Chapter 3: Reading Shnayim Mikra

Chapter 3: Reading Shnayim Mikra

 

Summary of the laws of Shnayim Mikra which are elaborated below:

One is to read Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum on Erev Shabbos [immediately] after midday. Prior to reading Shnayim Mikra one is to cut his nails. One reads each Pasuk twice and then immediately reads its Targum, prior to moving on to the next Pasuk. One is not to interrupt at all, even to talk, until he completes the entire reading. After the reading one is to immediately read the Haftorah of that week and in a case that there are two Haftoras both are to be read. After completing the reading one immerses in a Mikveh.

1. The obligation of Shnayim Mikra:[1]

Although a person hears the reading of the entire Torah every Shabbos in a public forum, he is obligated each week to read to himself the Parsha of that week in the form of Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum [as will be explained].[2] [This matter is an actual obligation and not merely a good custom or encouraged act.[3] It is included in the Biblical obligation for a man to be learn and be expert in the written Torah.[4] Those who are negligent in fulfilling this Mitzvah are considered transgressors and are to be protested even if they are Bnei Torah. Even one who spends his entire day in Torah learning is obligated to stop and recite Shnayim Mikra, just as he must fulfill any other Rabbinical command.[5]]

 

Q&A

How is Shanyim Mikra to be read? Slowly with concentration, or quickly like Tehillim?[6]

Shnayim Mikra must be recited slowly, and with concentration and understanding of the words being said. One is to also be very careful to verbalize each word properly, just as the Halacha states regaridng Kerias Shema.[7] It is not to be recited like the quick reading of Tehillim and simply to get done with the job.[8] One is to concentrate on the commands that he reads, and the Divine lessons in Avodas Hashem that can be learned from the Parsha.[9] One is to pay attention to nuances and questions that arise, and try to answer them.[10] One who does not do so, and reads it quickly without thinking of its content, does not fulfill the intent of this Mitzvah.[11]

 

Are women obligated to read Shnayim Mikra?[12]

No.

 

Should children be educated to recite Shnayim Mikra?[13]

Children who are of the age of Chinuch, and are able to read the entire Parsha fluently, and understand its content, are to be educated to recite Shnayim Mikra.

 

Is a mourner/Avel allowed to read Shnayim Mikra?[14]

Although a mourner is forbidden to learn Torah throughout the seven days of mourning[15], including Shabbos[16], nevertheless he is allowed to recite Shnayim Mikra[17] Echad Targum[18], on Shabbos.[19] He may not read it before Shabbos.[20] Some Poskim[21] rule he may not read the commentary of Rashi or any other commentary. However, one may look up a verse in English to understand its meaning. However other Poskim[22] rule he may learn the commentary of Rashi if he is accustomed to do so every Shabbos.

 

If one does not remember if he recited Shnayim Mikra, or as to where he is up to, is he to repeat it?

Some Poskim[23] rule that if one is unsure if he recited Shnayim Mikra, or as to where he is up to, then he is to be stringent and repeat it.

 

 

When was the Takana of Shnayim Mikra enacted by the Sages?

Some Poskim[24] suggest that it was established by Moshe Rabbienu himself!

 

The reward for reading Shnayim Mikra:

Long good life:[25] Those who fulfill the Mitzvah of reading Shnayim Mikra by its proper time, merit long days and years. His life will be filled with good tidings.[26]

Segula for fear of Heaven:[27] The reading of Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum is a Segula for Yiras Shamayim, to attain fear of Heaven. [It draws upon him a spirit of purity.[28] It protects one from stumbling on severe sins.[29]]

Segulah for proper Shabbos Davening:[30] The reading of Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum is a Segula for attaining proper concentration in Davening.

 

Sparks of Kabala:

Receives extra Neshama and called an Adam:[31] Reading Shnayim Mikra merits a person to draw down a spirit of purity and receive the extra soul [which is given on Shabbos]. He is then called an “Adam” which is the highest term used to refer to a human. This is hinted to in the verses “And Adam called Sheimos”[32] Sheimos is also the acronym for Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum.

Elevates Kelipas Nogah:[33] On Erev Shabbos the level of Kelipas Nogah requests to be elevated into Holiness. This elevation occurs through the reading of Targum Unkulus. This is because Unkelus was a convert, and a convert represents that exact elevation, as a gentile is Kelipa which through conversion entered into holiness.

 

2. What is one obligated to read?[34]

One is obligated to read all the pesukim[35] in the Parsha two times and to read the entire Targum Unkulus of that Parsha. [see footnote regarding reading other commentaries instead of Targum[36]] Likewise every G-d fearing Jew is to also read the entire commentary of Rashi of that Parsha[37]. If one does not understand the words of Rashi then he is to read another commentary which is written in his language. [Practically it is the Chabad custom to learn every day the daily Torah portion with Rashi, however not to repeat this learning of Rashi when doing Shnayim Mikra.[38]]

A verse which does not contain a Targum translation: Any verse[39] which does not contain a translation in Targum is to be read three times.

The Haftorah:[40] Although from the letter of the law there is no obligation to read the weekly Haftorah to oneself each week, nevertheless the custom is to do so.[41] [On a Shabbos that there are two Haftoras for that week, such as the Shabbos of the 4 Parshiyos, Shabbos Rosh Chodesh, Shabbos Machar Chodesh, Shabbos Chanukah, then one is to read both the Haftorah of the weekly Parsha and the Haftorah which will be read in Shul.[42] Accordingly, if Rosh Chodesh is two days and falls on Shabbos and Sunday, one is to read three Haftora’s; the weekly Parsah, the Haftorah of Hashamayim Kisi and the Haftorah of Machar Chodesh.[43] On Shabbos Chol Hamoed Sukkos and Pesach one is to read to himself both the Haftorah of the Parsha of the coming week and the Haftorah which is read that Shabbos.[44]]

Reading the portions of the Torah prior to a Yom Tov:[45] There is no need to read prior to a Holiday the sections of Torah which will be read on that Holiday.[46]

Reading Vezos Habracha on Erev Simchas Torah: [47] On the eve of Simchas Torah [i.e. Shemini Atzeres in the Diaspora; Hoshana Raba in Eretz Yisrael[48]] one is to read the Parsha of Vezos Habracha, Shnayim Mikra Vechad Targum.[49]

 

Q&A

Is one who cannot read Hebrew obligated to read Shnayim Mikra in translation to his language?

This matter requires further analysis.[50] [To note, however, that today there are transliterations available and one is hence to try to read it in transliteration.[51]]

 

May one read Shnayim Mikra of Vezos Habracha prior to Hoshana Raba?

This matter requires further analysis.[52] Some Poskim[53] have ruled that one does not fulfill his obligation if he did so and he must therefore repeat the reading of the Parsha.

 

Must one read Shnayim Mikra of the Maftir of the four Parshiyos or Rosh Chodesh?

No.[54] Although some do have a custom to read Shnayim Mikra of the four Parshiyos.[55]

 

Q&A relating to one who traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora or vice versa[56]

If one traveled from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora in a week that the Diaspora is reading the Parsha that was read the previous Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael, must he re-read Shnayim Mikra[57]?[58]

He is not required to repeat Shnayim Mikra of that Parsha[59], although he is required to hear the reading of the Torah.[60]

 

If one will be traveling from Eretz Yisrael to the Diaspora in a week that in Eretz Yisrael the weekly parsha is read while in the Diaspora that Shabbos coincides with Yom Tov[61], is he to read Shnayim Mikra of the Parsha of Eretz Yisrael?[62]

No. One is to do Shnayim Mikra of that Parsha the next week after Yom Tov ends in the Diaspora.

