Chapter 11: After the reading

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Chapter 11: After the reading

1. Half Kaddish:[1]

A. The custom and background:[2]

After the completion of the reading, half Kaddish is recited. [This applies by all Torah readings.[3]] The following is the historical background on this custom: After the authoring of the Talmud, the Rabanan Savuraiy instituted the half Kaddish to be said [on days the Maftir is recited, such as Shabbos, Yom Tov, etc.] in order to make an interval between the obligatory reading and the reading of the Maftir. This interval of the half Kaddish was done in order to proclaim that the Maftir is not part of the minimum number of Aliyos. [At first, this institution of saying the half Kaddish was only applicable to days in which Maftir was recited, and only when the Maftir was not included as part of the obligatory Aliyos.[4] However, later on it became established to recite this half Kaddish also on days of Torah reading in which Maftir is not recited, such as Monday’s and Thursday’s, and so is the widespread custom today in all places.[5]]

 

Q&A

If one lost the Minyan during the reading, in which case one finishes the reading without a Minyan, is the half Kaddish to nevertheless be recited?

Some Poskim[6] rule that after the Torah reading, one may say half Kaddish even in such a case, and so is the Ashkenazi custom. Other Poskim[7], however, rule the half Kaddish is not to be recited, and so is the Sephardi custom.

 

B. When is the Half Kaddish to be recited?[8]

Shabbos, Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur by Shacharis:[9] On Shabbos [by Shacharis], Yom Tov, and Yom Kippur, in which case the Maftir is not counted as one of the obligatory Aliyos, the Kaddish is recited after the last Aliyah prior to Maftir.[10] This applies even if many Aliyos are added to the reading, nevertheless, the Kaddish is not said until after the completion of the Parsha, prior to Maftir.[11] [If one forgot and did not recite the half Kaddish before Maftir, then it is to be recited after the Haftorah.[12]

Tishe Beav, Mincha of a Fast days, and Mincha of Yom Kippur:[13] On Tishe Beav and all other public fast days by Mincha, and Yom Kippur by Mincha, in which case the Maftir is counted as one of the obligatory Aliyos, the Kaddish is not recited prior to the Maftir [nor Haftorah[14]].[15] [Rather, this Kaddish is recited after the Haftorah, and is recited by the Chazan who is by the Amud prior to Shemoneh Esrei.[16] This is likewise the Chabad custom.[17] This Kaddish serves as both the Kaddish post Kerias Hatorah and the Kaddish prior to Shemoneh Esrei. However, on Tishe Beav by Shacharis, many are accustomed to reciting this Kaddish after Shelishi, prior to the Haftorah.[18]]

Shabbos Mincha: See C!

All other days of reading: On all other days of reading [i.e. Monday, Thursday, Rosh Chodesh, Chol Hamoed], the Kaddish is said after the completion of all the Aliyos. This applies even when two Sifrei Torah are removed on Chol Hamoed Pesach, and Rosh Chodesh Teves.[19] [If the Kaddish was accidentally recited after the third Aliyah, it is to be repeated after the fourth Aliyah.[20] Some Poskim[21], however, rule one is not to repeat the Kaddish. Practically, the Kaddish is to be repeated.]

Days on which two or three scrolls are removed:[22] According to Ashkenazi custom, the half Kaddish is always recited after concluding the reading prior to Maftir. The order is as follows: Whenever two scrolls are removed on Shabbos and Yom Tov [excluding Chol Hamoed Pesach and Rosh Chodesh Teves, as stated above], the half Kaddish is recited after the reading of the first Sefer Torah [i.e. Shevi’i on Shabbos and Chamishi on Yom Tov].[23] Prior to saying the Kaddish, the second scroll is placed on the Bima together with the first scroll [to the left of the first Sefer Torah, near the Baal Korei[24]].[25] [Nonetheless, if the half Kaddish was said prior to placing the second Sefer on the Bima, it is nevertheless valid.[26]] Whenever three scrolls are removed, the half Kaddish is recited after the reading of the second Sefer Torah.[27] One first places the third scroll on the Bima together with the second scroll and says half Kaddish.[28] [The above follows the Ashkenazi custom.] However, there do exist other customs regarding the saying of the Kaddish when two or three Sifrei Torah are removed, and no custom is to be changed.[29] [Practically, the Sephardi custom is to say two Kaddeishim whenever two or more Sifrei Torah are meant to be removed and thus have two or three Parshiyos read. On a day of two Sifrei Torah, the first Kaddish is recited after the first scroll, and the second is recited after the second scroll. On a day of three Sifrei Torah, the first Kaddish is recited after the second scroll, and the second is recited after the third scroll.[30]]

Hagomel:[31] When saying Hagomel after the last Aliyah, one is not to do so until after the half Kaddish is recited. [When saying Hagomel after Maftir, it is questionable whether it is to be said before or after the Haftorah.[32] Practically, it is to be said after Maftir, before the Haftorah.[33]]

 

Q&A

What is the law if when three Sifrei Torah are removed, the Kaddish was accidentally said after the first Sefer Torah?[34]

Some Poskim[35] rule that if the Kaddish was accidentally recited after the first Sefer Torah, then it is to be repeated after the second Sefer Torah. Other Poskim[36], however, rule that it is not to be repeated. Practically, the Kaddish is to be repeated.

What is the law if the Kaddish was accidentally recited after the sixth Aliyah?[37]

This follows the same dispute as above, and practically, the Kaddish is to be recited.

What is the law if the Kaddish was accidentally recited after the third Aliyah on Rosh Chodesh?

This follows the same dispute as above, and practically, the Kaddish is to be recited.

 

C. When to say the Half Kaddish by Mincha of Shabbos:[38]

By the Torah reading of Mincha of Shabbos, which is directly followed by Shemoneh Esrei, the half Kaddish is not recited after Kerias Hatorah.[39] [Rather, it is recited prior to Shemoneh Esrei and serves as both the Kaddish post Kerias Hatorah and the Kaddish prior to Shemoneh Esrei.[40] The custom of the world is to return the Sefer Torah to the Heichal, recite Yehalelu and Ledavid Mizmor, or other Mizmorim, and then  say the half Kaddish.[41]]

The Chabad custom:[42] The Chabad custom, as initiated by the Alter Rebbe, is to say the half Kaddish prior to the Sefer Torah being returned to the Aron, and then begin Shemoneh Esrei as soon as the Kaddish is complete.[43] Nonetheless, there exist a number of approaches recorded regarding how this is to be done: Some say that while Hagbah and Gelila are taking place, the Kaddish should be said by the Chazan by the Amud [as soon as he reaches the Amud after the third Aliyah], although one does not return the Sefer Torah to the Heichal until after Shemoneh Esrei.[44] Others write that the Sefer Torah is to be brought to the Aron before Shemoneh Esrei [and have the Torah escorted and Yehalelu recited] and the Chazan is to only begin to recite the Kaddish once the Sefer Torah reaches near the Aron, and is to conclude it as the Aron is closed.[45] Others would recite the Kaddish right after the reading and then bring the Sefer Torah to the Heichal and say Yehalelu after the Kaddish.[46] Practically, the current Chabad custom as directed by the Rebbe Rayatz, is to begin the Half Kaddish at the end of Gelila, and quicken the Gelila and Yehalelu while lengthen the saying of the Half Kaddish, having the Sefer Torah returned to the Aron prior to the conclusion of the Kaddish, and then begin Shemoneh Esrei.[47] [The intent here of Gelila is that the Kaddish is to be started while the Sefer Torah is being rolled up during Hagbah, after it is returned to the Bima, and not when it is being wrapped by the Golel.[48]] If the Chazan concluded the Kaddish prior to the Sefer Torah entering the Aron, then those people standing near the Aron are not to begin their Shemoneh Esrei until the Sefer Torah is returned.[49]

 

Summary:

On Shabbos by Mincha, Kaddish is not recited by the Bima after Keiras Hatorah. The custom of the world is to return the Sefer Torah to the Heichal, recite Yehalelu and Ledavid Mizmor, or other Mizmorim, and then say the half Kaddish. The Chabad custom is to begin the Half Kaddish at the end of Gelila, and quicken the Gelila and Yehalelu while lengthen the saying of the Half Kaddish, having the Sefer Torah returned to the Aron prior to the conclusion of the Kaddish, and then begin Shemoneh Esrei.

Q&A

What is to be done if the Baal Korei accidentally said the half Kaddish by the Bima after Kerias Hatorah?[50]

In such a case, the half Kaddish is not to be repeated by the Chazan by the Amud prior to Shemoneh Esrei.

 

If Shemoneh Esrei will not prayed directly after the Torah reading of Shabbos Mincha, is half Kaddish to be recited?[51]

Yes. In the event that the congregation has already Davened Shemoneh Esrei and is simply making up the Torah reading of Mincha, then the Half Kaddish is recited after the reading. Likewise, if there will be an interval of sometime between the reading and Shemoneh Esrei, such as if the two are taking place in two different areas, then the half Kaddish is to be recited after the reading. In such a case, a Mizmor is to be recited prior to Shemoneh Esrei, and have half Kaddish repeated afterwards, prior to Shemoneh Esrei. 

 

D. Who is to say the half Kaddish-The Baal Korei, Olah, or an Avel?[52]

Customarily, the half Kaddish after Kerias Hatorah is recited by the Baal Korei.[53] Nonetheless, some Poskim[54] rule that this only applies if there is no Avel present, otherwise, the half Kaddish recited after Kerias Hatorah is designated to be recited by Aveilim. This applies even if he did not receive an Aliyah and is not the Baal Korei.[55] Other Poskim[56], however, rule that the half Kaddish is to be recited only by the Baal Korei, even if there is an Avel present. Practically, the Chabad custom is for an Avel, and Baal Yahrzeit, to endeavor to recite the half Kaddish after the Torah reading.[57] [This applies even on Shabbos and Yom Tov.[58]] If however an Avel is not available, then it is to be recited by the Baal Korei.[59] Likewise, in a case of dispute, or when Davening in a Shul with a different custom, the Kaddish is to be recited by the Baal Korei.[60] The Sephardi custom is for the half Kaddish to be recited by the last Olah.[61]

 

Summary:

According to Ashkenazi custom, the half Kaddish is to be recited by the Baal Korei. However, if an Avel, or Baal Yahrzeit, is present then he is to endeavor to recite the half Kaddish after the Torah reading, even if he did not receive an Aliya and was not the Baal Korei. The Sephardi custom is for the half Kaddish to be recited by the last Olah.

