ibid; M”A 503:1; Taz 503:1; Beis Yosef; Levush; Kneses Hagedola 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Rosh Hashanah; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Semak; Shulchan Gavoa 503:2; Kaf Hachaim 503:10]
 Admur 503:3; 254:10; 494:14; Rama 667:1; M”A 503:1 based on Michaber 416:2; Hagahos Maimanis; Maharil; M”B 503:1; 667:5
 P”M 503 M”Z 1; Kaf Hachaim 503:4
The reason: As we never allow one to initially be lenient by a Safek Derabanon. [P”M ibid]
 Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5 regarding wine for the 2nd night of Yom Tov; Kaf Hachaim 503:2; Maharshag 1:61; Piskeiy Teshuvos 302:17; 503:1; Nitei Gavriel “Erev Pesach Shechal Beshabbos” in Teshuvah 4
The reason: As in a time of need the Sages did not make their decree. [See Chayeh Adam ibid] This especially applies for the sake of a Mitzvah. [M”B ibid] Alternatively, the entire prohibition of Hachanah is only when the action is being done to save time, while if it is being done to save an item from a loss, Hachana is permitted. [Maharshag ibid]
Opinion of Admur: There exist many different rulings in Admur regarding if one may prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov for the sake of loss prevention. [See Admur 254:10 and M”A 254: 23 that it is forbidden to remove bread from the oven for the next day, and seemingly, this is despite the fact that it will cause a loss to the bread, as explains, and questions the Elya Raba 254:18; In 319:18 regarding saving a food from spoilage Admur only permits preparing to prevent through a gentile. In 321:6 regarding watering vegetables to prevent shriveling, Admur only permits doing so being that it is for the sake of preventing loss and is not noticeable to others that it is for the next day, such as that perhaps he will eat it that day, and he thus does not extend the allowance to soaking three-day meat. However, in 500:20 Admur permits soaking meat of three days in water to prevent its prohibition in cooking being that soaking is less of an effort than washing dishes. This seemingly contradicts the ruling of Admur in 321:6, brought earlier, however, in truth the difference is that in 321:6 it discusses Shabbos when the raw meat cannot be cooked and is hence not edible, while in 500:20 it is discussing Yom Tov, when the meat is edible and hence does not appear to others like a preparation.] The final summary of his opinion seems to be as follows: It is forbidden to prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov even in a time of need, to prevent loss to the item, unless the following conditions are met. 1) One does so through a gentile. Or 2) It does not involve much effort [i.e. soaking] and it is not apparent to others that it is being done for after Shabbos/Yom Tov. No mention is made in Admur regarding if a case that involves a Mitzvah should receive greater leniency than above. Now, although in 503:3 Admur prohibits bringing wine on the first day of Yom Tov for Kiddush of the second day, which implies that no extra leniency is given even for the sake of a Mitzvah, nevertheless, perhaps if it’s both for the sake of a Mitzvah and a time of need or loss prevention, Admur would be more lenient. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 See M”B ibid “With much time left in the day as then it is not apparent to others that it is being done for the sake of the next day”; See also Admur 321:7 “being that they are fit today to be eaten by any person and it is thus not at all evident that one is [doing an action that entails] effort on Shabbos for the [need of a] weekday being that he may eat these [vegetables] today.”
 As if it involves Melacha, it is forbidden not just due to Hachana or Tircha from one day to the next, but also in its own right, as the Torah only permitted Melacha to be done on Yom Tov for the sake of Yom Tov.
 Admur 503:3; M”A 667:3; Chayeh Adam 99:1; 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2
 Admur 503:3; M”A 667:3; Maharial Hilchos Tefilas Yom Tov
 Admur 503:3; Elya Raba 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Yom Tov p. 180; Minhagei Maharash 394
 M”B 667:5; Admur 302:10 regarding Shabbos
 Shevet Hakehasi 1:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos 302:17 footnote 146; 503:1; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 26:9; and in “Erev Pesach Shechal Beshabbos” in Teshuvah 4 [Based on ruling of Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2; Maharshag 1:61]
 The reason: As in a time of need, for the sake of a Mitzvah, one may prepare on the first day on behalf of the second day if the action does not involve a Melacha [Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5-although stipulates to do with much time left in day; Kaf Hachaim 503:2] and this case is considered a time of need and prevention of loss, as if he would have to wait until Tzeis Hakochavim to defrost the food, he would begin the meal very late, and his kids may fall asleep, and Simchas Yom Tov will be nullified. [Nitei Gavriel ibid] Alternatively, the entire prohibition of Hachanah is only when the action is being done to save time, while if it is being done to save an item from a loss, Hachana is permitted. [Maharshag ibid]
 SSH”K 10:10
 The reason: As it is forbidden to prepare for the next day of Yom Tov even if it will cause one to need to delay his meal later on.
