The Muktzah categories and their law:
- MMC”K-Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis: Any vessel which is designated for a use which is forbidden on Shabbos, and one is particular not to use it for any other use, is defined as MMC”K and may never be moved on Shabbos in its regular way, not L’gufo (to use), or Limkomo (for its space), and certainly not L’atzmo (to save from possible damage).
- Examples: A Knife of Mila, Shechita, Safrus, or a special scissor for cutting hair; Merchandise which one is careful not to use (except for food)
- MM”G-Muktzah Machmas Gufo: Any item which does not have the legal status of a Keli/vessel is considered MM”G and thus may not be moved with ones hands for any purpose on Shabbos. This applies even if one has found a use for this object, and even if one wants to use its space. However, an item which does have the legal status of a vessel is not Muktzah.
- Examples: Stones, money, pieces of wood, dirt, sand, flour, dough, animals.
- Keli Shemilachto LeIssur: Any item which is designated specifically for a use that is forbidden to do on Shabbos [and one is not particular against using it for other purposes], may be moved if a Jew needs to use it on Shabbos for a permissible matter or if he needs to use the space that the object is resting on. However, one may not move it casually, for no particular reason. Likewise, it is forbidden to move it in order to protect it from possible damage.
- Examples: A pen; Scissors; Matches, hammer.
- Keli Shemilachto Leheter: Any item which has a use specified for permissible matters, even if it’s specified as well for forbidden matters, [is not Muktzah and] may thus be moved in order to use it or to its space, or even to save from potential damage. However, it is forbidden to move even Non-Muktzah items, including cutlery and pottery, for no need at all. This however is with exception to food, books that are permissible to read, [clothing, and jewelry] which one may move for even no need at all. When moving an object for its use, one need not use it right away, so long as he plans to use it within the duration of Shabbos.
 Admur 308:4 “All vessels which are waiting to be sold, and one is particular to not use them for any purpose, [then] even if they are not very expensive vessels, and certainly if they are very expensive vessels, [they are prohibited to be moved at all]. [Furthermore if they are very expensive vessels, then] even if they are not waiting to be sold [but are privately owned] and are designated for a prohibited use, and one is particular against using them for other uses in order so that their value not decrease, then it is forbidden to move them on Shabbos even if one needs their space. Meaning that [even] if one needs to use for a certain use the space that is under this object [it is nevertheless forbidden to be moved]. As well [it is forbidden to move it] in order to use the body [of vessel]. Meaning [even] if [on Shabbos] one changed his mind and decided to use the body of the vessel for a certain use [then it is nevertheless forbidden to be moved]. ([However] this only applies if he changed his mind after Shabbos already began, however if [he already] changed his mind from before Shabbos to use it [for another purpose], then it is permitted to move it being that one’s intentions helps regarding Muktzah [to change its Muktzah status], as will be explained). This [type of Muktzah discussed in this Halacha] is called Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis.”; Michaber 308:1
 Admur 308:8 “All the above [categorizations] are with regards to items that have the status of a vessel. However any item that does not have the status of a vessel, and is not food for humans and is not food for an animal, such as for example stones, and money, and [pieces of] wood, and bamboo, and beams, and dirt, and sand, and flour, and dough (of a Jew, however of a gentile there are those which permit it as will be explained in chapter 310 [Halacha 3]) and a dead body, and animals, anything of the like [are forbidden to move]. [Furthermore] even something that is useable to do with it a purpose which is permitted to be done on Shabbos, such as for example stones which are useable for breaking [the shells of] nuts, and pebbles which are useable to cover vessels with, and anything else of the like, since they do not have a status of a vessel, it is forbidden to move them even in order to use it [to do something with] and [even in order] to use the space that it under it, with exception to the [permitted] ways [of moving] that will be explained [in Halacha 53]. This [type of Muktzah] is called Muktzah Machmas Gufo [i.e. because of itself].”; Michaber and Rama 308:7
 Admur 308:12 “A vessel which is designated for a use forbidden to be done on Shabbos, is permitted to be moved, whether to use it, such as for example [one may use] an axe to cut a brick of pressed dates and [one may use] a hammer to crack nuts, or even to place vessels on top of it and the like, [as well it may moved] in order to use the space that is under it. However [to move it] in order to benefit the vessel itself, such as for example that the vessel is found in a place where one fears that it may be stolen from, or [is in a place that one fears] that it may fall and break or if it is in the sun and he fears that it may crack [if it is left] there, and he [thus] wants to move it to a shady area, as well as any other examples of the like, it is forbidden [to move it]. [However] if one has in mind to use it for something in a different area, or that he has in mind to use the space that is under this item for something [else], then it is permitted to move this object from this area [which may cause the item damage], even though his main intention in moving it [from there] is in order that it not get stolen or break [while] in this place.”
 Admur 308:16; Michaber 308:4; Shabbos 124a
 Admur 308:21 “A vessel which is designated for both a permitted and forbidden purpose [irrelevant to what it is most used for ] is permitted to be moved even for the benefit of the vessel itself, [just] as is the law by a vessel which is [only] designated for a permitted use, being that [this vessel] is also designated for permitted use.”
