What is Chametz-The Halachic definition

This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer

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What is defined as Chametz?[1]

Chametz is defined as any food which contains any one of the five grains [wheat, barley; rye, spelt, oat] which have leavened. When these grains, or their flour derivatives, come into contact with water or water derivatives, they will have leavened after remaining with the water for 18/24 minutes. When the grains, or its flour, has been mixed with water and leavened, it is Halachically defined as Chametz, so long as the Chametz remains edible. Thus, whether or not an item is Chametz depends on the following four factors:

  1. The species of grain.
  2. The type of liquid that it was kneaded with.
  3. The leavening process.
  4. Edibility

There are various qualities of Chametz. Certain types of Chametz are considered Biblical Chametz, under a Biblical prohibition. [See A-D] Other types of Chametz are considered Rabbinical Chametz [see F]. Likewise, there are foods that although they are not Chametz, they are nevertheless not eaten due to a decree against coming to eat Chametz. [See E-L] In addition, there exists different qualities of Chametz vis-a-vis the owning prohibition, and at times, what may be prohibited to eat due to the Chametz prohibition, is nevertheless permitted to be owned. This Halacha will discuss all the details of the foods that are not eaten or owned due to Chametz.

*Important note:

The Halacha below will deal with the general laws of the definition of Chametz and when dough becomes Chametz. Practical directives of how to make dough and bake Matzos for Pesach cannot be derived from this section, as there are various additional adherences brought in Shulchan Aruch and the later Poskim that have not been brought in this section. As a rule, baking Kosher for Pesach Matzahs involves many details, and is not to be done unless under expert Halachic supervision.

  1. The grain/flour:[2]

Only the five grains; which are 1) wheat, 2) barley; 3) rye, 4) spelt, 5) oats, can become leaven and Chametz. All other flours, such as flour made from rice [and corn[3]] and all other legumes and starches, cannot ever leaven and become Chametz. Although these flours also rise when kneaded with water, this rising is not a leavening but rather a spoiling. For example, if one were to take rice flour, and the like, and knead it with boiling water, and then cover it with a cloth until it rises like dough that has leavened, in truth this act of rising is not leavening but rather a spoiling of the dough. The dough thus remains permitted to be eaten on Pesach. [Nonetheless, certain flours are considered Kitniyos, and are accustomed by Ashkenazi Jewry not to be eaten on Pesach, as will be explained.]

 

 

Q&A

Does there exist various species of the five grains?

Yes. There are various species of wheat and other grains of the five grains. All these species are considered under the category of the five grains that can become Chametz through contact with water.

 

Is “bulgur” from one of the five grains?

Yes. Bulgur is a cereal food made from the groats of several different wheat species, most often from durum wheat. Bulgur is a kind of dried cracked wheat and is most common in EuropeanMiddle Eastern, and Indian cuisine.

Is buckwheat a grain or a legume?

Despite its misleading name, buckwheat is not a grain. It is a seed of a plant which looks like grain, hence explaining its name. For all Halachic purposes, buckwheat cannot become Chametz. It does however fall under the category of Kitniyos.

 

 

The liquids:

Water and water derivatives:[4] The Biblical definition of Chametz refers to dough that has been kneaded with water, or with water derivatives. Only water or water derivatives can leaven the grain or flour.

Fruit juice-Does fruit juice turn flour into Chametz?[5] Dough that is kneaded with 100% fruit juice [or other liquids defined as fruit juice] cannot become Chametz and [from the letter of the law] is permitted to be eaten on Pesach. This applies even if the dough remains the entire day without being worked on and rises. [The Ashkenazi custom, however, is not to eat such Matzah over Pesach, as will be explained in E.]

Mixture of water and fruit juice:[6] The above law that fruit juice does not have the ability to leaven flour only applies if absolutely no water is mixed into the fruit juice. If, however, even a minute amount of water mixed into the fruit juice, or a minute amount of fruit juice mixed into the water[7], then this water/fruit juice causes the flour to become complete Chametz, of which one is liable for Kareis. Furthermore, this mixture of fruit juice and even a minute amount of water causes the dough to become Chametz in even less time than plain water; in even less than Shiur Mil [i.e. 18:24 minutes].[8] Furthermore, it can become Chametz even if one works on the dough after the kneading.[9] It is thus forbidden to initially bake Matzah with a mixture of fruit juice and water, lest one not be careful to bake it immediately.[10] [The Ashkenazi custom is not to eat such Matzah over Pesach even Bedieved, as will be explained in E.]

 

Liquids defined as water derivatives:[11]

The following liquids are considered water derivatives that can make the grain or flour into Chametz:

  1. Tears, whether of a human, animal or fowl.
  2. Mucus of the ear, whether of a human, animal or fowl.
  3. Mucus of the nose, whether of a human, animal or fowl.
  4. Saliva of the mouth, whether of a human, animal or fowl;
  5. Urine and bowel movement liquids of a human. The feces of a human, animal or fowl and the urine of animals and fowls have the same status as fruit juice.
  6. [12]

Liquids defined as fruit juice:[13]

The following items are considered the same status as fruit juice and cannot leaven grain or flour into Chametz: As a general rule, all existing liquids that are not defined as water derivatives [brought in previous list] are considered under the Halachic definition of fruit juice. Even liquids that do not come from fruits, such as milk, honey, eggs, and the like are considered fruit juice regarding this matter. Even sour liquids, such as apple cider and the like, that is used to knead dough, does not turn the dough into Chametz. The dough remains permitted to be eaten even if the dough became sour, as this is not the Chametz that the Torah prohibited.

The following are some examples brought in Poskim of liquids defined as “fruit juice”:

  1. Wine dregs.
  2. Strawberry juice, Pomegranate juice and all other juices of fruit.
  3. Apple cider.
  4. Milk[14]
  5. Sweat of a human.[15]
  6. Feces of a human, animal or fowl.
  7. Urine of animals and fowls has the same status as fruit juice.
  8. Fat and Cheilev
  9. Gallbladder juice.[16]
  10. Blood [17]

 

Liquids of doubt or dispute:

  1. Animal sweat:[18] It is questionable as to whether the sweat of an animal has the same status as human sweat which is like fruit juice, or if it has the status of water. Practically, in the event that flour contacted animal sweat, such as sacks of flour that were delivered by animal back, the flour is permitted.[19]
  2. Perspiration of a wall:[20] If a wall [or vessel] contains condensation, then if this is due to steam, such as in a bath house, then it has the status of water. If, however, it is due to fire, then some say it has the status of water while others say it has the status of fruit juice. Practically, one should be stringent like both opinions.

 

The leavening of the dough:

The Biblical term of Chametz refers only to dough [of the five grains] that has been kneaded with water and has leavened.[21] The term leaven means to rise. There are various ways of achieving leavening of dough, some which include a fermenting agent, such as yeast or bacteria, while others do not include a fermenting agent but rather a leavening agent.[22] The following will discuss the exact definition of leavened dough that is defined as Chametz.

The cause of the leaven:[23] Leavened dough is considered Biblical Chametz whether the dough leavened due to fermentation of a yeast or has leavened on its own after being left alone for a while without being worked on, or even if it was leavened through an external fermenting agent, such as oven dried wine dregs. In all these cases, the dough is considered absolute Chametz, and one who eats it is liable for Kareis.[24] [Thus, whether the dough leavened due to a fermenting agent, or a non-fermenting agent, or even on its own, it is Chametz.]

How long does it take dough to become leavened and become Chametz?[25] If dough remained a Shiur Mil without being worked on, it becomes Chametz.[26] A Mil is a form of measurement of distance, similar to miles and kilometers. A Shiur Mil is the amount of time that it takes to walk the distance of a Mil. There is a dispute regarding the exact length of this distance. Some Poskim[27] rule it is 18 minutes worth of walking.[28] Other Poskim[29] rule it is 24 minutes worth of walking.[30] This draws us to a great dispute regarding the amount of time it takes unworked dough to become Chametz. According to the former opinion, it takes 18 minutes, while according to the later opinion, it takes 24 minutes. Practically, the main Halachic ruling follows the latter opinion, that there are 24 minutes in a Mil, and it takes 24 minutes for dough to become Chametz.[31] Nonetheless, one is to be stringent like the first opinion [that a Mil is 18 minutes and it thus takes dough 18 minutes to become Chametz] unless this involves a great loss.[32] The above measurement of 18/24 minutes applies in general circumstances, however, in certain circumstances, dough can become Chametz in even less than 18/24 minutes, and in certain circumstances, it will not become Chametz even after 18/24 minutes. The following are the cases of exception:

Things that prevent dough from leavening even past 18/24 minutes:

There are a number of matters that prevent dough from becoming Chametz even if it were to delay 18:24 minutes prior to being baked. These are:

1) Working on the dough:[33] Working on the dough prevents it from becoming Chametz. This applies even if one were to work on the dough for the entire day. In order for the dough to become Chametz, it must remain a full 18/24 minutes without being worked on at all in that time. If one worked on the dough even one time within the 18/24 minutes, it undoes the partial leavening that occurred prior to the kneading, and the dough then requires another full 18/24 minutes, without being worked on, in order to leaven and become Chametz.[34] Thus, even if in total the dough remained many hours without being worked on, if it was worked on every 17/23 minutes, and never remained a consecutive 18/24 minutes without being kneaded, it does not become Chametz.