 Opinion of Admur: There exist many different rulings in Admur regarding if one may prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov for the sake of loss prevention. [See Admur 254:10 and M”A 254: 23 that it is forbidden to remove bread from the oven for the next day, and seemingly, this is despite the fact that it will cause a loss to the bread, as explains, and questions the Elya Raba 254:18; In 319:18 regarding saving a food from spoilage Admur only permits preparing to prevent through a gentile. In 321:6 regarding watering vegetables to prevent shriveling, Admur only permits doing so being that it is for the sake of preventing loss and is not noticeable to others that it is for the next day, such as that perhaps he will eat it that day, and he thus does not extend the allowance to soaking three-day meat. However, in 500:20 Admur permits soaking meat of three days in water to prevent its prohibition in cooking being that soaking is less of an effort than washing dishes. This seemingly contradicts the ruling of Admur in 321:6, brought earlier, however, in truth the difference is that in 321:6 it discusses Shabbos when the raw meat cannot be cooked and is hence not edible, while in 500:20 it is discussing Yom Tov, when the meat is edible and hence does not appear to others like a preparation.] The final summary of his opinion seems to be as follows: It is forbidden to prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov even in a time of need, to prevent loss to the item, unless the following conditions are met. 1) One does so through a gentile. Or 2) It does not involve much effort [i.e. soaking] and it is not apparent to others that it is being done for after Shabbos/Yom Tov. No mention is made in Admur regarding if a case that involves a Mitzvah should receive greater leniency than above. Now, although in 503:3 Admur prohibits bringing wine on the first day of Yom Tov for Kiddush of the second day, which implies that no extra leniency is given even for the sake of a Mitzvah, nevertheless, perhaps if it’s both for the sake of a Mitzvah and a time of need or loss prevention, Admur would be more lenient. Vetzaruch Iyun! All in all, if we view the concept of delaying the meal for many hours in wait for the food to defrost as equivalent to a loss, then Admur would permit defrosting it on the first day of Yom Tov with much time left in the day on the basis that one is not really doing any action other than removing it from the freezer. It is hence similar to the law regarding three-day meat.
 Implication of Admur ibid, as explained in previous footnote! M”B ibid who qualifies his allowance to only if it is done with much time left in the day
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 302 footnote 146 who permits doing so on the same basis as removing from the freezer.
 Mateh Efraim 599:10; Hiskashrus 947
 The reason: As one is not to do an action on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day. [Alef Hamagen 625:51]
 Beis Dovid 285; Birkeiy Yosef 503:1; Mamar Mordechai 503:1; Kaf Hachaim 503:6
 P”M 503 A”A 1; Kaf Hachaim 503:1; Minchas Yom Tov 101:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 503:1; See Admur 307:12 regarding asking gentile to do matter for the sake of a Mitzvah
Ruling of Admur: Although Admur 319:18 only permits asking a gentile to do preparation on Shabbos for after Shabbos if it is done in order to prevent loss. Seemingly preparing for the second day of Yom Tov is considered a Mitzvah, and is hence allowed under that basis, as explained in Admur 307:12
 299:17-18; See “The Laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Halacha 1B!
 Other Opinions: The Elya Raba rules it does not suffice on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov to simply say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh. Rather one must say the entire blessing of Hamavdil without Sheim Umalchus. [Brought in Kaf Hachaim 299:58]
 Mateh Efraim 599:10
 Mateh Efraim 599:10; Hiskashrus 947
 As one is not to do an action on the 1st day of Yom Tov on behalf of the 2nd day. [Alef Hamagen 625:51]
 Mateh Efraim 599:10
 599:1; 491:4; Michaber 599:1
 As the first night of R”H can never fall on Motzei Shabbos. [See chapter 228:1; Kaf Hachaim 599:1]
 The reason: This follows the order of every Holiday that coincides with Motzei Shabbos. Now although we mention celebrating the Holiday in this paragraph and R”H is not a festival and neither is it one of the three Regalim, nevertheless there is no issue with saying it. The reason for this is because one does not intend to say that today is a festival and is simply counting the gifts that Hashem has given us of the holiness of Shabbos, the Honor of Yom Tov and the celebration of the festivals etc. [Admur 599:1; Tur; Levush; Taz 599:1; M”B 599:2; Kaf Hachaim 599:2]
 Mateh Efraim 599:7; See also Kaf Hachaim 599:3
 His reasoning is because doing so would require the person to repeat Hashem’s name in the blessing of Vatiten Lanu.