 In truth even these items are Muktzah regarding moving them for no reason, as will be explained next. However they are called not Muktzah in common talk and thus they are referred to hear as not Muktzah for clarity sake.
 Admur 308:17 “However, vessels [including] even cups and plates and knives and the like, were all included in the decree which they made [in the times of Chizkiyah], as they also decreed on these items that they may only be moved for their specific purpose and [may] not [be moved even] for [the purpose] of using their space [that is under them], and [as well may] not [be moved] for a purpose that it has not been designated for.; The M”B [308:23] however rules that it is permitted to move plates, cups, and knives for even no need at all, being that they are very commonly used. However he concludes that there are opinions which are stringent.
 Admur 308:16 “A Keli Shemilachto Liheter which means [a vessel] that is designated to be used for purposes that are permitted to be done on Shabbos, such as for example a cup and plate and the like, are permitted to be moved even if one does not need to [move them in order to] use them or use their space, but rather [he wants to move it] for the benefit of the vessel itself, as he fears that it may otherwise break or get stolen from there, and [he thus wants to] move it from there in order to hide it, or he [wants to] move it from being under the sun and into a shady area as he fears that it may otherwise crack. However, for no need at all, it is forbidden to move any vessel, even if it is designated for a permitted purpose.
The reason for this restriction is because in the times of Nehemiah Ben Chakilia, when the people belittled the Shabbos prohibitions, as it says, “In those days I saw in Judah [people] working in the threshing floor on Shabbos and carrying the stalks”. Thus, the Sages made precautions and boundaries on the prohibition of carrying [items], and they made a decree on all vessels, even if they are designated for a permissible purpose, that they may not be carried at all, even for the use that they are designated for, with exception of cups and knives and plates and the like of vessels which are very much needed for the Shabbos meal. Now, after some time when the Sages saw that the population returned to being a little more careful about the Shabbos prohibitions, they then retracted and permitted to move any vessel which is designated for a permitted purpose [if he is moving it] in order to use it or its space. Later on when they saw that the people returned to being even more careful, they then retracted [further] and permitted to move any vessel which is designated for permitted use, even [to move it] for the benefit of the vessel itself. However to move it for no need at all the Sages still never voted to permit, and thus it remains under its original prohibition which was forbade by decree of the Sages of the times of Nehemiah Ben Chakilia.”
 Ketzos Hashulchan 108 footnote 7
 Admur 308:17 “However, any type of food or liquid which is permitted [to be eaten] on Shabbos, and any types of books which are permitted to be read from [on Shabbos] is permitted to move even if one has no need [to move] them at all. The reason for this is because the [sages] in the times of Nehemiah only [originally] decreed against [moving] vessels and not [against moving] food or books, and thus [food and books] remain today in the same status as they were before the decree made in the times of Nehemiah, [and before the decree, the status] was that it is permitted to move anything which is fit to be used on Shabbos even if he has no need [to move it] at all. [Thus, also now books and food which were never decreed against may be moved for no need at all]. [The above statement that the status quo until the times of Chizkiyah was that there were no restrictions to move items, only referred to items that have a use on Shabbos], however an item which was not fit to be used on Shabbos, was forbidden to move even in the days of King David and King Solomon or [possibly] even beforehand. [Books and food were not included ever in any decree of Muktzah,] however vessels [including] even cups and plates and knives and the like, were all included in the decree which they made [in the times of Chizkiyah], as they also decreed on these items that they may only be moved for their specific purpose and [may] not [be moved even] for [the purpose] of using their space [that is under them], and [as well may] not [be moved] for a purpose that it has not been designated for. The reason that these vessels were also included in the decree is because they only excluded [these vessels] out from the general decree of [not being allowed to move for any purpose, which was made against all] other vessels, because the need that one has to use these vessels is much greater [than the need] to use other vessels. Thus [logic dictates that since this is their reason of exclusion to not be totally forbidden to move] therefore it is only allowed to be used for its specific purpose alone [for which it was excluded for from the general decree, and not for any other purpose]. [Now, although these vessels were excluded from the general decree, nevertheless] afterwards when they [retracted and] removed [some of the restrictions of the general decree] and then again retracted [further] and permitted to move all vessels that are designated for a permitted purpose even for the benefit of the vessel itself [to save it from damage], also cups, knives and plates and the like were included in this [retraction of restrictions]. [However] the [second retraction] only permitted to [even] move the vessels for their own benefit, however [it did] not [permit] to move them for no need at all.”
 Admur 308:18 “Nevertheless [despite the prohibition to move an item for no need], it is permitted for a person to carry a knife on him even when he goes to Shul, in a place where there is an Eiruv, even if he has no need to bring the knife there, [as long as] he will have a need for it afterwards on that day. The reason for this is because the Sages only forbade moving [an item] without need if one will not need [to use] it the entire day. However, if he will use it that day and he is carrying it with him in order so it be readily available for when the time comes [that he needs it], then it is permitted, as since his desire to carry the item is in order so it be available for him, this is considered moving it for a use.”