 

If one traveled to Eretz Yisrael in a week that Eretz Yisrael is reading a different Parsha than the Diaspora[63] which Shnayim Mikra is one to read?[64]

One is to read the Shnayim Mikra of both Parshiyos, the one which he is now missing in the Diaspora and the one which he will now hear in Eretz Yisrael. [If he returns to the Diaspora after Shabbos, he is not required to repeat the Shnayim Mikra of the Parsha that was read in Eretz Yisrael and is now being read in the Diaspora. In the event that he finds a Minyan of Bnei Chutz La’aretz who will only be reading the Parsha of Chutz La’aretz then he is to do Shnayim Mikra of only the Parsha of Chutz Laaretz.[65]]

 

 

Sparks of Kabala-The inner meaning behind reading Targum:

The Shlah Hakadosh[66] writes that on Erev Shabbos the level of Kelipas Nogah requests to be elevated into Holiness. This elevation occurs through the reading of Targum Unkulus. This is because Unkelus was a convert, and a convert represents that exact elevation, as a gentile is Kelipa which through conversion entered into holiness.

 

3. When is one obligated to read Shnayim Mikra?

A. The custom:

The custom is to read the entire Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum after midday on Erev Shabbos.[67] [see footnote]

B. The letter of the law:[68]

The earliest possible to time it is allowed to be read: One is obligated to read the Shnayim Mikra of a specific Parsha during the week that the Parsha is read.[69] Hence, each week one is able to fulfill the obligation to read Shnayim Mikra of the upcoming Parsha of that Shabbos beginning from the Sunday of that week. One is not to read Shnayim Mikra of the Parsha prior to that Sunday.

The latest time that it can be read: [For one who did not read Shnayim Mikra on Erev Shabbos[70]] it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for him to complete the reading of it prior to [Shachris[71] or at the very least prior to] eating the Shabbos morning meal.[72] [See Q&A regarding Kiddush] If one did not complete the reading prior to the meal then it is an obligation for him to do so after the meal. He must complete the reading prior to [the Shul Minyan[73] of] Mincha.[74] If one transgressed and did not complete the reading prior to the prayer of Mincha then he is to do so prior [to the end of Shabbos[75] and at the very least prior] to Tuesday night.[76] If one did not do so then, he is to complete it until Simchas Torah[77], saying Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum of whatever he missed.[78]

May one read Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum during Kerias Hatorah?[79] There are those[80] which permit to read Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum [to themselves[81]] during the reading of the Torah on Shabbos.[82] [Others[83] however forbid doing so. Practically one is not to do so, as it is proper to listen to the words being read by the Baal Koreh.[84] One may however read along with the Baal Koreh, and doing so is praiseworthy.[85] See next Halacha! It is likewise allowed to read Shnayim Mikra between the Aliyos.[86]]

If one heard Kerias Hatorah prior to saying Shnayim Mikra must he still say each verse twice?[87] In a time of need [such as it is close to Mincha and he does not have enough time to say the Mikra twice[88]] one can rely on the lenient opinion[89] which rules that if one heard the entire Parsha clearly then it counts as one of the two times of reading Mikra and hence he need only read Mikra one time with the Targum [see footnote[90]]. Lechatchilah, however, if one is holding prior to the reading of the Torah he is not to rely on hearing it, even in a time of need[91], but is rather to read along with the Baal Koreh, and then afterwards read Mikra one time with Targum.

 

Q&A

Is one to read Shnayim Mikra before or after going to Mikveh on Erev Shabbos?[92]

One is to go to Mikveh only after having first completed saying Shnayim Mikra. 

Is one to cut his nails prior to Shnayim Mikra?

Some Poskim[93] rule the proper order is to cut the nails[94], then read Shnayim Mikra and then immerse in the Mikveh. However, in Peri Eitz Chaim it states to cut the nails after Shnayim Mikra, prior to immersing in the Mikveh.[95]

Is one to begin reading Shnayim Mikra immediately after midday of Erev Shabbos, or may it be delayed?

There is no obligation to begin Shnayim Mikra immediately after midday.[96] Nevertheless it is proper not to delay the reading of Shnayim Mikra once it is past midday. One is thus not to delay reading it due to a private learning session and is rather first to say Shnayim Mikra and then to learn. Nevertheless, by a public learning session there is no restraint to delay Shnayim Mikra until afterwards.[97]

May one make Kiddush and eat a snack prior to reading Shnayim Mikra by Shabbos day?[98]

Yes. One may make Kiddush and eat a snack prior to saying Shnayim Mikra on Shabbos day. However, one is to refrain from eating a set meal prior to Shnayim Mikra as stated in Admur.[99]

When is the Haftorah to be read?

The Haftorah is to be read on Erev Shabbos [immediately[100]] after reading Shnayim Mikra.[101] At the very least it is to be read before the Haftorah is read in Shul.[102] If one did not read it by this time, he should read it afterwards.[103]

May one read Shnayim Mikra of next week on Shabbos after Mincha[104]?

Yes.[105] However some Poskim rule that this matter requires further analysis.[106]

If one read Shnayim Mikra of a Parsha prior to the week of that Parsha must he repeat the reading when that week’s Parsha arrives[107]?

This matter requires further analysis.[108] Some Poskim[109] however rule that one does not fulfill his obligation and he must repeat the reading of the Parsha.

If a certain Parsha will not be read on Shabbos that coming week due to Shabbos coinciding with Yom Tov, when may one begin reading Shnayim Mikra of that Parsha?[110]

Only from the Sunday of the week that the Parsha will be read on Shabbos.

By what time on Simchas Torah should Shnayim Mikra of the previous year’s Parshiyos be completed?[111]

One is to complete all the previous year’s Shnayim Mikra  by Shachris of Simchas Torah.[112] If one did not do so then he may complete it until the end of Simchas Torah.[113] If Simchas Torah fell on Shabbos, as occasionally occurs in Eretz Yisrael, one may in a time of need complete the reading until Tuesday of that week.[114]

When making up Parshiyos of previous weeks should any specific order to be followed?

One is to read it in the order of the Parshiyos.[115] However, some Poskim[116] rule the current weeks Parsha is to be read first. [Seemingly if one will not be able to read up to the currents weeks Parsha in time to finish it by its proper time, then even according to the first opinion he is to say the current weeks Parsha first and then go in order of the Parshiyos he missed.]

If one is in doubt as to whether he said Shnayim Mikra of a certain Parsha must he now say it?

· Example 1: One has to make up a number of Parshiyos from previous weeks and does not recall from which Parsha he has to make up.

· Example 2: One is accustomed to read Shnayim Mikra at the beginning of each week, and now before Shabbos he does not recall if he did so.

By Example 1 there is no requirement for one to read those Parshiyos in which he has doubt[117], however seemingly if possible, it is best for one to do so.

By Example 2 this matter requires further analysis as on the one hand it is a doubt in a Rabbinical matter, on the other hand one is easily able to remove himself from the doubt.

May one read Shnayim Mikra at night?

