The sin of Korach & Its lifelong lesson
[Based on Likkutei Sichos Parshas Korach Vol. 2 and 4]
Sometime after the episode of the Meraglim, Korach, a Levite, decided to rebel against the establishment, against Moshe and Ahron. His rebellion was an additional act of mutiny to that done by his predecessors, the Meraglim, just shortly prior. The story of Korach touches upon some of the main fundaments of Judaism, such as the need for the position of a leader, the sanctity of the Kohanim, and the need to beware from Machlokes. In this Sicha, the Rebbe delves into the motivations of Korach, and what brought about his sudden rebellion. Korach, unlike what may seem from scripture, was not some lowlife character who was tainted with sin, and naturally decided to rebel against Moshe due to his innate faulty character. Korach was a very prestige person, both in wisdom, righteousness, and wealth, and held one of the highest positions that could be asked for in the service of the Temple. Korach thus held a major position in the establishment! What then brought Korach to rebel? It almost seems illogical, that after all that generation had seen with the miracles performed by Hashem through Moshe, and the recent tragedy of the Meraglim who had opposed Moshe, that anyone would dare question Moshe’s authority. It is doomed for failure, as just occurred with the Meraglim? What then was Korach thinking to start up with Moshe? It seems completely irrational to commit an act of spiritual and physical suicide, which was in fact the end result of his mutiny, as Korach was killed and according to some opinions, no longer has a portion in the world to come. Aside for the astounding question as to what brought Korach to rebellion, we also must question the motivation of all his accomplices and what brought them to join. For a single person to be overtaken by some irrational idea, is common, however for an additional 250 men, who were all Tzadikim and Tribal leaders, to also join this irrational rebellion which is doomed for failure, reveals to us that there is something behind this story that we are missing. There must be something that happened that gave these leaders the idea to question Moshe’s leadership despite everything they witnessed with Moshe in the past. In addition, this occurrence must have happened after the story of the Meraglim, as why else would Korach and his accomplices wait until after the story of the Meraglim to rebel against Moshe. Moshe held his position of leader already in Egypt before the Exodus, the Kohanim were inaugurated in Nissan of that year, Elitzafan, the head of the family of Kehos, was appointed in Iyar of that year. Why then do Korach and his accomplices wait until after the story of the Meraglim, which occurred in the month of Av, to suddenly question Moshe’s leadership? In the process of explaining these matters, we learn a great fundament of Judaism, the need and necessity for a Jew to enjoy his service of G-d, to have love and fear of G-d, and desire to be with Him. Fulfillment of Torah and Mitzvos do not suffice if they are performed in a dry fashion, with little or no emotion, and are simply done out of habit of Kabalas Ol. Judaism is a relationship with Hashem, and the Torah and Mitzvos are there to express our desire in the relationship. Being a Frum Jew without enjoying one’s service of Hashem, without expressing Dveikus in one’s service, without desiring and feeling an attachment to G-d, is a faulty and defective service. This was the primary mistaken philosophy of Korach and his people which lead them to question Moshe’s leadership.
Explorations of the Sicha:
1. Why did Korach and his accomplices rebel against Moshe?
2. Why did they wait until after the episode of the Meraglim, which was a failed mutiny, to make a further rebellion?
3. How necessary is it for a Jew to feel love of G-d?
4. Why do the Jewish people need a leader to attach to Hashem?
The story in Chumash with Mefarshim:
[Sometime after the episode of the Meraglim] Korach started a revolt against Moshe and Ahron, and the entire establishment of leadership. [Korach was a very wise man and was a first born who held a very prestige position in the Mishkan. He was one of the carriers of the Aron Kodesh when the Jewish people would travel. Korach was also the wealthiest person in the world, as he had found one of the hidden treasures of Yosef Hatzadik.]
The accomplices: The accomplices of Korach were Dasan, Aviram and On Ben Peles. Korach attempted to persuade the tribes to join his rebellion and successfully recruited 250 leaders of the Jewish people [who included members of the Sanhedrin, tribal leaders, and first born’s] to join his fight against Moshe.