The definition of working on the dough: Working on the dough only prevents it from becoming Chametz if one did a complete form of kneading to the dough in the interim, such as kneading it, punching the dough with one’s fists, or rolling the dough into Matzos using a roller. However, puncturing the holes in the dough to prevent it from rising is not considered a complete form of working to nullify the leavening that occurred prior to the puncturing, although it does prevent it from leavening while it is being punctured. Certainly, merely rubbing on the dough does not nullify its previous leavening, and on the contrary, it heats the dough and hastens its leavening.

2) Drops of water which fall on flour:[35] If drops of water fall onto flour immediately one after the other, without any break at all in between, it prevents the flour from leavening and becoming Chametz, and thus even if the flour were to remain under the drips for the entire day, it is valid. Nevertheless, as soon as the drips stop, one must knead the flour immediately and bake it.

Things that cause dough to leaven even within 18:24 minutes:

There are a number of matters that cause the dough to leaven and become Chametz in even less than 18:24 minutes. These are:

1) Warm flour/dough:[36] Dough only requires a Shiur Mil to become Chametz if the dough was not warmed up. However, if the dough was warmed, such as by being left in the sun, or near an oven, or through rubbing one’s hands on it, then it can become Chametz instantly.

2) Liquids defined as fruit juice:[37] If liquids defined as fruit juice are kneaded into the flour together with water, it causes the dough to become Chametz in even less than 18:24 minutes, as brought above in B.

 

 

Summary:

Chametz is defined as foods which contain any one of the five grains [wheat, barley; rye, spelt, oat] which have leavened. When these grains, or their flour derivatives, come into contact with water or water derivatives, they become leaven after remaining with the water unworked on for 18:24 minutes. When the grains or flour have leavened it is defined as Chametz. If one adds 100% fruit juice, without any water, into the flour, then the dough cannot become Chametz, even if the dough rises and remains un-worked for over 18 minutes. However, according to all, if the fruit juice is mixed with even a minute amount of water, then the dough can become instant Chametz, in even less than 18 minutes.

 

List of Chametz foods:

·         Bread

·         Beer

·         Bulgur

·         Cereal extract

·         Couscous

·         Cookies

·         Crackers

·         Cracker meal

·         Flour of wheat, barley, oats, spelt or rye

·         Farina

·         Fu

·         Gluten

·         Kamet

·         Malt or malt extract

·         Pasta

·         Pita

·         Seitan

·         Semolina

·         Tabbouleh

·         Triticale

·         Triticum

·         Wheatgrass

·         Whisky

 

List of products and trace ingredients that may be contain or be produced from Chametz, as given by the AAFA Allergy Foundation:

Artificial flavoring, natural flavoring; Caramel color, Dextrin; Food starch, gelatinized starch modified starch, modified food starch vegetable starch; Glucose syrup; Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) Malt dextrin Monosodium glutamate, MSG; Soy sauce, shoyu, tamari, teriyaki sauce; Surimi; Vegetable gum.

Q&A

Is Play dough\Play-doh Chametz?

The company product called Play-doh is actual Chametz. It is made of flour, water, and food coloring.[38] It must be destroyed before Pesach or sold to a gentile.[39] If one did not do so, then he is to destroy it on Pesach as soon as he remembers, if he did not sell his Chametz to a gentile.[40] Nevertheless, a blessing is not recited upon destroying it.[41] If one sold his Chametz, then the play dough is to be placed in the area sold to the gentile.

 

Whole grain – Does wet whole grain become Chametz?[42]

Not only can dough [which is flour, ground kernels, with water] become Chametz, but even whole grains that come into contact with water can become Chametz. Nonetheless, the criteria required for grain to leaven are different than that of dough and flour. If a grain has begun to sprout, it is considered complete Chametz.[43] If a grain has contacted water and split as a result of the water, then this is a sign that it will certainly immediately become Chametz, and it is Biblically forbidden to eat under the penalty of Kareis.[44] If however the grain has not split, then even if it remained 18/24 minutes with the water, it is only questionable as to whether it has become Chametz, and is thus Biblically prohibited to be eaten due to doubt.[45] If however the grain has softened to the point that it is fit to have split, then it is disputed as to whether it is certainly Biblical Chametz, or only questionably Biblical Chametz.[46] If, however, the grain did not remain 18/24 minutes with the water, it does not leaven and is not considered Chametz.[47] Various laws are recorded in the Poskim[48] regarding what to do if one discovered a grain in his food on Pesach. It is due to this ability for grains to become Chametz that the custom is to guard the Matzahs from the time of the harvest; in order to supervise that the grains do not come into contact with water and become Chametz. This Matzah is known as Matzah Shemura, as it has been guarded from water from the time of harvest.[49] 

Matzah Ashira-Matzah kneaded with liquids defined as fruit juice [i.e. Egg Matzah]:[50]

Any dough which is kneaded with a liquid that is defined as fruit juice, is considered Matzah Ashira. As explained above, dough that is mixed with 100% fruit juice cannot become Chametz, while dough that is mixed with water and fruit juice, even if it is only a minute amount of water or fruit juice[51], can become Chametz instantly, in even less than 18:24 minutes, and even while being worked on after the kneading. Thus, foods which are made of five grain flours and 100% fruit juice are not Chametz and, from the letter of the law, may be eaten on Pesach. Furthermore, even foods that are made of five grain flour and a mixture of fruit juice and water is not Chametz, if it was baked immediately, and did not wait at all prior to baking. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to initially bake Matzah with a mixture of fruit juice and water, lest one not be careful to bake it immediately.[52] Furthermore, the custom of Ashkenazi Jewry is to be stringent and not to make or eat Matzah Ashira of even 100% fruit juice throughout Pesach.[53] This applies even if the Matzah was baked immediately after the kneading.[54] One may not swerve from this custom.[55] [Thus, Ashkenazim may not eat egg Matzah, or any Pesach product that states “Matzah Ashira” on it, and therefore, foods with the blessing of Mezonos are not available for Ashkenazim over Pesach unless it is made from cooked Matzah that has lost its blessing of Hamotzi, such as Knedilach for those who eat Gebrochts. Such foods, however, may be eaten by Sephardim, under a reliable Hashgacha, as they never accepted the custom to avoid Matzah Ashira which is made from 100% fruit juice.[56] However, there do exist Sephardic communities who are stringent just like the Ashkenazim.[57]]

Old or sick person:[58] An old, or sick, person [who cannot eat other Matzah or foods], may be lenient to eat Matzah Ashira during Pesach. [This refers to Matzah kneaded with 100% fruit juice. It is however forbidden for even a sick or old person to eat Matzah that was kneaded with a mixture of fruit juice and water.[59]]

Owning Matzah Ashira over Pesach:[60] It is permitted even for Ashkenazim to own Matzah Ashira products during Pesach, as the above adherence is only with regards to eating it, and not regarding owning.

Using Matzah Ashira for the night of the Seder:[61] [According to all opinions] one does not fulfill the obligation of eating Matzah with eating Matzah Ashira.[62] This applies whether during the [seder of the] first night [on the 15th] or the [seder of the] second night in the Diaspora [on the 16th]. Further details of this subject will be explained in Chapter 8 Halacha 5!]

 

Summary:

It is forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat Matzah Ashira throughout Pesach. It is thus forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat egg Matzah or any other Matzah which contains any liquid other than water. However, an old or sick person who cannot eat other Matzah or foods, may be lenient. It is permitted even for Ashkenazim to own Matzah Ashira products during Pesach, as the above adherence is only with regards to eating it, and not regarding owning.

 

Q&A

At what time must Ashkenazim stop eating Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah]?[63]

It is forbidden to eat Matzah Ashira starting from the time that it is forbidden to eat Chametz, which is from the 5th hour of the day on Erev Pesach.

 

May one eat egg Matzah or other forms of Matzah Ashira?

It is forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat egg Matzah, or any other Matzah which contains any liquid other than water. However, an old or sick person who cannot eat other Matzah, or foods, may be lenient.

  

May one eat “Papushato” cookies?