 Sheivet Halevy 9:23
 473:6; 491:4; 599:1 [regarding R”H]
 “When [the night of the Seder] falls on Motzei Shabbos one needs to say Havdala after Kiddush, and if he has a candle he is to say a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush” but prior to the blessing of Havdala. After Havdala one is to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu” [473:6]
 The reason: The reason for this is because the entire purpose of smelling Besamim on Motzei Shabbos is to comfort the soul which is saddened due to the leave of the extra soul it received on Shabbos. On Yom Tov however there is no need for Besamim, as the pleasure of Yom Tov and its joy calms and soothes the soul [from its loss]. [Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun on some of the wording there [not recorded here]]
 Some suggest this is due to that separating the candles from each other afterwards is similar to extinguishing. [see 502:7; Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 4]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 59 for a discussion amongst Poskim in how one is allowed to say the blessing of Haeish over the candle lit in honor of Yom Tov. Simply speaking however, it is allowed being that Shabbos and Yom Tov candles are lit for the use of their light on the table as well as for Shalom Bayis.
Benefiting from light prior to Havdala: It is disputed in Poskim as to whether one may benefit from light prior to reciting Meoreiy Haeish within Havdala. [Stringent: opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 693; 298 Orchos Chaim; Perech Shushan 3:2; Beis Yehuda 107; Mahrkash; Birkeiy Yosef 693:1; Erech Hashulchan 693:2; Yifei Laleiv 2:2 ; Lenient: second opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 298; implication of Rama ibid; Levush ibid; Kneses Hagedola; Chabad custom by night of Purim]. However according to all one may read from a Siddur prior to Havdala as the Nussach is well versed in one’s mouth and there is hence not a lot of benefit involved. [Birkeiy Yosef 599:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 599:1; M”B 5991; Kaf Hachaim 599:6]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 76 [English]
 The reason: Although the custom is to stand for Havdala on every Motzei Shabbos out of respect for the King which we are escorting [296:15; See “The Laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdala Halacha 4] nevertheless by Havdala of Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, since one is saying the Havdala within Kiddush, it is said in a sitting position just like Kiddush. See 271:19 [ibid]
 Sefer Haminhagim [Hebrew] p. 39; English p. 55; Hagada of Rebbe p. 8
The middle Nussach of Havdala: The middle Nussach of Havdala on Motzei Shabbos which falls on Yom Tov contains seven sets of “Havdalos” [separations] that Hashem made. The normal Nussach of Motzei Shabbos and Motzei Yom Tov only contains four Havdalos. The following is the Nussach read by Yaknahaz versus the regular Nussach. [The words in Italics are the stanzas that are added to the Yaknahaz Nussach versus the regular Nussach]:
ברוך אתה ה‘, אליקינו מלך העולם המבדיל בין קדש לחול, בין אור לחשך, בין ישראל לעמים, בין יום השביעי לששת ימי המעשה ,בין קדשת שבת לקדשת יום טוב הבדלת, ואת יום השביעי מששת ימי המעשת קדשת, הבדלת וקדשת את עמך ישראל בקדושתך ברוך אתה ה‘ המבדיל בין קדש לקדש.