The confrontation with Moshe: The above group went to Moshe and Ahron and confronted them with the claim of why they made themselves the elite of the Jewish people when in truth all the Jewish people are holy. [They approached Moshe with two Halachic questions, with intent to ridicule Moshe. They all wore Techeiles colored four cornered garments without Tzitzis, and asked Moshe whether the Tallis is obligated to have Tzitzis tied to its corners. Moshe replied that it is obligated. When the group heard this, they ridiculed Moshe and said that if one blue string can exempt an entire garment, then certainly if the entire garment is blue it does not need a blue string. A second question was asked: Does a house need a Mezuzah if it contains Sifrei Torah? Moshe replied that it does. The group ridiculed Moshe and said that if two small paragraphs in the Torah can exempt an entire house, then certainly if the house contains the entire Torah it can be exempted from a Mezuzah. They then used this reply against Moshe saying that just as he made up his own answer for the above question, so too, his leadership and that of his brother Ahron, were not appointed by Hashem, but were rather of their own doing.]
Moshe’s reaction: When Moshe heard [the complaints] he fell on his face [in prayer of Tachanun and in prophecy]. Moshe replied to Korach that by morning Hashem will relate to everyone who in truth is meant to be the leaders of the Jewish people. This will be accomplished by having all the contenders, who desire to be leaders, offer Ketores to the altar and whoever Hashem chooses, he will be the holy one [while everyone else will perish].
Moshe’s attempt to appease the rebels: Moshe requested to speak to Dasan and Aviram, the accomplices of Korach, and they refuse to come. They replied that Moshe took them out of a land of milk and honey to die in the dessert and he thus has no right to rule over them. Moshe told Korach that he and his entire congregation are to stand before Hashem tomorrow together with Ahron. Each man is to take a pan filled with Ketores and offer it before Hashem. There would be 250 pans of Ketores being offered [from Korachs group]. Korach then gathered his entire group around Moshe and Ahron, in front of the Ohel Moed and the Shechina then appeared to the entire congregation.
Korach and his men are swallowed and killed: Hashem instructed Moshe to tell the congregation to disperse from the area of the encampments of Korach and Dasan and Aviram. Moshe, together with the elders of the Jewish people approached Dasan and Aviram’s [camp] and told the congregation to disperse from the tents of these evildoers and not touch anything that is theirs, lest they will be killed for their sins. The congregation listened and dispersed from the area of Korach’s and Dasan and Aviram’s tent. Dasan and Aviram confronted Moshe, and came out of their tents with their wives and entire family. Moshe warned them, that Hashem has sent him to do all of these actions and the following will be the sign that he did not fabricate it. “If you die like a regular man then you know that I am a fraudster and Hashem did not send me. If, however, Hashem will create a new creation, and the earth will open its mouth and swallow you and all that you own into the depths of purgatory, then that will the sign that you have started a fight with G-d.” As Moshe finished speaking, the earth that was under them opened its mouth and swallowed their entire families and houses, and all the men who joined Korach, as well as all their property. They all descended alive into the depths of the earth, and the earth covered them and they became lost from the congregation. The people surrounding the area began fleeing with fright, having heard the screams of those who were swallowed, as they feared that they too would be consumed. A fire exited from Hashem and consumed the 250 men that offered the Ketores.
Why did Korach rebel against the establishment?
What brought Korach to rebel? The Mefarshim offer various explanations for the primary motivating cause of the rebellion. All in all, Korach was jealous of Moshe, jealous of his leadership position, and upset about some of the decisions that Moshe made. This jealousy caused Korach to do the irrational, and rebel against the establishment, which eventually cost him his very life. On this it says in Pirkeiy Avos that jealousy, and an infatuation with respect and honor causes one to be chased out from the world. This jealousy was further instigated by a number of occurrences and commands from Moshe which Korach refused to accept.
- He was upset that he was not appointed leader of Kehos: In the month of Sivan of that year, Moshe appointed family leaders for each family of Gershon, Kehos and Merari. Kehos had four children, Amram, Yitzhar, Chevron, and Uziel. Elitzafan the son of Uziel was appointed the leader of the family of Kehos. This boiled Korach with anger. Korach was the son of Yitzhar, who was the second son of Kehos, while Elitzafan was the son of youngest son of Kehos, Uziel. Korach felt that being that the first son of Kehos received the leadership position, as Moshe was the son of Amram, it was only right that he would receive the next leadership position to at least lead the Kehos family and not be surpassed by a younger cousin. This caused Korach to rebel against Moshe and his entire leadership and nullify his appointees.
