What liquids make flour turn to Chametz

This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer

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The liquids:    

Water and water derivatives:[1] The Biblical definition of Chametz refers to dough that has been kneaded with water, or with water derivatives. Only water or water derivatives can leaven the grain or flour.

Fruit juice-Does fruit juice turn flour into Chametz?[2] Dough that is kneaded with 100% fruit juice [or other liquids defined as fruit juice] cannot become Chametz and [from the letter of the law] is permitted to be eaten on Pesach. This applies even if the dough remains the entire day without being worked on and rises. [The Ashkenazi custom, however, is not to eat such Matzah over Pesach, as will be explained in E.]

Mixture of water and fruit juice:[3] The above law that fruit juice does not have the ability to leaven flour only applies if absolutely no water is mixed into the fruit juice. If, however, even a minute amount of water mixed into the fruit juice, or a minute amount of fruit juice mixed into the water[4], then this water/fruit juice causes the flour to become complete Chametz, of which one is liable for Kareis. Furthermore, this mixture of fruit juice and even a minute amount of water causes the dough to become Chametz in even less time than plain water; in even less than Shiur Mil [i.e. 18:24 minutes].[5] Furthermore, it can become Chametz even if one works on the dough after the kneading.[6] It is thus forbidden to initially bake Matzah with a mixture of fruit juice and water, lest one not be careful to bake it immediately.[7] [The Ashkenazi custom is not to eat such Matzah over Pesach even Bedieved, as will be explained in E.]

 

Liquids defined as water derivatives:[8]

The following liquids are considered water derivatives that can make the grain or flour into Chametz:

  1. Tears, whether of a human, animal or fowl.
  2. Mucus of the ear, whether of a human, animal or fowl.
  3. Mucus of the nose, whether of a human, animal or fowl.
  4. Saliva of the mouth, whether of a human, animal or fowl;
  5. Urine and bowel movement liquids of a human. The feces of a human, animal or fowl and the urine of animals and fowls have the same status as fruit juice.
  6. Dew [9]

Liquids defined as fruit juice:[10]

The following items are considered the same status as fruit juice and cannot leaven grain or flour into Chametz: As a general rule, all existing liquids that are not defined as water derivatives [brought in previous list] are considered under the Halachic definition of fruit juice. Even liquids that do not come from fruits, such as milk, honey, eggs, and the like are considered fruit juice regarding this matter. Even sour liquids, such as apple cider and the like, that is used to knead dough, does not turn the dough into Chametz. The dough remains permitted to be eaten even if the dough became sour, as this is not the Chametz that the Torah prohibited.

The following are some examples brought in Poskim of liquids defined as “fruit juice”:

  1. Wine dregs.
  2. Oil.
  3. Strawberry juice, Pomegranate juice and all other juices of fruit.
  4. Apple cider.
  5. Milk[11]
  6. Honey.
  7. Eggs.
  8. Sweat of a human.[12]
  9. Feces of a human, animal or fowl.
  10. Urine of animals and fowls has the same status as fruit juice.
  11. Fat and Cheilev
  12. Gallbladder juice.[13]
  13. Blood.[14]

 

Liquids of doubt or dispute:

  1. Animal sweat:[15] It is questionable as to whether the sweat of an animal has the same status as human sweat which is like fruit juice, or if it has the status of water. Practically, in the event that flour contacted animal sweat, such as sacks of flour that were delivered by animal back, the flour is permitted.[16]
  2. Perspiration of a wall:[17] If a wall [or vessel] contains condensation, then if this is due to steam, such as in a bath house, then it has the status of water. If, however, it is due to fire, then some say it has the status of water while others say it has the status of fruit juice. Practically, one should be stringent like both opinions.

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[1] Admur 462:1 and 466:1

[2] Admur 462:1; Michaber 462:1; Rambam 5:2; Rif 10; Pesachim 35a

Other opinions: There is an opinion who rules that from the letter of the law, fruit juice makes flour into Chametz. [Raavad 5:2; Rashi Pesachim 36a; opinion brought in Admur 462:7] Furthermore, they hold that it causes dough to become Chametz even quicker than water, [in even less than 18:24 minutes]. In their opinion, dough kneaded with 100% fruit juice has the same status as dough that was kneaded with a mixture of fruit juice and water, [of which even the dissenting opinion agrees it can become Chametz instantly]. Nevertheless, even according to this opinion, this dough is not considered Chametz Gamur but rather Chametz Nuksha, and is thus only Rabbinically forbidden. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 462:1; Raavad and Rashi ibid] Practically, the main Halachic opinion is like the lenient opinion, and thus from the letter of the law it is permitted to eat bread made of 100% fruit juice even if it was baked after 18:24 minutes. Nevertheless, the Ashkenazi custom is not to eat any Matzah made of fruit juice [Admur 462:7; Rama 462:4; Drashos Maharil Shabbos Hagadol p. 57] due to suspicion that perhaps a drop of water became mixed. One may not swerve from this custom, as we suspect for the above opinions that even 100% fruit juice makes dough into Chametz instantly. [Admur ibid]

[3] Admur 462:3 and 466:3; Michaber 462:2; Rambam 5:2 based on Pesachim ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Chametz of water and fruit juice is Chametz Nuksha and is not Biblically forbidden. [Rabbeinu Tam, brought in Beis Yosef 462; See Kaf Hachaim 462:18]

Baking dough that was kneaded with fruit juice and water: See 462:3 and 466:1!

The law if liquids defined as fruit juice fell on Pesach flour and then dried out: See 466:1!

[4] Admur 462:3 regarding water and 462:6 regarding fruit juice, even if there is 60x against it!

[5] Pure water does not cause dough to become Chametz unless it remains Shiur Mil without being worked on. However, dough that was kneaded with fruit juice and water, hastens to become Chametz even if it does not remain a Shiur Mil without being worked on. [Admur ibid]  

[6] Admur 462:3; Michaber 462:2; Pesachim 36a; Kaf Hachaim 462:21

[7] Admur 462:3; Michaber 462:2; Pesachim 36a

[8] Admur 466:1; See Michaber 466:5; Mishneh Machshirin 6:5

[9] Admur 466:2; Michaber ibid

[10] Admur 462:2 and 466:1; See Michaber and Rama 462:4 and 466:5; M”A 462:1; Rambam 5:2; Pesachim 36a; Mishneh Machshirin 6:5

[11] Admur 462:2 and 466:1; Rama 466:5

[12] Admur 466:1; Rama 466:5

[13] Admur 466:1; M”A 466:10

[14] Admur 466:2; Rama 466:5

[15] Admur 453:27; 4661 in parentheses; M”A 453:10; Taz 453:6; Terumos Hadeshen 118

[16] The reason: As logic dictates that the sweat of an animal is similar to human sweat which does not cause dough to become leavened. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[17] Admur 466:7

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