Based on the above, it is forbidden for an Ashkenazi to eat the “Papushato” company Mezonos cookies which is made using fruit juice. The same would apply for any Mezonos cookies that is made using fruit juice, that it is forbidden for Ashkenazim to eat it. Furthermore, many leading Sephardic Rabbis[64] forbid the eating of such cookies for any person, as they claim it is not possible to supervise in such companies that not even one drop of water mix within the fruit juice that is used. Furthermore, it was discovered that in such cookies there is water placed in the wine, and other chemicals and spices, and hence they rule that the above cookies are absolute Chametz, and may not be eaten even after Chametz if they were not included in the Mechiras Chametz. 

 

Chametz Nuksha:[65]

The definition:[66] Chametz Nuksha is dough that is not fit for eating, unless in a pressing situation. An example of such dough, is dough which has begun the leavening process, but has not reached its completion. Such dough, even when baked, will not be fit for eating, unless in a pressing situation[67], as it is very sour due to its incomplete rising. Similarly, dough which is made by book binders for the sake of attaching papers together, is not fit to eat when baked [unless in a pressing situation], as it is made from the flour-dust of the mills. The same applies to all similar cases [that the dough is not really edible when baked, due to its rising, or flour consistency]. All these examples of dough are called Chametz Nuksha.

The law:[68] Chametz Nuksha is Biblically permitted to be eaten on Pesach, as it is not considered Chametz at all.[69] However, it is Rabbinically forbidden to be eaten or benefited from. The Sages also required one to destroy it before Pesach, [and it is thus forbidden to be owned just like actual Chametz].[70]

Spoiled Chametz:[71]

To point not edible to humans:[72] Chametz that was fit for eating from the time of its leavening [and baking], such as Chametz bread or yeast, and Chametz wheat kernels [and the like of Biblical Chametz], remains Biblically forbidden, even if the Chametz has spoiled and rotted to the point that it is no longer fit for human consumption, so long as it still remains edible for dogs, as explained next.[73] Such spoiled Chametz is Biblically obligated to be destroyed before Pesach.

To point not edible even to dogs-before 6th hour Erev Pesach:[74] If the Chametz became inedible for even dogs prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, then one is not obligated to destroy it, and it is permitted for one to own on Pesach.[75] One may likewise benefit from it on Pesach.[76] Thus, if prior to the 6th hour of Erev Pesach one burnt the Chametz until the point it is inedible even for dogs, he may now own it and benefit from it over Pesach.[77] It is, however, Rabbinically forbidden to be intentionally eaten.[78]

To point not edible even to dogs-after 6th hour Erev Pesach:[79] If the Chametz became inedible even for dogs only after the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, then one is Biblically obligated to destroy it completely from the world.[80] This applies whether the Chametz was created before the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, and whether it was created after the 6th hour on Erev Pesach.[81] Furthermore, Chametz that is burnt after the 6th hour of Erev Pesach, remains forbidden in benefit even after it is destroyed and has turned into ash.[82]

 

Summary:

Chametz, such as bread or Chametz wheat kernels, which was once fit to eat and thus was Biblically forbidden, remains Biblically forbidden, even if it has spoiled to the point that it is no longer fit for human consumption, as long as it still remains edible for dogs. If the Chametz became inedible even for dogs, before the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, including if it was burnt until this point, then it is permitted for one to own and benefit from it on Pesach, although it is nevertheless Rabbinically forbidden to be eaten intentionally.

Q&A

Does placing bleach or other spoiling agent onto Chametz render it spoiled to the point it is inedible even for a dog?[83]

Yes. It thus helps remove the Chametz prohibition up until the 6th hour of the day on Erev Pesach. However, from the 6th hour and onwards, the Chametz must be actually destroyed and pouring bleach on it no longer helps.

Taaruvos Chametz-Food products that contain Chametz ingredients:

One of the major topics in the laws of Pesach that appear in the Shulchan Aruch [chapters 442 and 447], is the law of a mixture that had a Chametz ingredient fall inside. Foods which contain Chametz ingredients in them are in some cases Biblically forbidden to be eaten and owned, in some cases are only Rabbinically forbidden to be eaten and owned, and in some are completely permitted to be eaten and owned. This matter is dependent on the amount of Chametz found in the mixture, the reason it was placed into the mixture, and whether this occurred before or during Pesach. It is beyond the scope of this book to enter into the complexity of these laws, and if in truth a question does arise, one must forward it to a practicing Rav who is competent in this area of Jewish law. Nonetheless, the general rules of this law will be discussed here. The full details of this law can be found in our corresponding Sefer “A Semicha aid for learning the laws of Pesach.”

The following is a general summary of this matter regarding eating the food: Any edible mixture which contains Chametz taste, is Biblically forbidden to be eaten.[84] Thus, if Chametz was placed, or fell, into a mixture, it is Biblically forbidden to eat any amount of it if the Chametz was not nullified in 60x[85], even if the Chametz was immediately removed.[86] Nonetheless, the penalty of Kareis/Malkus only applies in specific scenarios, as explained in the footnote.[87] If the Chametz ingredient caused “Kiyuha” [i.e. sour, or taste of fermented yeast[88]] of the food mixture, then it remains Biblically forbidden to be eaten starting from the night of Pesach, even if it does not contain the taste of Chametz[89], and at times carries the penalty of lashes.[90] If the Chametz ingredient has become nullified in 60x, and there is thus no taste, and no Kiyuha, within the food, then it is Biblically permitted to be eaten on Pesach. However, Rabbinically, it remains forbidden to be eaten in any of the following scenarios: 1) The Chametz ingredient was placed into the food as part of the recipe [as opposed to falling in].[91] 2) The Chametz ingredient has not dissolved in the food, and a crumb still remains within it.[92] 3) The Chametz was used as a catalyst.[93] 4) The food was not made under Pesach supervision.[94] 5) The Chametz is a Davar Shbiminyan.[95] 5) The Chametz fell into the food during Pesach, from the night of the 15th and onwards.[96]

The following is a general summary of this matter regarding owning the food:[97] Any edible mixture which contains a Kezayis of actual Chametz, and its taste is felt in the dish [i.e. not nullified in 60x], is Biblically forbidden to be owned on Pesach. This applies even if the food does not a Kezayis of Chametz per every Peras [i.e. there is less than 17% of Chametz in the mixture], but simply one Kezayis in the entire mixture, of which its taste is felt in the dish.[98] Furthermore, even if it does not contain any taste of Chametz[99], if it contains the Kiyuha [i.e. sour, or taste of fermented yeast] of Chametz, then if it contains a Kezayis of Chametz within Peras [17% Chametz], it is Biblically forbidden to be owned.[100] If the mixture contains less than a Kezayis of Chametz in total, then although it remains Biblically forbidden to eat if the Chametz taste is felt in the mixture, nevertheless, it is Biblically permitted to be owned on Pesach.[101] However, it is Rabbinically forbidden to be owned if the Chametz taste can be felt in the dish [i.e. not nullified in 60x].[102] Likewise, although there is no Biblical prohibition against owning a mixture that does not contain any actual Chametz, even if it contains Chametz taste [i.e. one removed all the Chametz that fell in][103], nevertheless, it is Rabbinically forbidden to be owned.[104] Furthermore, even if the mixture does not contain any Chametz taste or Kiyuha [i.e. was nullified in 60x], it is Rabbinically forbidden to be owned in the following cases: 1) The Chametz ingredient was placed into the food as part of the recipe [as opposed to falling in].[105] 2) The Chametz ingredient has not dissolved in the food, and a crumb still remains within it.[106] 3) The Chametz was used as a catalyst.[107] If, however, the food never had any actual Chametz placed inside, and received the taste of Chametz due to being cooked inside of a Ben Yomo Chametz pot, then although the food may not be eaten on Pesach[108], nevertheless, it is permitted to be owned.[109]

Chametz fell in on Pesach:[110] From the night of the 15th of Pesach until the last day of Pesach, the laws of nullification are Rabbinically suspended, and hence any food that had Chametz fall into it and cannot be removed or transferred taste, is Rabbinically forbidden to be eaten or benefited from irrelevant of ratio. This applies to any type of mixture, whether Yaveish Beyaveish or Lach Bilach.[111] It is likewise forbidden to own the food, and in certain cases, it must be destroyed.[112] On Pesach itself, we are stringent to suspect for those opinions who rule that a Keli Sheiyni and even a Keli Shelishi or Revi’i have ability to transfer taste.[113] Furthermore, some are stringent to suspect that even cold foods transfer taste.[114] See Chapter 6 Halacha 3A for the full details of this subject!

Benefiting from the food:[115] All Chametz mixtures which are permitted to be owned, as explained above. are likewise permitted to be benefited from [i.e. sold, etc].

 

Summary of Taaruvos Chametz

1. Eating Taaruvos of Chametz

A. Receives Kareis and lashes:

One only receives the penalty of Kareis for eating Chametz if all the following conditions are fulfilled:

1.       One eats a Kezayis of [the mixture].

2.       One eats the Kezayis within the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of bread [between 4-11 minutes].