- Upset that he lost his rights as a Bechor: Korach was a first born, and prior to the sin of the golden calf, it was intended for the first-born sons to receive the Kehuna. When Moshe demoted the Bechoros from receiving this position, and instead gave the Kehuna to Ahron, Korach became upset and decided to rebel against Moshe and Ahron.
- His descendants will be the leaders: Korach envisioned prophetically that from him would come many great Tzaddikim who would become leaders of Klal Yisrael [i.e. Elkana; Shmuel Hanavi], and thus Hashem would agree that he be given a leadership position even now.
- He was the son of oil: A most interesting approach brought in the Midrash is that Korach felt he deserved to be a Kohen, as if the Kohanim received their position simply with an inauguration of oil, then certainly he, who was the son of Yitzhar which means oil, should be a Kohen.
- Wanted to keep the meat: Moshe commanded the Jewish people that they would need to give certain portions of meat from their animals and sacrifices to the Kohanim. Korach, felt this was unfair, and did not desire to give the Kohanim their portion of his meat.
- Jealous of the beard: The Zohar states that Korach was jealous of the beard of the Kohanim [i.e. Ahron]. In the inauguration process, each Levite had to be clean shaven of hair from his entire body. Korach was upset that he lacked a beard, as aside for the humiliation for a Jew to be clean shaven, it removed from him the great spiritual powers contained within a beard. [In addition, Korach was infuriated that the Levites were lifted by Ahron and waved in the air having oil poured all over them. He felt completely humiliated by this procedure.]
- They suspected Moshe of adultery: Of the strangest suggestions given for the revolt, is the Talmudic statement which says that they accused Moshe of adultery. They became so convinced that Moshe was chasing after their wives, that everyone warned their wives to stay away from Moshe. Some Mefarshim explain this Talmudic statement literally, although others explain it in a spiritual context. The Maharal explains that this was another way of wording their opposition to Moshe’s leadership. They felt that they could have a direct connection with Hashem, without the need of Moshe. Thus, when Moshe claims to be the leader and intermediary between them and Hashem, it is as if that he is stealing their wives, their connection with Hashem, and taking it all for himself. The Megaleh Amukos has an alternative explanation: Korach felt that Tzipora, the wife of Moshe, was meant to be his wife, and hence accused Moshe of adultery. Why did Korach feel that Tzipora belonged to him? Korach was a gilgul of Kayin, who had killed his brother Hevel in jealousy of the fact that Hevel was born with two twin sisters and married them. Kayin was jealous of Hevel’s marriage to this second twin and desired to marry her himself. Tizpora was a Gilgul of this second twin, while Moshe was a Gilgul of Hevel. Hence, Korach felt in innate attraction towards Tzipora, still thinking like Kayin that she belongs to him, and hence accused Moshe of adultery.
- In the future, the Levim will become Kohanim: The Arizal states that in the future, the Levim will become Kohanim. This is because the Levim contain a higher revealed level than the Kohanim, just as Gevurah contains more strength than Chesed. In the future, the Jewish people will be on a level that they can receive from the Gevuros and hence the Levim will become the Kohanim, the ones who channel G-dliness to the Jewish people. The mistake of Korach was that he desired to become like the Kohanim even now, before the redemption, when the Jewish people are not yet ready for such revelation.
Why were the Levim hairless?
In the inauguration process of Korach and the Levim they were commanded to be shaved from head to toe, leaving not one stand of hair on the body. Ahron on the other hand had a long beard. The Zohar states that Korach was jealous of Ahron’s beard. This was not just a mere jealousy of Ahrons facial hair, but represented a jealousy of great spiritual powers that was represented by this hair. The hairs represent a channel for G-dliness which dilutes infinite G-dly levels into small quantities so that the creations can internalize the revelation. Ahron and the Kohanim needed these hairs, as the Kohanim represented the level of Rav Chesed, Chesed of Atzilus, and the hairs were the channels through which the revelation to the Jewish people would be diluted so they could internalize the revelation. The Levim however were from Gevura of Atzilus and did not have a need to dilute their level of Gevura, as Gevura is already contracted. On the contrary, further diluting this level would be damaging and allow the Kelipos to nurture from the holiness, and for this reason the Levim had to be shaved. Thus, Korach’s jealousy of Ahrons beard represented jealousy of Ahrons high position of Rav Chesed, which he did not have.