 

General Q&A

May the Baal Korei say the half Kaddish if he is in middle pf Davening [Pesukei Dezimra or Shema]?

No, as the half Kaddish does not belong specifically to the Baal Korei and can be said by others.

If the Baal Korei is unable to say the half Kaddish, such as if he is in middle of Davening, who is to say it?

In such a case the Kaddish may be recited by any individual.

 

Q&A on Avel

May a child in Aveilus recite the half Kaddish after Kerias Hatorah?[62]

A child who is in Aveilus is not to say the half Kaddish after Kerias Hatorah.

If there are a number of Aveilim present, which Avel is to recite the half Kaddish?

One is to follow the laws of precedence which is 1) Yahrzeit; 2) Shloshim 3) Within the year.

 

 

E. Covering the Sefer Torah:[63]

The custom is to cover the Sefer Torah while reciting the half Kaddish.

2. Hagbah:[64]

A. What is Hagbah?[65]

Hagbah is the process of showing the words of the Parsha within the parchment of the Sefer Torah, to the congregation.

B. When to perform Hagbah:[66]

The custom of the Sephardim is to perform Hagbah to the Sefer Torah prior to the reading.[67] [Many Sephardic communities are accustomed to performing Hagbah as soon as the Sefer Torah is removed from the Ark, and they hence walk with the open Sefer Torah to the Bima.[68]] However, the widespread Ashkenazi custom is to perform Hagbah to the Sefer Torah after Keiras Hatorah.[69] [In Eretz Yisrael, even amongst Ashkenazim, many are accustomed to do like the Sephardim and perform Hagbah prior to Keiras Hatorah.[70] This is also followed by a variety of Chassidic sects in Eretz Yisrael. Likewise, according to Kabbalah, Hagbah is to be performed before Kerias Hatorah.[71] Nonetheless, the Chabad custom even in Eretz Yisrael is like the original Ashkenazi custom to perform Hagbah only after Kerias Hatorah.]

 

Q&A

If more than one Sefer Torah is being read, must Hagbah be performed to each Sefer Torah?

Yes. On a day where two or three Sifrei Torah are removed, Hagbah is to be performed to all the Sifrei Torah.

If a congregation only has one Sefer Torah on a day that two or three are to be removed, how many times is Hagbah to be performed?[72]

Hagbah is only to be performed one time, at the conclusion of Maftir. Nevertheless, amongst those accustomed to performing Hagbah prior to the reading, many are accustomed to perform Hagbah prior to each new reading in order to show the congregation the words of that reading. Furthermore, some do so even after each Keriah.[73]

 

C. Who-Selling the honor of Hagbah:[74]

It is customary to sell the honor of Hagbah/Gelila for large sums of money. [The person doing Hagbah receives greater reward than all others. See end of Halacha 3!]

D. How to perform Hagbah:

Touching the Sefer with Tallis/Gartel:[75] The Chabad custom is for the Magbiah to touch the Sefer Torah with his Tallis, or Gartel and kiss it prior to performing Hagbah. [Many are accustomed to touch three Amudim of the Sefer Torah upon doing so.[76] Nonetheless, one must be very careful to only gently touch the parchment in order not to scratch any letters, G-d forbid.]

Lifting the Sefer Torah:[77] The Sefer Torah is lifted while open to show the congregation the writing that is in it.

Writing facing person versus back facing person:[78] The Ashkenazi custom is to perform Hagbah with the writing facing the person lifting it, thus having the people in back of him see the writing. However, the Sephardi custom is to perform Hagbah with the back of the Sefer Torah facing the person lifting it, thus having the people in front of him see the writing.

How many pages is one to show the congregation: One is to show [up until[79]] three columns of the Sefer Torah to the congregation upon performing Hagbah.[80] Possibly, one is to show exactly three columns [and not less or more].[81] Some Poskim[82] however rule that it is all dependent on the strength one has and if he is able to hold the Sefer Torah when it is opened a lot [and hence, if one is unable to open it three columns, he can open it for less]. [Practically, one is to try to open at least three columns of the Sefer Torah, and if he is able to, he may open even more.[83]]

Turning around with the Torah:[84] One is to show the writing of the Sefer Torah to those standing by his right and left, and thus turn around with the Sefer Torah to his front and back in order to show the writing to the entire congregation, men and women. [This turning is done in the following way:[85] One first turns to his right side, which is from east to south, if he is facing east.[86] Accordingly, by an Ashkenazi Sefer Torah, the writing is first shown to those on the left of the Bima, while by a Sephardi Sefer Torah it is first shown to those to the right of the Bima.[87] Some are accustomed to performing a full circle, turning to one’s right [East to south to west to north].[88] Others perform a half circle from their right side [east to southwest] and then from their left side [east to northwest].[89] Others state that there is no need at all to make a half or whole circle, and one can remain stationary and show the writing to both sides.[90] Practically, the Rebbe once instructed the Yeshiva students to perform Hagbah as follows:[91] One performs only a half circle, turning from right to left [east to north to west] and then returns to east, going from left to right. In all cases, one is to turn around slowly with the Sefer Torah in order to allow everyone to properly see it.[92]]

Placing the Sefer Torah back down on the Bima: Those who perform Hagbah prior to Kerias Hatorah [i.e. Sephardim, and some Chassidic communities in Eretz Yisrael] place the Torah back down on the Bima after Hagbah. Those who perform Hagbah after Kerias Hatorah are accustomed to sit down with the open Sefer Torah and have the Golel roll it closed.[93] The Chabad custom, however, is to return the Sefer Torah to the Bima, roll it up, and only then sit down with it, having the Golel garb it.[94] The Poskim[95] have praised this latter custom, and wonder why it is not practiced in all Ashkenazi communities. Seemingly, this was the original Ashkenazi custom.[96]

 

Q&A

Must the area of that day’s Torah reading be shown to the congregation by Hagbah?[97]

From the letter of the law, it is not required for the congregation to be shown specifically the area of that days reading. Thus, if the Sefer Torah is very heavy and is by the end of Devarim, or start of Bereishis, it is permitted to roll it to the middle in order for it to be lifted.[98] Certainly, if the Sefer Torah was open to the wrong area during Hagbah, it does not need to be repeated. Nevertheless, initially one is to show the congregation that days reading, and so is the custom.[99]

If all the people in Shul are to the right or to the left of the Bima, must one nevertheless show the Sefer Torah to both sides?[100]

No.[101] Nevertheless, if the congregation is by one’s right side, then he should first turn the Torah to his right and then to his left, as usually done.[102]

May the person doing Hagbah move with the Sefer Torah to different areas of the Shul so everyone can see the writing?

Some Poskim[103] rule that the person may not move anywhere with the Sefer Torah on behalf of showing it to others. Other Poskim[104], however, rule that doing so is permitted.

 

E. Laws pertinent to the congregation during Hagbah:[105]

Looking at the Sefer Torah-Coming close to the Bima to see the words in the Sefer Torah:[106] During Hagbah, it is a Mitzvah upon every man and woman to see the writing of the Sefer Torah. [For this reason, every individual is to endeavor to come close to the Bima in order so he can read the words written in the Sefer Torah, which is shown during Hagbah.[107] Being close enough to read the words from the Sefer Torah at this time draws down a great revelation of light on the individual.[108] It is proper to search for a word which begins with the same letter as one’s name, and to look at it.[109] However, women who are within their period of menstruation are not to look at the Sefer Torah.[110]]

Bowing to the Sefer Torah:[111] When the people see the writing of the Sefer Torah by Hagbah they are to bow towards it. [Practically, however, this is no longer widely accustomed today.[112]]

Pointing at the Sefer Torah: Some are accustomed to point at the open Sefer Torah during Hagbah.[113] Others are accustomed to point their Tzitzis at the Sefer Torah and then kiss it.[114] Practically, it is not the Chabad custom to point one’s finger or Tzitzis at the Sefer Torah.[115]

Saying Vezos Hatorah:[116] When the people see the writing of the Sefer Torah by Hagbah they are to say the verse [Devarim 4:44] of Vezos Hatorah [and the other verses printed in the Siddur[117]]. [Some Poskim[118] rule that one may not recite this verse unless he actually sees the words in the Sefer Torah, and is not to begin saying it until he does. Nevertheless, it is not required for him to be close enough to the words to be able to read them, and so long as they are within his view it is valid.

Standing: Every individual is to stand while the Torah is lifted for Hagbah.[119] This applies even if the Sefer Torah is on an elevated platform called a Bima.[120]

 

Q&A

May one in the midst of Davening recite Vezos Hatorah?[121]

One may not recite Vezos Hatorah in the midst of Davening, past Baruch Sheamar.

When two Sifrei Torah are removed must the person holding one of the Sifrei Torah stand when Hagbah is done to other Sefer Torah?[122]

No.

 

3. Gelila-Rolling the Sefer Torah and garbing it:[123]

The Ashkenazi custom is that after Hagbah is performed, the person doing Hagbah sits down and then has the Sefer Torah rolled, with the help of the person doing Gelila.[124] Nonetheless, the main Golel is considered the person who did Hagbah and is holding the Sefer Torah.[125] Thus, the side of the Sefer Torah which contains the words is to face the person doing Hagbah, and not the Golel.[126] [The Chabad custom, however, is for the person doing Hagbah to return the scroll to the Bima and roll it up and only then sit down, as stated above in Halacha 2D.[127]]

Centering the stitched area:[128] When rolling the Sefer Torah, it is to be rolled in a way that the sewed area of the pages is in the center.[129]

Tying the Sefer Torah with a Gartel:[130] The custom [by Ashkenazi Sifrei Torah] is to use a belt to tie the Sefer Torah after it is rolled up, to prevent it from falling apart. The Sefer Torah is to be tied in a way that the knot rests on the front side of the Sefer Torah, where the letters are, so that it can be undone without turning over the Sefer Torah. [Many are accustomed to place the belt on the top third of the Sefer Torah.[131] However, the Chabad custom is to tie the Gartel to the top part of the bottom third of the Sefer Torah.[132]]

 

The custom of giving Gelila to a child:[133]

It is customary to honor children with the Mitzvah of Gelila.