3.       The Chametz gives taste to the mixture.

4.       There is a Kezayis of Chametz within the mixture, within the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of the mixture.

 

B. Receives lashes but not Kareis:

The only case in which one receives the penalty of lashes but not Kareis is if all the following conditions are fulfilled:

1.       One eats a Kezayis of [the mixture].

2.       One eats the Kezayis within the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of bread [between 4-11 minutes].

3.       The mixture does not contain Chametz taste but the Chametz gives Kiyuha [i.e. sour, or taste of fermented yeast] to the mixture.

4.       There is a Kezayis of Chametz within the mixture, within the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of the mixture.

 

C. Neither lashes nor Kares, but Biblically forbidden to eat:

In the following case, it is Biblically forbidden to eat the mixture, although it does not carry a penalty of lashes/Kares: The mixture contains Chametz taste or Kiyuha of Chametz but one did not eat a Kezayis of the Chametz within Achilas Peras. In a case that it contains a Kezayis within Peras [17% Chametz] then this means that one did not eat a Kezayis of the mixture within Kdei Achilas Peras.

Under dispute: If one cooked non-Chametz before Pesach in a Ben Yomo Chametz pot and there isn’t 60x.

D. Rabbinically forbidden to eat: 

In the following cases, it is Rabbinically forbidden to eat the mixture:

1.       There is no taste or Kiyuha of Chametz, but it is purposely placed in, and is a normal ingredient.

2.       There is no taste or Kiyuha of Chametz, and it is not a normal ingredient, but is Beiyun [not disintegrated].

3.       The Chametz catalyzed the food, such as in alcohol or cheese.

4.       The food was not made under Pesach supervision.

5.       The Chametz fell into the food during Pesach, from the night of the 15th and onwards.

E. No prohibition to eat:

It is only permitted to eat the mixture if the following conditions are fulfilled:

1.       The Chametz that is in the mixture does not give taste or Kiyuha, and was not used as a catalyst.

2.       There is no Chametz left intact within the mixture.

3.       The Chametz was not placed in as a normal ingredient, or with intention to eat on Pesach.

2. Owning Taaruvos Chametz:

A. Biblical forbidden to own:

In the following cases, it is Biblically forbidden to own the mixture and one receives the penalty of lashes if it was bought on Pesach:

1.       The mixture contains a Kezayis of Chametz which gives taste, even if it does not contain a Kezayis of Chametz within Achilas Peras.

2.       The mixture contains a Kezayis of Chametz within Achilas Peras which does not give taste, but gives sourness.

 

C. Rabbinically forbidden to own:

In the following cases, it is Rabbinically forbidden to own the mixture:

1.       There is less than a Kezayis of Chametz within the mixture.

1.       There is no actual Chametz in the mixture, but simply taste.

2.       There is a Kezayis of Chametz within the mixture, but not within Pras, and it does not give taste but gives sourness.

3.       The Chametz was intentionally added to the mixture as a normal ingredient.

4.       The less than Kezayis of Chametz in the mixture remained intact and has not dissolved.

5.       The Chametz was used as a catalyst.

Practical Q&A on Taaruvos Chametz

Must all food products eaten on Pesach have a Hashgacha for Pesach?

In today’s modern food production industry, there are thousands of ingredients and trace ingredients added to the most basic and simple food products, and many of these ingredients derive from Chametz or Kitniyos. Their names, even when listed, are misleading and the Chametz or Kitniyos may be an inconspicuously hiding in the seemingly innocent food ingredients. Now, as explained above, an intentional Chametz ingredient is not nullified even in 1000x. Hence, in order for a processed food to be Kosher for Pesach, it does not suffice to simply read the ingredients, and asses that it does not contain Chametz and rather it must have a Kosher for Pesach label. The Hashgacha organization is charged with the task of performing a wide investigation into all the ingredients used by the company to make the food, and see which derive from Chametz or Kitniyos.

List of products and trace ingredients that may be contain or be produced from Chametz, as given by the AAFA organization:

Artificial flavoring, natural flavoring; Caramel color, Dextrin; Food starch, gelatinized starch modified starch, modified food starch vegetable starch; Glucose syrup; Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) Malt dextrin Monosodium glutamate, MSG; Soy sauce, shoyu, tamari, teriyaki sauce; Surimi; Vegetable gum

Q&A on Taaruvos Chametz that occurred on Pesach

Is ownerless Chametz or Chametz of a gentile nullified on Pesach?[116]

Some Poskim[117] rule that ownerless Chametz or Chametz of a gentile is nullified in 60x even on Pesach, if the mixture occurred in the gentile’s food.[118] However, if the mixture occurred with the Jews food, then it is not nullified. Other Poskim[119], however, rule that even the Chametz of a gentile, and ownerless Chametz, is not nullified on Pesach, just as is the rule with all Chametz. Other Poskim[120] differentiate between Chametz of a gentile, which is not nullified, and ownerless Chametz, which is nullified.

 

 

Taaruvos Chametz by non-food products:

All non-food products that contain Chametz ingredients which have disintegrated into the product, are permitted to be owned and benefited from over Pesach. See Chapter 6 Halacha 4 for the full details of this subject!

Actual Chametz that has lost its texture; Chametz used for laundering starch/glue:[121]

Was placed on item prior to thirty days before Pesach: Actual Chametz, such as wheat starch or wheat milk [as opposed to merely Taaruvos Chametz], that was placed on laundered clothing thirty days before Pesach, does not need to be scraped off the clothing and destroyed before Pesach even if the Chametz is visible.[122] The same applies towards papers that were glued using dough, and the actual Chametz is visible to the outside, it is nevertheless not required to scrape it off and destroy it. [Nevertheless, it is forbidden to intentionally eat such Chametz.[123] If such Chametz fell into one’s food, it is implied that it requires 60x and majority does not suffice.[124]]

Was placed on item within thirty days before Pesach: If the Chametz starch was used for laundering the clothing or attaching the papers within thirty days before Pesach, then if the actual Chametz is visible and the entire clothing or a single paper all together contains a Kezayis of [visible[125]] Chametz[126], some Poskim[127] rule that one is required to scrape away all the visible Chametz. Practically, one is to suspect for their opinion. If, however, there is no visible Chametz, or it is not the amount of a Kezayis, then according to all opinions there is no obligation to scrape away the Chametz.

Wearing/Placing on table of food:[128] In the event that one starched his clothing or tablecloth with Chametz starch, it is forbidden to place it on the table or wear while one is eating, during Pesach.[129] [Seemingly, this applies even if one starched the clothing prior to thirty days before Pesach.[130]] Likewise, one may not wrap any Pesach foods in this garment, even before Pesach. One may however wear the clothing during Pesach during non-eating times. [If the Chametz starch has been spoiled to the point it is not edible to a dog, then one may use this starch for his clothing, and may wear such clothing on Pesach.[131]]

Kitniyos:

Kitniyos, which includes various forms of legumes and seeds, is not Chametz. However, Ashkenazi Jewry forbids eating these products on Pesach. See Chapter 6 Halacha 7 for the full details of this subject!

Gebrochts:

Matzah that is dipped in water is not considered Chametz, even if it remains in the water for more than 18 minutes. However, Chassidic Jewry and other men of piety are careful to avoid eating any Matzah that contacted water. See Chapter 7 Halacha 3 for the full details of this subject!

________________________________________________________

[1] Admur 453:1 regarding the five grains; Admur 462:1-6 regarding that only water leavens

[2] Admur 453:1; Michaber 453:1; Pesachim 35a

Other opinions: The Talmud [Pesachim 35a] records the opinions of Rav Yochanan Ben Nury who holds that rice and millet are considered a grain, and its leavening is actual Chametz for which one is liable for Kareis, just like the five grains. The Mishneh in Pesachim 2:5 rules that only the five grains can become Chametz, and the Gemara ibid establishes that this Mishneh does not follow the opinion of Rebbe Yochanan Ben Nury, and so is the final ruling of the Talmud, and all Rishonim and Achronim.

[3] See P”M 453 A”A 1 that Turkish wheat is not a grain and cannot become Chametz. Some translate this to refer to corn, which mainly cultivated in Turkey.