The questions on the story:
The above explanations of what motivated Korach to rebel against Moshe and Ahron fail to address a very basic question. Why did Korach wait so long to argue against Moshe? Moshe held his position of leadership already in Egypt before the Exodus, the Kohanim were inaugurated in Nissan of that year, Elitzafan, the head of the family of Kehos, was appointed in Iyar of that year. Why then do Korach and his accomplices wait until after the story of the Meraglim, which occurred in the month of Av, to suddenly question Moshe’s leadership? Also, all the above explanations only justify the involvement of Korach in the rebellion, but why did the other 250 leaders join? What was their reason for questioning Moshe’s leadership? To understand this matter, we must first introduce the proper understanding of the sin of the Meraglim.
The Chassidic perspective of Korach’s sin:
Understanding the sin of the Meraglim:
The Mefarshim explain that, unlike the superficial understanding of the story in which one concludes the Meraglim were great Reshaim, in truth they were great Tzadikim and had good and holy intentions in their actions. They never intended to rebel against Hashem or proclaim heresy but took a mistaken and misguided approach in their service of G-d, which eventually led to the tragic events that followed. The Meraglim did not want to enter Eretz Yisrael due to the disturbances it would create in their Torah learning and Divine service. In the desert, the Meraglim, as well as all the Jewish people, had no troubles or worries and had ability to dedicate 100% of their lives to personal growth in Torah learning and Divine service which brings closeness to G-d. When they were told that the support would end and they would now need to fetch for their own sustenance, they became deeply troubled. This would mean they could no longer devote the time to attach themselves to Hashem and learn His Torah. The entrance to Eretz Yisrael would begin a new phase of physical involvement in the world. Now, one may ask on this that the entire purpose of Hashem bringing them into Eretz Yisrael, and bringing the Jewish people into a world of natural order, was for them to begin fulfillment of Mitzvos. In the desert, most Mitzvos were not applicable and could not be fulfilled. Entering the natural order of the world in Eretz Yisrael would initiate the full performance of all 613 commands. Why then did the Meraglim not look forward to Mitzvah performance, if that is the entire purpose of their Torah learning and service of G-d? The reason for this is because learning Torah contains certain clear advantages over the performance of Mitzvos, such as the quality of unity with Hashem that is experienced when learning Torah, as well as the conscious enjoyment one feels in being active in understanding G-d’s wisdom. This is in contrast to Mitzvos, which provide a lower level unity, and do not contribute any conscious effect on the person performing it. Furthermore, Mitzvos involve the physical world and require a person to mingle with the materialism and coarseness found within it. The Meraglim wanted to pursue a life of pure Torah learning and spiritual service, without needing to demote themselves to the performance of physical Mitzvos, which, as explained, touches a lower level. It is for this reason that they desired to remain in the desert, as in the desert they were exempt from performing many Mitzvos, and thus could pursue this form of life. In truth, however, the Meraglim made a grave mistake in their perception of the importance of Mitzvos. While Mitzvos certainly involve the physical world, which is a low state of spiritual refinement, nevertheless, it is specifically the performance of these Mitzvos that allow a person to fulfill the original intent of creation, which is to make for Hashem a dwelling place below. The entire purpose of creation is to draw G-dliness below and thereby make a dwelling place for Hashem in this world. This drawing of G-dliness is only accomplished when one performs Mitzvos with the objects of the physical world. If Hashem desired a Jew to only excel in his learning and knowledge, and personal attachment to G-d, he could have left the Jew in Gan Eden. The purpose of coming down into this world is to serve G-d with the physical world.
The mistaken approach taken after the sin of the Meraglim:
After the tragic results of the rebellion of the Meraglim, the Jewish people understood that in truth it is not Torah and Avodas Hashem, Dveikus to G-d, which is the main purpose of religion, but rather the physical performance of Mitzvos. This new understanding mistakenly led Korach and his accomplices to rebel against Moshe. So long as the purpose of Judaism was Torah learning, Torah knowledge, and gaining closeness to Hashem in one’s personal service, it was accepted by all that Moshe should be the rightful leader. There was no one with greater Torah knowledge than Moshe, and there was no one closer to Hashem than Moshe. However, once it became established that the main purpose and focus of Judaism is action, physical Mitzvos, Moshe no longer contains an advantage over anyone of the Jewish people. The Tefillin worn by Moshe, and the Mitzvah fulfilled as a result, is the same Mitzvah fulfilled when any other Jew wears Tefillin. If so, everyone is equal, and there is no need for a leader who claims to be spiritually elite and excels the common folk. This then was the claim of Korach and his accomplices after the story of the Meraglim. If physical Mitzvos is the main purpose, and not Torah learning or Dveikus, then why has Moshe and Ahron made themselves the leaders of the Jewish people when in truth all the Jewish people are holy.