 

Not to touch the parchment of the scroll with one’s hands:[134]

At times it occurs that the pages of the Sefer Torah are not aligned properly or begins to fall during the Gelila. In such a case, one is to use a Tallis to hold onto the parchment and realign it. It is forbidden for one’s hands to be used even if he washed them beforehand. See Chapter 4 Halacha 7B for the full details of this subject!

 

 The greatness of Hagbah and Gelila:[135]

The Talmud[136] states that the person who performs Gelila receives rewards corresponding to everyone else. Some Poskim[137] explain that this refers to the Hagbah done prior to Keiras Hatorah, as is customary of Sephardim, and some Ashkenazim in Eretz Yisrael, in which the Sefer is lifted and placed on the place of the reading. Other Poskim[138] explain that this refers to the Hagbah performed after the Kerias Hatorah, which prepares the Sefer Torah to be wrapped. [The above, however, was stated in times that the same person doing Hagbah was also the person doing the Gelila, however, today that this honor is divided by two people, the question is asked as to who is the main Golel who receives reward corresponding to all, as explained next.]

According to the Ashkenazi custom to do Hagbah and Gelila after Kerias Hatorah, which is greater, Hagbah or Gelila?

In previous times, the Hagbah and Gelila were done by the same person, even within the Ashkenazi community. Later on, the custom became to have two people perform it, with one person doing Hagbah and the second doing Gelila.[139] Nonetheless, we rule that the person doing Hagbah is the main Golel and thus he is of greater privilege than the person doing Gelila.[140] However, some Poskim[141] learn that the greatness of the Gelila and its above-mentioned reward is divided between the Magbia and Golel, as both are doing different parts of the Gelila process. Furthermore, some Poskim[142] learn that those who sit with the open Sefer Torah and have it rolled by the Golel, then the Golel receives the reward and not the Magbiah. Practically, according to the Chabad custom to have the Sefer Torah first placed by the Bima and then rolled up, thus having the Golel only tie the belt around it and garb it with the Meil, certainly he is considered the main Golel and not the person doing Gelila.[143] Accordingly, one who purchased Hagbah and Gelila is to do the Hagbah himself, and honor another person with the Gelila.

 

4. Laws of holding the Sefer Torah and the law if it fell ch”v:[144]

After Hagbah, the Sefer Torah is held on a chair until it is ready to be returned when Yehalelu is pronounced. It may be held by the person who did Hagbah, or given to another to hold.[145]

How to hold:[146] The Sefer Torah is held with the written part facing the congregation, and its back facing the person holding it.

 

Q&A

May a child be given the Sefer Torah to hold after Hagbah?[147]

The custom is to allow giving a child the Sefer Torah to hold after Hagbah.[148] Nonetheless, the child must be of mature enough age and strength to be allowed to do so.[149]

May the Sefer Torah be placed on a special holding chair on the Bima rather than be held by an individual?[150]

The Sefer Torah is to be held by an individual and not placed down on a chair. Nevertheless, some Poskim[151] rule that when two Sifrei Torah are removed the second Sefer Torah may be placed on a special holding chair during the interim of the reading from the first Sefer Torah, and so was the custom in many Shuls in Europe. Other Poskim[152], however, rule that it is forbidden to do so, and it must be held by a person, and preferably by the person who removed it from the Aron.

 

The law if the Sefer Torah fell, Chas Veshalom:[153]

In the event that a Sefer Torah ch”v fell on the floor, the custom of the world is to fast. This applies even if it fell with its covering. [This applies even by a Pasul Sefer Torah.[154] This applies even if it fell on its own, such as due to wind, or a child.[155] This applies even if it fell by the steps leading to the Aron Kodesh.[156] This applies even if only one side of the Sefer Torah fell on the floor.[157] This applies even if only the Eitz Hachaim touched the floor.[158] If the congregation is unsure if the Sefer Torah touched the floor, but there is valid testimony of two Kosher witnesses that it did not do so, then no atonement is required.[159] If the person holding the Sefer Torah fell on the floor together with it, then if the Sefer Torah did not touch the floor, no atonement is needed. However, the person who fell is to donate money to charity.[160]]

Who fasts? From the letter of the law, only the person who dropped the Sefer Torah is required to fast.[161] Nonetheless, the custom is for all those who witnessed the fall to fast.[162] Furthermore, some communities are accustomed to decree a fast on all [males] who were present in the Shul and require a Pidyon Taanis [i.e. charity] on all the members of the Shul even if they were not present.[163]

How long is one to fast?[164] There are various customs associated regarding the number of fasts, and when they should take place. Some write that they are to fast for a total of three fasts.[165] The Rebbe once directed in such a case for those who saw the fall to fast for a total of six half days, until midday, and to be careful in saying Shnayim Mikra and giving charity daily throughout that year.[166] Practically, the person who dropped the Sefer Torah is to fast a full day fast, while those who saw it fall are to fast half day fasts.

 

5. The order if two or more Torah scrolls are removed:[167]

A. When do we remove two or more Torah scrolls:

Two Torah scrolls:[168] Being that two different sections of the Torah need to be read on Yom Tov[169], therefore, one is initially required to remove two Torah scrolls; one for the Holiday reading, and the second for the Maftir. It does not suffice to remove only one Torah scroll and then roll it to the Parsha of Musafim [for Maftir].[170] [The same applies any time that two separate Parshiyos must be read the same day, such as Shabbos Rosh Chodesh[171], Shabbos Chanukah[172], the four Parshiyos[173], that two scrolls must be removed.]

Three Torah scrolls:[174] Whenever three separate Parshiyos must be read the same day, three Sifrei Torah are removed. For example, when Rosh Chodesh Teves falls on Shabbos, one needs to read the weekly Parsha, the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh, and the Parsha of Chanukah.[175] Likewise, on Simchas Torah one needs to read the Parsha of Vezos Habracha, Bereishis, and Parshas Hamusafim.[176] [Likewise, when Rosh Chodesh Adar or Rosh Chodesh Nissan falls on Shabbos, three Sifrei Torah are removed being that one needs to read the weekly Parsha, the Parsha of Rosh Chodesh, and the Parsha of Shekalim/Hachodesh.[177]]

 

Q&A

What is a congregation to do if only one Sefer Torah is available?

If two scrolls are not available, then one is to roll the Torah scroll to the second reading after the first reading is complete.

 

If a congregation only has one Sefer Torah on a day that two or three are to be removed, how many times is Hagbah to be performed?

See Halacha 2B in Q&A!

May a second Sefer Torah be brought from elsewhere on a day that two Sifrei Torah are read?[178]

One is not to be lenient to bring a Sefer Torah even from one room to the next if there already is a Sefer Torah in the current room. This applies even if the Sefer Torah in the room is less Mehudar, or of a different script [i.e. Beis Yosef versus Arizal]. This applies even if one desires a second Sefer Torah for Maftir, unless rolling the Sefer Torah to the area of Maftir would involve a great Tircha Detzibura.

 

B. The order if two Sifrei Torah are removed on Shabbos and Yom Tov:

  1. Both Sifrei Torah are to be removed simultaneously from the Ark.[179]
  2. Holding onto the second Sefer Torah:[180] While the reading from the first Sefer Torah takes place, the second Sefer Torah is held. [It is to be held by the person who performed Pesicha[181], or given to someone else to hold.[182] See previous Halacha in Q&A regarding if the Sefer Torah may be placed on a special holding chair rather than be held by a person.]
  3. What to read in the first scroll? Whenever two scrolls are removed on Shabbos or Yom Tov, and the second scroll serves for the reading of Maftir, the weekly Torah portion is read from the first scroll until Shevi’i [on Shabbos and until Chamishi on Yom Tov].
  4. Saying the Kaddish: On Shabbos and Yom Tov, after Shevi’i/Chamishi, the second scroll is then placed on the Bima[183] [to the left of the first Sefer Torah, near the Baal Korei[184]] which is followed by half Kaddish.[185] [If the half Kaddish was said prior to placing the second Sefer on the Bima, it is nevertheless valid.[186]] See above Halacha 1B for the full details of this matter!
  5. Hagbah is then done to the first scroll.
  6. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is customarily recited after Hagbah.
  7. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[187]
  8. The portion of Maftir is read from the second scroll. The half Kaddish is not recited after this Aliyah, having been said earlier.[188]
  9. One then performs Hagbah to the second scroll and reads the Haftorah.
  10. On Shabbos Mevarchim, the Chazan for Musaf takes the scroll of Maftir to hold.[189]
  11. When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[190]

C. The order if two Sifrei Torah are removed during the week:

  1. Both Sifrei Torah are to be removed simultaneously from the Ark.[191]
  2. Holding onto the second Sefer Torah:[192] While the reading from the first Sefer Torah takes place, the second Sefer Torah is held. [It is to be held by the person who performed Pesicha[193], or given to someone else to hold.[194] See previous Halacha in Q&A regarding if the Sefer Torah may be placed on a special holding chair rather than be held by a person.]
  3. What to read in the first scroll? Whenever two Sifrei Torah are removed during the week when there is no Maftir, such as by Chol Hamoed Pesach, and Rosh Chodesh Teves, then one reads the first three Aliyos in the first Sefer Torah and reads the fourth Aliyah in the second Sefer Torah.
  4. The half Kaddish is not recited after this Aliyah, and will rather be said later on.[195] [If the Kaddish was accidentally recited after the third Aliyah, it is to be repeated after the fourth Aliyah.[196]]
  5. Hagbah is then done to the first scroll.
  6. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[197]
  7. The fourth Aliyah is read from the second scroll.
  8. The half Kaddish is only said after the reading of the second scroll. The first Sefer Torah does not have to be placed on the Bima at the time of the saying of this Kaddish.[198]
  9. One then performs Hagbah to the second scroll.
  10. When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[199]

D. The order if three Sifrei Torah are removed:

Whenever three Sifrei Torah are removed the following order is to be followed:

  1. All three Sifrei Torah are to be removed simultaneously from the Ark.[200]
  2. Holding onto the second and third Sefer Torah:[201] While the reading from the first Sefer Torah takes place, the second and third Sefer Torah are held. [It is to be held by the person who performed Pesicha[202], or given to someone else to hold.[203] See previous Halacha in Q&A regarding if the Sefer Torah may be placed on a special holding chair rather than be held by a person.]
  3. The weekly Sedra [Parsha of the week] is read regularly from the first scroll [until the 6th Aliyah].
  4. By the 6th Aliyah the remainder of the Parsha is read from Shishi until the end of the Parsha.[204]
  5. One then places the second scroll on the Bima for the seventh Aliyah and does Hagbah to the first Sefer Torah.[205] Kaddish is not accustomed to being recited at this point prior to reading from the second Sefer Torah. This applies even if the minimum obligatory Aliyos were already all called up by the first Torah scroll.[206] [If the half Kaddish was said at this point, it is to repeated after the second Sefer Torah.[207]]
  6. One may not open the second scroll until the first scroll is rolled up and placed in its Meil.[208]
  7. The portion of Rosh Chodesh [or Bereishis on Simchas Torah] is then read from the second scroll.
  8. One then places the third scroll on the Bima together with the second scroll and says half Kaddish.[209] There is no need to place the first scroll on the Bima.[210] See above Halacha 1B for the full details of this matter!
  9. Hagbah is then done to the second scroll.
  10. The Mi Shebeirach for the ill is customarily recited after Hagbah.
  11. This is followed by the reading Maftir.[211] [The half Kaddish is not recited after the Maftir, having been said earlier.[212]]
  12. One then performs Hagbah to the second scroll and reads the Haftorah.
  13. On Shabbos Mevarchim the Chazan for Musaf takes the scroll of Maftir to hold.[213]
  14. When the scrolls are being returned to the Aron, the scroll of Maftir is taken first.[214]

6. Yehi Ratzon prayer:[215]

The Ashkenazi custom is to recite the prayer of Yehi Ratzon after Torah reading on Monday’s and Thursday’s. [The Sephardi custom is to recite it each month on Shabbos Mevarchim, prior to Birchas Hachodesh.[216] It is not said by other times. It is not the Chabad custom to recite Yehi Ratzon after the Torah reading anytime throughout the year.[217] Nonetheless, some claim to have witnessed the Rebbe reciting it to himself after Kerias Hatorah on Mondays and Thursdays, as well as on Shabbos Mevarchim before Birchas Hachodesh.[218]]

When to say it:[219] It is said by the Chazan immediately following Hagbah. He does not need to wait until Gelila is complete to begin saying it.

Days on which it is omitted:[220] The Yehi Ratzon prayer is customarily omitted on days that Tachanun is not said. It is thus omitted throughout the month of Nissan [and on any day in which a Chasan is present[221], or Baal Bris[222]]. [It may be said on days that Tachanun is omitted due to the Yahrzeit of a Tzaddik, as is followed by some communities.[223]]

7. Yehalelu-Returning the Sefer Torah to the Aron:

A. When to return the Sefer Torah:[224]

Monday’s and Thursday’s, fast day: The custom of Chassidim and Sephardim is to return the Sefer Torah to the Aron after Uva Letziyon and Kaddish Tiskabel.[225] The custom of Ashkenazim is to return it before Ashrei.[226]

Rosh Chodesh: According to the Sephardi and Chassidic custom, the Sefer Torah is returned to the Ark only after Uva Letziyon, prior to the half Kaddish recited before Musaf. [This is also the Chabad custom[227], however some Shul’s of Anash return the Sefer Torah to the ark immediately after Gelila is completed.[228]]

Purim: Some Poskim[229] rule that the Torah scroll remains held until after the Megillah reading and Ashrei /Uva Letziyon/Kaddish Tiskabel.[230] However, other Poskim[231] rule that the Torah is to be returned to the ark prior to beginning the reading of the Megillah.[232] The Chabad custom is like the former approach.[233]

Tishe Beav: After the completion of the blessings of the Haftorah, Yehalelu is recited and the Sefer Torah is returned to the Ark.

Rosh Hashanah:[234] The Torah scroll is left out throughout the Shofar blowing and is thus only returned before Musaf. [The prevalent custom amongst Anash is that the Sefer Torah is placed on the Bimah during the Shofar blowing, however in 770 the custom is for it to be held.[235]]

Shabbos and Yom Tov: The Sefer Torah is returned to the Ark after Ashrei, prior to Musaf.

B. The saying of Yehalelu:[236]

The verse of Yehalelu[237] is recited by the Chazan[238] when the Sefer Torah is being brought to the Aron.[239] After the recital of Yehalelu, the congregation responds with the verse of “Hodu Al Eretz Veshamayim[240].”[241]

C. Who is to take the Sefer Torah to the ark and say Yehalelu?

Some Poskim[242] write that the Chazan is to take the Sefer Torah and say Yehalelu. Practically, however, the widespread custom of the world, including Chabad, is for the person holding the Torah [usually, the Magbia] to bring it to the Aron, and only on Shabbos and Yom Tov are some accustomed to have the Chazan take it.[243] However, when the Rebbe was Chazan, he was accustomed to take the Sefer Torah and bring it to the Aron himself.[244]  

Day of two or more Sifrei Torah:[245] On a day that two or more Sifrei Torah are read from, then the Chazan is to take the last Sefer Torah of Maftir back to the Aron and lead the procession. [In the event that the person holding the Sefer Torah will carry it to the Aron [and not the Chazan, as stated above to be the custom] then the person holding the last Sefer Torah of Maftir is to lead the procession.] In a case that the first Sefer Torah was accidentally taken first, the Chazan does not need to exchange it.

D. When is Yehalelu to be recited on Mincha of Shabbos?

In general, the verse of Yehalelu is recited by the Chazan when the Sefer Torah is being brought to the Aron.[246] However, according to the Chabad custom to begin the Kaddish towards the end of the Gelila, this forms a problem regarding when it is to be said. On the one hand, one may not speak in middle of Kaddish, and must pay attention to the words of the Kaddish said by the Chazan.[247] On the other hand, one is not to make an interval between Kaddish and Shemoneh Esrei [at all] even with the recital of a single Pasuk[248], and therefore, Yehalelu is not to be recited after the Kaddish, before Shemoneh Esrei, but rather is to be said before the Kaddish.[249] Practically, according to the Rebbe’s implied directives, Yehalelu is to be recited after Gelila, while the Sefer Torah is being returned to the Aron, in the midst of the Kaddish, and not between the Kaddish and Shemoneh Esrei.[250] [Perhaps, it is best to recite it after answering Amen Yehei Shmei Raba, prior to the Chazan continuing the Kaddish. While the Chazan who says the Half Kaddish should say it to himself before he begins the half Kaddish.] Some[251] however write the Rebbe was accustomed to reciting Yehalelu only after the Kaddish was completed by the Chazan, prior to beginning Shemoneh Esrei.

E. How to carry the Sefer Torah:

The direction:[252] The Sefer Torah is returned to the ark from one’s right side [south, if the Aron faces Mizrach]. This applies even if the left side is a shorter path to the Aron.[253]

On which side to hold:[254] The Sefer Torah is to be held by one’s right side [with the front part of the scroll facing the people[255]]. [Even one who is left-handed is to hold the Sefer Torah on his right side.[256] However, if he fears dropping the Sefer Torah, then he may hold it by his left.[257]]

F. Escorting and kissing the Sefer Torah:[258]

Standing:[259] It is an obligation upon everyone to stand while the Sefer Torah is being returned to the Aron. See Chapter 3 Halacha 5 for the full details of this matter!

Escorting-The congregation:[260] It is a Mitzvah for those people whom the Sefer Torah passes in front of, to escort it to the Heichal. [However, those people of which the Sefer Torah does not pass in front of, are not required to come forward and escort the Sefer Torah.[261] Furthermore, if there are a lot of people present, there is no need to push to escort it to the Heichal even if the Sefer Torah passes them, and a slight escort suffices.[262] Practically, due to this reason, the custom today is to only escort the Torah slightly and not walk with it until the Aron Kodesh.[263] Those who do not escort the Sefer Torah are to turn themselves towards it and stare at it while it makes its way to the Heichal.[264]]

Escorting-The Magbiah and Golel:[265] It is a Mitzvah for the person who did Hagbah and Gelila to escort the Sefer Torah to the Heichal. They are to escort the Sefer Torah until the Heichal, and then remain there until the Sefer Torah is returned to its place. [This, however, only applies if the Sefer Torah is being returned to the Aron immediately after Gelila, otherwise, only the person who is currently holding the Sefer Torah is required to escort it.[266]]

Kissing the Sefer Torah:[267] The custom is to bring children to kiss the Sefer Torah in order to educate them in Mitzvos. [The children’s hands and face are to be clean when they kiss the Sefer Torah, and they are not have mucus or saliva coming out of their orifices.[268] Likewise, the custom is for those people whom the Sefer Torah passes in front of, to kiss the Sefer Torah.[269] One is to endeavor to kiss it with his mouth rather than simply touch it with his hand and then kiss his hand.[270] One is to endeavor to kiss the actual Sefer Torah by pressing the Paroches to the parchment, as opposed to pulling the Paroches away from the parchment, and only end up kissing the cloth.[271] One who is able to, is to hug the Sefer Torah with both hands and then kiss it.[272] Some are accustomed to say the verse of “Yinashkeihu Menishikos Pihu” upon kissing it and the verse of “Yimino Tichabkeini” upon hugging it.[273] Despite the above said, some Poskim[274] defend those who are accustomed to touch the cloth with their hand and then kiss the hand, rather than actually kiss the Sefer Torah. Practically, if one is unable to kiss it with his mouth, then he is to do as above and touch it with his hand and then kiss it.[275]]

G. Psalms recited while the Sefer Torah is returned:[276]

Many Ashkenazim are accustomed to reciting Psalms upon returning the Sefer Torah to the Aron. On Yom Tov and during the weekday the psalm of Ledavid Mizmor [Psalm 24] is recited, while on Shabbos the psalm of Mizmor Ledavid [Psalm 24] is recited. They also add the prayer of Uvenucho. [Practically, it is not the Chabad custom to recite any psalm upon the Sefer Torah being returned.[277] It may not be said by anyone who is in the midst of a part of Davening that speaking is forbidden.[278]]

H. Entering the Sefer Torah into the Aron-Hachnasa:

Who is to place the Torah to the Aron?[279] It is not necessary for the person who did Pesicha to also return the Sefer to the Aron. Nonetheless, the common practice is for the person who took out the Sefer Torah [i.e. Motzi] to also return the Sefer Torah to the Aron [i.e. Machnis].