[4] Admur 462:1 and 466:1

[5] Admur 462:1; Michaber 462:1; Rambam 5:2; Rif 10; Pesachim 35a

Other opinions: There is an opinion who rules that from the letter of the law, fruit juice makes flour into Chametz. [Raavad 5:2; Rashi Pesachim 36a; opinion brought in Admur 462:7] Furthermore, they hold that it causes dough to become Chametz even quicker than water, [in even less than 18:24 minutes]. In their opinion, dough kneaded with 100% fruit juice has the same status as dough that was kneaded with a mixture of fruit juice and water, [of which even the dissenting opinion agrees it can become Chametz instantly]. Nevertheless, even according to this opinion, this dough is not considered Chametz Gamur but rather Chametz Nuksha, and is thus only Rabbinically forbidden. [Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 462:1; Raavad and Rashi ibid] Practically, the main Halachic opinion is like the lenient opinion, and thus from the letter of the law it is permitted to eat bread made of 100% fruit juice even if it was baked after 18:24 minutes. Nevertheless, the Ashkenazi custom is not to eat any Matzah made of fruit juice [Admur 462:7; Rama 462:4; Drashos Maharil Shabbos Hagadol p. 57] due to suspicion that perhaps a drop of water became mixed. One may not swerve from this custom, as we suspect for the above opinions that even 100% fruit juice makes dough into Chametz instantly. [Admur ibid]

[6] Admur 462:3 and 466:3; Michaber 462:2; Rambam 5:2 based on Pesachim ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Chametz of water and fruit juice is Chametz Nuksha and is not Biblically forbidden. [Rabbeinu Tam, brought in Beis Yosef 462; See Kaf Hachaim 462:18]

Baking dough that was kneaded with fruit juice and water: See 462:3 and 466:1!

The law if liquids defined as fruit juice fell on Pesach flour and then dried out: See 466:1!

[7] Admur 462:3 regarding water and 462:6 regarding fruit juice, even if there is 60x against it!

[8] Pure water does not cause dough to become Chametz unless it remains Shiur Mil without being worked on. However, dough that was kneaded with fruit juice and water, hastens to become Chametz even if it does not remain a Shiur Mil without being worked on. [Admur ibid]  

[9] Admur 462:3; Michaber 462:2; Pesachim 36a; Kaf Hachaim 462:21

[10] Admur 462:3; Michaber 462:2; Pesachim 36a

[11] Admur 466:1; See Michaber 466:5; Mishneh Machshirin 6:5

[12] Admur 466:2; Michaber ibid

[13] Admur 462:2 and 466:1; See Michaber and Rama 462:4 and 466:5; M”A 462:1; Rambam 5:2; Pesachim 36a; Mishneh Machshirin 6:5

[14] Admur 462:2 and 466:1; Rama 466:5

[15] Admur 466:1; Rama 466:5

[16] Admur 466:1; M”A 466:10

[17] Admur 466:2; Rama 466:5

[18] Admur 453:27; 4661 in parentheses; M”A 453:10; Taz 453:6; Terumos Hadeshen 118

[19] The reason: As logic dictates that the sweat of an animal is similar to human sweat which does not cause dough to become leavened. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[20] Admur 466:7

[21] Admur 462:1

[22] Difference between leavening and fermenting: Leavening is rising by any means, so baking soda and baking powder (chemical leaveners) as well as yeast (a fermenter) is all included in the leavening process. Chemical leaveners like baking soda and powder work by mixing an acid and base to produce carbon dioxide gas. Fermentation is the process of yeast converting sugars to carbon dioxide and alcohol. In bread making, the carbon dioxide is the desired product. In beer or wine making, the desired product is the alcohol. There are other types of fermentation by bacteria [such as those used in yogurt-making, pickles, or sauerkraut] that produce lactic acid and is responsible for the taste of sourdough breads. Yeast breads undergo leavening through fermentation, while quick breads, like banana bread, use chemical leaveners, which are not fermentation.

[23] Admur 462:1; Mishneh Menachos 52b; Pesachim 28b and 43a

[24] The reason: As the verse states “Ki Chol Ochel Machmetzes Venichrisa etc” and not “Kol Ochel Chametz”. The term Machmetzes is coming to teach us that even if the dough leavened due to an external element, it is considered Biblical Chametz. [ibid]

[25] Admur 459:9-10

[26] Admur 459:9; Michaber 459:2; Pesachim 46a

[27] 1st opinion in Admur 459:10; Michaber ibid and in Yoreh Deah 69:6; Rama 261:1; Maryu 193; Terumos Hadeshen 123

[28] The reason: As an average person can walk 40 Mil during the daylight walking hours of an average month, such as Nissan and Tishrei, in which there is an equal amount of day and night hours. [Admur ibid; Pesachim 93b] Now, this opinion rules that there are exactly 12 [60 minute] daylight walking hours available in Nissan and Tishrei, [from sunrise to sunset]. Accordingly, if it takes an average person 12 hour to walk 40 mil from sunrise to sunset, it turns out that each mil subdivides to 18 minutes [12×60 divided by 40=18]. [Admur ibid]

[29] 2nd opinion in Admur 459:10; Rambam in Pirush Hamishnayos Pesachim 3:2

[30] The reason: As an average person can walk 40 Mil during the daylight walking hours of an average month, such as Nissan and Tishrei, in which there is an equal amount of day and night hours. [Admur ibid; Pesachim 93b] Now, there are opinions who rule that there are more than 12 [60 minute] daylight walking hours available in Nissan and Tishreiy, as one is able to walk from daybreak: Alos until nightfall: Tzeis. [Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 459:10] Based on this, it takes an average person 12 hours, from sunrise to sunset, to walk 30 mil, and not 40 Mil, as the extra 10 Mil spoken of by the Sages is walked prior to sunrise and after sunset, which are also walking hours. Accordingly, it turns out that each Mil subdivides to 24 minutes [12×60 divided by 30=24]. [Admur ibid] In essence the dispute boils down to how many walking hours exist in an average day in Nissan: Tishrei, in which one can walk 40 Mil, and based on that they calculate the amount of Mil one can walk from sunrise to sunset. The first opinion rules an average person can walk 40 mil in 12 hours, which thus subdivides each Mil to 18 minutes. The second holds that an average person can only walk 30 Mil in 12 hours, thus each mil subdivides to 24 minutes.

[31] Admur ibid; See also Siddur Admur [24 minutes]; Admur 249:3 [Mil is 24 minutes regarding traveling Erev Shabbos]; 184:3 [Mil is 18 minutes regarding Shiur Ikkul of blessings]; So also rules: Peri Chadash Y.D. 69:26; Kitzur SHU”A 36:11

[32] Admur ibid

[33] Admur 459:9; Michaber 459:2; Pesachim 48b; See Aruch Hashulchan 459:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the working on the Matzah does not interrupt the 18 minutes, and hence all Matzahs must be baked within 18 minutes of the start of kneading. [Bach 459 in name of Riaz[

[34] Admur ibid; M”A 459:4; Terumos Hadeshen 123

Other opinions: Some Poskim suspect that perhaps the total amount of 18/24 minutes without working on the dough does make the dough become Chametz, even it never remained a consecutive 18/24 minutes without being worked on. [Rama 459:2; Maharil 51; Aruch Hashulchan 459:7; See M”B 459:16]

[35] Admur 466:16; Michaber 466:6; Pesachim 39b

[36] Regarding under the sun: Admur 459:1-6; Michaber 459:1; Pesachim 42a; Regarding near an oven: Admur 459:7 and 11; Michaber 459:1; Rama 459:2; Hagahos Maimanis; Mordechai; Regarding warming with hands: Admur 459:9 and 11; Rosh Kelal 14

[37] Admur 462:3 and 466:3; Michaber 462:2; Rambam 5:2 based on Pesachim ibid

[38] Ingredients provided by the play-doh company “Hasbro”: The compound is primarily a mixture of water, salt, and flour. Home-made recipes will include salt, flour or corn starch, a vegetable, canola, or olive oil and cream of tartar. 

[39] Play-doh is consumable and does not contain any poisons or dangerous material for a human. It thus must be destroyed just like a piece of actual dough. It does not follow the allowance of owning Chametz that is not food, which is brought in 422:22, as there it is referring to Taaruvos Chametz while here it is Chametz Beiyn. Nevertheless, perhaps it should be viewed as Chametz Nuksha being that it is not meant to be eaten and is hence exactly similar to the dough made by the Sofrim, mentioned in 442:20, which is Chametz Nuksha. Thus, although it must be destroyed or sold to the gentile before Pesach, if one did not do so and found play-doh on Pesach, it is be destroyed without a blessing as is the law by Chametz Nuksha in 442:20.

[40] Admur 442:20

[41] Admur ibid

[42] Admur 467:1-13 and 25-65; See also 447:22; 453:8-13; Whole Grain soaked in fruit juice: 462:9; 466:2 [soaked in blood for less than 24 hours]

[43] Admur 453:9

[44] Admur 467:1 and 32; However see Admur 436:19 regarding kernels on bottom of a pit that “even if some of the kernels have split, it is very likely that this splitting is not due to its becoming Chametz but due to spoiling and loss of the kernel, as it is common for the kernels by the floor and walls of the pit to split due to spoiling and loss, and they are not Chametz at all.”