The mistake of Korach and his followers:
While the Meraglim were mistaken in their understanding of the importance and value of physical Mitzvos, Korach and his followers were mistaken in the importance and value of personal Divine service and Dveikus with Hashem. They are both necessary. One must have both Dveikus to Hashem, a passion to attach to Him, and he must also be involved in fulfilling physical Mitzvos. The reason for this is because the physical Mitzvos need love and fear of G-d imbued within them for them to be effective. A Mitzvah without love of Hashem is defective and cannot accomplish its purpose. The reason for this is because the purpose of the Mitzvos is not only to draw G-dliness below, but to draw it below within our hearts and soul, so we cleave to Hashem. The purpose of us building Hashem a dwelling place in this world is so we, the Jewish people, live there with Him, and therefore one’s building of Hashem’s home must be accompanied by a desire to live with Him in that home. Accordingly, both Mitzvos and Dveikus are equally necessary, and Moshe and Ahron, being that they are the most elite Torah learners, and have the closest relationship with Hashem, they were deemed to be leaders, to help the people reach levels of personal desire and passion to attach to Hashem. Love and fear cannot be achieved on one’s own, and need a leader to help draw it into one’s soul, and that was precisely the position of Moshe and Ahron, to nurture the Jewish soul with love and fear of G-d.
A wealthy single man, searching many years for a wife, came across a woman, who emitted both physical and spiritual beauty. He immediately began courting her for marriage, and they began discussing how his dream home would be built. She was a developer of luxury homes by trade, and he asked her to help him develop their luxury home. He offered her higher than market prices for her work, would fully finance everything she needed to build the home, and promised her millions of dollars of profit after she was done. His intent was that after the home was built, he would ask for her hand in marriage and then she would share in his fortune. His entire desire for the home to be built was for her to dwell there with him in a loving marriage relationship. She, however had no idea that he was courting her for marriage and desired to have the home built for their future, and simply thought it was a good development proposal by a man who likes her and desires to help her succeed in life. After the home was built he proposed to her, and much to his surprise she said that she had never given thought into marrying him, and she obviously cannot commit to a marriage if she never focused on developing feelings for him. While the wealthy man received a beautiful luxury home built by a most stunning woman, he unfortunately did not get his wish to marry that woman. Instead, he had to give a her a large payout as her profit for the work, as was agreed by them initially.
This parable reflects the true purpose of Torah and Mitzvos, and the mistake of Korah and the Meraglim. The Meraglim thought that all you need is love and feeling for Hashem, and there is no need to develop a home for Him, which is accomplished through Mitzvos. Korach understood, after their mistake, that all Hashem wants is for us to build Him a home through Mitzvah fulfillment, like a developer, and when our job is done, Hashem will pay us millions in compensation for our work. They thought that Hashem does not desire a relationship with us, to marry us and live with us in the new home. In truth, Hashem wants both aspects. Hashem wants us to build him a new home below in this world, so we, Hashem and the Jewish people, can then live together in it, in a loving relationship. Hashem desires us to want Him, and desire Him and attach to Him, and that dream will be fulfilled once His home is built through the fulfillment of Mitzvos. The mistake of the Meraglim is that they viewed Judaism as a religion of the heart, simply desiring a Jew’s infatuation and love for Hashem, but not asking one to do concrete actions that make one actually bond to Him. They did not know that Hashem wants to live with us in the home we build him through the Mitzvos. Korach and his followers viewed Judaism as a business agreement where we perform Mitzvos as requested by Hashem, our employer, and in return receive compensation for our work. In truth, Judaism is a marriage relationship with Hashem in which we have been contracted to build our home, so we will eventually live together in it.