Background of this Nussach: From the letter of the law one is allowed to recite the regular Havdala of Motzei Shabbos:Yom Tov which contains 4 stanzas of Havdalos and simply switch the words of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes Yimei Hamaaseh” to the words “Bein Kedushas Shabbos Lekedushas Yom Tov Hivdalta” and then conclude Baruch Ata Hashem…”. The reason for the switch is because one needs to conclude the middle blessing of Havdala with a matter that is similar to the words of the concluding blessings, and hence since we now conclude Bein Kodesh Lekodesh we therefore switch the ending stanza of the Nussach to one that pertains to it. However in the later generations [mentioned in Ran] the custom became to recite a total of seven stanzas of Havdalos, adding the stanza of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes..” [4th Havdala] and “Bein Kedushas Shabbos…Yimei Hamaaseh Kidashta” [5th Havdala as it all counts as one Havdala] and “Hivdalta Vekidashta..” [6th and 7th Havdala as it refers to the Kohanim and Leviim being separated from the rest of Klal Yisrael]. The reason for this is because the Sages stated that one may never say less than three Havdala’s within the Havdala of Motzei Shabbos and Yom Tov, and one who desires to add more, may add up to seven Havdalos corresponding to the seven heavens. [This does not include the Havdala of “Bein Yom Hashevi..” which is said at the end to serve as “Meiyin Chasima”.] Now on Motzei Shabbos to Yom Tov, due to the obligations of the day of Yom Tov, it became accustomed to add up to 7 Havdalos in order so one says at least one time seven Havdalos. [Admur ibid]
 473:6 in parentheses
 The reason: The reason for this is because [this order is disputed between Beis Shamay and Beis Hillel and] by doing so one followed Beis Shamay over Beis Hillel, and anyone who follows Beis Shamay over Beis Hillel does not fulfill his obligation. [ibid]
 A dispute in this matter is brought in Admur. Some rule [Geonim; 1st opinion in Michaber] since one is allowed to say Kiddush over the bread, and Havdala is secondary to Kiddush on this night, he may likewise say Havdala over the bread. Others [Rosh; 2nd opinion of Michaber] however rule in such a situation it is better to say Kiddush over Chamer Medina than to say it over bread. Practically the custom in these countries is like the former opinion. [ibid] So is the ruling of Rama in our current wording of the Shulchan Aruch, however some prints have written the Rama rules like the latter opinion. [See Kaf Hachaim 296:28]
Other opinions: Michaber, based on Klalei Haposkim, rules like the latter opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 296:27]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 299 footnote 102
 Based on M”A 299:9 that one who says Bein Kodesh Lekodesh when he is meant to say Bein Kodesh Lechol is saying a lie.
 Sheivet Hakehasy 6:153
 SSH”K 62:16
 M”A 296:4 in name of Shlah
 Rav SZ”A in Maor Hashabbos 2:28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:4
 See “The laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdala Halacha 3 in Q&A; Kaf Hachaim 296:44; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296 footnote 34
 As it is forbidden for him to eat until he says Havdala. [Based on M”B 299:16]
 Har Tzevi 1:166
 600:7; M”A 600:3; Hagahos Maimanis; [The Rama [600:3] omits the necessity of having a new garment by Shofar-see Kaf Hachaim 600:10]
Other Opinions: Some rule one is not required to search for a new garment and Shehechiyanu may be recited even initially. [See M”B 600:7; Kaf Hachaim ibid that according to Rama and others one does not need a new clothing for Shofar; See Shaareiy Tziyon 600:5; Minchas Shlomo 20; Birkeiy Yosef 600:2; Maaseh Rav 203; Shaar Hakavanos p. 90; Mishnes Chassidim; brought in Piskeiy Hassidur 178; Kaf Hachaim 600:7 [regarding Kiddush].
Opinion of Michaber and Sefaradim: According to the Michaber [606:3], which is the custom of the Sefaradim, Shehechiyanu is omitted on the 2nd day before Shofar. [Admur ibid] This applies even if one is wearing a new clothing. [Kaf Hachaim 600:10]
 Admur ibid; However, the listeners do not have to wear a new garment. [Avnei Nezer 449]
 See the section on “Rosh Hashanah” Chapter 2 Halacha 24 in Q&A for exactly what garments are valid to be worn for the Shehechiyanu.
 It does not help for the Baal Tokeia to have a new fruit before him being that he is unable to eat it until much later on. [See Admur 600:6-7 only mentions the option of a new fruit by Kiddush and not by Shofar. See Machatzis Hashekel 600:1; See the section on “Rosh Hashanah” Chapter 2 Halacha 24 in Q&A!]
 M”E 600:13; Minchas Shlomo 20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 600:2
 Admur ibid; Michaber 600:3
The reason: As the blessing of Shehechiyanu has never yet been recited over the blowing. [ibid]
The law if one by mistake blew Shofar on Shabbos with Shehechiyanu: According to the Ashkenazim this has no relevance and the blessing of Shehechiyanu is to be repeated the next day. [Kaf Hachaim 600:9] However according to the Michaber and Sefaradim he is not to recite Shehechiyanu the next day. [Peri Haretz 2:10; Birkeiy Yosef 600:4; Kaf Hachaim ibid]