[45] Admur 467:2, 7 and 25

[46] Admur 467:25 and 7

[47] Admur 467:5

[48] Shulchan Aruch Chapter 467

[49] Admur 453:19

[50] Admur 462:3; Rama 462:4

[51] Admur 462:3 regarding water and 462:6 regarding fruit juice, even if there is 60x against it!

[52] Admur 462:3; Michaber 462:2; Pesachim 36a

[53] Admur 462:7 “All the above is from the letter of the law, however in these provinces the custom is not to knead even with only fruit juice, and if one transgressed and kneaded it with 100% fruit juice, it is not eaten on Pesach even if it was baked immediately.”; Rama 462:4 “In these provinces the custom is not to knead with fruit juice”; Drashos Maharil Shabbos Hagadol p. 57

The reason: As we suspect perhaps a drop of water became mixed into the dough, and even a slight delay in the baking can render it Chametz. [Admur ibid; Drashos Maharil ibid; Levush 461:5; Gr”a 461] One may not swerve from this custom, as there are opinions [Raavad 5:2; Rashi Pesachim 36a; opinion brought in Admur 462:7] who rule that from the letter of the law [even 100%] fruit juice makes flour into Rabbinical Chametz even quicker than water, [in even less than 18:24 minutes], and has the same status as dough that was kneaded with a mixture of fruit juice and water, [of which even the dissenting opinion agrees it can become Chametz instantly]. [Admur ibid; Maharil ibid; Gr”a ibid brings both reasons as does Admur; P”M 462 A”A 4 “There are many reasons, although the main reason is to suspect for the opinion of Rashi”; Thus, in total there are two reasons why we do not eat Matzah Ashira over Pesach: 1) Perhaps it got water mixed inside and was not baked immediately and is hence Chametz. 2) Perhaps we rule like Rashi that Matzah Ashira is Rabbinical Chametz if it was not baked immediately.] Alternatively, another reason mentioned, is because one may come to eat Matzah Ashira on the night of the Seder and not be Yotzei the Mitzvah. [Levush ibid; Kaf Hachaim 462:40

[54] Admur ibid; Olas Shabbos 462:7; Chayeh Adam 126:7; M”B 462:18

The reason: Even if one transgressed and kneaded it with 100% fruit juice and baked it immediately, it is not eaten on Pesach, as we suspect that if we allow him to eat it, perhaps in another occurrence he will not bake it immediately, as the thought that perhaps some water got mixed in will not occur to him. [Admur ibid]

[55] Admur ibid; Mahari Zayin, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 462:8; Kaf Hachaim 462:42

[56] Rav Avraham Azulaiy; Shaareiy Yeshua 6:4; Nechpa Bakesef p. 176; Birkeiy Yosef 462:7; Kaf Hachaim 462:41

[57] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[58] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

[59] Elya Raba 461:4; Kaf Hachaim 461:48

[60] See Admur 462:7 “One does not eat it on Pesach” and Admur 462:3 “If he transgressed and kneaded it with fruit juice and water and did not bake it immediately, it is forbidden to be eaten, but may be owned, so long as it did not stay a Shiur Mil without being worked on”

[61] Admur 462:1 and 6; 444:2; 454:4; 471:4; Michaber 462:1; Pesachim 36a

[62] The reason: As the Torah says to eat “Lechem Oini” which is poor man’s bread and not Matzah Ashira, which “rich man’s bread”. Furthermore, one can only fulfill his obligation with Matzah that will become Chametz if it were not guarded against becoming Chametz, [and flour that is mixed with 100% fruit juice cannot become Chametz, as explained next]. [Admur ibid]

[63] Admur 444:3; 471:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even according to Ashkenazim one may eat Matzah Ashira [egg Matzah] until midday. [Noda Beyehuda 21 brought in Kaf Hachaim 443:7] However, practically, the custom is to avoid eating Matzah Ashira beginning from the time that one must stop eating Chametz, which is the beginning of the 5th hour. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 444:3]

[64] So was the position of Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, Rav Yaakov Yosef, and others

[65] Admur 442:20 and 459:13; M”A 442:1; Pesachim 43a and Mishneh 48b

[66] Admur ibid; Pesachim 42a-43

[67] Lit. not fit for eating unless is time of dechak

[68] Admur ibid; Mishneh 48b; Pesachim 43a

[69] The reason: As the Torah only forbade complete Chametz [i.e. Chametz Gamur] that is fit to be eaten. Now, since the dough is not fit to be eaten [unless in a pressing situation] it is not considered Chametz at all. [Admur ibid]

[70] The reason: The reason it is forbidden to even be owned, is because one may come to forget and eat it on Pesach, being that it is still edible in a pressing situation. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]

[71] Admur 422:21; Michaber 442:2; Pesachim 45b

Sour Chametz: If the Chametz did not spoil but is too sour to be edible for a dog, since it can still be used to leaven bread, therefore it is still considered Chametz. [Biur Halacha 442]

Yeast: Some Poskim rule that spoiled yeast is not Chametz if it is no longer edible to a dog. [Rambam; Kesef Mishneh; Maggid Mishan; Magan Avraham] Other Poskim rule that even if yeast spoiled to point it is not edible for a dog, it remains forbidden as Chametz as it can still give fermentation to other yeasts. [Ravaad; Pri Chadash]  See Biur Halacha 442

[72] Admur ibid; M”A 442:1

[73] The reason its forbidden even though it’s not edible to humans: Although in general we rule that any food that is not edible for humans does not contain a Biblical Kashrus prohibition [see Rama Y.D. 155:1] nonetheless, regarding Chametz, it must reach a state that it is inedible even for animals, as the Torah prohibits even yeast, which is inedible for humans in its natural state. Thus, any Chametz that still contains the ability to ferment dough, like yeast, contains the prohibition. It is only after Chametz reaches a state that it is not fit even for a dog, which it loses all its leavening powers, and is thus no longer prohibited. [M”A 442:14; Ran; See P”M 442 A”A 2 and 14 for a lengthy discussion on this matter; M”B 442:9; Biur Halacha 442]

The reason it is not considered Chametz Nuksha: The above spoiled Chametz is not considered under the category of Chametz Nuksha, being that it was originally fit to be eaten. Chametz Nuksha only refers to Chametz that from the time of its initial leavening it was not fit for eating unless in a pressing situation. Such Chametz was never fit for regular eating in its entire leavened lifespan. However, Chametz that was fit for eating even for moment during its leavened lifespan, remains forbidden even after spoilage for human consumption. [Admur ibid]

[74] Admur 442:21 and 32-34; 433:25 and 445:4 and 11 and 466:3; Michaber 442:9 and 445:2; Pesachim 21b; Rif Pesachim 13b; See P”M 442 A”A 14

[75] The reason: As if the Chametz is inedible even to dogs by the time the obligation to destroy Chametz arrives, then this obligation does not befall onto this form of Chametz, as it does not have a status of food and is considered like mere dust. [Admur ibid]

[76] Admur 445:11; 442:24 “Any item that is permitted to be owned on Pesach may likewise be benefited from”; Michaber 445:2; Pesachim 21b

[77] Admur 442:32 and 445:11; Michaber 442:9 and 445:2; Pesachim ibid

[78] Admur 442:32 and 22; Implication of Michaber 442:9; Taz 442:8; Bach 442; Tur 442 in name of Rosh and Riy Abartzelona; Rabbeinu Yeurcham 5:13; Terumos Hadeshen 129; Erech Hashulchan 442:5; Kaf Hachaim 442:99

The reason: Although if the Chametz became inedible even for dogs before the 6th hour on Erev Pesach it is permitted to own on Pesach, nevertheless, it is forbidden to be eaten, as although it’s not [Biblically] considered food at all, nevertheless, since the person intends to eat it, he gives it a status of food, and it is thus Rabbinically considered for him like complete food due to the thoughts that he has of eating from it. [Admur ibid; Taz ibid; Terumos Hadeshen 129; see Rama Y.D. 155:1]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the Chametz is permitted to even be eaten. [Peri Chadash and Rashbatz, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[79] Admur 442:21 and 34; Yerushalmi 2:6 as explains Ran and Maggid Mishneh; See P”M 442 A”A 14

[80] The reason: As since it retained a Chametz status for even one moment after [the prohibition of Chametz began and] the time of its destruction arrived, this Chametz status remains forever intact until one destroys the Chametz completely from the world in the same method required to be done to all other Chametz [as explained in 445:3-7 that it must be destroyed from the world and spoiling it is not enough.]. [Admur ibid]

[81] Admur 442:21

[82] Admur 445:8

[83] Piskeiy Teshuvah 442:3

[84] Admur 442:7

The reason: It is forbidden to eat any amount of Chametz, even less than a kezayis, and even if the Chametz has mixed into another food and only gives taste, as Chetzi Shiur is Biblically forbidden by all food prohibitions mentioned in the Torah. This is learned from the verse which states “Kol Cheilev,” which is coming to include even Chetzi Shiur. [Admur 442:28]