__________________________

[1] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 9-11; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:66

[2] Admur 282:12; Michaber 282:4; Rif Megillah 13a; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12 Tzadi; Mordechai Megillah Remez 809; Ran Megillah 13a; Rosh Megillah 3:5; Tosafos Megillah 23a; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:9

[3] All Poskim ibid regarding reading with Maftir; Birkeiy Yosef 143:1 that the custom became to say it also on Mondays and Thursdays

[4] Teshuvah Riy Migash 49, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 143:1, “Since there is no Haftorah on Mondays and Thursdays there is no need for the Kaddish”; See Admur ibid from whom it is also apparent that the original custom of Kaddish was instituted on behalf of the days of reading that contained Maftir.

[5] Birkeiy Yosef 143:1; See Tur 149 who mentions the half Kaddish also on Monday’s and Thursday’s; Rokeiach Pirush Hasiddur 2:555; Rokeiach Mincha of Shabbos p.178; Rambam Seder Hatefilos in end of Ahavah writes to say kaddish after the Torah reading; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:9 writes that this is a Takana of the Geonim, however from the Teshuvah of Riy Migash, who was slightly after the Geonim, it is apparent that this Takana had yet to take place, and so writes the Birkeiy Yosef ibid that it is a mere Takana of the Achronim

The reason for the new Takana: The reason for this is because one is not to recite verses without afterwards giving praise towards G-d, and hence the Geonim instituted to recite it even after the Monday and Thursday reading. [See Rokeiach Pirush Hasiddur 2:555; Rokeiach Mincha of Shabbos p.178; Shaareiy Efraim 7:38; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[6] Shaareiy Efraim 7:38; M”B 143:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:14; 84:12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 143:2

[7] Birkeiy Yosef 143:1; Kaf Hachaim 143:5; Yabia Omer 7:20

[8] Admur 282:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:7

[9] Admur ibid; Michaber 282:4; Rif Megillah 13a; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12 Tzadi; Mordechai Megillah Remez 809; Ran Megillah 13a; Rosh Megillah 3:5; Tosafos Megillah 23a

[10] The reason: As the entire purpose for why the Rabanan Savuraiy instituted the half Kaddish to be said is in order to make an interval between the obligatory reading and the reading of the Maftir and thus proclaim that the Maftir is not part of the minimum number of Aliyos. [Admur ibid; Tosafos ibid; Rosh ibid]

[11] Admur 282:14; Rama 282:4

[12] P”M 282 A”A 16; M”B 282;29; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:2

[13] Admur 282:12; Teshuvah Riy Migash 49, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 143:1

[14] Teshuvah Riy Migash 49, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 143:1

[15] The reason: The Kaddish is not recited prior to the Maftir, in order not to make an interval in middle of the minimum Aliya’s, and in middle of the Parsha. [Admur ibid] It also cannot be recited after Shelishi, prior to the Haftorah, as whenever Kaddish is recited after the Haftorah a new Aliyah must be called up. [Teshuvah Riy Migash 49, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 143:1]

[16] M”B 282:26; 292:4; See Admur 282:18; M”A 282:18

[17] Siddur Tehilas Hashem; See Shaar Hakolel 29/4; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320; See Hiskashrus 451 p. 14 footnote 47 and 1046 p. 14; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320

The Rebbe’s custom: There were years that the Rebbe began the Kaddish immediately after the Haftorah as is normally done by Mincha of Shabbos.  However, in most years the Rebbe waited for the Sefer Torah to be returned. The following is the background on this subject: In the year 1988 by Taanis Esther the Rebbe began reciting Kaddish prior to the Sefer Torah entering the Heichal. However, in 1989, by all the fast days [17th Tammuz, Tzom Gedalia and 10th of Teves] the Rebbe waited until the Sefer Torah was inside the Aron prior to beginning Kaddish. [Hiskashrus 1046 based on the videos of those years]. To also note that in many years that the Rebbe Davenend for the Amud the Rebbe waited until after Yehalelu, and the entrance of the Sefer Torah, to the Aron to begin Kaddish, even on Shabbos by Mincha! [Hiskashrus ibid; See also Hiskashrus 1056 that this was because of a greater interval that would be caused between the end of the Kaddish and Shemoneh Esrei, and is hence not to be followed in other Shul’s] Response of Rabbi Groner: “About the kaddish, being that we do not say kaddish soon after kerias hatorah, and we always say kaddish before saying the shemoneh esrei, the question is how can we say kaddish and it should apply to both situations. Shaar Hakollel says therefore to start saying the kaddish as the sefer Torah is being returned to the Aron kodesh and complete the kaddish only after the sefer Torah was put in the Aron kodesh, this way it is considered to apply to both. The Rebbe thought that it should maybe be said only after it is in the Aron kodesh. The Rebbe himself would start that Kaddish as it is being carried to the Aron kodesh. One time he waited till it was in the Aron kodesh, but that was because the Rebbe said maftir and soon after he finished they started carrying the sefer torah, the Rebbe would not walk in front of the Torah only following, when he came to the Amud they had the Sefer Torah already in the Aron kodesh.

[18] Shaareiy Efraim 8:99; Implication of Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 559:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:7; 559:6; Nitei Gavriel 60:18; Hiskashurs 889 that so was custom of Rebbe in 1988; See Hiskashrus 836, 847, 856, 960 for a discussion in why we first say Kaddish and then the Haftorah; See Birur Halacha 559 which brings 34 Poskim which rule this way.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Kaddish is to be recited after the Haftorah. [See Teshuvah Riy Migash 49, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 143:1; Implication of M”B 292:4 that Kaddish is never said by the Bima by Mincha of Shabbos or a fast day]

[19] Admur 490:11; M”A 490:4; Levush 490:4; Beis Yosef 490 in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham Nesiv 5:4; M”B 490:4

The reason: One is not to say the Kaddish after the reading of the Parsha of the day, prior to reading the Parsha of the Musaf, as is done by Yom Tov. The reason for this is because the only reason the half Kaddish is said beforehand on Yom Tov is because the five obligatory Aliyos have been completed in the Parshas Hayom read in the first Sefer Torah, and the Maftir which reads the Parshas Hamusafim is not part of the list of obligatory Aliyos, as explained in 282:11, and therefore we make an interval with a Kaddish in-between. However, on Chol Hamoed, the obligatory reading of the four Aliyos is not complete until after the fourth reading in the second Sefer Torah and is part of the original institution to call up four people to the Torah on Chol Hamoed. Therefore, Kaddish is not recited until after the reading of the Parshas Hamusafim. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Levush ibid; Beis Yosef ibid]

[20] P”M 684 A”A 4; Daas Torah 684; Igros Moshe 1:101; Piskeiy Teshuvos 490:4; See Elya Raba 669:19; Shaareiy Efraim 8:77; Imrei Eish 51; Kaf Hachaim 282:48

[21] Levush; Rosh; P”M 282 A”A 17; M”B 282:34; Shraga Hameir 3:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 684:4; See M”A 684:4; Taz end of 684; Maharil 182; M”B 684:16; Kaf Hachaim 684:24

[22] See Admur 282:14-15; Rama 282:4; M”B 147:25 and 27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:7

[23] Admur 282:14; Rama 282:4; Darkei Moshe 282:7; Beis Yosef 282 in name of Rosh, Rabbeinu Yerucham and Abudarham; M”B 147:27

[24] Mishneh Halachos 13:22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10; Some however say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. [Rav M. Harlig; See Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[24] Rama 147:8

[25] Rama 147:8 that one is not to remove the second Sefer Torah until the first one is placed down; M”A 147:12 and M”B 147:27 that it is to be placed before Kaddish

[26] Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10

[27] Admur 282:15; Rama 282:4; M”B 147:27

The reason: After the reading in the first two scrolls, the Maftir is recited, in order to make an interval between their reading and the reading of Maftir, as its reading is only done for the sake of Kavod Hatorah. Kaddish is not accustomed to being recited at this point prior to reading from the second Sefer Torah. This applies even if the minimum obligatory Aliyos were already all called up by the first Torah scroll. [Admur ibid]

[28] M”A 147:12 that so is custom; Levush 682; P”M 684 A”A 5; Shaareiy Efraim 8:12 and 75; Kaf Hachaim 684:19; Kitzur SHU”A 79:1; Mishneh Berurah 685:5; See Levush and for the reason behind this. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all three Sifrei Torah are to be placed on the Bima when the half Kaddish is recited. [M”A 147:12 in his ideal opinion; Siddur Yaavetz Seder Simchas Torah 30; Aruch Hashulchan 147:17; Luach Eretz Yisrael in name of Rav Salant; Chayeh Levi 1:40; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 41]

[29] Admur ibid; M”A 282:13; Rivash 321

[30] Beis Yosef 282 that so is custom of all Sephardic communities; Kaf Hachaim 684:19; Yalkut Yosef 144:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:9; 282:7; Regarding if Hosafos were done: See Mamar Mordechai 282:7; Yabia Omer 4:22; Yechaveh Daas 1:76 that Kaddish is recited after each Sefer Torah for a total of three times

[31] See Shaareiy Efraim 10:9; Yerech Yaakov 40; Sefer Haminhagim p. 14; Toras Menachem 36:134; Shulchan Menachem 1:262; Chikrei Minhagim 2:63

Other opinions and customs: Some Poskim rule that the Hagomel is to be said before the Kaddish. [Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinayna 219] Practically, so is the worldly custom. [See Chikrei Minhagim ibid]

[32] See Toras Menachem 36:134 that when the Rebbe Rayatz needed to say Hagomel after returning from Kastrama, there was a debate amongst the Rabbanim in this matter and the Rebbe does not recall what the Rebbe Rayatz practically did; See Chikrei Haminhagim ibid

