Chapter 18: Home cleanliness
1. Washing dishes on Shabbos:
All dishes/cutlery needed to be used on Shabbos may be washed anytime on Shabbos, even much time prior to the meal. Thus one may wash the Friday night dishes immediately after the meal on Friday night and does not need to wait until the morning. Furthermore, so long as there still remains one meal which he will eat on Shabbos one may wash as many number of dishes and cutlery as he wants, even if he only needs to use one of those dishes for the meal. If however one will not be eating any more Shabbos meals, such as after Shalosh Seudos [or after the 2nd meal in those homes which do not eat Shalosh Seudos] then it is forbidden to wash any dishes or cutlery. [If however one decides to eat more past the 2nd/3rd meal then he may wash the dishes for the meal.]
Washing cups: It is permitted to wash cups throughout the entire day of Shabbos, even after the final meal, unless one is certain that he will no longer need the cup, in which case it is forbidden to wash it.
Scrubbing, Shining and Polishing dishes and silverware: One may scrub down, shine and polish all dishes and cutlery needed to be used on Shabbos, even if they are made of silver. It is however forbidden to clean or shine silver using a material which will inevitably remove a layer of the silver from it.
Washing dishes with salt water: One may not use salty water to scrub the vessels as by doing so one actively dissolves the salt which is forbidden due to the Nolad prohibition. One may however rinse them using salty water [so long as he does not rub his hands in the process. Likewise one may place salt in water initially on Shabbos for this purpose even if the water ratio will be less than 1/3 of the mixture.]
Washing off non-Kosher food from a utensil: See the end of the next Halacha!
One may wash as many dishes as he wishes if there is still one remaining meal left to be eaten on Shabbos. After the final meal, dishes may not be washed with exception to cups, unless one knows for certain he will not be needing the cups until after Shabbos, in which case even cups may not be washed.
Q&A On washing Dishes
May one wash dirty dishes even if he has more clean dishes available?
Some Poskim rule it is better not to wash the dishes if there are clean dishes available. Others rule it is completely forbidden. Others rule it is even initially permitted to wash dirty dishes for the meal even if one has clean dishes available to use. Practically the custom is to be lenient.
May one wash the dishes after his last meal if they are tarnishing the cleanliness of the house?
Yes. One may do so according to all opinions, even if he does not need them to eat another meal on Shabbos.
May one wash dishes on Shabbos if he will only be using them the next Shabbos?
May one soak the dishes in water after his last Shabbos meal?
If one is doing so merely so the food does not stick to the dishes, then soaking it is allowed. If, however, food is already stuck on and one desires to soak it in order to remove the food, then doing so is forbidden. It is however permitted to place the dishes in the sink as normal, and then proceed to wash one’s hands over it.
May one wash his food pots on Shabbos?
No, unless one plans on using the pot on Shabbos for a certain usage.
May one enter water into his food pot in order to let the pot soak?
If there is food stuck to the bottom of the pot, doing so is forbidden, as explained above.
May one wash his Kiddush cup out after Kiddush of the day meal?
If one is particular to only use the cup for Kiddush and Havdalah then it may not be washed after the daytime Kiddush unless one plans on using it. If, however, one is not particular in this respect then it may be washed without throughout the day as is the law by other cups.
In all cases one may rinse out the wine and then drink some water out from the cup and place it on the drying rack.
Q&A on Soaps
Which soaps may be used to wash dishes?
· It is forbidden to use a bar of soap.
· Liquid soap: Liquid soap may be used on Shabbos. This includes even if the soap is slightly thick to the point that it cannot be poured like actual liquid but is rather more like a pasty substance. [However, there is an opinion which is stringent against using liquid soap even when the soap is thin like water due to the smoothening prohibition. However, if one added water to the soap and it has thus already been melted down with water then it is permitted to be used according to all.] Practically the custom is to avoid using thick liquid soap. Regarding using scented liquid soaps, see Volume 2 “The Laws of Molid Reiach”
· Dish detergent: May be used with a large amount of water, so as not to transgress the kneading prohibition. Likewise, one may rub it onto the dishes using wet hands and then wash it off.
May one place soap into a cup of liquid and have it dissolved and then use that to wash dishes? 
Yes, as doing so is similar to placing ice in one’s drink which is allowed. Furthermore, one may even mix the soap into the water through shaking the vessel.
However, some are stringent to only place in the bar of soap from before Shabbos.
Q&A on Sponges
Which forms of sponges may be used to wash the dishes?
Others however permit using synthetic [or metal] sponges which have their threads visibly spread apart from each other, and thus does not involve squeezing. However, they forbid using steel wool, and any sponge which has its threads close to each other. Others question that perhaps it is permitted in all cases, although they rule one is not to be lenient by closely knitted sponges. Others rule that even by those sponges which are permitted one may only use it if it is designated specifically for Shabbos.
2. Scrubbing, Shining and Polishing dishes and silverware:
One may scrub down, shine and polish all dishes and cutlery needed to be used on Shabbos, even if they are made of silver, so long as the shining agent does not remove any layer of the vessel. Thus, it is forbidden to clean or shine silver using a material which will inevitably remove a layer of the silver from it. [See Q&A regarding removing tarnish from silver!]
One may polish all vessels on Shabbos if the following two conditions are fulfilled:
1. He is doing so in order to use the vessel that Shabbos.
2. The polishing will not inevitably remove any of the material of the vessel.
Q&A on Polishing
May one polish glass dishes?
May one polish silverware, copperware, and other silver vessels?
It is forbidden to remove tarnish from silverware or copperware on Shabbos. If there is no tarnish and one simply desires to shine the vessel it is permitted to do so even if it is made of silver or copper. However some Poskim rule it is forbidden to polish metal vessels in all cases, even with a dry cloth, and even if there is no tarnish.
Using a silver polish cloth: It requires further research to verify whether silver polishing cloths accomplish the shine through removing the silver material or not. If it does not remove the silver, then according to Admur it may be used. If it removes a layer of the silver, it may not be used.
Using silver polish cream: It is forbidden to use any polishing cream to polish vessels due to the smearing prohibition.
Using a wet sponge: When using a sponge with water to polish a vessel one must be careful to only use a permitted type of sponge, as explained in the previous Halacha.
May one remove rust from metal, such as from the blade of a knife?
3. Immersing vessels in a Mikveh:
It is forbidden to immerse a vessel in a Mikveh on Shabbos if the vessel requires immersion in order to be used. Thus any vessel bought from a gentile and has not yet been immersed may not be immersed on Shabbos. This applies even if one did not have the ability to immerse the vessels before Shabbos.
Giving the vessel to a gentile: Being that one may not immerse the vessel on Shabbos, and it is forbidden to use a vessel without immersion, one’s only option is to give the vessel to a gentile as a present and then borrow it back from the gentile. This however may only be done if one needs to use the vessel on Shabbos. In such a case, after borrowing the vessel back from the gentile one may use the vessel without immersion, as it now legally belongs to the gentile. Nevertheless, after Shabbos one must immerse the vessel without a blessing [or immerse it together with a vessel that requires a blessing]. [Alternatively, one should ask the gentile after Shabbos to acquire the vessel back to him as a complete present, or buy it back with a few coins, in which case one can make a blessing on the immersion of that vessel according to all.]