Food cooked in a Chametz pot: Non-Chamtez food that was cooked in a Chametz pot has the following ruling: If the pot was not Ben Yomo of Chametz, then if the food was cooked on Erev Pesach, before the nighttime, and was supervised for the sake of Pesach, then the food is permitted. [Admur 447:18] If the food was not supervised for the sake of Pesach, then the food is forbidden. [Admur 447:43] If the food was supervised, but was cooked in a Ben Yomo Chametz pot, then some Poskim rule the food remains permitted to eat on Pesach, as its Nat Bar Nat Lehetera. [1st opinion in Admur 442:8] However, other Poskim rule it is forbidden to be eaten on Pesach, if the food does not contain 60x the pot, as the leniency of Nat bar Nat only applies in a case of meat and milk where a new prohibition is to be made. [2nd opinion in Admur 442:8] Practically, we are stringent, and one may not eat the food on Pesach. [Admur 442:8; See also 447:45] All the above refers to a case that the food was cooked in a Chametz pot on Erev Pesach or prior. If, however, the above occurred during Pesach, from the night of the 15th and onwards, then the food is always Rabbinically forbidden to be eaten, whether the pot was Ben Yomo or not. [Admur 447:8]

[85] See Rama Y.D. 98:1

[86] Admur ibid

[87] When does the Kareis penalty apply for one who eats Taaruvos of Chametz? One only receives the penalty of Kareis for eating Chametz if all the following conditions are fulfilled: 1) One eats a Kezayis of [the mixture]. And 2) One eats the Kezayis within the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of bread [between 4-11 minutes]. And 3) The Chametz gives taste to the mixture. And 4) There is a Kezayis of Chametz within the mixture, within the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras of the mixture. [27 grams per every 174 grams of the mixture, which is 16.7 % or 1:6 of the total ingredients – Admur 442:1; Seder 8:2 in parentheses that a Peras is “Three Kibeitzas.” This is the second opinion in Admur 612:4, and so is written in the manuscript here in the Minyan Hamitzvos of Admur] It makes no difference if the Chametz in the mixture is liquid or solid. If conditions 1 or 2 were not fulfilled, although the mixture remains Biblically forbidden to be eaten if it contains Chametz taste, nevertheless, it does not contain the penalty of Kareis or lashes. Likewise, if condition 4 was not fulfilled, then if within the time of Achilas Peras [4-11 minutes] one eats less than a kezayis of Chametz [not of the mixture], then although the mixture remains Biblically forbidden to be eaten if it contains Chametz taste, nevertheless, it does not contain the penalty of Kareis or lashes. [See Admur 442:1 and 442:9; Admur in Minyan Hamitzvos of Taaruvos Chametz]

[88] See Glosses of Mahril in 442:9; M”B 169:1; Rashi Kesubos 61a

[89] How can a mixture contain a Kezayis within Achilas Peras and not contain the taste of Chametz? Although a Kezayis within Peras is 16% of the mixture, and is certainly not nullified in 60x, nevertheless, in truth, according to Biblical law, one does not require 60x, and so long as the taste cannot be felt, for whatever reason, it is nullified. [see Shach 98:4; Beis Yosef 98; Rashba Toras Habayis Haruch 4:1; Ran Chulin 34a] Accordingly, it is possible to have a mixture with 16% Chametz and it does not give taste but does give sourness. Alternatively, one can say that when grains are placed in certain foods, the foods conquer the taste of the grain and change it to a different taste, and hence by the Kutach, or alcohol, it’s possible to have 17% grain and there not be any taste of the original grain, but rather a different taste, and it hence does not need Bitul, and would be permitted if not for the fact that the Torah prohibited also Machmetzes. [See Baal Hamaor Pesachim 44a] Vetzaruch Iyun!

[90] Admur in Minyan Hamitzvos of Taaruvos Chametz; See glosses of Mahril in 442:9 regarding beer; See Pesachim 43a-44a; Tur 442; Beis Yosef 442; Peri Chadash 442; P”M Pesicha Koleles 2; Rambam Hilchos Chametz 1:6; Ramban on Sefer Hamitzvos 197

The cases with a Biblical prohibition and lashes penalty: Taaruvos Chametz that has Kiyuha but not taste is never under the penalty of Kareis, although is under the penalty of lashes if the mixture contains a Kezayis of Chametz within a Peras. [Admur ibid; This refers to 27 grams per every 174 grams of the mixture, which is 16.7 % or 1:6 of the total ingredients. Alternatively, by a Taaruvos Chametz dip, such as the Kutach Habavli, the definition of Peras is the amount of time it takes to eat a peras of bread dipped in the dip [174 grams of bread dipped into the dip] and not 174 grams of the actual dip. Piskei Dinim Tzemach Tzedek 442:1; See glosses of Maharil ibid] If, however, there is not a Kezayis of Chametz within Peras then [although it remains a Biblical prohibition to eat, just as is the law with Taam Kikur, nevertheless] lashes is not given. [See Rosh, brought in Baal Hamaor ibid; Chachamim Pesachim 43a “Does not transgress anything”; Maharil in manuscript on Admur ibid implies that one does transgress, but there is simply not lashes.]

[91] Admur 442:6

[92] Based on Admur ibid; see also 466:9-10

[93] Admur 442:10

[94] Admur 447:43

[95] Admur 447/20

[96] Admur 447:1; There are opinions who say that all foods which have any Chametz in them become resurrected on Pesach night and hence become forbidden even if the Chametz was nullified in 60x before Pesach. Thus, according to this opinion, there is never a case of Taaruvos of Chametz that is allowed to be eaten after the first night of Pesach. Practically, the final ruling is like the lenient opinion, although if one wants to be stringent he may do so, although he should not rule this way for others. [Admur 447/22]

[97] Admur 442:1

[98] Admur 442:1

The reason: Although if one eats from this mixture, he does not receive the penalty of Kareis or lashes [and is only Biblically forbidden to be eaten due to its Chamtez taste], as explained above, nevertheless it is Biblically forbidden to own it on Pesach, as the entire Kezayis is resting within one vessel, and is mixed with the food and hence joins for a Kezayis. [Admur ibid] Accordingly, [since it is viewed as a Kezayis] it is Biblically forbidden to own even though one does not see it, as the verse says “Lo Yeraeh: do not see it” and here it is possible to see it and it is simply that one cannot tell which part is the Chametz and which is the mixture. [Gloss in 442:7]

[99] See previous footnotes as to how this case is possible if there is 17% Chametz in the mixture.

[100] Gloss of Maharil in Hakdama to Minyan Hamitzvos and in 442:9 that Biblically one may not own it on Pesach if it contains a Kezayis of Chametz within Peras. However, if it contains a Kezayis in more than a Peras [less than 17%] then since one does not receive lashes for eating it, likewise one does not transgress Baal Yiraeh upon owning it. [Gloss of Maharil in Hakdama ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun from Admur 442:1 who writes that it is Mitzareif if it gives taste] Accordingly, in a case of very great loss, one may rely on those opinions who rule that if it gives no taste and only gives fermentation, then if the drink is so strong that a kezayis of Chametz cannot be drunk within a pras of time, then it only Rabbinically needs to be destroyed on Pesach. One may only rely on this opinion with regards to after Pesach to permit it in benefit, or to sell, and only in a case of very great loss. [Gloss of Maharil in 442:9]

[101] Admur 442:3, 28 [Vetzaruch Iyun from 442:7 which implies that even less than a Kezayis of Mamashus in a mixture has a Biblical prohibition, and only when there is mere taste is it not Biblically forbidden; See Kuntrus Achron 446:1; Rav Levin in Hearos Ubiurim 843 p. 30; next footnote!]

The reason: As the Torah did not forbid owning less than a Kezayis of Chametz. [Admur 442:28]

[102] Admur 442:3, 28

The reason: The Sages forbade one from owning it due to worry that it may lead one to own a mixture which does contain a Kezayis of Chametz in it [i.e. Atu Kezayis], which is Biblically forbidden to be owned. [Admur ibid] Alternatively, it is forbidden because one may come to eat it. [Admur 442:7 regarding a mixture that does not contain any actual Chametz at, but only taste] Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur ibid omitted this reason. However, one can suggest as follows: The practical ramification between the reasons is whether one transgresses a Rabbinical Baal Yiraeh prohibition, and consequently, whether one should destroy the Chametz with a blessing on Pesach if he did not perform Bittul. According to the former reason, which is relevant to Mamashus of Chametz less than a Kezayis, a Rabbinical Baal Yiraeh is transgressed, and a blessing is to be said, if Bittul was not performed, while according to the latter reason, there is never a transgression of Baal Yiraeh and a blessing is never recited upon destroying it. [See Admur ibid and Kuntrus Achron 446:1] Accordingly, in this case Admur only records the former reason, as the second reason is not necessary, and only diminishes from the quality of the Rabbinical prohibition.