[33] Ruach Chaim 144:3; Yerech Yaakov 40 [end]

Other customs: See Nivei Shalom 36 that their custom is to say it after the Haftorah

[34] See Daas Torah 684; Piskeiy Teshuvos 282:7 footnote 75-76; 490:4

[35] Elya Raba 669:19; Shaareiy Efraim 8:77; Imrei Eish 51; Kaf Hachaim 282:48; Rishonim in Daas Torah ibid; Igros Moshe 1:101; Piskeiy Teshuvos 490:4

[36] So rule regarding if the Kaddish was said after Shishi: P”M 282 A”A 17; M”B 282:34 in name of Levush; Rosh; P”M 282 A”A 17; See Shraga Hameir 3:14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 684:4; See M”A 684:4; Taz end of 684; Maharil 182; M”B 684:16; Kaf Hachaim 684:24

[37] The original case in M”B ibid refers to this case

[38] Admur 292:4; Siddur Admur; M”A 292:2; Shibulei Haleket 79; See Divrei Nechemia 19; Shaar Hakolel 29:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 91:1; Shulchan Menachem 2:109; Piskeiy Teshuvos 292:4

[39] The reason: As there is nothing to make an interval between this Kaddish and the Kaddish recited prior to the private Shemoneh Esrei, as even those who are accustomed to say Yehalelu, this is only one verse and does not consist of a Hefsek. Now, it if forbidden to recite two Kaddeishim one after the other without an interval of verses in-between. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid] This applies even accoridng to those who say Mizmorim after the Torah is returned to the ark, as these Mizmorim are just a custom to be said and not required from the letter of the law. [M”B 292:4] Therefore, we wait to say the Kaddish until we reach the Amud, as we always try to approximate the Kaddish to Shemoneh Esrei. [Levush 292; M”B 292:4; See Shaar Hakolel ibid] Alternatively, we do not say two Kaddeishim as we do not desire to trouble the congregation. [siddur Yaavetz]

[40] M”A 292:2 in name of Likkutei Pardes of Rashi and Levush 292; M”B 292:4; Shaar Hakolel ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; Omitted by Admur [see Divrei Nechemia ibid and Shaar Hakolel ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Kaddish before Shemoneh Esrei of Mincha has nothing to do with the Kerias Hatorah, and indeed there is no half Kaddish said after Kerias Hatorah of Mincha Shabbos. [Divrei Nechemia ibid]

[41] Piskeiy Teshuvos 292:4

[42] See in length: Divrei Nechemia 19; Shaar Hakolel 29:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 91:1; Piskei Hasiddur 134; Shulchan Menachem 2:109; Or Yisrael 50:172; Al Minhagim Umekoroseihem [Bloy] p. 72

[43] Custom of Alter Rebbe, brought in Shaar Hakolel 29:4 and Ketzos Hashulchan 91:1; All sources in coming footnotes; Questioned by Divrei Nechemia 19

The reason: This is done in order to emphasize that the Kaddish being said goes on both the Kerias Hatorah and Shemoneh Esrei. [Shaar Hakolel ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

[44] So understands Ketzos Hashulchan ibid to be the testimony of Shaar Hakolel ibid of what was done by Admur [in truth however, his wording there is not very understandable]

[45] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[46] Custom in times of Divrei Nechemia ibid, as writes Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

Background: The custom that the Alter Rebbe initiated on Shabbos Mincha was for the Chazan to immediately proceed to the Teiva after the reading is complete and begin Kaddish as soon as he gets there, while Hagbah and Gelila is being done. After the Kaddish was complete everyone would begin Shemoneh Esrei, with exception to those in front of the Aron in order to allow the Machnis to return and not enter within four Amos of the Davener. This custom spread throughout all the Chabad Chassidim and was followed by all those who prayed in the Alter Rebbe’s Siddur. [Shaar Hakolel ibid]

[47] Sefer Haminhagim p. 34; Igros Kodesh 3:138; Toras Menachem Reshimas Hayoman p. 416 that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab

[48] Al Minhagim Umekoroseihem [Bloy] p. 72; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:4 footnote 11 that the true definition of Gelila is the person rolling the Sefer Torah

[49] Toras Menachem ibid; See Shaar Hakolel ibid

[50] Az Nidbaru 14:30; Piskeiy Teshuvos 292:4; See Admur and M”A ibid

[51] Shaar Hatziyon 622:7 in name of Pischei Olam in name of Rav Akiva Eiger; Piskeiy Teshuvos 292:4

[52] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:9; Pnei Baruch 34:14; Nitei Gavriel Vol. 2 chapter 45; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:66 [p. 214]

[53] Admur 282:18 “The Shliach Tzibur says Kaddish after Shevi’i”; Michaber 282:5-6 “Shliach Tzibur”; Tur 149 “The Shliach Tzibur says Kaddish”; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon p. 77 “The Shliach says it”; Sefer Hayashar 47:5 “The Chazan says Kaddish”; Rambam Seder Tefilos end of Ahava “The Shliach Tzibur says Kaddish…after Kerias Hatorah”; Siddur Rokeiach 2 p. 555 “The Chazan says Kaddish”; Abudarham p. 136 “The Shliach Tzibur says Kaddish”; Siddur Yaavetz

[54] Sdei Chemed Kaddish 143 in name of Agudas Eizov 7, based on based on Rashbatz 3:171; Mateh Efraim Kaddish 3:1; Torah Leshma 422; Alef Hamagen Kaddish 3:3; Shaareiy Efraim 10:9 regarding if the Avel received Maftir or Shelishi; Levushei Mordechai Revia 110; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:4 regarding if the last Olah is an Avel or Baal Yahrzeit; Gesher Hachaim 8-2; Pnei Baruch ibid; Orchos Rabbeinu 1:102; 3:216 that so held the Chazon Ish and Steipler and that they were particular that one who has living parents should not say it

[55] Alef Hamagen ibid, however see Shaareiy Efraim in previous and next footnote

[56] Maharam Brisk 1:118; Mishmeres Shalom Kudinov on Midrash Pinchas 35; Sefer Hachaim 139:1; See Shaareiy Efraim ibid and Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 3 and Torah Leshma 422 that imply it only belongs to the Avel if he says Maftir; See Halichos Shlomo 12:27 in name of Rav SZ”A and other Poskim in Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 1 that this Kaddish belongs to the souls of the deceased that don’t have a person saying Kaddish for them and hence should not be said by an Avel

[57] Sefer Haminhagim p. 32 [English];

[58] Shaareiy Efraim 10:9 and Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 3 regarding if the Avel received Maftir or Shelishi; However, see Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 35 for Poskim who write the Avel is not to say it on Shabbos and Yom Tov

[59] Shevet Halevi 8:163; see Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[60] Nitei Gavriel 45:3 footnote 6 in name of Poskim

[61] Yabia Omer Y.D. 3:26

[62] Nitei Gavriel 45/3 footnote 7 in name of Agudas Eizov and Tashbatz ibid

[63] Shaareiy Efraim 10:9

[64] Michaber 134:2; See Yabia Omer 7:16; Encyclopedia Talmudit Hagbah

[65] Michaber 134:2; Miseches Sofrim 14:14; Ramban on Torah Ki Savo 27:27; Shibulei Haleket 77; Mordechai Halachos Ketanos 14; Tashbeitz 188

[66] See Michaber 134:2; Divrei Yatziv 1:76; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:9

[67] Michaber 134:2 writes the order of Hagbah prior to the laws of Kerias Hatorah, together with the laws of Vehu Rachum, hence indicating that it is done before Kerias Hatorah [Levushei Serud ibid]; Biur Hagr”a 134:4 that so is also implied from Miseches Sofrim 14:4

[68] Heard from Harav Yaakov Yosef; See Yabia Omer 7:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:6

[69] Rama 134:2 “The custom is to do so after the Torah reading”; See Ledavid Emes 4:2

The reason: This is done in order so people don’t think that seeing the words in the Torah by Hagbah is of more importance than the actual reading, as many people would leave the Shul after Hagbah. [Kneses Hagedola 134:2, brought in Kaf Hachaim 134:16]

[70] Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13: 84:5; Kaf Hachaim 134:16 in name of Sefer Shaareiy Yerushalayim Shaar 9; See Shut Maharitz Dushinsky 1:10 that thos who want to do Hagbah twice, before and after the reading, may do so

[71] Shaar Hakavanos p. 48; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Kerias Hatorah 1; Shulchan Hatahor 134:6; Zohar Vayakhel p. 206

[72] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:4

[73] Sefer Revid Hazahav 2:15

[74] Michaber 147:1

[75] Chikrei Haminhagim 1:197; This custom is also recorded in Sefer Kehilos Shlomo of Minhagei Frankfurt p. 51

[76] So I have seen done amongst Anash. I am not aware of any source for this custom

[77] Michaber 134:2; Miseches Sofrim 14:14; Ramban on Torah Ki Savo 27:27; Shibulei Haleket 77; Mordechai Halachos Ketanos 14; Tashbeitz 188

[78] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:5

[79] Miseches Sofrim ibid; brought in M”B ibid

[80] M”A 134:3 in name of Chidushei Agudah; Miseches Sofrim 14:14 see also 3:5 that one is to open the Sefer Torah three columns; Elya Raba 134:4; Kitzur Shlah; Kitzur SHU”A 23:25; M”B 134:8; See Igros Kodesh 18:427

[81] M”A ibid; Implication of Kitzur SHU”A ibid

[82] M”B 134:8

[83] So I heard from Rav Groner Shlita; See Sefer Reb Mendel p. 297 that the custom of the Rebbe’s father was to open the Sefer Torah around nine columns, brought in Chikrei Haminhagim 2:60

[84] Michaber 134:2; Miseches Sofrim 14:14; Ramban on Torah Ki Savo 27:27; Shibulei Haleket 77; Mordechai Halachos Ketanos 14; Tashbeitz 188

[85] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:5; Yalkut Dinei Kerias Hatorah p. 1393; Hiskashrus 274 p. 17; Shulchan Aruch Hakatzar 35 footnote 101

[86] Beir Sheva Sotah 2; Peri Chadash 134; Beir Heiytiv 134:4; M”B 134:9; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:5; See Mamar Mordechai 134; Even Yisrael 8:11

Other opinions: Some suggest that by an Ashkenazi Sefer Torah one is to turn the Sefer Torah to one’s left, similar to the turn by Boiy Veshalom, and thus first show the Sefer Torah to the people on one’s right. [Hiskashrus ibid, based on wording in Michaber ibid to show to the right and left. However, see Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that the Michaber wrote his statement in reference to the Sephardi Sefer Torah and custom.]