Immersing the vessel in an inconspicuous manner: It is permitted to immerse the vessel in waters that are Kosher for a Mikveh if it is unnoticeable to the onlooker that he is doing so to purify the vessel. Hence a pitcher and other vessel meant to draw water may be entered into the Mikveh waters to draw out water, therefore purifying the vessel in the process. In such a case one may not say a blessing on the immersion, as if he were to do so it would be evident that his intents are in truth to purify the vessel. [Thus one who has other vessels available may not immerse the vessel in this method, as by doing so one is causing it to lose its blessing. Likewise only pitchers and cups may be immersed, as only they are capable of drawing water and hence fooling the onlooker. One however may not immerse cutlery and china in a Mikveh under the disguise that he is simply washing off the dirt from the vessels, as it is not common at all to do so in a Mikveh, and one’s true intent is hence evident to all. Based on this today that it is no longer common to draw water at all from a Mikveh or any body of water other than one’s sink, it would hence be forbidden to immerse vessels in a Mikveh under all circumstances, as doing so is always apparent of one’s true intention.]
The law on Yom Tov: It is forbidden to immerse vessels on Yom Tov just as is forbidden to be done on Shabbos. If however one did not have the ability to immerse the vessel at any time prior to Yom Tov and on Yom Tov he received his first opportunity, then one may immerse the vessel. Nevertheless one may not rule this way for one who asks him if he may immerse these vessels, [and is rather to tell him that immersing is forbidden in all cases]. Likewise one may not immerse the vessels in front of other people.
Washing off non-Kosher food from a utensil: It is permitted to rinse off a vessel that was used to eat non-Kosher food if one plans to use the vessel that day. This applies even if there is remnant of the non-kosher food on the vessel.
It is forbidden to immerse vessels on Shabbos in a Mikveh in all cases. If one needs this vessel for Shabbos and cannot do without it, then he may give the vessel to a gentile as a present and then borrow it back from him and use it without immersion. After Shabbos he is to immerse it without a blessing.
May one immerse a vessel on Shabbos if there is a doubt as to whether it even requires immersion?
Some Poskim rule that if there are no other vessels available, and one is unable to give it to a gentile, as explained above, then one may be lenient to immerse the questionable vessel whether it is made of glass or metal.
4. Sweeping on Shabbos:
A. Using brooms made of hard strands:
Breakable strands: It is forbidden to sweep on Shabbos using a broom made of twigs [or other hard strands] which easily break upon being used. This applies to all types of floors, even tiled floors. [Thus one may not use a straw broom to sweep with on Shabbos.]
Non-breakable strands: It is disputed amongst Poskim whether one may sweep an earth floor on Shabbos even if the material of the broom does not break while sweeping with it. It is further disputed amongst Poskim if one may sweep a tiled floor on Shabbos. Practically, if the material of the broom is hard, then even if it does not break while sweeping with it, it is forbidden to be used on even tiled or wooden floors, due to a decree that one may come to sweep on an earth floor. [If however majority of the city houses have tiled floors, it is permitted to sweep with hard, unbreakable, material brooms on tiled or wooden floors. It however remains prohibited to sweep with such material on an earth floor, or to sweep with breakable material on even a tiled floor. Thus one may sweep his tiled floor using brooms which are made up of woven hairs, whether the hairs are synthetic or real. However some Poskim rule one is to only rely on this leniency if he had previously swept his floor on Erev Shabbos.]
B. Using brooms made of soft materials:
C. Asking a gentile to sweep one’s floor:
It is permitted to ask a gentile to sweep one’s floor in any situation [using any type of broom]. [This allowance applies even to sweeping an earth floor using a broom of hard breakable strands.]
D. May one sweep away Muktzah items?
In cases that one is permitted to sweep [as explained above depending on the type of broom] it is permitted to also sweep filth that is Muktzah such as earth clumps, almond peels and other filthy items which are Muktzah. It is however forbidden to use a broom to move Muktzah items that have a use, and are not viewed as filth or garbage.
Summary-Sweeping on Shabbos with a broom:
Brooms made of hard materials: If the strands of the broom are easily breakable within the process of sweeping, it is forbidden to be used on any type of floor. If made of hard strands that are not easily breakable in the process of sweeping, it is permitted to be used to sweep tiled or wooden floors, however, not earth floors. [Thus, one may sweep his tiled floor using brooms which are made up of woven hairs, whether the hairs are synthetic or real.] If majority of the houses of one’s city have earth floors, then it is forbidden to sweep using such brooms even on tiled floors.
Brooms made of soft materials: Are permitted to be used on both tiled and earth floors. Soft material brooms are brooms made of cloth, feathers and the like.
May one sweep a carpet?
List of brooms and their law:
May one screw in the rod of a broom into a broom?
No. It is forbidden to insert a broom onto a broomstick even if it does not involve using any screws. It is likewise forbidden to tighten the attachment while it is already attached.
Is it permitted to sweep leaves that have fallen onto my patio on Shabbos and does it make a difference if they fell before Shabbos or on Shabbos?
It is permitted to sweep leaves from a tiled floor on Shabbos, such as the floor of one’s patio, if it is disturbing the cleanliness of the area, just as is allowed regarding sweeping the floor of one’s home. This applies irrelevant of when these leaves fell from the tree. It is however forbidden to sweep leaves from an earth floor due to a sweeping prohibition.
Explanation: Sweeping Muktzah on Shabbos poses two halachic issues; 1) a Muktzah prohibition 2) a sweeping prohibition. The Muktzah prohibition is waived in the event that an item is defined as a Geraf Shel Reiy, which means that its presence is considered a disturbance to the people who use the area. Thus, being that a dirty floor is considered a disturbance to a home or other area that one is sitting in, therefore it is permitted to sweep dirt from it on Shabbos. In this regard, there is no difference as to when the leaves fell from the tree, as either way it is considered Muktzah. [Seemingly this is being confused with the law of a fruit that fell from a tree in which case we differentiate between if it fell before Shabbos, in which case it is not Muktzah, and if it fell on Shabbos, in which case it is Muktzah. This has nothing to do with the question of whether you are allowed to sweep Muktzah which is disturbing the peace of an area.] Now, regarding the sweeping prohibition, although ideally the Rama rules that it applies to both tiled and untitled surfaces, nonetheless, practically today the Achronim conclude that it is permitted to sweep tiled surfaces, and the prohibition remains only with sweeping earth floors.
Sources: See regarding sweeping Muktzah: Admur 337:2; M”A 337:4; M”B 337:12; Biur Halacha 308:27 “Minaeri”; See regarding sweeping in general on a tiled versus an earth floor: Admur 337:2; Rama 337:2; Biur Halacha “Veyeish Machmirim”; Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27
E. Is a broom Muktzah?
Those brooms which are permitted to be used on Shabbos to sweep with, as explained above, are not Muktzah. Those brooms which are forbidden to be used as explained above are considered MM”I.
Practically: A broom made of hard material [which can break such as a straw broom] is MM”I. A broom made of soft material [or hard material that cannot break such as synthetic hair] is not Muktzah.
