Laws relating to when Pesach falls on Shabbos-Part 1
1. Erev Pesach:
A. Taanis Bechoros-Fast of the first born:
When Pesach falls on Shabbos, the firstborns fast on Erev Shabbos, which is also Erev Pesach.
B. Making the Charoses:
When Pesach falls on Shabbos one is required to prepare [i.e. grind] the Charoses from before Shabbos. If one did not do so then it is forbidden to grind the ingredients on Shabbos due to the grinding prohibition, unless one uses a great irregularity, such as the back of a knife. Alternatively, one can cut it to small pieces, which are slightly larger than usual.
Adding wine to the Charoses when Pesach falls on Shabbos: When Pesach falls on Shabbos, one must beware to soften the Charoses with liquid before Shabbos. [This applies likewise according to the Chabad custom. Thus, a small amount of wine is to be added to a selected portion of the Charoses before Shabbos.] If one forgot to do so before Shabbos, then one may do so on Shabbos under the following conditions [which are necessary in order to avoid the kneading prohibition]:
- Thin batter: One is to make it into a very thin batter, and thus add a lot of wine into the mixture.
- Irregularity of adding ingredients: One is to make the mixture with an irregularity [i.e. in the opposite order] which is defined as to first place the wine in the vessel and then the Charoses.
- Irregularity of mixing: One [cannot mix the Charoses and wine/liquid in the regular method, however one] is allowed to mix it with one’s finger or with the vessel itself, through holding onto the vessel and shaking it until it mixes.
C. Making the Saltwater:
One is to make the salt water for the dipping of the Karpas [and egg] on Erev Pesach especially when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos.
Making the salt water on Shabbos if forgot to do so beforehand: If Pesach falls on Shabbos and one forgot to make the salt water before Shabbos, it is permitted to make the salt water on Shabbos so long as the following [three] conditions are fulfilled: 1) One does so right before the meal. 2) One makes a very small amount, just enough for the dip of the Karpas [for that Seder]. 3) One has a ratio of salt that is less than 2:3. These restrictions apply even if one places oil into the dish prior to placing the salt. Now, since it is difficult to fulfill the second condition and make an exact amount of salt water kneaded, and not any more than necessary, therefore the salt water should be made on Erev Shabbos. Although, indeed if one forgot to do so, then he is to make following the above conditions and make a very small amount. [Some Poskim rule that the only applies if vinegar is not available, otherwise one is to dip the Karpas in vinegar rather than make salt water on Shabbos.]
D. Grinding the Maror-horseradish:
When Pesach falls on Shabbos one is required to prepare [i.e. grind] the horseradish from before Shabbos. If one did not do so, then it is forbidden to grind the ingredients on Shabbos due to the grinding prohibition, unless one uses a great irregularity, such as the back of a knife. Alternatively, one can cut it to small pieces, which are slightly larger than usual.
E. Checking the lettuce:
When Pesach falls on Shabbos, one must make sure to check and clean the lettuce before Shabbos.
Checking on Shabbos if did not do beforehand: If one did not check and clean the lettuce before Shabbos, then one’s ability to clean and check the lettuce from insects is greatly limited due to the Borer restrictions, and prohibition of killing insects, and one is to thus [rinse, check and] eat only the stalk of the lettuce and not the leaves. However, from the letter of the law, one may rinse [not soak] the lettuce in water [without soap], and then inspect it for insects. If an insect is found it may be removed from the lettuce so long as one plans to eat it right away, and it is thus done “Lialter” in close proximity to the meal. If the lettuce is considered insect free [i.e. Gush Katif] then one may suffice to simply rinse it on Yom Tov, directly prior to the meal.
F. Roasting the Zeroa:
The Zeroa must be roasted before Yom Tov. If one did not do so, then one is to use any other cooked piece of chicken or meat that he already has. If he does not have cooked meat or chicken, then any cooked food may be used.
G. Peeling produce:
Produce that needs to be peeled using a peeler should be peeled before Shabbos.
Peeling on Shabbos: Those fruits and vegetable which majority of people do not eat together with the peel, and it is rather removed and discarded prior to eating, according to all opinions, it is [Biblically] forbidden to use a peeler to remove the peel on Shabbos. This applies even if one intends to do so in order to eat the food right away. Those fruits and vegetables which majority of people eat together with the peel, some Poskim rule it is forbidden to be peeled using a peeler, and rather may only be peeled with a knife for right away use. Other Poskim however rule it may be peeled using a peeler, and may even be peeled for later use on Shabbos. Practically, those who are stringent are doing a proper act, although those who are lenient have upon whom to rely, and each person is to ask his Rav. Those who are particular to not eat peels on Pesach, and hence peel all their produce, seemingly may still abide by the leniency of using the peeler on Shabbos Pesach for peels that are generally eaten by majority of people, if they are accustomed to follow the lenient opinion during the other Shabbosim of the year.