[87] See above for the different customs of how Ashkenazim and Sephardim lift the Sefer Torah and if the writing faces the person lifting it or not.

[88] Beir Sheva Sotah 2; Shevet Halevi 9:26; Orchos Rabbeinu 3:216 that so did Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:5

[89] Mishneh Halachos 11:150; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:5

[90] See Kneses Hagedola 134:7 in name of Bach in name of Maharam; Mamar Mordechai 134:2; Sefer Afikei Maginim 134:5; Hiskashrus ibid

[91] See Shulchan Menachem 1:267; Yalkut Dinei Kerias Hatorah p. 1393; Hiskashrus 274 p. 17

[92] Shaareiy Chaim on Shaareiy Efraim 10:14

[93] See Aruch Hashulchan 147:9; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13;

[94] Sefer Haminhagim p. 33 [English]; Igros Kodesh 18:427; 19:281; Aruch Hashulchan 147:9 that so is the custom of the Chassidim in his country; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:4 footnote 13

The reason: 1) This prevents the Sefer Torah from falling while sitting down with it all being rolled. [See Shaareiy Efraim 10:19 who speaks of this worry] 2) We are particular to not leave a Sefer Torah open unnecessarily, and hence close the Sefer Torah as soon as possible. [Igros Kodesh 18:427; See Michaber 139:5] 3) We desire to diminish as much as possible the difference in custom between Sephardim and Ashkenazim, and since they return it onto the Bima, so should be done by us. [Igros Kodesh 18:427] 4) This allows the Gelila to be done properly. [Igros Kodesh 18:427; See Shaareiy Efraim ibid] 5) The Talmud states that the Golel receives reward versus all the other Kibudim, and thus in order for the person doing Hagbah to be considered also the Golel, rather than have it done by a child as is customary, he first puts down on the Bima and rolls it, and only then sits down with the Sefer Torah. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[95] Aruch Hashulchan 147:9 that so is the custom of the Chassidim in his country, and so should be done; Igros Kodesh 18:427; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:4 footnote 13 that so was the custom of many in previous generations

[96] See Rama 147:4 that it used to be that one person performed both Hagbah and Gelila, and this is only humanly possible if the Sefer Torah is placed back down on the Bima!

[97] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:4

[98] Shaareiy Efraim 10:14

[99] Shulchan Hatahor 134:2

[100] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:4

[101] Shevet Halevi 9:26

[102] Betzel Hachochma 5:54

[103] Tzitz Eliezer 12:40 based on Shut Rivam Shneituch 16

[104] Yabia Omer 7:16 based on Halachos Ketanos 2:255

[105] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:6-8

[106] Michaber 134:4; Miseches Sofrim 14:14; Ramban on Torah Ki Savo 27:27; Shibulei Haleket 77; Mordechai Halachos Ketanos 14; Tashbeitz 188; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13

[107] Siddur Admur; M”A 134:3; Shaar Hakavanos Kerias Hatorah; Shulchan Hatahor 147:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one is a great distance from the Sefer Torah then he should not come towards it for the sake of seeing its letters, a sit appears like haughtiness. [Shaareiy Efraim 10:13]

[108] M”A 134:3; Shaar Hakavanos Inyan Kerias Hatorah; M”B 134:11 in name of Mekubalim

[109] Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 2:16; Kaf Hachaim 134:13

[110] Admur 88:2; M”A 88:2; Taz 88:2; Rashal; Binyamin Zev 153

[111] Michaber 134:4; Miseches Sofrim 14:14; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim negate bowing to the Sefer Torah by Hagbah, as we find no source for such a matter. [Shiltei Hagiborim Kiddushin 1 p. 14b]

[112] Kneses Hagedola Y.D. 282; Siddur Yaavetz; Har Tzevi 1:64; Divrei Yatziv 1:76; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[113] Meam Loez Parshas Ki Savo 26:27; Sefer Hachaim 3:6; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:7

[114] Sefer Hachaim ibid; Meam Loez ibid

[115] Sefer Haminhagim p. 32 [English]

[116] Michaber 134:4; Miseches Sofrim 14:14; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:8

[117] See Siddur Admur for the list of verses that we recite; See Michaber ibid that one says the verse of Toras Hashem Temiam

Saying Al Pi Hashem Beyad Moshe: Many are accustomed to reciting the half verse of Al Pi Hashem Beyad Moshe. [See Siddur Shelah; Siddur Yaavetz; Likkutei Maharich; Aruch Hashulchan 134:3; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 224; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:8 regarding the

[118] Shaareiy Efraim 10:13; M”B 134:12; Betzel Hachochma 5:54; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[119] Elya Raba 149; Shaar Hatziyon 146:18; Kaf Hachaim 146:24

[120] Elya Raba ibid; Shaar Hatziyon ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid See Taz Y.D.D 282:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not required to stand in such a case, unless he is sitting on the Bima platform. [M”A 146:6; See Rama Y.D. 242:18; Beis Yosef Y.D. 282 Rashba 3:281] The final ruling and custom is like the stringent opinion.

[121] Chaim Sheol 68; Kisei Rachamim 14:14; Kesher Gudal 11:21; Maharshag 3:52; Kaf Hachaim 134:20; Igros Kodesh 3:149, printed in Shulchan Menachem 1:214; Yabia Omer 5:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:14

[122] Kinyan Torah 5:16

[123] See Rama 147:4

[124] Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13; See Rama ibid that in previous times the custom was for the same person to do both Hagbah and Gelila

[125] Rama ibid

[126] Rama ibid

[127] Sefer Haminhagim p. 33 [English]; Igros Kodesh 18:427; 19:281, printed in Shulchan Menachem 1:267

[128] Michaber 147:3; Rif Megillah 11a; Sefer Haminhagim p. 33 [English]; See Shaareiy Efraim 10:17

[129] The reason: This is done in order so if the Torah tears, it tears in the stitched area, and not down the middle of a page. [Michaber ibid]

[130] Michaber and Rama 147:4; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13

[131] See Maharshag 3:40 [negates the need to follow this custom]; Shaareiy Chaim on Shaareiy Efraim 10:21; Yalkut Avraham 21; Otzer Hachaim Tzans 89; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 225; Divrei Yatziv 1:77; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:3

[132] Sefer Haminhagim p. 33 [English]; See Chikrei Haminhagim 1:222-226 that this is based on Yerushalmi Taanis 4:5

[133] See Aruch Hashulchan 147:9 that it is customary to have a “Adam Katan” perform the Gelila [Now, although he does not necessarily refer to a child, this is practically the custom]

[134] Shaareiy Efraim 10:15

[135] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:4

[136] Rebbe Yehoshua Ben Levi in Megillah 32a, brought in Tur 147, M”B 147:5

[137] 1st approach in Bach 147 in name of Shiltei Giborim Megillah 4:5-13, in name of Rabbeinu Yeshaya Hachron

[138] 2nd approach in Bach ibid, in name of Shiltei Giborim ibid, in name of Yeish Mefarshim; Implication of Tur and Baal Haittur

[139] Rama 147:4

[140] Rama 147:4 “As he is the main Golel and person holding the Sefer Torah” and 149:1 “And so is the custom regarding the Magbiah, as he is the main Golel, as explained in 147:4”

[141] Orchos Rabbeinu 3:216 in name of Chazon Ish; See Bach 147 who explains that the reason the Golel receives all the Sechar is because he has to work so hard in rolling, tying, and garbing the Sefer Torah, hence implying that today both the Magbiah and Golel would receive some part of the reward; See Shulchan Hatahor 147:6

[142] Aruch Hashulchan 147:9 as the Magbiah does not roll the Sefer Torah and simply holds it tight to prevent it from falling

[143] See Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnotes 11-13; However, see Bach ibid, Vetzaruch Iyun!

[144] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:5

[145] See Ketzos Hashulchan 25 footnote 61; Poskim in coming footnotes

[146] Minchas Yechiel 2:85; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:5

Other opinions: The Chazon Ish was of custom to have the written part of the Sefer Torah rest on his chest, and hence have the back face the congregation. [Orchos Rabbeinu 3:214]

[147] See Chikrei Minhagim 1:227-229

[148] Shaareiy Efraim 10:2 and M”B 147:29 [negates custom]; Sefer Chaim 2:1 [defends custom]; Igros Kodesh 3:138, printed in Shulchan Menachem 1:268 states that so is the custom and no protests this; See Pischei Shearim ibid; Minchas Yitzchak 2:117; Igros Moshe 1:38 in name of Yaavetz

[149] Shaareiy Efraim 10:2; Sefer Chaim 2:1; Siddur Yaavetz; Igros Moshe ibid

[150] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:8

[151] Minchas Yitzchak 2:117 based on Tur Y.D. 282, Megillah 26b; Sefer Shulchan Hakeriah in name of Misgeres Hashulchan in name of Chida; Daas Sofer 1:20; Beir Moshe 3:24

[152] Igros Moshe 1:38 based on Michaber Y.D. 282:3, Siddur Yaavetz, M”B 154:10, and based on Tosafos Menachos 33a that in such a case the congregation would be required to stand; See Rama 147:8 “One grabs the second scroll until the first scroll is read”

[153] Admur 44:2; M”A 44:5 in name of Mishpat Shmuel 12; Kneses Hagedola Y.D. 282; Chaim Sheol 1:12; Shiyurei Bracha Y.D. 282:4; M”B 40:3; See Igros Kodesh 7:83; Shulchan Menachem 3:129; Miasef Lekol Hamachanos 40:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 40:3; Nitei Gavriel Hachnasas Sefer Torah 29

[154] Chaim Sheol 1:12; Maharsham 2:113; Minchas Elazar 3:52; However, see Urian Telisaiy 91 who is lenient

[155] Afrasakta Deanya 3:194; However, see Yad Yitzchak 2:197 who is lenient

[156] Peri Hasadeh 2:72; Minchas Elazar 3:52

[157] Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair 143; Peri Hasadeh 2:72; Minchas Elazar 3:52; Beis Yitzchak 1:165; Afrasakta Deanya 3:194; Igros Moshe 3:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 20

[158] Minchas Elazar ibid

[159] Igros Kodesh 16:244, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:129

[160] Har Tzevi 1:40

[161] See Shiyurei Bracha Y.D. 282:4 and Chaim Sheol 1:12 that the obligation of fasting only applies to the person who dropped it and not to those who saw it

[162] See Igros Kodesh ibid that those who saw it should fast; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[163] Mentioned in Chaim Sheol ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 26

[164] See Birkeiy Yosef Y.D .282; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 26

[165] Orchos Chaim Spinka 40:1

[166] Igros Kodesh ibid

[167] Mishneh Berurah 685:9 and 12; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10-11

[168] Admur 488:6; Michaber 144:3

[169] One must read from the Parsha of the Holiday, as per the institution of Moshe Rabbeinu, and one must also read the Karbanos from Parshas Pinchas, as per the institution of the Rabanan Savuraiy.