5. Mopping on Shabbos:
Mopping: It is forbidden to pour water over one’s floor in order to mop it. This applies equally to all floors, even tiled. [This applies even if one does not use a cloth to mop with but rather a plane Squeegee mop. Using a cloth mop, in addition to containing a mopping prohibition as well contains a laundering prohibition.]
It is forbidden to mop one’s floor on Shabbos, even with a squeegee mop.
If liquid spilled on one’s floor, may one squeegee the water?
May one remove the drain cover of one’s floor on Shabbos in order to squeegee spilled water into the hole?
If the cover has a handle, or indentation which forms a handle area, then it is permitted to be removed. If there is no handle at all then it is forbidden and is Muktzah.
If water spilled on one’s floor, may one place a rag over the water to clean it up?
One may place a designated cloth [i.e. rag] over a spill in order so it absorbs the liquid, whether it is water or other liquid. However, one may not wipe the cloth around the floor due to the mopping [and squeezing] prohibition.
May one clean with water a dirty spot on the ground?
Some Poskim rule it is permitted to place water on a dirty area of the floor and then clean the water it in a permitted way [such as to place a rag over the water without moving it around or to squeegee the water].
May one wash and dry one’s counter?
It is permitted to clean one’s counter using water, synthetic cloth and a squeegee. If using a cloth to dry one must beware not to squeeze it in the process.
May one ask a gentile to mop his floor?
With a squeegee: Yes.
With a rag: One may not ask a gentile to use a rag to mop. If one asked a gentile to mop without mentioning any specific way and he decided to use a rag to do so, it is best to protest against the gentile even on a tiled floor. However, those which are accustomed to allowing the gentile to continue using the rag on a tiled floor without protesting his actions have upon what to rely.
May one polish his floor on Shabbos?
May a hospital mop the floors for hygienic purposes?
Yes. A hospital may be lenient to mop a tiled floor using a squeegee mop [no cloth] for hygienic purposes.
Introduction: Cleaning a spill on Shabbos involves two actions which touch upon a number of possible prohibitions. These two actions are: 1) Wetting the cloth with the spill and 2) Moving around the soaked cloth. Wetting a cloth on Shabbos touches upon a possible laundering and dyeing prohibition. Moving a soaked cloth around touches upon a possible squeezing prohibition. The Halachic details of the laundering, squeezing and dyeing prohibitions will be discussed below, and a final summary will be given. Please refer to there for the final ruling.
- Laundering-The laws involved in wetting a cloth: It is forbidden to wet a cloth with clear liquids due to the laundering prohibition. This however only applies if the cloth is not designated for this purpose. If, however, the cloth is designated for a purpose which involves getting it wet, such as to filter water or to clean spills, then the laundering prohibition of wetting a cloth does not apply.  The laundering prohibition never applies in wetting a cloth with colored liquids.
- Dyeing: It is forbidden to dye clothing on Shabbos. It is forbidden to cause clothing to become dyed, even if one does not have intent to dye them, and is simply trying to clean his hands and the like. Not all colored liquids contain the dyeing prohibition, and it depends on the thickness of the color. Clothes that are designated for wiping may be used to clean a spill of any colored liquid. Doing so is not prohibited due to the dyeing prohibition, as the dyeing prohibition only applies when one is intentionally doing so for the purpose of dyeing, or when done to a non-designated cloth which is common to dye.
- The laws involved in squeezing a cloth:  It is forbidden to squeeze liquids out from a cloth due to the Mifarek prohibition and at times also due to the laundering/Milaben prohibition. This applies in all cases even if the squeezed liquid will be going to waste, and one is doing so unintentionally but inevitably.
Practically, in what way is it allowed to clean a spill?
Placing a cloth on the spill: One may drop a rag on the spill and have it absorb the liquid on its own. If the spill involves a clear liquid, such as water or white wine, then only cloths which are designated for cleaning, such as a rag, tissue or napkin may be used. However other clothing, such as a towel or shirt and the like is forbidden to even be placed on the spill. If the spill involves colored liquids, then all cloths may be placed on the spill to absorb the liquid.
Moving the cloth around the spill: It is forbidden to clean spills in a way that will cause liquids to be squeezed from the cleaning material. Hence one may not take a cloth or sponge in one’s hand and move it around the spill, as doing so will inevitably cause liquid to squeeze from the rag. If however one has a sponge or cloth that is attached to a handle then one may hold it by the handle and [gently] clean the spill. [If however even when using the handle one sees that it causes inevitable squeezing from the cloth then one is not to use it. ]
Cleaning a spill of liquid with intent of having the liquid drip back into its vessel: It is forbidden to clean a spill of liquid with any cloth or sponge if one plans to drip the absorbed liquid from the cloth back into its vessel. This prohibition applies even if one only desires to clean and save only part of the spill for use on Shabbos.
One may place any cloth designated for cleaning spills on any spill. One may not however move it around the spill. Regarding if the cloth has a handle see above. One may not place a cloth which is not designated for cleaning spills onto clear/white liquids. One may place it on colored liquids.
May one clean a spill using napkins or tissues?
It is permitted to place the tissue or napkin onto the spill. However one may not rub the napkin or tissue around the spill. However, some Poskim allow doing so. Practically one is not to be lenient.
May one clean a dry table/counter using a wet cloth?
No, one may not rub such a cloth around the counter or surface as one will inevitably cause water to squeeze out. This applies even if the cloth is only slightly wet.
May one rub dry a wet counter or table [that does not contain an absorbent tablecloth] using a dry cloth?
No, one may not rub such a cloth around the counter or surface. Only synthetic material may be used as using an absorbent material to press against the counter/table will inevitably cause liquid to squeeze out which is forbidden.
May one wipe the liquid off a wet tablecloth using a knife and the like? 
One may only do so lightly, without pressing against the cloth so as not to cause liquid to squeeze out of it. Regarding if one may use a cloth to clean such a spill.
May one move a wet rag or napkin that was used to clean a spill?
If there is a dry area left on the cloth it is permitted to be lifted and moved from that area. If, however, the entire cloth is soaking wet, it is forbidden to move it as doing so will inevitably cause liquid to squeeze out. Seemingly, in such a case it is permitted to move the cloth through placing a knife under it and lifting it up as it is not certain that this will cause squeezing. According to some Poskim one may always move a wet tissue or napkin and there is no need to suspect of the squeezing prohibition.
May one use baby wipes on Shabbos to clean a table and the like?
Regarding the opinion of Admur-see footnote
Regarding scented baby wipes: Some Poskim rule that good scents may be used to remove bad smells, even according to those [such as Admur] that hold of a prohibition on placing a scent on one’s skin.
7. Removing leftovers from one’s table:
See Chapter 8 Halacha 7!
8. Removing the garbage:
See Chapter 8 Halacha 9!
 Admur 323:6-7
 Such as immediately after the previous meal. [ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun why doing so does not transgress the Borer restrictions?