Why Korach claimed the Tallis of Techeiles does not need Tzitzis:
The entire purpose of the Kohanim was to draw down internal G-dliness into the Jewish people. Korach claimed that in truth it is more important to have a high level of external G-dliness, which is achieved through Mitzvos, than to have a minute level of internal G-dliness, which is achieved through Torah and Dveikus. Hence, he stated that a Tallis of Ticheiles does not need Tzitzis, as if the Ticheiles represents such a high level, then why would you need a contracted and minute level of revelation found in the strings of Ticheiles if you already have a full garment of Techeiles, in which the revelation is infinitely greater. The mistake of Korach’s claim was that the main purpose of the revelations is for a Jew to internalize it, and the Mitzvos alone, the Makif alone, does not internalize a feeling of attachment to Hashem.
Do Korach and his followers have a portion in the world to come?
The Mishnah discusses whether Korach and his followers have a portion in the world to come: Rebbe Akiva is of the opinion that Korach and his followers do not have a portion in the world to come. Rebbe Eliezer is of the opinion that they do have a portion in the world to come. The Mefarshim conclude like the opinion that Korach and his followers will merit a portion in the world to come.
Lessons of the Sicha:
· The need to emphasize enjoyment in Yidishkeit to ourselves and others: We must be aware that Judaism is not a business relationship with Hashem, but a relationship similar to a marriage. Hashem loves us and He desires us to love Him and desire to cleave to Him. He desires us to perform Mitzvos so we can attach to Him and build Him a home where He can come and dwell with us. Accordingly, just as one must be committed to the performance of Mitzvos, one must also be committed to developing spiritual closeness with Hashem. It is of absolute necessity for us to enjoy Judaism, for us to enjoy serving God, for us to know that when we do a Mitzvah we attach to G-d. We must educate our children not only to abide by the Torah laws, but to inherit them a love for G-d, and understand that Judaism is a personal relationship with G-d, and when we abide by the laws, and fulfill Mitzvos, we attach to Him.
· The need of a Rebbe: Korach felt there is no need for a Rebbe, a leader, being that in Mitzvos we are all equal. In truth, a Mitzvah that is penetrated with feeling is not the same as a dull Mitzvah, and this feeling is drawn to us with the help of a Rebbe.
 Bamidbar 16 with commentary
 Seder Hadoros year 2,449; Ramban ibid; Likkutei Sichos Vol. 4
The proof: This can be proven from the fact that Moshe requested to speak to Dasan and Aviram, the accomplices of Korach, and they replied that Moshe took them out of a land of milk and honey to die in the dessert. This shows that the rebellion occurred after the episode of the Meraglim, when the decree to die in the desert was already given. [Rebbe ibid]
 Tanchuma 249
 Ramban ibid
 Tanchuma 248; Chizkuni
 See Seder Hadoros year 2,449
 Tanchuma 248
 Shelah Korach p. 457; Bechayeh
 Bechayeh 82; Even Ezra 16/1; Ramban
 Tanchuma 249
 Bechayeh p. 84
 Even Ezra
 Shelah Hakadosh Korach p. 452
 Rashi; Midrash
 Seforno; Even Ezra 16/1
 See Rashi Bamidbar 3/12
 Tanchuma 248
 Midrash Raba Korach; Likkutei Torah 52
 Tanchuma 250
 Likkutei Torah 54a
 Sanhedrin 110a; See Shelah Korach p. 456
 Maharal Chidushei Agados Bava Basra 16b
 Seder Hadoros year 2,449
 Likkutei Torah 54a
 Likkutei Torah 54a
 Likkutei Sichos Korach Korach 4
 Likkutei Sichos Korach 4
 M”A 580/2 in name of Shelah Hakadosh [However, see Shlah Hakadosh Al Hatorah where he clearly writes they were Reshaim. Vetzaruch Iyun]; Rav Shmuel Vital in Shaar Hapesukim Shlach; Likkutei Torah p. 72; Likkutei Sichos 33/85; Semuchin Lad Shlach; Tiferes Yonason Shlach in name of Shlah; Toldos Adam Shlach in name of Rav Yitzchak of Varka
Other Mefarshim: Most of the Mefarshim view the Meraglim as Reshaim. [See Bies Yosef 580; Bach 580; Shlah Al Hatorah; Igros Moshe 3/14]
 Likkutei Sichos 2 and 4
 Likkutei Torah 54a
 Sanhedrin Mishneh 108a; 109b
 Shelah Korach p. 452 and 457