One is not to read Shnayim Mikra at night[118] with exception to Friday night in which case it may be read.[119] Regarding Thursday night see footnote[120]. One may read Shnayim Mikra at night if he reads it together with a commentary such as Rashi.[121] Nevertheless, even in such a case he is not to read Targum at night.[122]

Can one fulfill his obligation of Shnayim Mikra through hearing someone else read it?

Some opinions[123] rule one is able to fulfill his obligation through listening to each and every word being read by another person. Practically one may not initially rely on this.[124]

 

The Custom of the Chabad Rabbeim:[125]

The Rabbeim of Chabad were accustomed to read the first, and at times also the second, section of the weekly Parsha Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum on Thursday night.[126] They would then repeat the entire reading of the Parsha Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum together with the Haftorah after midday Friday. On Shabbos day, prior to Shachris, they would repeat the seventh section Shnayim Mikra.

 

4. How is it to be read?

One is to read each verse twice and then immediately read the Targum on that verse prior to continuing on to the next verse. This order is followed throughout the entire reading.[127] Nevertheless, from the letter of the law one may read the verses with Targum in whichever order one chooses. [see footnote[128]] Hence if one does not have a Targum available, he may read the entire Mikra twice and then read the Targum when it becomes available.[129]

The last verse: [130] The last verse of the Parsha is to be read a total of three times, twice before saying the Targum, and a third time after the Targum. This is done in order to complete the reading of the Parsha with a Torah verse, as was done in past times when the Targum was read during the public Torah reading, after each verse[131]. [Nevertheless, despite this ruling of Admur in his Shulchan Aruch, it is not the Chabad custom to repeat the last verse a third time.[132]]

May it be read in segments? May one talk in middle or take a break?[133] Some[134]  are accustomed[135] not to talk at all, or make any type of interval, throughout the entire reading of Shnayim Mikra. Hence they read it from beginning to end without interruption. [This is a very proper custom, and is followed by those meticulous in Mitzvos.[136] Those who follow this custom must start over again from the beginning if they talked or made an interval in between.[137] See Q&A!] However, from the letter of the law, there is no requirement to read the entire Parsha Shnayim Mikra in one period, rather one may even read only the Mikra of one section today, the Mikra of another section tomorrow and so on and so forth throughout the week.[138] Hence, one who learns the daily Chumash is from the letter of the law considered to have fulfilled the reading of Mikra [up to Shevii’] one time and hence must only say the Mikra once with Targum [up to Shevi’i, while Shevii is said twice]. If he is accustomed to read each verse twice while learning, then he has to only make up the Targum.[139] [Nevertheless, the custom as explained above is to re-read the entire Parsha Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum on Erev Shabbos.]

Reading from a Sefer Torah:[140] If one knows by heart the tunes [which mark the end of each verse[141]] in the Torah reading, it is proper for him to read Shnayim Mikra from a Kosher Torah scroll on each and every Erev Shabbos.[142] [This, however, is not the Chabad custom, nor the custom of many other Gedolei Yisrael, as by doing so one is unable to read the Targum after each verse.[143] Hence we read it from printed Chumashim which contain Targum.[144] One who does not know the Taamim by heart, is according to all not to read from the Torah.[145]]

 

 

Q&A

Is one to read the Pasuk of Shema Yisrael twice?[146]

The verse Shema Yisrael is to be read twice as is the law by all Pesukim. However, some Poskim[147] rule one is not to read the Pasuk twice in a row, and is rather to read a few more Pesukim in between. The custom is unlike this opinion.

 

Is one to read the Parsha with the tune of the Torah reading [Taamim]?

Some Poskim[148] rule one is initially required to read the verses with their tune even when doing so from a Chumash. Practically, this is the custom.[149]  Nevertheless, this is not critical for fulfilling one’s obligation.[150] Hence, if one does not know the tune of the verses, he is to read it without the tune. Likewise, if one already read it without the tune, then even if he knows the tune, he is not required to repeat the reading.

 

Must the verses be read in order?[151]

Yes. One is not to read a later verse prior to reading an earlier verse. Nevertheless, after the fact if one did not read the verse in order he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.[152]

 

Q&A on Interruptions during Shnayim Mikra

May one learn other Mefarshim while saying Shnayim Mikra if he is stringent not to make any interruptions until he completes the reading?

No. Those which are particular not to interrupt when saying Shnayim Mikra are not to learn even other Mefarshim while saying Shnayim Mikra. They are rather to read it straight from beginning to end without any interval at all.[153]

 

If one used the bathroom while saying Shnayim Mikra is he to say Asher Yatzar after leaving the bathroom if he is stringent not to make any interruptions until he completes the reading?[154]

One is to say Asher Yatzar immediately after leaving the bathroom, and is not to delay it until later on.[155]

 

May one initially use the bathroom in middle of Shnayim Mikra if he is stringent not to make any interruptions until he completes the reading?

The Ramak[156] writes that one is not to initially use the bathroom until he finishes Shnayim Mikra even if he feels the need to go.[157] However from the Poskim[158]  it is evident that one may certainly use the bathroom, even according to this custom.

 

May one who is thirsty have a drink in middle of Shnayim Mikra if he is stringent not to speak until the end of Shnayim Mikra?

If one is very thirsty some Poskim[159] write that he may drink in middle of the reading and say a blessing before and after.

 

According to the stringent custom brought above is one to read the Haftorah right after he completes the reading of the Parsha without interrupting in-between?

The Ramak[160] writes that one is to read the Haftorah immediately after finishing the reading of the Parsha without making any interruptions in-between.

 

Is one to read Shnayim Mikra wearing a hat?[161]

Some are particular to wear a hat over their Yarmulke even while learning Torah.

 

 

Sparks of Kabala

Reason why one is not to interrupt in the midst of Shnayim Mikra:[162]

Reading Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum has the power to create an angle. One who makes an interruption in the midst of reading it enters impurity into this angle.

 

______________________________

[1] Admur 285:1; Michaber 285:1; Rambam Tefila 13:25; Brachos 8a “A person should always complete the Parsha together with the congregation in the form of Shnayim Mikra ViEchad Targum”; Michilta Parshas Bo in name of Rebbe Yehuda Hanassi; Levush 285:1 “This is hinted in the verse “Vieileh Shemos Bnei Yisrael, which stands for Vichayav Adam Likros Shanyim Mikra Viechad Targum Kol Bnei Yisrael”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:1

[2] The reason: As every Jew has an obligation to be an expert in scripture, and hence the Sages enacted the decree of Shnayim Mikra in order to achieve this goal. [Levush 285:1; Igros Moshe 5:17] Alternatively, the reason is because in previous times people who were called to the Torah would then read from it, and hence one was required to recite Shnayim Mikra as a form of preparation. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:1 footnote 8]

[3] Wording of Admur ibid, Michaber ibid, Levush 285:1; Rambam ibid, and many Rishonim who record the word “Chayav/obligation”; Shut Hageonim 7; Sefer Haitim 179; Teshuvas Rav Yaakov Mikrubil; Igros Moshe 5:17; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:261; Mishnas Yosef 6:81

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the matter is not a complete obligation. [See Maharsham 1:213; Shut Rav Akiva Yosef Shlezinger 104; Implication of Brachos ibid from fact a) It does not use the word Chayav; and b) Rebbe Yehoshua Ben Levi had to encourage his son to do so; A number of Rishonim do not use the term “Chayav” upon writing this Halacha: See Rif and Rosh on Brachos ibid; Shivlei Haleket 75 writes that “It is proper for every person to  say Shnayim Mikra”]