 So rules Admur 323:6 regarding cups and the same applies for all eating utensils. The reason for this is because once the Sages allowed washing a dish for the meal, they no longer restricted how many dishes one may wash as every dish washed can possibly be used on Shabbos. Thus, this is allowed even if one is certain that he will not need to use all the dishes washed. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 30 in name of Machatzis Hashekel and Peri Megadim]
 As by doing so one is preparing for after Shabbos, and it is forbidden for one to trouble himself on Shabbos for the sake of after Shabbos. [ibid]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146:16
 As there is no set time for drinking. [ibid]
 Silver is soft and can have layers of it rubbed off during polish. Doing so is forbidden due to the Memacheik: Smoothening prohibition. Now although one has no intention to remove a layer of the silver and smoothen it, but rather simply to shine it, nevertheless this is an inevitable occurrence and is hence forbidden. It is however permitted to polish the silver using soap and the like which do not inevitably remove the silver, as even if it happens to do so, since this is not inevitable and one did not intend to do so, it is therefore permitted. [ibid]
 See 320:19 which brings a dispute in this matter. Practically, Admur rules to be stringent.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 33, based on fact Admur omits the opinion of the Taz which rules making more than 2:3 ratio of salt to water is forbidden.
 As by doing so one dissolves the soap which is forbidden due to the Molid [creating new substance] prohibition. Now although there are opinions which rule that there is no prohibition against creating a new substance and the reason behind the prohibition for dissolving ice is due to a decree of fruit juices, which has no relevance to dissolving soaps and the like, and hence according to them it is permitted to dissolve soap. Nevertheless, Admur concludes one is to be stringent like the first opinion. [ibid]
 Minchas Shabbos 80:154; Tosefes Shabbos 323:8, Betzeil Hachachmah 4:130; see Sheivet Halevy 6:42
 Beir Moshe 6:82
 Bris Olam Ofah 90; Mishneh Halachos 6:80
 See Beir Moshe ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 323:1
 This is similar to the allowance to make the beds on Shabbos morning even though they will not be used until the after Shabbos.
 Tehila Ledavid 302:6
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 323:1
 SSH”K 12:3
 Az Nidbaru 5:36
 As pots are not a meal utensil and are rather used for the cooking. Hence cleaning them serves no benefit for the meal.
 SSH”K 14:16 footnote 49, based on Ketzos Hashulchan 138 footnote 31 with regards to using toothpaste. So rules also Ketzos Hashulchan explicitly in 146 footnote 32
 As it is already a liquid and the bubbles that it creates have no significance.
 Igros Moshe 1:113
 So rules Az Nidbaru 1:16 brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 326:8
 Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 17:73
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 323:5
 Ketzos Hashulchan 127 footnote 13
 As explained above in Halacha 2 Q&A there, based on Ketzos Hashulchan 127 Footnote 2. So also rules SSH”K 14:16
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 32
As a sponge with a handle may only be used to clean spills, as in such a case it is not inevitable one will come to squeeze. When doing dishes however it is impossible not to come to squeeze, and the squeezed liquid does not go to waste as one uses it to help clean the dishes. [Regarding the sources for this conclusion: See Previous Halacha regarding cleaning spills with a sponge that has a handle and the footnotes there. Vetzaruch Iyun as explained there. See M”B 320:55; SSH”K 12 footnote 37; Minchas Yitzchak 3:50]
 There are three possible issues discussed in Poskim regarding these forms of sponges:
Squeezing, Uvdin Dechol, may apply by all sponges and Mimacheik may also apply by steel wool.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 33; Minchas Yitzchak 3:49; Beir Moshe 1:34
The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid prohibits it due to both reasons. The Minchas Yitzchak states that steel wool is forbidden being that it contains a Rabbinical squeezing prohibition similar to hair. Beir Moshe 1:34 states that although doing so does not involve a squeezing prohibition [certainly not by the thick stranded steel wool] it is perhaps forbidden due to Uvdin Dechol. Nevertheless, he does not rule this way conclusively and hence leaves room for it being allowed.
 SSH”K 122:10; Cheishev Haeifod 2:149-however see below that he rules the sponge must be designated.
Beir Moshe ibid in previous footnote rules that possibly no prohibition of squeezing is involved even by closely netted sponges of synthetic or metal materials, although it may be forbidden by all sponges due to Uvdin Dechol. Practically he concludes that by closely knitted sponges it is forbidden, while by others it is unclear due to Uvdin Dechol. SSH”K argues that there is no precedence to claim that there is an issue of Uvdin Dechol involved.
 According to this opinion if this metal sponge visibly has its strands not so close together then it is permitted to be used. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 323:4]
 Due to the Mimacheik prohibition, as ruled similarly regarding silver in 323:11 [SSH”K ibid] However it is clear from Beir Moshe:Ketzos Hashulchan that he does not hold of this. Nevertheless the Beir Moshe concludes not to use the steel wool on plates which involve lots of scrubbing.
 Beir Moshe ibid
 Even with steel wool [so long as one does not rub very thoroughly], and even if the strands are close together. [ibid]
 Cheishev Haeifod 2:149; Minchas Yitzchak 3:50 regarding a sponge with a handle.
 Admur 323:11
 Silver is soft and can have layers of it rubbed off during polish. Doing so is forbidden due to the Memacheik/Smoothening prohibition. Now although one has no intention to remove a layer of the silver and smoothen it, but rather simply to shine it, nevertheless this is an inevitable occurrence and is hence forbidden. It is however permitted to polish the silver using soap and the like which do not inevitably remove the silver, as even if it happens to do so, since this is not inevitable and one did not intend to do so, it is therefore permitted. [ibid]
 Admur 323:11; SSH”K 12:24
Other Opinions: The Mahril rules it is forbidden to polish glass dishes using oats. The M”A 323:15 questions as to why this should be forbidden and suggests that perhaps only washing dishes from dirt did the Sages allow, however to polish is forbidden. He concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. Admur completely omitted this ruling of the Mahril hence implying it is allowed. SSH”K 12:24 in name of Rav SZ”A rules it is allowed, as even according to Mahril it was only prohibited to polish using oats. Tehila Ledavid 323:17 however explains it is forbidden to polish all vessels due to Tikkun Keli.
 Mahril brought in MA 323:15; Tehila Ledavid 323:17 brought in previous footnote; Toras Shabbos 323:9
 As tarnish is an actual layer of the metal which has corroded, and its only form of cleansing is removal.
 Admur rules [323:11] that it is permitted to be done so long as one is not using an item which will inevitably remove a layer of silver or copper from the vessel, and is doing so simply to shine the vessel and not remove tarnish, as stated above.
 SSH”K 12:24 based on Tehila Ledavid 323:17.
The SSH”K learns as does the Tehila Ledavid in the Mahril brought in M”A that the action of polishing metal vessels is forbidden on Shabbos due to Tikkun Keli. Admur clearly however does not learn this way, and likewise omitted the entire ruling of the Mahril as stated above.
 Tehila Ledavid 323:17
 This is forbidden possibly due to the Mimacheik and Tochein prohibition. [ibid]
 Whether made of glass, metal or any other materials which requires immersion. [See M”B 323:32 and so is implied from Admur which does not differentiate between the two]
 So concludes Admur in 323:5 [“and if one is unable to do the above, don’t immerse the vessels” and “if one transgressed and immersed the vessels” and so summarizes the Ketzos Hashulchan 146:3 that doing so is forbidden.]
Background: Admur brings a dispute regarding this matter:
- The first [stam] opinion rules that new vessels may be immersed on Shabbos even if one was able to immerse them before Shabbos. Their reasoning is because according to them immersion is only Rabbinically required for new vessels, while Biblically the vessels may be used without immersion. Hence immersing the vessel is not considered like one is fixing the vessel, as Biblically the vessel is already useable.