A Matzah is only considered a Shaleim if it is not missing a piece. If one does not have any Shaleim Matzos, then before Yom Tov one is to place the broken areas of the broken Matzah near a flame until the area becomes crisp/burnt, and if it regains a whole appearance in the eyes of people then it is valid for Lechem Mishneh. [Accordingly, one is to verify before Yom Tov that he contains enough Shaleim Matzos for the Seder and Yom Tov, and if necessary burn the edges before Yom Tov.] If this was not done before Yom Tov, then when Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, according to all it is forbidden to burn the sides of the Matzah for the sake of making it a Shaleim.
When Pesach falls on Shabbos, one is to recite Hodu and Patach Eliyahu before Mincha.
 Admur 470:7
 See Admur 321:10-11; Michaber 321:12; Shabbos 74; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20; See Admur 321:10; M”A 321:15; M”B 321:45
 Admur 473:34; M”A 473:16; Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid; Chok Yaakov 473:26; Elya Raba 473:18; Chok Yosef 473:22; M”B 321:68; Kaf Hachaim 473:97; Shabbos Kehalacha 22:80; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20
 Admur ibid; Aguda 97
 Rav Eli Landa in an email correspondence wrote that one is to add a little bit of wine before Shabbos and not mix it in; Rabbi Groner responded that the question of when to add the wine in such years is to be given to the ruling of a Rav and is not negated by Chabad custom.
 However, one is to leave some Charoses dry without wine as it is the Chabad custom to use dry Charoses for the Koreich sandwich
 Admur 321:16; Ketzos Hashulchan 130 footnote 9 [See there that this condition was the intent of Admur ibid who motions the reader to look in chapter 321]; Mishneh Berurah 321:64; Peri Megadim 321 M”Z 23 and 473 A”A 16;Machatzis Hashekel on M”A 473:16; Kaf Hachaim 473:97; Igros Moshe 4:74 Lash; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20
 Admur 473:34; M”A 473:16; Chok Yaakov 473:26; Elya Raba 473:18; Chok Yosef 473:22; M”B 321:68; Kaf Hachaim 473:97; See Admur 321:16; Michaber 321:14; Shabbos 156a
 Admur ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20; See Admur 324:3; Michaber and Rama 316:15-16; 324:3; Shabbos ibid
 Admur 473:19; Chayeh Adam 130:19; Kitzur SHU”A 118:4
 Admur 473:19 in parentheses; 321:3; M”A 473:5; Taz 473:3; Chok Yaakov 473:13; Chok Yosef 473:11; Misgeres Hashulchan 118:4; Kaf Hachaim 473:50
 Admur 321:3 “Even when making it for [only] one meal one is only allowed to make it in close proximately to the meal [in which one plans to dip in it], however [it is] not [allowed to be made] from [before] one meal for the need of another meal; M”A 321:4 based on Ran; Ben Ish Chaiy Bo 2:19; Kaf Hachaim 321:11
The reason: The reason for this is because it is forbidden to salt any item which one does not plan to eat right away as explained in Halacha 321:5. [Admur ibid]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may make a small amount of salt water even for the need of another meal, so long as one plans to eat from it on Shabbos. [Elyah Raba 321:3 in name of many Rishonim; Nehar Shalom; Mishneh Berurah 321:11; Biur Halacha “Aval; See Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 9 which questions this ruling of the Mishneh Berurah.]
According to Admur may one make salt water even much time prior to beginning the upcoming meal? No. The wording of “from one meal to another meal” written by Admur is not exact, as Admur already stated [above in Halacha 2 C] that it is forbidden to salt anything if one does not plan to eat it right away. Thus even for the upcoming meal salt water may only be made in close proximity to it. [Ketzos Hashulchan 128 footnote 9]
 Admur 473:19 in parentheses; 321:3 “Even to make salt water or other salted liquids not [in order to use] for pickling, but rather in order to dip ones bread into and to place it into a dish is forbidden to make a lot of it at a time , which is defined as making in one time enough for dipping for two meals, rather [one may] only [make] a small amount enough to for dipping for one meal.”; Implication of Michaber 321:1; M”A ibid and 321:4; Taz 473:3; Chok Yaakov 473:13; Olas Shabbos 321:1; Elya Raba 321, brought in M”B 321:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:14 footnote 80
The reason: As when one makes a lot [at one time] it appears that he is doing so for pickling. [Admur 321:3 in parentheses; M”B 321:8]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may make as much salt water as he desires. [Tosefes Shabbos, brought in M”B ibid and Biur Halacha 321]
 Admur 321:3 “If one places 2/3rds salt and 1/3rd water or other liquid, then it is forbidden to make even a small amount of it for the purpose of dipping in the upcoming meal.”; Michaber 321:2; Shabbos 108b; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:14
The reason: The reason for this is: being that it appears like one is making the Muryus gravy to pickle fish, as it is common to make Muryus in this way, [thus it is forbidden to make as] it is forbidden to pickle on Shabbos due to the tanning or cooking prohibition as was explained. [Admur ibid; M”B 321:12 in name of Rambam and Levush]
 Admur ibid; M”A 321:4, brought in M”B 321:10
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may that if the oil is placed in prior to placing in the salt, then it is permitted to be made without restriction. [Olas Shabbos; Tosefes Shabbos; Mishneh Berurah 321:10]
 Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Taz ibid; Haghaos Minhagim 92; Chok Yaakov ibid; Chok Yosef ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Admur ibid; Taz ibid
 M”B 473:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:23
 See Admur 321:10-11; Michaber 321:12; Shabbos 74; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:20; See Admur 321:10; M”A 321:15; M”B 321:45
 See Admur 319:1; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 198; Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:18
 Kaf Hachaim 473:63
 See Rama 321:19, Admur 319:9, M”B 319:22 and 24 that peeling is subject to the Borer prohibition: Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 294 and 299-307; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:34-35
 The reason: As a peeler is the normal vessel used to remove the peel from a fruit/vegetable and hence is similar to a sieve and sifter, which is Biblically forbidden to be used. [See Admur 319:1; M”B 319:2; Rashi Shabbos 74a]
 Iglei Tal Borer 6; Ketzos Hashulchan 125:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:35
The reason: As a peeler is a designated item for separating and negates the required condition of separating with one’s hands. [ibid]
 M”A 321:19 regarding apples; Elya Raba 321:30; Tosefes Shabbos 321:41; M”B 321:84; Orchos Chaim 319:22 in name of Meorei Or; Igros Moshe 4:74 Borer 8; Az Nidbaru 9:10; Chut Shani 25:7
 The reason: As these Poskim hold that the separating prohibition applies to even edible peels and thus when peeling it one must abide by all Borer restrictions, which include not peeling it with a peeler, and even when using a knife, to only do it for right away use. The reason that even edible peels contain the Borer restriction is because when they are peeled off, they are generally thrown out, and hence have a status of Pesoles when one comes to peel it. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:34]
 Peri Megadim 321 A”A 30, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 321:97; Iglei Tal Borer 6:12; Shevisas Hashabbos Borer 24 and footnote 45; Kaf Hachaim 321:141; Ketzos Hashulchan 125:16 [see however Ketzos Hashulchan 126 footnote 19]; SSH”K 3:34
 The reason: As according to these Poskim, edible peels do not contain a Borer prohibition, and hence there is no need to abide by the Borer conditions which restricts one from using a Borer instrument and requires the peeling to be done for right away use. Regarding if the peeler contains an Issur of Muktzah or Uvdin Dechol-see Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:35 footnote 373-374
 Minchas Shabbos 80:69 that it is proper to be stringent when possible, and so concludes: Shabbos Kehalacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:34-35 that it is best to be stringent when possible, although one who is lenient has upon whom to rely; Michzei Eliyahu 1:51-52; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:208
Ruling of Rav Farkash in Shabbos Kehalacha ibid: Rav Farkash rules that one who wishes to be stringent like all opinions [which he rules one initially is to do], is to always apply the separating restrictions to anything being peeled. In a case that one is pressured to peel using a peeler, such as when one has a lot of fruits/vegetables to peel, or in a case that one is pressured to peel the fruits a while prior to the meal, such as in a case that one must leave one’s house now and will only return when the meal will commence, then although one may be lenient like the latter opinions, nevertheless it is proper to also cut off part of the actual fruit together with the peel. [Shabbos Kehalacha 13:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 321:34]
 The reason: As the peel itself is still viewed as a food, and it is simply due to its Chametz contingency that people avoid it, and not because they suddenly view the actual peel as Chametz or inedible. Accordingly, at the very most they are removing the bad [Chametz] with the good [the peel] of which many Poskim rule is permitted, and hence the leniency would still apply according to the lenient opinion.
 See Admur 167:3 [not to cut bread on Shabbos before Hamotzi]
 Sheileiy Tziyon 9 in name of Rav Pesach Tzevi Frank and Rav Minzberg [that even a toasted slice of bread is considered a Shaleim]; Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 55 footnote 50 [the sides of a cracked piece does not turn it into a Shaleim unless it appears Shaleim in the eyes of people]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:10; 506:7
Other opinions: Some Poskim argue that burning the sides of a cracked piece turns it into a Shaleim even if it does not appear Shaleim in the eyes of people. [Sheileiy Tziyon ibid] Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 55 footnote 50 negates this approach
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:10 due to the cooking prohibition of hardening a soft item; See Admur 318:7; Shoel Umeishiv 2:20; Kaf Hachaim 318:78; Har Tzevi “Ofeh” p.262; SSH”K 1:62; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 179; Daas Torah 318:5
 Shaar Hakolel 17:2; Shevach Hamoadim p. 14; Oatzer Minhagei Chabad p. 55
Other Opinions: Some are accustomed not to recite Hodu before Mincha of Erev Rosh Hashanah even if it coincides with Erev Shabbos. [Darkei Chaim Veshalom 704; See Shulchan Hatahor 262:12]