[4] See Levush ibid “Chazal obligated every Jew amongst Israel..”; Igros Moshe ibid

[5] See Shut Hageonim 7; Sefer Haitim 179; Teshuvas Rav Yaakov Mikurbil; Bnei Tziyon 285:6; Igros Moshe 5:17; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:261; Mishnas Yosef 6:81; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:1; Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa 2:42; See Kinyan Torah 6:22

[6] See Shlah Hakadosh Miseches Shabbos Neir Mitzvah; Magid Meisharim Yeshaya 66 “Do not read Shnayim Mikra quickly, like you are stoking coals, and to simply fulfill the obligation”; Ruach Chaim 285; Seder Hayom; Rabbeinu Manoach on Rambam; Chasam Sofer 6:61; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda Shaar Hashmini 1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:1

[7] Admur 61:21 “Not only by Keriat Shema do the above laws of vowelization apply, but even when reading the Torah or Nevi’im of Kesuvim one is to be careful in all this.”; Rama 61:22; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda Shaar 3:2 regarding Shnayim Mikra

[8] See Maggid Meisharim ibid

[9] See Yesod Veshoresh Havoda ibid that he should do Teshuvah for those commands that he has broken, and rejoice by those commands that he keeps. He is also to rejoice by the happy events discussed.

[10] Maggid Meisharim ibid; See Chasam Sofer ibid

[11] See Levush and Igros Moshe ibid that the entire purpose of Shnayim Mikra is to become an expert in Chumash and its content

[12] Mishneh Halachos 6:60; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:1

[13] Kinyan Torah 7:19; Shevet Halevi 8:46; Teshuvos Vehanhagos1:261; Halichos Shlomo Tefila 12:37; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:1

[14] See Nitei Gavriel 115:18

[15] Yoreh Deah 384:1

[16] Yoreh Deah 400:1

[17] Michaber ibid

[18] Shach 400:4

[19] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to recite Shnayim Mikra even on Shabbos. [Aguda, brought in Taz 400:1; Rav Poalim 1:52] Other Poskim rule that if the Shiva will end on Sunday/Monday, then he is obligated to delay reading Shnayim Mikra until the end of Shiva, as it is permitted to read Shnayim Mikra until the Wednesday after Shabbos. [Beis Hillel, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 400:3] The Poskim however negate this opinion, being it is a Mitzvah to read the Parsha on Shabbos itself. [Arba Turei Even 11, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid]

[20] Taz 400:1 in name of Rashal; Mahariy 368; Nitei Gavriel 106:15

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted for an Avel to read Shnayim Mikra even during the week. [Mahrikash, brought in Nitei Gavriel ibid]

[21] Beis Lechem Yehuda 400; Birkeiy Yosef 400; See Nitei Gavriel 115:19

[22] Lechem Hapanim 400:1; Aruch Hashulchan 400:6

[23] Chut Hashani 4:87-1; Shevet Hakehasi 5:69; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285 footnote 5

[24] Aruch Hashulchan 285:2

[25] Brachos 8b; See Sefer Chassidim 301 that this only applies to those who desire to live; M”B 285:1

[26] See Madanei Yom Tov on Rosh Brachos 1:8-5

[27] Or Zarua Shabbos 42 based on Midrash that Rebbe Yehuda Hanassi stated that reading Shnayim Mikra is a Segula for Yiras Shamayim

[28] Kaf Hachaim 285:32 in name of Mateh Yehuda

[29] Orchos Chaim 285:4 regarding if one cuts his nails and says Shnayim Mikra before midday

[30] Bas Ayin Lekutim

[31] Mateh Yehuda 285:9, brought in Kaf Hachaim 285:32; See Yesod Veshoresh Havoda Shaar Hashmini 1

[32] This refers to Adam Harishon which gave names to all the animals.

[33] Shlah p. 128; Migaleh Amukos Kedoshim; Olas Tamid 285:2; Chidushei Chasam Sofer Chulin 28a; See Kaf Hachaim 285:20

[34] Admur 285:1-2

[35] See Halacha 4 Q&A regarding reading the verse of Shema Yisrael twice.

[36] Regarding if one is to read Targum versus another commentary the following is the ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch [285:2]:

First Opinion: Targum Unkelus explains many matters which cannot be understood from the simple reading of the verses. Hence one cannot replace reading the Targum with reading a translation of each word in his language. Furthermore some opinions [Hagahos Maymanis Tefila 13:300 in name of Geonim] say the reading of Targum Unkelous merited taking precedence over any other commentary being that it [or its language of Aramaic-see L.S. Vol. 21 P. 447] was given to Moshe at Sinai [as is evident from the Torah using the words “Yegar Shadusa” in Aramaic – Beireishis 31:47], and hence one may only fulfill his obligation through reading the Targum.

Second Opinion: Others [Michaber 285:2] rule that if one reads a commentary on the Torah [irrelevant of language] which explains each and every word of the versus more than does the explanation of Targum, then reading this commentary is better than reading the Targum. Likewise, according to this opinion, it is better to read the Torah twice and then a third time to read the entire Torah with the commentary of Rashi, then it is to read Targum. The reason for this is because Rashi is based on the fundamentals of the Talmud, and hence explains more than does the Targum. [However even according to this opinion it does not suffice to read the Torah twice and then to go straight to the commentary of Rashi being that Rashi does not explain every verse or word and one is thus lacking the third reading of some words and verses. Hence this option is only valid if one goes back and reads the entire Parsha a third time with Rashi. (Kuntrus Achron 1; however see M”B 285:5)]

Practically the main opinion is like the latter opinion, although a G-d fearing Jew is to read both Targum and Rashi. [285:2]

Summary of ruling of Admur: Based on above it seems that the summary of this Halacha should be as follows: It is best for one to read the Parsha three times with commentary of Rashi [the main opinion], although a G-d fearing Jew should also read Targum. So summarizes Kitzur Halachos 285:3. However the Ketzos Hashulchan 72:1 summarizes as written above that first and foremost one is to read the Targum and it is only that a G-d fearing Jew should also read Rashi. Perhaps the reason for this is because according to both opinions one fulfills his obligation with Targum, while with Rashi it is a dispute as explained above. Now, although the main opinion follows that reading Rashi is better, since according to the other opinion one does not fulfill his obligation by doing so, it is ruled that one is to read Targum, and if one is G-d fearing then he should also read Rashi in order to fulfill his obligation the best possible way according to the main opinion. This understanding can also be understood from the wording of Admur in his concluding ruling that “….is to read Targum and also Rashi” hence giving precedence to Targum and making Rashi only secondary. This explanation is unlike the understanding of Kitzur Halachos ibid which gives precedence to Rashi over Targum.

The Kabalistic perspective: Based on Kabala [see below “Sparks of Kabala”] one must read Targum and may not replace it with another commentary. Hence if one does not have time to read both Targum and Rashi he is to read Targum. [Beir Heiytiv 285:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 285:3 in name of Bircheiy Yosef]

Other Opinions: The Rashal rules that if one is unable to read both Targum and Rashi he is to rather read Rashi. [Brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid]

  • The practical Custom: In conclusion, practically the Chabad custom is, as written above, to read Targum and only in addition to read Rashi if one so chooses. [Sefer Haminhagim p. 49 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Sivan]
  • To summarize the requirements from the letter of the law: From the letter of the law one can either choose to only read Targum [which all agree fulfills one’s obligation] or only read a commentary which explains every word, or read the Mikra a 3rd time with Rashi. [As rules the second opinion which is the main opinion.] A G-d fearing Jew is to read both the Targum and Rashi. If one will only be able to read either Targum or Mikra a third time with Rashi, it is better to read Targum [as explained above].