- Others however rule that immersing new vessels is forbidden due to it being considered like one is fixing the vessel. According to them this applies even if one did not have the ability to immerse the vessels before Shabbos.
- It goes without saying that immersing vessels is forbidden according to the opinion which rules that immersing new vessels is Biblically required. As on this premises by immersing the vessel one is doing it a significant fixture according to all, of which the Sages forbade being that it is exactly similar to fixing a vessel which is a Biblical prohibition.
- The practical ramification between the 2nd and 3rd opinion is regarding glass vessels, which according to all is only Rabbinically required to be immersed.
- Practically: One may not immerse vessels in a Mikveh on Shabbos as the main opinion follows the opinion which rules that immersing new vessels is Biblically required. [so concludes Admur in 323:5 and so summarizes the Ketzos Hashulchan 146:3. Vetzaruch Iyun from the wording of Admur prior to this ruling that “A G-d fearing Jew will fulfill his obligation according to all and give the vessel to a gentile…” Hence implying that from the letter of the law one may be lenient like the first opinion and immerse the vessel. So also implies the M”B [323:33] from this similar wording of Michaber, that the Michaber rules mainly like the first opinion that it is permitted. Thus, how can Admur say that one who immersed the vessel has transgressed. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol!!]
 As it is only permitted to give a present to a gentile on Shabbos if it is being done for the sake of Shabbos. [ibid]
 Being that this vessel will now remain in the hands of the Jew forever, and is thus similar to him having bought it. Alternatively, it is similar to a borrowed Tallis which required Tzitzis after 30 days even though it is not his. Based on this it should be immersed even with a blessing. Nevertheless, since I have not found the matter explicitly ruled in Poskim I am hesitant to rule this way, and rather one should immerse another vessel that requires a blessing together with it. [Yoreh Deah Taz 120:18]
 Taz in previous footnote. This applies even according to Admur, and the reason Admur did not state this explicitly is because he is dealing with a case that one only has this vessel to immerse. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 6]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 6
 This does not appear like one is fixing the vessel, as it is not evident at all that one is intending to purify the vessel. This is because not everyone knows that this vessel has not yet been immersed hence causing the onlooker to say he is doing so in order to use the drawn water. [ibid]
 As for why a woman who immerses on Shabbos may say a blessing, this is because the Sages never originally decreed against women immersing on Shabbos. The reason for this is because at the times of the Sages it was not recognizable as to for what purpose the woman is immersing, and hence the Tikkun was never recognizable. Alternatively, this is because the decree against immersing vessels is because one may come to actually fix a vessel which is Biblically forbidden. The Sages however were not this suspicious regarding a person immersing. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 8]
 M”B 323:36
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 7
Other opinions: However the Kaf Hachaim rules one may immerse all vessels in the Mikveh under the disguise that one is doing so to clean the vessel. The Ketzos Hashulchan argues on this saying that it is never common to wash dirt off vessels in a Mikveh, and hence all will know one’s true intents.
 So is clearly implied from Ketzos Hashulchan ibid regarding his argument against the Kaf Hachayim, and so is evident from the fact he writes that drawing water with the vessel is allowed because “at times today people do draw water from the Mikveh”. Now, although this may have been true in the 1950’s, the time of the publishing of this Sefer, today this is certainly not the case, and hence the Halacha likewise changes.
 As if Admur is referring to one who did so by mistake, then his ruling carries no novelty, as it is already ruled in 339:7 that no fine was enacted against Rabbinical decrees done inadvertently. Hence one must conclude that Admur includes even the advertent sinner in this ruling, that no fine was applied even to him.
 Although in general the Sages fined all transgressors against benefiting from their forbidden actions until after Shabbos, even by a Rabbinical transgression, nevertheless in this case no fine was given being that there are opinions which allow doing so even initially. [ibid]
 Admur 323:8; 509:15
 Admur 509:1
Thus for oneself to do so is allowed, if he knows this Halacha, while for another, it is not allowed if he does not know this Halacha, and hence one may not tell him that it is allowed. The reason for this is because if they are told it is allowed, they may come to also immerse vessels that could have been immersed before Yom Tov. [ibid]
 As this itself is considered as if one is ruling to them that immersing vessels is allowed, and they may come to immerse vessels even in cases that are not allowed. [ibid]
 According to all this is not considered as if one is fixing the vessel as the actual vessel is permitted to be used and it is just that the non-Kosher food prohibits its use. Hence rinsing it off is similar to rinsing off feces from it. [ibid]
 Although non-Kosher food is Muktzah, nevertheless its remains are nullified completely to the vessel and do not have the ability to prohibit moving it at all. [ibid]
 M”B 323:33
 Kaf Hachaim 323
 As this is a doubt in a Rabbinical case in which the rule allows one to be lenient.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146 footnote 5
 As even in a case of doubt we rule all vessels need to be immersed, even if made of glass, as one may not actively enter himself into a Rabbinical doubt by avoiding the immersion. Thus, since the vessel is forbidden to be used until immersed even in a case of doubt, we return to the same debate in whether this it is allowed to be done or is forbidden because it appears as if one is fixing the vessel. [ibid]
 Admur 337:2-3
 Admur 337:3; Rama 337:2; Shiltei Giborim 36
 The reason: This is forbidden for two reasons:
- When using brooms made of reeds [or other breakable materials], it is inevitable that the reeds will not break in the process, and hence sweeping with them is forbidden due to the prohibition of destroying a vessel. Now, although one who destroys is exempt [from Biblical liability], it is nevertheless Rabbinically forbidden. See 314:17. [Admur 337:3; Rama ibid] (For this reason it is also forbidden to sweep using a broom made of branches of a tree even on a tiled floor, even according to the lenient opinion who generally allows sweeping on a tiled floor. The lenient opinion was only lenient with regards to using a broom made of date leaves which do not break upon sweeping.) [Admur ibid, parentheses in original; M”A 337:5]
- When using a hard broom on an earth floor, even if the material is not breakable, according to some opinions, it is inevitable for the broom not to smoothen the gaps of the floor which is forbidden due to the building prohibition, and according to some opinions this prohibition applies equally to a tiled floor. Practically the custom is to be stringent. [Admur 337:2, as explained next] Nevertheless in a city that majority of the houses have tiled floors [as is the case in all Western countries], it remains permitted to sweep on tiled floors even using hard material so long as the material does not break. If however the material does break, then it is forbidden due to the reason explained next. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27]
 When using a hard material that is also easily breakable it is forbidden to be used on even tiled floors according to all opinions. Meaning that even according to those which normally allow sweeping on tiled floors they only allow doing so by brooms made of palm which does not break. [Admur ibid]
 SSH”K 23:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 337:4 in name many Poskim, Upashut!