If one did Bittul: The above Rabbinical prohibition of owning the food applies even if one nullified the Chametz before Peach, due to a decree that one may come to eat it. [Admur 442:28] If one did not do bittul then it is additionally forbidden due to the decree of “Atu Kezayis” and not just because one may come to eat it. [See Admur ibid] The practical ramification is regarding destroying it on Pesach, and whether a blessing is said. If one did Bittul, a blessing is not recited, while if one did not do Bittul then a blessing is recited. [Admur 446:3-4; See Halacha 9B!]

[103] The reason: As the Torah says “Lo Yeraeh”, and here the Chametz is not visible. [Admur 442:7] Alternatively, the as the Torah did not forbid owning less than a Kezayis of Chametz. [Admur 442:28; Kuntros Achron 446:1] Vetzaruch Iyun why Admur ibid omitted this reason! See next!

The novelty of this ruling: Possibly, the is the novelty of this case is that even if had a Kezayis of Chametz taste enter into the food it is nevertheless till not under Biblical prohibition of ownership, as otherwise it is included in the ruling in 442:1 regarding less than a Kezayis. Hence, seemingly the novelty is that although we hold Taam Kikur Deoraisa, nonetheless regarding owning, it is only forbidden if one actually sees Chamtez, and not just its taste. Vetzaruch Iyun

[104] Admur 442:7

The reason: It is Rabbinically forbidden to be owned on Pesach due to a decree that if one were allowed to own it then he may come to eat it. [Admur ibid]; See previous footnotes that according to this reason, one never transgresses the Rabbinical Baal Yiraeh prohibition, and consequently a blessing is never recited upon destroying it on Pesach. [See Admur ibid; Kuntrus Achron 446:1]

[105] Admur 442:6

[106] Based on Admur ibid; see also 466:9-11 from where it is implied that it is forbidden to own in any scenario, even if the crumb is not separable and became one unit because we suspect for the opinion who hold that Yaveish is never nullified in Lach..

[107] Admur 442:10

[108] As stated in the previous footnotes

[109] Admur 442:8

The reason: Although there are opinions who say that it is [Biblically] forbidden to be eaten on Pesach if it does not contain 60x [and is thus Rabbinically forbidden to be owned], nevertheless since [according to all it is Biblically permitted to own on Pesach, and] there are those who say that it is even permitted to eat on Pesach, one may therefore rely on their opinion and be lenient [as safek Dirabana is Likula] to own it on Pesach [and eat it after Pesach]. Nonetheless, one should place it in a hidden area during Pesach. [Admur ibid]

[110] Admur 447:1

Chametz Nuksha fell into food: Being that Chametz nuksha [is only forbidden Rabbinically and thus] does not carry with it a penalty of Kareis, therefore it can become nullified in a mixture even on Pesach, just like is the law with regards to Chametz that falls into a mixture prior to the night of Pesach. [Admur 447:18; Rav Mordechai Belinuv in Paamei Yaakov 16:27]

Food cooked in a Chametz pot: Food that was cooked in a Chametz pot on Pesach from the night of the 15th and onwards is forbidden according to all if the pot was Ben Yomo of Chametz. If the pot was not Ben Yomo, then it is disputed in Poskim as to whether the food is permitted, and practically, the Ashkenazi custom is to be stringent. [Admur 447:8]

[111] The reason: The reason for this Rabbinical institution is because the Torah is very strict regarding Chametz, giving it a punishment of Kareis for eating, and a double negative command against owning it. Thus, being that people are so used to eating Chametz throughout the year and may come to forget about the prohibition, therefore the Rabbis enacted stricter measures regarding Chametz mixtures. [Admur ibid] The reason this decree only applies to Chametz mixed in from the night of Pesach and onwards is because the Kareis punishment, [and double negative command] only begin to take effect from the night of Pesach and onwards. Beforehand, even after the 6th hour of the day, although it is Biblically prohibited to eat or get pleasure from, nevertheless there is no Kareis penalty, [or negative command involved]. Thus, from the 6th hour until the night of Pesach begins all Chametz Taaruvos have all the classical nullification laws of issur and heter apply, that by a Lach Bilach mixture its nullified in 60x, while by a Yaveish Behaves mixture its nullified in majority. The reason Chametz that gets mixed into other mixtures is not considered a Davar Sheyeish Lo Matirin, which would make it not nullified even before Pesach, is because even after Pesach, Chametz which is Beiyno remains prohibited if it was owned over Pesach, and thus it is only permitted after Pesach if there is majority of non-Chametz against the Chametz.  [Admur 447:18]

[112] See Admur 447:1-2

[113] Admur 451:34

[114] Admur 467:29-30

[115] Admur 442:24; M”A 442:7 regarding the Tiraka; Chok Yaakov 447:13 and 18; Implication of Terumos Hadeshen 113

[116] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 447:1

[117] Shaareiy Teshuvah 467:12; Poskim in Sdei Chemed 3:16; Binyan Shlomo 24; Maharsham 1:223; 7:4; Shnos Chaim 300 in name of Gur Aryeh Yehuda 49

[118] The reason: As no one is transgressing Baal Yiraeh on this Chametz, and thus the reason for the decree of the Sages as not as relevant. [ibid] There are opinions who say that it is for this reason that it is permitted to drink the water of rivers and the like even though they for certain have bread which have been in them for 24 hours, as by ownerless Chametz we say that it is nullified in 60x. [Shnos Chaim ibid]

[119] Peri Megadim 448 A”A 1; Beis Yitzchak 2:10; Avnei Nezer 274; Toras Chesed 21

[120] Poskim in Sdei Chemed ibid

[121] Admur 442:25

[122] The reason: As by the time Pesach arrives the Chametz has already hardened and lost its texture. Alternatively, it is permitted as it is no longer edible for a dog and is like mere dust of the earth. [Admur ibid]

[123] Admur 442:26

The reason: Its forbidden to eat just as is the law with all spoiled Chametz. See however next footnote!

[124] Implication of Admur 442:26 who forbids wearing such Chametz near foods; Rav Mordechai Belinuv in Paamei Yaakov 16:27

The reason: Although the flour starch that is on the clothing and other items loses its texture after thirty days and hence is allowed to be owned over Pesach even if the flour is visible and there is a Kezayis of flour on the garment, [Admur 442:25; Michaber 422:3] nevertheless, since the flour is still edible to a dog it therefore contains a complete eating prohibition. For this reason, it is forbidden to place it in proximity to food, as if it falls into food it is not nullified in majority but rather requires 60x. [see Admur 447:18] This is unlike Chametz that has spoiled to the point it is no longer fit for a dog, in which case majority suffices. [Admur 442:33] Accordingly, there are four levels of Chametz: 1) Actual Chametz which may not be owned and is never nullified; 2) Chametz Nuksha which may not be owned and is nullified in 60x; 3) Chametz that has lost its texture which may be owned but requires 60x. 4) Chametz that is spoiled for a dog which may be owned and is nullified in majority. [Paamei Yaakov ibid]

[125] See Kuntrus Achron 442:14 that the area made to stick the

[126] This applies even if the Chametz is scattered throughout the paper, and there is no single Kezayis piece in one areas, nevertheless, the paper joins it all together to form a Kezayis in this regard. [Admur ibid]

[127] 1st opinion in Admur ibid; Rama 442:3

[128] Admur 442:26

[129] The reason: As perhaps some of its Chametz will fly off the table cloth and land into one’s food. Likewise, the women scarves which are customarily starched with flour until they become thick are not to be worn while eating, as it is common for the flour to fly off of it. [Admur ibid]

[130] Implication of Admur ibid who does not mention any differentiation between before and after thirty days, even though in the previous Halacha a differentiation is made; Rav Mordechai Belinuv in Paamei Yaakov 16:27

The reason: Although the flour starch that is on the clothing and other items loses its texture after thirty days and hence is allowed to be owned over Pesach even if the flour is visible and there is a Kezayis of flour on the garment, [Admur 442:25; Michaber 422:3] nevertheless, since the flour is still edible to a dog it therefore contains a complete eating prohibition. For this reason it is forbidden to place it in proximity to food, as if it falls into food it is not nullified in majority but rather requires 60x. [see Admur 447:18] This is unlike Chametz that has spoiled to the point it is no longer fit for a dog, in which case majority suffices. [Admur 442:33] Accordingly, there are four levels of Chametz: 1) Actual Chametz which may not be owned and is never nullified; 2) Chametz Nuksha which may not be owned and is nullified in 60x; 3) Chametz that has lost its texture which may be owned but requires 60x. 4) Chametz that is spoiled for a dog which may be owned and is nullified in majority. [Paamei Yaakov ibid]

[131] Based on Admur 442:33; Paameiy Yaakov ibid

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