[37] See above footnote for background behind this ruling.

Seemingly Admur singles out learning Rashi over any other commentary due to that Rashi is based on the Talmud and hence is better than other commentaries. To note that according to the opinions which allow reading commentary in place of Targum Admur placed the commentary of Rashi in the plain Halacha and only added other commentaries in parentheses, hence implying that there is room to argue that even according to this opinion which allow other commentaries perhaps they allow only Rashi and not others. To note from Sefer Haminhagim p. 39: The commentary of Rashi on the Torah is the wine of the Torah, it unlocks one’s heart and reveals one’s innate love and fear of G-d. Studying a section of Chumash with Rashi everyday activates the light within the soul and reveals the soul. This is a glow of the revelation of Moshiach.

[38] So is implied from Sefer Haminhagim ibid that does not mention Rashi as part of being Mavir Sedra. Logically this is because we already fulfill our obligation of Rashi with the reading done during the week. To note however from Igros Kodesh 13 p. 425 that learning the daily Chumash with Rashi is independent of Shnayim Mikra. Perhaps however that means that even without the obligation of Shnayim Mikra it would be done, however once it is done it too counts for one to fulfill the obligation of G-d fearing Jews to learn Rashi.

[39] Such as the verses of the names of the Shevatim.

[40] Admur 285:10

[41] In order so one be familiar with the Haftorah in case he is called up for Maftir. [Admur ibid] This custom is likewise recorded in Sefer Haminhagim p. 49 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Sivan.

Nevertheless from the fact that it is our custom to read all the Haftoras of a coming week, even the one which will not be read in Shul such as when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, makes it evident that this reason alone cannot be the full reason behind reading the Haftorah. This would likewise apply even in accordance to the ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch [see next footnote] that only the Haftorah which will be read in Shul is to be read, as in conclusion Admur rules that when Sos Asis will be read as Haftorah many consecutive weeks one is to read to himself on the second and onward Shabbosim, the weekly Haftorah rather than Sos Asis.

Custom to read also the Haftorah with Targum: Some have the custom to read the Haftorah Echad Mikra Vetargum. [M”A 285:11] Others are not accustomed to do so. [Mateh Yehuda 285:8; Kaf Hachaim 285:38] This is not the Chabad custom.

[42] Sefer Haminhagim p. 49 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Sivan

The ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch and other opinions: In the Shulchan Aruch 285:10 Admur rules that in a week that there are two applicable Haftoras, one is to read only the Haftorah which will be read in public and not the Haftorah of the weekly Parsha. Accordingly, on Shabbos Rosh Chodesh or Erev Rosh Chdoesh one only reads the Haftorah of Rosh Chodesh and not of the weekly Parsha. [Admur ibid; M”A 285:12]  The simple reason behind this ruling is as Admur ibid explains that the entire custom to read the weekly Haftorah is only in order so one be prepared in case he is called up to read it. Hence in a week that it is not being read there is no custom to review it. [Admur ibid] Some Poskim rule one is to only read the weekly Haftorah and not the additional Haftorah that is read in public. [Kneses Hagedola 285; Moreh Baetzba 4:132; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 11; Kaf Hachaim 285:36 that so is custom.] Our custom is to review all the applicable Haftoras.

[43] Likkut Dinei Rosh Chodesh 10:12 based on Sefer Haminhagim ibid

[44] Hisvadyus 1985 Vol. 1 p. 351

[45] 285:9; Michaber 285:7; M”A 285:10; Terumos Hadeshen 123; 2:170

[46] The reason: As one has already read, or will read, these portions within their weekly Parsha. [ibid]

[47] 285:9

[48] After [midday] of Hoshana Raba. We however do not read Shnayim Mikra of Vezos Habracha on the night of Hoshana Raba [after the Tikkun] as is the custom of others. [Sefer Haminhagim p. 145 English, unlike the custom brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 4; So concludes also Peri Megadim A”A 285:10 that although many have the custom to read on the night of Hoshana Raba, it is best to read it on Erev Simchas Torah, and so concludes Ketzos Hashulchan ibid.]

Other customs: Many in Eretz Yisrael are accustomed to read Shnayim Mikra of Vezos Habracha on the night of Hoshana Raba after completing the reading of Mishneh Torah.

[49] As Vezos Habracha is read on Simchas Torah and has not yet been read during the year, hence it is similar to all weekly Torah portions which must be read Shnayim Mikra prior to their being read. [ibid]

[50] Seemingly one is obligated to read the verses in his language, as is the ruling regarding one who does not understand Rashi that he is to read a commentary in the language which he understands. Vetzaruch Iyun as in this case he is still lacking the concept of Mikra, and it is merely like he is reading Targum three times. Vetzaruch Iyun Lemaaseh

[51] Pashut as doing so is no different than reading it in the Hebrew original.

[52] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3.

The doubt: Seemingly there is room to say that according to the Poskim which allow completing a Parsha until Shemini Atzeres, the entire year is considered the time for that years Parshiyos, and hence Bedieved one is Yotzei no matter when it was read that year. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[53] Kaneh Bosem 1:16

[54] As is the law regarding the sections read on Yom Tov, being that these sections were, or will be, read in their applicable Parshiyos.

[55] Brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:3

[56] For a thorough analysis on this matter-see Betzeil Hachachmah Vol. 1:2-8

[57] This can occur when the 2nd day of Pesach or Shavuos falls on Shabbos in the Diaspora and hence no Parsha is read, while in Eretz Yisrael the regular weekly Parsha was read. If one travels that week to the Diaspora, he will be hearing the same Parsha that he heard the previous Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael.

[58] Ikarei Hadaat 22:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[59] This ruling is evident from Admur 285:9 which does not require one to read Shnayim Mikra of the Yomim Tovim sections prior to each Yom Tov being that it was already read or will be read in its related Shabbos portion. Hence the same logistics apply here and there is no need to repeat Shnayim Mikra.

[60] Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:2

[61] Such as one who travels during Chol Hamoed Pesach, or the week of Shavuos and the second days in the Diaspora coincide with Shabbos.

[62] Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:2

[63] Such as one traveled to Eretz Yisrael the week after a two-day Shavuos or Pesach which coincided with Shabbos, in which case Eretz Yisrael is one Parsha ahead in its reading.

[64] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[65] See Chayeh Levi 4:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 285:9

[66] p. 128

[67] 285:6 in the first custom mentioned, and so is the Chabad custom as mentioned in Hayom Yom 4th Teveis; Lekutei Sichos 24 p. 342. Beir Heiytiv 285:1 “This is the main Mitzvah”. This custom is recorded by the Shalah [p. 128]. Admur writes regarding the reason of this custom “for reasons known to them”. The reason recorded by the Shalah is based on Kabala, the reason being due to that on Erev Shabbos Kelipas Nogah requests elevation into Holiness, and the Targum of Unkelus who was a convert represents that exact elevation, hence after midday of Erev Shabbos [when the light of the holiness of Shabbos begins to shine] one is to read Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum and perform the elevation of Kelipas Nogah.