 Admur 337:2
When using a hard broom on an earth floor, even if the material is not breakable, according to some opinions, it is inevitable for the broom not to smoothen the gaps of the floor which is forbidden due to the building prohibition. [First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Stam opinion in Michaber 337:2; Rambam 21:3; Rashi Shabbos 124b; See Admur 277 Kuntrus Achron 1 that this is a case of Safek Pesik Reishei] According to some opinions this prohibition applies equally to a tiled floor as we decree against tiled floors due to that one may come to sweep on earth floors, as is the final ruling of Admur. [2nd opinion Admur ibid; Rama 337:2; Sefer Hateruma 254; Hagahos Maimanis on Rambam ibid; Mordechai 414] However other opinions rule that it is permitted to sweep stone floors and certainly wood floors [or floors tiled with other material], as there is no worry that one may come to level the ground. (Now, although this can lead one to sweep on an earth floor, since sweeping is a Shabbos necessity, therefore the Sages did not decree against doing so on tiled floors.) [1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid] Furthermore, some opinions rule it is permitted to sweep even on earth floors, as they hold that the smoothening of the gaps is not inevitable. [2nd opinion Admur ibid; 2nd opinion in Michaber ibid; Tosafos Shabbos 95a in name of Bahag; Rif] Practically the custom is to be stringent that even by tiled floors it is forbidden to use a hard material broom. One may not divert from this custom. [Admur 337:2; Rama ibid; Rosh 22:15] Nevertheless, in a city that majority of the houses have tiled floors [as is the case in all Western countries], it remains permitted to sweep on tiled floors even using hard material so long as the material does not break. If, however, the material does break then it is forbidden due to the reason explained next. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27]
 The dispute: When using a hard broom on an earth floor, even if the material is not breakable, according to some opinions, it is inevitable for the broom not to smoothen the gaps of the floor which is forbidden due to the building prohibition. [First and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Stam opinion in Michaber 337:2; Rambam 21:3; Rashi Shabbos 124b; See Admur 277 Kuntrus Achron 1 that this is a case of Safek Pesik Reishei] However some opinions rule it is permitted to sweep even on earth floors, as they hold that the smoothening of the gaps is not inevitable. [2nd opinion Admur ibid; 2nd opinion in Michaber ibid; Tosafos Shabbos 95a in name of Bahag; Rif]
 The dispute: According to some opinions this prohibition applies equally to a tiled floor as we decree against tiled floors due to that one may come to sweep on earth floors, as is the final ruling of Admur. [2nd opinion Admur ibid; Rama 337:2; Sefer Hateruma 254; Hagahos Maimanis on Rambam ibid; Mordechai 414] However other opinions rule that it is permitted to sweep stone floors and certainly wood floors [or floors tiled with other material], as there is no worry that one may come to level the ground. (Now, although this can lead one to sweep on an earth floor, since sweeping is a Shabbos necessity, therefore the Sages did not decree against doing so on tiled floors.) [1st and Stam opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rambam ibid]
 Admur 337:2; Rama ibid; Rosh 22:15; See previous footnotes in the first reason behind the prohibition.
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27 in name of M”B and Iglei Tal. Biur Halacha “Veyeish Machmirim”
 SSH”K ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 SSH”K 23:1 in name of Biur Halacha 327 “Veyeish”; This opinion is not made mention of in the Ketzos Hashulchan.
 Admur 337:2; Rama 337:2; Igur 517
 As such materials are light and will not smooth the gaps of a floor. [ibid]
 Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27 and so is implied from Admur and M”B 337:11
The reason: As such materials are light and will not come to smooth the gaps of an earth floor.
Other Opinions: SSH”K 23:1 rules it is only allowed on tiled floors.
 Admur 337:2
 As any [action forbidden due to an] inevitable occurrence is permitted to be done through a gentile. [ibid]
 Admur 337:2; M”A 337:4; Biur Halacha 308:27 “Minaeri”
 The reason: It is permitted to sweep them being that they are to the person like a pile of filth, which the Sages permitted one to remove to the garbage, due to one’s dignity. [Admur ibid; Rashba and Ran; M”B 337:12] Alternatively the reason is because this is considered Tiltul Min Hatzad which is permitted to be done for a Mutar item, such as to make room on the floor. [Shaar Hatziyon 337:7; Biur Halacha 337:2 “Veyeish Machmirim”; Ramban in Milchamos 48b] Admur negates this reason in 308:60, and 259 Kuntrus Achron 3, based on M”A 259:8.
 So is implied from Admur here which depends the allowance on the Muktzah being a Graf Shel Reiy. See also 308:60, and Chapter 259 Halacha 4 and Kuntrus Achron 3. See Volume 1 “The Laws of Muktzah” Chapter 1 Halacha 3C!
Other opinions: According to those that rule one may move Muktzah with a knife for the need of the space [Taz 308:18; M”B 308115] would likewise rule here that it is allowed.
 SSH”K ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 As such materials are light and will not come to smooth the gaps of an earth floor. So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27 and so is implied from Admur and M”B [337:11].
Other Opinions: However the SSH”K 23:1 rules that it is only allowed on tiled floors.
 Minchas Yitzchak 5:39
 Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Beir Moshe 1:32
It is forbidden due to it being a mundane act and a belittling of Shabbos, as well as it is having a suspicion of the whitening prohibition. [ibid]
 SSH”K 23:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 337:4 in name many Poskim, Upashut!
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 337:4 in name many Poskim, Upashut!
 As seemingly the hairs of such brooms are considered hard material, and hence would only be allowed a) on tiled floors and b) only if majority of the cities floors are tiled.]
 SSH”K 23:1
 Admur 308:87
 According to all brooms made of inevitably breakable material are MM”I as they are forbidden to be used.
Regarding brooms made of materials which will not inevitably break:
According to those which permit sweeping tiled floors with such brooms, they are not Muktzah as they are like a vessel which is designated for a permitted use. Now, although that during the week one uses them to sweep also [dirt] floors that are not tiled [and thus since on Shabbos it is not fit for this it should have the status of a vessel designated for prohibited use], nevertheless it is [still] like a vessel that is designated for a permitted and forbidden use, of which the law is that one is permitted to move just like a vessel that is [only] designated for a permitted use.
However according to those which forbid to sweep on Shabbos even floors that are tiled, then it is forbidden to move them unless one is doing so in order to use it [for a permitted use] or in order to use its space, just like [is the law by any] vessel that is designated [for only] forbidden use.
The final ruling: We are accustomed to being stringent, although by cities that majority of the houses have tiled floors we are lenient.
Regarding brooms made of soft materials, such as a cloth:
Are not Muktzah according to all
 SSH”K 23:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 337:4 in name many Poskim, Upashut!
 As today we allow sweeping tiled floors being that majority of the houses are tiled. [Ketzos Hashulchan 146:27 in name of M”B and Iglei Tal. Biur Halacha “Veyeish Machmirim”]
 SSH”K ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 Admur 308:87; 337:3-4
 Admur 337:4
 This prohibition is due to a decree that one may come to smoothen the ditches in the floor, which is a subcategory of the building prohibition. [ibid]
 This applies even in accordance with those opinions which allow sweeping a tiled floor on Shabbos, as mopping does not contain as much of a need as does sweeping. Hence, they too agree that by mopping the Sages did not differentiate in their decree between a dirt floor or tiled floor, and they forbade mopping on any of them. [ibid] Thus this prohibition applies even if majority of the city floors are tiled.
 M”B 337:17 [If however the cloth is designated for this purpose, it does not contain a laundering prohibition, but is nevertheless prohibited due to squeezing.]