Other Opinions: Others [Arizal brought in Shaareiy Teshuva] are accustomed to read the entire Parsha Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum after prayer on the morning of Erev Shabbos [prior to midday]. [285:6] Although this is the second opinion in Admur and the Rebbe Rashab rules that we always follow the second opinion in a case that no ruling is given [Siddur Im Dach Hosafos p. 12] nevertheless the practical directive is like the first opinion. [L.S. ibid]

The ruling of M”B: The Mishneh Berurah [285:8] brings opinions which say that there is no Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to read Shnayim Mikra specifically on Erev Shabbos, but rather any day of that week so that it is completed before Shabbos.

[68] Admur 285:5

[69] As one is obligated to read the Parsha simultaneous to when the public reads it, which is only applicable on the week of that Parsha. [Admur ibid]

[70] The Magen Avraham [285:6] rules [in name of Arizal] that one is to only rely on the letter of the law and delay the reading to Shabbos if he was greatly prevented from reading it on Erev Shabbos. He concludes that one is allowed to begin it on Erev Shabbos and then conclude it on Shabbos prior to the morning meal.

[71] M”B 285:9; In Sefer Hasichos 1942 p. 72 it is recorded that one is to try to finish the reading prior to Shachris on Shabbos morning. [See Kitzur Halachos 285 footnote 10*]; Oar Zarua

[72] As so commanded Rabeinu Hakadosh to his children that they should not eat the Shabbos morning meal until they have completed Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum. [ibid]

One is not to delay his meal past midday if he did not yet eat or drink anything at all since the previous night. Likewise, one is not to delay his meal to say Shnayim Mikra in a case that he has guests. [M”B 285:9 brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 6]

[73] As only then does one hear Kerias Hatorah of the next week. [see next footnote] Hence one must finish Shnayim Mikra prior to the last Mincha Minyan in one’s town, even if he desires to Daven later alone. Likewise, if there are many Shuls and he decided to Daven in an early Minyan, he must finish Shnayim Mikra prior to his Mincha. Vetzaruch Iyun regarding if one’s Shul already Davened Mincha and he still did not Daven and has other Minyanim available to Daven with if he follows his personal Shul regarding Shnayim Mikra. [Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 6]

[74] As from Mincha and onwards begins the reading of the next weeks Parsha. This reading thus concludes the final time for being able to read the current weeks Parsha at the same time as is the public. [Admur ibid]

Now, although Admur offers other opinions regarding by when the Parsha must be read, it is only regarding Bedieved if one did not do so that the other opinions rule that one should still read it, however all agree that one is obligated to conclude Shnayim Mikra  prior to Mincha as rules the first opinion. [M”B 285:12].

[75] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 7. This applies even if Shabbos has already ended and one did not yet Daven Maariv, as it still remains Shabbos for the person.

The reason for why one is to read it before he concludes Shabbos: 1) There are opinions which rules one cannot say Havdala until Tuesday. According to this opinion there is likewise no allowance to make up the reading of Shnayim Mikra until Tuesday. However even according to them one may still complete the reading on Shabbos. 2) The Kol Bo rules one may not say the next weeks Parsha past Mincha while still Shabbos. This shows Shabbos still has a connection to the previous weeks Parsha 3) Logically it would be better to make up the reading on a day that is still part of Shabbos itself over a day that just has a connection with the previous Shabbos. [Admur ibid]

[76] This follows the opinion of the Hagahos Maimanis in name of Mahram which rules that Bedieved one has until Tuesday to complete Shnayim Mikra. It is in contrast to the first opinion mentioned by Admur which rules that after Mincha one can no longer fulfill his obligation of Shnayim Mikra. Admur concludes that it is good to suspect for the lenient opinion and still read the Shnayim Mikra by Tuesday if one transgressed.

The reason for having until Tuesday: As until Tuesday the days still carry a connection to the previous Shabbos as is evident from the ruling that Havdala may be said until Tuesday. [ibid]

[77] This follows the opinion of the Hagahos Maimanis in name of Rabbeinu Simcha which rules that Bedieved one has until Simchas Torah to complete it. It is in contrast to the first two opinions mentioned by Admur [see previous footnote] which rule that after Mincha or at the very least by Wednesday the chance is lost. Admur concludes that it is good to suspect to this lenient opinion and still read the Shnayim Mikra before Simchas Torah if one transgressed.

The reason for having until Simchas Torah: As by then the entire congregation completes the entire Torah. [Admur ibid]

[78] This negates the custom of those which only say the Mikra and not the Targum when completing the Parsha past its initial time, prior to Simchas Torah.

[79] 285:8

[80] Michaber 146:2 as rules Murdechaiy; Hagahos Ashriy; Reb Yehuda Hachasid; Terumas Hadeshen.

The Elya Raba rules that not only is this allowed but it is a mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. However the Mamar Murdechaiy argues on the ability to call this leniency a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar, See Biur Halacha 285 “Yachol”.

[81] So as not to disturb the listeners. [Peri Megadim, brought in M”B 146:11]

[82] It is permitted to read even a different section in that Parsha than the section which the Baal Korah is reading. The reason for this allowance is because at the end of the day the reader is involved within the same topic as is the Baal Korah. [Peri Megadim, brought in M”B 146:11] This allowance applies even if he is part of the 10 listeners. [Magen Avraham 146:5 in name of Terumas Hadeshen]

[83] Peri Chadash; Magen Avraham [146:5] in name of Shalah is stringent in this. [M”B 146:15]

[84] Final ruling of Michaber 146:2 as explained in M”B 14 to be referring also to Shnayim Mikra; M”B 285:14

[85] Magen Avraham 146:5

[86] M”B 146:15; 185:14

[87] 285:8

[88] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 1

Other cases of need: It is close to Tuesday night and he has not yet said it. It is Simchas Torah and he does not have enough time to say each verse twice of all the versus that he missed.

[89] Some opinions [M”A 285:8; see Shaareiy Teshuvah 285:6] say that one fulfills his obligation of the reading of Mikra one time with hearing clearly the entire Parsha read by Kerias Hatorah. However even according to them this is only Bedieved. However, Lechatchilah one is not to rely on his hearing [as perhaps he will become distracted in middle-59:4], rather he is to read it himself [either during the Keria or before or after]. Others however say that one does not fulfill his obligation at all with hearing the reading, as the entire obligation originally was that one read Shnayim Mikra in addition to the Torah reading. Practically Admur rules one may be lenient in a time of need. [ibid]

[90] The Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 1 rules that after Mincha or after Tuesday one is to read the Mikra an additional time in order to fulfill his obligation even according to those who rule that one does not fulfill his obligation with the hearing of the Torah. [This however is not the simple implication from Admur, and so seems to be the logical ruling as Shnayim Mikra is Rabbinical. Vetzaruch Iyun]

[91] This applies even in accordance to the lenient opinion-see previous footnote.

[92] M”A 285:1

This was the custom of the Arizal [Brought in Kaf Hachayim 260:7; M”A ibid] and so writes Shalah p. 138 explicitly in Hagah that one is to read Shnayim Mikra prior to immersing.  So rules also Oar Tzadikim 28:18 stating that if one immerses prior to Shnayim Mikra he does not have the ability to receive the holiness of Shabbos.