 In past times oil was poured on a tiled floor in order so one roll over the oil and enter the oil into his skin. Alternatively, it is done in order to shine the floor. In any event it is forbidden to be done for either reason. [Tosefta 17:10]
 As explained in previous footnotes regarding mopping.
Admur adds from the Tosefta that one is not to be “Nofeiach” the floor on Shabbos. Seemingly the meaning of this is that one is not to blow the dust off the floor. Vetzaruch Iyun from Minchas Bikurim on the Tosefta there. See Biur Halacha 337 “Velo Madichin”.
 Admur 337:2
 Lit. Lerabeitz. The above explanation is based on Mishneh Berurah 337:5
 M”B 337:5
 The reason that doing so does not involve a prohibition is because one does not intend to flatten out the gaps [in the ground] but rather to prevent the dust from rising, and it is not inevitable [that one will consequently fill up the gaps in the floor in the process.] [ibid]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:5; SSH”K 23:7
 As since one did not place the water on the floor with intent to mop it, it is therefore permitted to sweep it away. [ibid]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 308:13; SSH”K 23 footnote 28
 Vetzaruch Iyun as why this is not forbidden being that the cover is attached to the ground and is only removed infrequently. Perhaps however since it is meant for constant removal and insertion it is permitted to be removed, even though one does not constantly remove it.
 Az Nidbaru 1:79-97
 Meaning that the cloth must be designated for cleaning spills. However, a regular clothing such as a shirt and the like may not be used due to the laundering prohibition.
 SSH”K 23 footnote 27 in name of Rav SZ”A
 SSH”K 12:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 338:6
 Kaf Hachayim 337:21
 Admur 337:2 regarding sweeping and so seemingly applies for mopping, and so is implied from Kaf Hachayim.
 This is similar to asking a gentile to remove fish from water which is forbidden to be done due to it being a Pesik Reishei. It is not similar to other cases of Pesik Reishei which are permitted to be done through a gentile [see 253:10] as there the Melacha is not being done to the item desired but rather to a different item.
 Admur ibid; SSH”K 23:3
 As in such a case the mopping is as much of a need as is sweeping, and hence the Sages would be lenient. [ibid]
 Admur 302:20; 319:13; 320:21
 If the cloth is not designated for this purpose of cleaning spills it is forbidden to soak it in clear liquids due to the laundering prohibition. As if one intends to soak it in the liquid in order to whiten the cloth, he would be liable for laundering. Likewise, if one would proceed to squeeze the liquid out from the cloth, he would be liable for laundering. Hence it is forbidden to use such cloths to clean clear liquid spills. However, if the cloth is designated for this purpose, then there is no reason to suspect one may place it on the spill for laundering purposes or come to squeeze the liquid out, as this is the entire purpose of the cloth. [319:13; 320:21]
 This is allowed as the laundering/whitening prohibition only applies when using water and white wine and the like.
Likewise it is not forbidden due to a decree that one may come to squeeze it and be liable for “detaching”, as one is only liable if he needs the liquids being squeezed, of which there is no remote suspicion [here] that one may squeeze the cloth for the sake of the liquids that will come out from it being that [these liquids] are not of any significance and it is not at all common to do this. [320:21]
 1st opinion and final ruling in Admur 320:27
 See regarding wine: Ketzos Hashulchan 146 Badei Hashulchan 16 number 13; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 page 352 and 384
 Kuntrus Achron 302:1; See 319:13; 320:21; M”A 319:11; Ketzos Hashulchan 136 footnote 11; SSH”K 14:19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 320:11 based on Admur Kuntrus Achron 302; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 20:20 [p. 295]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it does not suffice to designate a garment for this purpose, and only by an item which people do not care to dye does the allowance apply. [Avnei Nezer 175, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 136 footnote 11]
 The reason: Seemingly, the reason why a designated cloth helps is because it is evident to all that one is not doing an act of dyeing [or laundering] when using it to clean his hands [or strain liquid through] and it is hence not similar to the Melacha at all. If however the cloth is not designated for this purpose, then it appears as if one is doing an act of dyeing, or laundering, and is hence at least Rabbinically forbidden. Alternatively, the reason is because once the cloth has been designated for this purpose it is no longer common to dye it at all, and hence there is no need to decree against dyeing if one has no intent to do so. If however one intends to dye it or launder it, then certainly it is forbidden to do on Shabbos even if one designated the cloth for this purpose. It is only that when it is done Derech Lichluch, and no intent to dye, and is not common to dye that we permit it. The practical ramification would be regarding a urine test sticks, and baby diapers that change color, as explained in Q&A at end of chapter!
 Admur 320:24
Squeezing white Liquids from undesignated cloths: Is forbidden to be squeezed due to the laundering prohibition even if done unintentionally as the squeezing is inevitable.
Squeezing out colored liquids or from a designated cloth:
It is subject to dispute whether squeezing liquids that will be going to waste is forbidden and practically Admur rules to be stringent.
- First opinion: In 320:23 Admur rules one may not clean using a sponge without a handle even though the squeezed liquid goes to waste and one is doing so unintentionally.
- Second Opinion: However, in 320:24 Admur notes another opinion: “[However] there are opinions which say that so long as the liquid is going to waste then there is only a Rabbinical prohibition involved if one has intention to squeeze it, however so long as he does not intend to [squeeze] it, even if this is an inevitable occurrence, it is permitted. Their reasoning is because the squeezing [of this cloth] gives one no satisfaction being that one has no benefit from it, and it was only made forbidden to insert Mochin into the opening of the bottle even though he has no intent to squeeze it because the liquid that is being squeezed out from the Mochin into the bottle of which one benefits from this squeezing. However the liquids that are squeezed from the cloth that surrounds the pipe goes to waste if there is no vessel under them, and there is thus nothing to benefit from it for him.
- The Final ruling: “The main Halachic opinion is like the former opinion, as a sponge that does not have a handle may not be used to clean with even though he has no intention to squeeze [liquid out] and the liquid which is squeezed from the sponge goes to waste.”
 Even cloths which have been soaked in liquids which do not whiten [i.e. have been soaked in colored liquids], are forbidden to be squeezed. The reason for this restriction is due to the prohibition of “detaching” which is an offshoot of [the] threshing [prohibition] just as squeezing fruits is prohibited because of “detaching.” However, one is only liable on this squeezing if he needs the liquids being squeezed from the cloth, however if one does not need the liquids squeezed out from the cloth and is only doing so in order to clean the cloth, then this is not similar to threshing at all, as by threshing one needs the grains that he is detaching from the stalks, and therefore this squeezing does not contain a Biblical prohibition but rather Rabbinical. [320:21]
 One who squeezes a cloth [which had absorbed clear/white liquids] until its liquids come out is considered as if he has laundered clothing and is thus liable for [the] whitening [prohibition]. [301:56] However if it had absorbed red wine or beer or other liquids which do not whiten then there contains no laundering prohibition in squeezing out these liquids. [320:21] If the cloth is designated to get wet then if one squeezes white liquids from it with intent to launder it, it is Biblically forbidden due to the laundering prohibition. If one squeezes it out for other reasons it is not forbidden due to laundering. [So is implied from 320:21 and 24]
 Meaning even by colored liquids where the Milabein prohibition is inapplicable.