This is unlike what is written in the Peri Megadim 260 A”A 1 in name of Eliyah Raba [260:4] in name of Shalah that one is to immerse prior to Shnayim Mikra. After researching this seeming contradiction, the following was discovered: The Eliyah Raba [260:4] himself never makes such a claim and rather simply states in name of Shalah that one is to cut his nails prior to Shnayim Mikra, and does not discuss immersion in that regard. Furthermore, in some prints of the Peri Megadim the entire novelty of immersion after Shnayim Mikra was placed in brackets hence lending suspicion as to the accuracy of what in truth the Peri Megadim wrote. Due to all above seemingly there was a misprint in some versions of the Eliyah Raba or the Peri Megadim. This seemingly occurred due to a misreading of the word “Yitol” [take the nails] which was read “Yitvol” [immerse] and hence this caused the change. In any event the ruling of the Shalah is clear as written in his Sefer Shlah Hakadosh, that one is to immerse after Shnayim Mikra! In light of all the above there is no room for the ruling brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:1 or 285:1. [In the new edition of Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:4 they fixed the ruling and wrote as we stated above.]

Other Opinions:  Siddur Yaavetz rules one is to immerse prior to Shnayim Mikra.

[93] M”A 285:1; Shalah P. 138 in the “Hagah”

[94] See Chapter 1 Halacha 17 for all the opinions on this matter.

[95] See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:130

[96] As from the letter of the law it may be recited up until Mincha, and the Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar is to recite it prior to the morning meal. Thus there is no requirement to recite it immediately after midday on Friday.

[97] See Igros Kodesh 19 p. 370

[98] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 6

[99] As the reason for why Rabbeinu Hakadosh told his children to finish Shnayim Mikra prior to the morning meal, is so they not become too indulged within the meal and come to forget to say it. [Oar Zarua] This reason is not applicable by a mere snack. Furthermore, it is illogical to say that eating before Shnayim Mikra would be more severe than eating prior to Mincha, in which case eating a snack before Mincha is allowed. [ibid]

[100] See Halacha 4 Q&A

[101] Sefer Haminhagim p. 49

[102] As the main reason behind the custom is so one be prepared to read the Haftorah if he is called up. [285:10]

[103] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 12, following the ruling of Kneses Hagedola, Moreh Etzba that when there are two Haftoras even the Haftorah which will not be read on Shabbos is to be read for Shnayim Mikra.

[104] I.e. If this week is Parshas Lechlecha, may one begin reading Shnayim Mikra of Vayeira beginning from after Mincha of this Shabbos?

[105] M”B 285:7, Shaareiy Tziyon 12

[106] So writes Peri Megadim [A”A 285:5 ]; Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3.

Background: The Mordechaiy rules that one who reads from after Mincha of Shabbos the next weeks Shnayim Mikra has fulfilled his obligation. However, the Kol Bo rules one has not fulfilled his obligation. [Beis Yosef; Darchei Moshe 1 brought in PM”G ibid]

Ruling of Admur: Admur rules [285:5] that one is to finish that weeks Shnayim Mikra by Mincha of Shabbos, as after the Torah reading of Mincha the new week’s portion has begun. This implies that immediately after Mincha one may already begin reading Shnayim Mikra of next week. So implies the Peri Megadim also from similar wording of the Kneses Hagedola. Vetzrauch Iyun why the Ketzos Hashulchan left this matter in question despite Admur’s clear wording.

[107] i.e. One read Shnayim Mikra of Vayeira on Erev Shabbos Lech Lecha.

[108] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 3.

The doubt: Seemingly there is room to say that according to the Poskim which allow completing a Parsha until Shemini Atzeres, the entire year is considered the time for that years Parshiyos, and hence Bedieved one is Yotzei no matter when it was read that year. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[109] Kaneh Bosem 1:15

[110] Kaneh Bosem 1:16

[111] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 9

[112] As in Shachris one hears the reading of Bereishis which is the start of the new year’s cycle and represents the end of the previous year’s cycle. [ibid] Kaf Hachayim

[113] Just as is the law after Mincha of Shabbos. [ibid] However the Kaf Hachayim rules after the Torah reading on Simchas Torah Shnayim Mikra of the previous year can no longer be recited.

[114] Similar to the ruling by all Shabbosim. [ibid]

[115] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 9; See Teshuvahs Mahrsham 213 who brings a proof from Tzemach Tzedek to rule this way. See Ketzos Hashulchan ibid for why there is no problem that one is first reading the Tashlumin and then the Choveh, even though by Davening we rule one must first Daven the Choveh and then the Tashlumin.

[116] Betzeil Hachachma 1:9; See Shut Mahrsham ibid

[117] As even in a case one knows for certain he missed a Parsha it is only “proper” for him to still read it suspecting for the stringent opinion that he can still make it up. Hence certainly here that one is in doubt there is no requirement to read it.

[118] Beir Heiytiv 238:2 states in name of Arizal that one is not to learn Tanach at night. This ruling is quoted by many Poskim. So also rules the Rebbe as is evident from Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:24;

Regarding Shnayim Mikra: So is ruled explicitly in Lekutei Mahrich [Seder Kevius Itim Letorah] that Shnayim Mikra is not to be said at night.

Other Poskim: Shaareiy Tziyon 238:1 rules one may read Mikra at night, however it is better to do so during the day.

Regarding if one may read Mikra after midnight: No. This allowance only applies to Tehillim. [Kaf Hachayim 237:9; Ben Ish Chaiy Pekudeiy 7; Lekutei Mahrich ibid; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag ibid]

[119] Ben Ish Chaiy Pekudeiy 7; Kaf Hachayim 237:9

[120] Some opinions allow reading Mikra on Thursday nights. [Oar Tzadikim] Others go even further to state it is customary to recite Shnayim Mikra specifically on Thursday night. [Machazikei Bracha in name of Rashash] Nevertheless some rule this allowance applies only to Mikra and not Targum. [Machazikei Bracha brought in Lekutei Mahrich ibid] To note however from the custom of the Chabad Rabbeim [Hayom Yom 4th Teves] to read the first and at times also the second portion of the Parsha on Thursday night. It is implied there from the wording [Maavir Sedra] that they also read Targum.

[121]Yesod Veshoresh Havodah Shaar Hanitzutz chapter 2; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag ibid

[122] Lekutei Mahrich ibid

[123] Machazikei Bracha brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 285:6

[124] As rules Admur regarding being Yotzei with the Baal Korei.

[125] Hayom Yom 4th Teves [To note this custom was omitted from Sefer Haminhagim, Vetzrauch Iyun if it is to be followed by Chassidim or is within those customs that are specifically designated for the Rabbeim.]

[126] This follows the opinion of the Rashash which states it is customary to recite Shnayim Mikra specifically on Thursday night. [Machazikei Bracha in name of Rashash] Nevertheless some hold this allowance applies only to Mikra and not Targum. [Machazikei Bracha brought in Lekutei Mahrich ibid] However from the wording of Hayom Yom it implies the Rabbeim would likewise read Targum.

[127] Admur 285:3 following the second custom recorded by Admur there. Admur concludes “and this custom is more proper”. So is also the practical custom as recorded in Sefer Haminhagim p. 49 [English]; Hayom Yom 30th Sivan. This was the custom of the Arizal. [M”A 285:1]

The reason for why this custom is the most proper: As this follows the same order of the Torah reading of the past which was done by reading the Targum of each verse directly after reading that verse. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some [Shalah; Rashal] have the custom to read a section [of Pesucha/Setuma] twice and then immediately read the Targum of that section prior to beginning the next section. This order is followed throughout the entire Parsha. [First opinion recorded in Admur ibid]

The ruling of the Mishneh Berurah: The Mishneh Berurah [285:2] rules that one may follow whichever opinion he chooses.