 However, in such a case if the liquid is a colored liquid doing so is only Rabbinically forbidden. If it is white liquids it is Biblically forbidden. [320:21] If, however, one is squeezing white liquids from a designated cloth then it is only Rabbinically forbidden if done unintentionally. [320:24] There are opinions which rule that all designated cloths, or even non-designated cloths which have been soaked in colored liquids, may be squeezed even intentionally so long as one does not intend to make use of the liquid as the Mifareik prohibition only applies when one wants to use the liquid. We do not rule like this opinion. [ibid as stated above in background]
 Admur 319:13; 320:21
This is allowed as the laundering/whitening prohibition only applies when using water and white wine and the like.
Likewise it is not forbidden due to a decree that one may come to squeeze it and be liable for “detaching”, as one is only liable if he needs the liquids being squeezed, of which there is no remote suspicion [here] that one may squeeze the cloth for the sake of the liquids that will come out from it being that [these liquids] are not of any significance and it is not at all common to do this. [320:21]
 Admur 320:22-24
 This refers to a cloth that does not involve a laundering prohibition in wetting it as explained above.
 This is based on the explanation in the next footnote and so rules explicitly Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 18:52
 Admur 320:23; SSH”K 12 footnote 37
The dispute behind the reason that it is allowed to use a sponge with a handle: The reason this is allowed is because when using a handle to clean with nothing squeezes out from the sponge in the process. [However] there is an opinion which says that even if [the sponge] has a handle it is impossible to clean with the sponge without squeezing it and nevertheless it is permitted as since the squeezing is being done through the [pressing of] the handle it is [therefore] not [Halachically] considered squeezing and is rather like emptying water from a flask which does not contain [the] “detaching” [prohibition]. However, when it does not have a handle in which case it gets squeezed in the area that he holds it with his hand, then it is forbidden. [ibid]
The practical ramification between these two reasons is in a case that liquid will certainly be squeezed from the sponge. Thus whether one may apply strength when using a sponge with a handle to clean the liquid, and inevitably cause the liquid to spill, is subject to the above dispute.
Practically: It is implied that Admur rules mainly like the first opinion mentioned there that using a handle is only allowed due to it not being an inevitable occurrence. If, however, one sees the squeezing is inevitable, then it once again becomes prohibited. [So is evident from 320:24 that we do not hold of the 2nd opinion above as the final Halacha, as Admur does not simply allow inserting a barrel pipe with a cloth due to this reason, but adds that one must also make sure the liquid goes to waste. In the words of Admur 320:24: “As many argue on their words.” Vetzaruch Iyun if these words are going on the opinion of Raavad that even if it squeezes out it is allowed, or if it’s going on opinion of the Melamdim Zechus. Furthermore, Tzaruch Iyun on if one can truly derive anything from the Barza case to a regular sponge case, as seemingly Admur learns that a Barza does not have the same status as a handle of the sponge and that’s why the Heter is not so clear, however by an actual handle of a sponge perhaps Admur would be lenient even if the liquid does not go to waste, and certainly if it does. Vetzaruch Iyun. I later however found in Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 3 p. 211-212 a similar conclusion that it is evident from Admur that one may only use a sponge with a handle if it does not inevitably cause squeezing. He deduces this also from Ketzos Hashulchan [133-end] that a toothbrush, despite it having a handle, is forbidden to be used due to it causing inevitable squeezing.
 Shabbos Kehalacha ibid, Based on what was explained in the previous footnote: If the liquid will not be going to waste then certainly one may not do so. [“As many argue on the lenient opinion”-320:24] If the liquid is going to waste, then it seems from Michaber/Admur that initially even so one should not do so although those which are lenient have upon what to rely. [As Admur/Michaber rule by the Barza case that it should not be done, and it is only that we are Melameid Zechus on those that do. However, Tzaruch Iyun on if one can truly derive anything from the Barza case to a regular sponge case, as seemingly Admur learns that a Barza does not have the same status as a handle of the sponge and that’s why the Heter is not so clear, however by an actual handle of a sponge perhaps Admur would be lenient even if the liquid does not go to waste, and certainly if it does. Vetzaruch Iyun.]
See M”B 320:55; SSH”K 12 footnote 37; Minchas Yitzchak 3:50
 Admur 335:1
 This applies even if the sponge contains a handle and thus it is not inevitable that one will squeeze liquid upon holding the cloth. The reason for this prohibition is because it is considered a mundane act and a desecration of Shabbos. Furthermore, there is suspicion that if one were allowed to clean the spill and drip out the absorbed liquid as he does during the week he may come to intentionally squeeze out the liquid. [ibid]
 Piskeiy Teshuvos 302:10
 As they are designated for this purpose
 Igros Moshe 2:70
 As he claims there is no concept of Sechita [squeezing] by tissue and paper, as it is not truly an absorbent material.
 See Az Nidbaru 7:9 which argues on many points of the leniency of the Igros Moshe.
 SSH”K 12:40
 SSH”K 12:40
 SSH”K 12:37
 As if there is an area that is not wet it is similar to a sponge with a handle which is allowed to be used being that no water will squeeze out from the area he is holding on to. [320:23] So is also proven from Admur 301:59 [Rama 301:46; M”B 301:172] that it is permitted to lift wet clothing if there is no suspicion one will come to squeeze it. In our case there is no suspicion one will come to squeeze the rag or tissue being they are designated for this purpose of cleaning. [see 301:59]
 This is similar to a sponge that does not have a handle which is forbidden to even lift due to inevitably causing squeezing. [320:22] One must thus establish the case in Admur 301:59 to be discussing even if there is a dry area of the cloth. However if the entire cloth is soaked without any area, then it is forbidden to be lifted with one’s fingers due to the squeezing prohibition.
 Igros Moshe 2:70
 Minchas Yitzchak 10:25, in name of also other Rabbanim.
 SSH”K 14:33 in name of Rav SZ”A, Rav Wozner allows it for babies only. The Piskeiy Teshuvos [327:1] and SSH”K learns that the foundation for the allowance is from the M”B:Magen Avraham in 613:9 which allow one to dry his legs:hands:feet from before Shabbos and then use it on Shabbos to clean his eyes. However Tzaruch Iyun on this as baby wipes may have a lot more water absorbed in them than the above-mentioned towel used to dry only ones hands:feet and face.
 If the reality were to be that no liquid [Tofeich al minas Lehatfiach] can be extracted from the squeezed wipes, as well as that the wipes are dried to this point prior to the beginning of Shabbos, then there should be no reason to prohibit their use.
However Tzaruch Iyun why Admur omitted [in 613: 16] the ruling of the Magen Avraham [brought in previous footnote, which serves as the source for the ruling of the lenient opinions] that if one wiped his hands:legs:face with a towel before Shabbos one may use them for his eyes on Shabbos. Perhaps though it can be said that Admur omitted it as its law is already included in his mentioned rule that if it contains enough water before Shabbos to be “Tofeaich Al Minas Lehatfiach” then it may not be used, and if it does not then it may.
 Beir Moshe 1:34 [based on Sheleis Yaavetz] rules that good smells may always be applied in order to remove bad odors, and so rules Piskeiy Teshuvos [327:1, 328:26]. SSH”K [ibid] also rules leniently in this, although to note that they hold [unlike Admur] there is never a prohibition to place good smells on ones skin.