[128] Admur 285:3; This implies that one may even read the entire Parsha twice and only then read the Targum, or read an entire Aliyah and then read its Targum etc. This is unlike any of the customs mentioned by Admur, although as he concludes from the letter of the law all methods are valid. See also the next sentence in which Admur rules that in case of need this is the course that one is to follow [reading first the entire Mikra].

Other orders of reading: One fulfills his obligation if he read the Mikra once, then the Targum and then again, the Mikra. [Admur 285:7] However, seemingly this is only Bedieved, as Lechatchilah one is always to first read the Mikra twice. [Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 1; Kitzur Halachos 285 footnote 6] Vetzaruch Iyun if one fulfills his obligation if he reads the Targum prior to reading the Mikra even once. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; From M”B 285:6 it is implied one does not fulfill his obligation, although perhaps he too meant to leave this matter unresolved. See there.]

[129] Admur 285:6                                                                                                                                    

[130] Admur 285:3

[131] Then too the last verse would be repeated after its Targum was read. [Ibid]

[132] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag Vol. 5:28; However, see Ketzos Hashulchan 72:3 and Kitzur Halachos 285:5 that mention this ruling without remark that this is not the followed Chabad custom.

[133] 285:6

[134] Shlah [Torah Oar 138a] in name of Ramak, and so is recorded also in Olas Shabbos 285:2; M”A 285:11; See next footnote. To note the Rebbe in Lekutei Sichos 24 p. 342 does not unequivocally state that it is our custom to follow this opinion and rather uses the wording “those that are stringent to follow this custom”. This is in contrast to other matters of Shnayim Mikra mentioned in the above letter in which the Rebbe explicitly states the Chabad custom.

[135] The Beir Heiytiv [285:1] writes “It is a great prohibition to speak in middle of Shnayim Mikra”. The M”B in Shaareiy Tziyon 285:11 explains this to refer to speaking in middle of a Parsha [Pesucha:Setuma] as it is considered like one who is interrupting his Torah study for mundane matters. However, between Parshiyos everyone agrees that from the letter of the law it is allowed. Admur however makes no mention of there being any prohibition involved and rather simply mentions it as a custom. The M”A 285:11 simply writes it is proper not to talk in-between.

[136] M”B 285:6; So rules also Kaf Hachaim 285:32

[137] Lekutei Sichos 24 p. 342; Kaf Hachaim 285:32

[138] Vetzaruch Iyun from Admur’s conclusion “and after that one reads the Mikra in order”. What is the meaning of this? Is one required to read at least one time the entire Mikra in order? In Ketzos Hashulchan 72:2 and Kitzur Halachos this conclusion is omitted. In Kuntrus Hashulchan p. 31 [of the same author of Ketzos Hashulchan] he edits that the words should read “and after that one reads the Targum in order”. His basis is that it is untrue to say that one would be required to read the entire Mikra at least one time in order, as such a law does not exist. Hence, he edits that it must have said Targum.

[139] Based on 285:7 regarding a Melameid Tinokos.

[140] Admur 285:4; No leniency is however to be learned from this law regarding reading from a Sefer Torah without due reason. See Shach Yoreh Deah 270:5; Nemukei Orach Chayim 669:2 towards end; Shut Marsham 175

[141] Meaning that he knows by which word each verse ends. [Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 1, derived from Admur’s additional word “Piskeiy Taamim”] The reason for why one must know the end of each verse by heart as a condition to read from the Torah is because it is forbidden for one to stop in middle of a verse that Moshe did not stop by [494:11], and if one does not know the end of each verse certainly he will end up stopping in middle of some of the verses.

[142] This was the custom of the Arizal [Shaar Hakavanos] and of the Taz [Taz 285:1]. The Taz [ibid] rules that each person should read the Mikra at least one time from a Kosher Sefer Torah, as from a mere Chumash one does not properly fulfill his obligation.

[143] The Arizal however would have a student read him the Targum and he would then repeat it after them. [ibid]

[144] Hisvadyus 1988 Vol. 2 p. 167; Lekutei Sichos 24 p. 214 footnote 59; letters printed in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:189

[145] As he will not know by which word to end each verse. See previous footnotes

[146] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 10; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag Vol. 5:28

[147] Mishmeres Shalom 24

[148] Machazikei Bracha, brought in Kaf Hachayim 285; Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 1; Kitzur Halachos 285 footnote 8; So can also be deduced from the Peri Megadim [285 A”A 9] which rules based on 285:7 that reading the Taamim is not critical to fulfilling the obligation.  This implies there is reason to assume that it should be required initially. So can also be deduced from Radbaz brought in Magen Avraham 285 regarding one who knows the Taamim by heart that he is to read from a Sefer Torah, hence implying that all are to read the Taamim [and hence if one does not know the Taamim by heart it is better to read from a Chumash with the Taamim]. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

Opinion of Admur: From Admur’s wording of “Piskeiy Taamim” which is in addition to the wording of the Magen Avraham, hence implying that the Taamim themselves need not be read. Perhaps however this is merely coming to teach that it is better to read from a Sefer Torah without the Taamim than from a Chumash with the Taamim, so long as one knows where to stop. Nevertheless, even Admur would agree that when reading from a Chumash it is better to do so with the Taamim. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

[149] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[150] Peri Megadim 285 A”A 9; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; M”B 285:17; So is implied from the lack of this requirement or enhancement of the Mitzvah being mentioned in Shulchan Aruch. So is also implied from 285:7 regarding the Melameid who fulfils his obligation of Mikra while teaching without tune. [Peri Megadim 285 A”A 9]

So is also implied from Admur 285:4 which added “Piskeiy Taamim. See previous footnotes.

[151] Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 5; M”B 285:6

[152] As even by the actual Torah reading if read out of order one fulfills his obligation.

[153] So is implied from Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim 285:32 which write one is not to even interrupt Shnayim Mikra for words of Torah; So is also implied from the wording of the Ramak brought in Shlah 138a. However later on in Ramak he states that one says “Shnayim Mikra Echad Targum with Unkolus or other translation”. To note however that there he was referring to the Shnayim Mikra of the Haftorah and not of the Parsha.

[154] Piskeiy Teshuvos 285 footnote 30

[155] As he may come to forget to say it later on, as well as that perhaps he may need to go to the bathroom another time prior t completing Shnayim Mikra in which case he enters into a dispute amongst Poskim in whether he may still say Asher Yatzar: [ibid]

[156] Brought in Shlah 138a; There he writes “After reciting Shnayim Mikra without any interruption, not even for his needs” In general in Halacha the term “Tzrachav, needs” refers to using the bathroom.

[157] Seemingly this does not transgress the prohibition of Baal Tishaktzu as one is allowed to withhold his needs for the sake of a Mitzvah. [See Admur 3:11 Basra; and Siddur as explained in Ketzos Hashulchan 19 footnote 27 that one may not use the bathroom for a bowel movement in the midst of Davening beginning from Baruch Sheamar.

[158] Lev Chaim 3:23 brought in Kaf Hachaim 285:15 regarding the allowance to drink in the middle

[159] Lev Chaim 3:23 brought in Kaf Hachaim 285:15

[160] Brought in Shlah 138a

[161] Shulchan Hatahor Tznius 4

[162] Kaf Hachaim 285:32                                                                   

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?