[170] The reason: As one may not roll a Sefer Torah in front of the congregation due to respect of the congregation. [Admur ibid]

[171] Michaber 425:1

[172] Michaber 684:2

[173] Michaber 685:2

[174] Admur 282:15

[175] Admur ibid; Michaber 684:3

[176] Admur ibid; Michaber 669:1

[177] Michaber 685:1; Megillah 29b

[178] Kinyan Torah 4:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; See Maharsham 6:3; Yabia Omer 4:15

[179] Rama 147:8; Or Zarua in name of Yerushalmi

[180] Rama 147:8; Or Zarua in name of Yerushalmi

[181] Siddur Yaavetz that the person who took it out should hold it and not give the Mitzvah to another unless he is too weak

[182] See M”B 147:29

[183] Rama 147:8 that one is not to remove the second Sefer Torah until the first one is placed down; M”A 147:12 and M”B 147:27 that it is to be placed before Kaddish

[184] Mishneh Halachos 13:22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10; Some however say that the Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. [Rav M. Harlig; See Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[184] Rama 147:8

[185] Admur 282:14; Rama 282:4; M”B 147:27

[186] Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:10

[187] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:2

[188] This follows the Ashkenazi custom. However, the Sephardi custom is to say two Kaddeishim whenever two or more Sifrei Torah are removed. On a day of two Sifrei Torah, the first kaddish is recited after the first scroll, and the second is recited after the second scroll. [Kaf Hachaim 684:19; Yalkut Yosef 144:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:9; 282:7] See above Halacha 1B!

[189] Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

Bedieved: If the Chazan accidently took the first scroll, it is not to be switched for the second scroll due to worry of Pegam. [Shaareiy Efraim ibid]

[190] See Shaar Efraim ibid

[191] Rama 147:8; Or Zarua in name of Yerushalmi

[192] Rama 147:8; Or Zarua in name of Yerushalmi

[193] Siddur Yaavetz that the person who took it out should hold it and not give the Mitzvah to another unless he is too weak

[194] See M”B 147:29

[195] Admur 490:11; M”A 490:4; Levush 490:4; Beis Yosef 490 in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham Nesiv 5:4; M”B 490:4

The reason: One is not to say the Kaddish after the reading of the Parsha of the day, prior to reading the Parsha of the Musaf, as is done by Yom Tov. The reason for this is because the only reason the half Kaddish is said beforehand on Yom Tov is because the five obligatory Aliyos have been completed in the Parshas Hayom read in the first Sefer Torah, and the Maftir which reads the Parshas Hamusafim is not part of the list of obligatory Aliyos, as explained in 282:11, and therefore we make an interval with a Kaddish in-between. However, on Chol Hamoed, the obligatory reading of the four Aliyos is not complete until after the fourth reading in the second Sefer Torah and is part of the original institution to call up four people to the Torah on Chol Hamoed. Therefore, Kaddish is not recited until after the reading of the Parshas Hamusafim. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Levush ibid; Beis Yosef ibid]

[196] Igros Moshe 1:101; Piskeiy Teshuvos 490:4 [See there footnote 18 for other opinions]

[197] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:2

[198] See Levush 682; P”M 147 A”A 12; 684 A”A 5; Elya Raba 430; Shaareiy Efraim 8:12 and 75; Kitzur SHU”A 79:1; Mishneh Berurah 685:5; Daas Torah 147; Likkutei Maharich; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:11

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all three Sifrei Torah are to be placed on the Bima when the half Kaddish is recited. [Siddur Yaavetz Chol Hamoed Pesach 17; Aruch Hashulchan 147:17; Luach Eretz Yisrael in name of Rav Salant; Chayeh Levi 1:40; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 41]

[199] See Shaar Efraim ibid

[200] See Rama 147:8; Or Zarua in name of Yerushalmi

[201] See Rama 147:8; Or Zarua in name of Yerushalmi

[202] Siddur Yaavetz that the person who took it out should hold it and not give the Mitzvah to another unless he is too weak

[203] See M”B 147:29

[204] Mishneh Berurah 685:4

[205] Hagba is only done after the second scroll is placed on the Bima. [Rama 147:8] Some [Rav M. Harlig] say that the Rebbe instructed that Torah is to be placed on the right side of the first Torah. Others say it is to be placed on the left side. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 36; Hiskashrus 1078 footnote 5]

[206] Admur 282:15

[207] See Halacha 1B in Q&A!

[208] Michaber 147:8; Kol Bo; Elya Raba 147:9; Kaf Hachaim 147:42

[209] Admur 282:15 and Rama 282:4 regarding Kaddish; The following Poskim regarding placing the third Sefer Torah before Kaddish: Levush 682; P”M 684 A”A 5; Shaareiy Efraim 8:12 and 75; Kitzur SHU”A 79:1; M”B 147:27; 685:5; See Levush and Kaf Hachaim 684:19 for the reason behind this

[210] M”A 147:12 that so is custom; Levush 682; P”M 147 A”A 12; P”M 684 A”A 5; Shaareiy Efraim 8:12 and 75; Kitzur SHU”A 79:1; Mishneh Berurah 685:5; Kaf Hachaim 684:19

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that all three Sifrei Torah are to be placed on the Bima when the half Kaddish is recited. [M”A 147:12 in his ideal opinion; Siddur Yaavetz Seder Simchas Torah 30; Aruch Hashulchan 147:17; Luach Eretz Yisrael in name of Rav Salant; Chayeh Levi 1:40; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147 footnote 41]

[211] Admur 282:15

[212] This follows the Ashkenazi custom. However, the Sephardi custom is to say two Kaddeishim whenever two or more Sifrei Torah are removed. On a day of three Sifrei Torah, the first Kaddish is recited after the second scroll, and the second is recited after the third scroll. [Kaf Hachaim 684:19; Yalkut Yosef 144:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:9;]

[213] Shaar Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvah 150:4

Bedieved: If the Chazan accidently took the first scroll, it is not to be switched for the second scroll due to worry of Pegam. [Shaareiy Efraim ibid]

[214] See Shaar Efraim ibid

[215] Admur 429:8; Recorded in Minhagim Tirana; Siddur Rebbe Amram Gaon; Abudarham; Kol Bo; Machzor Vitry Shach Y.D. 265:24; Levush 429:2; Olas Shabbos 429:2; Chok Yaakov 429:7; P”M in Noam Megadim 5; M”B 147:22; 429:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:7

[216] Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:7 that so is the Sephardi custom based on the Abudarham and Kol Bo; See Machzor Vitri who writes that it is to be recited by Shabbos Mincha, after Kerias Hatorah

[217] This prayer was omitted in Siddur Admur

[218] See Hearos Ubiurim Oholei Torah 710 p. 26 [for article of Rav Mondshine] and 982 p. 226 in name of Rav Feller

[219] M”B 147:22

[220] Admur ibid; Minhagim Tirana; Shach Y.D. 265:24; Levush ibid; Chok Yaakov ibid; Olas Tamid ibid; P”M in Noam Megadim 5; M”B 429:2; See Likkutei Maharich Seder Kerias Hatorah, Darkei Chaim Veshalom228, and Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid who question this custom based on the Rishonim who explicitly write to say it on Shabbos

[221] P”M ibid

[222] Shach ibid, unlike Siddur Yaavetz

[223] Taamei Haminhagim 130; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[224] See Michaber 423:3; Rama 25:13; Admur 25:39; Tur 149; M”A 149:1; M”B 149:1; Shaar Hakolel 11:27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 149:3

[225] Siddur Admur; Custom mentioned in Admur 25:39; 1st custom mentioned in Rama 25:13; Michaber 423:3; Second opinion in Tur 149; Siddur Arizal; Mishnas Chassidim; See Shaar Hakolel 22 [p. 39]

The reason: As the Divine light drawn down through prayer concludes after the entrance of the Sefer to the Heichal and we hence desire to delay this as much as possible. [Shaar Hakolel ibid; See however Kaf Hachaim 135:2 in name of Shaar Hakavanos that states it is for this reason that we return the Sefer Torah immediately after the reading]

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to return the Torah prior to Kaddish Tiskabel. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid in name of Kol Bo and Abudarham]

[226] Rama 25:13; 1st opinion in Tur ibid; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Machzor Vitri; Levush 423; M”B 423:5; Kaf Hachaim 135:2 based on Arizal and that so is custom of Beis Keil community in Jerusalem; See Kaf Hachaim 423:11;  See Ashel Avraham Butchach 149

The reason: Some say the reason behind this custom is because not all people are able to delay removing their Tefillin until after Uva Letziyon and it is hence done beforehand. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 149:1] Alternatively, it is a Mitzvah according to Kabala to return the Sefer Torah to the ark immediately after the reading. [Kaf Hachaim 423:11; 135:2 based on Arizal]

[227] Siddur Admur regarding Rosh Chodesh “Afterwards one says Ashrei and Uva Letziyon and enters the Sefer Torah to the Heichal”; Hiskashrus 457 p. 18; Siddur of Rav Raskin p. 482; Likkut Dinei Rosh Chodesh 7:15

[228] Background of Chabad custom: In the Siddur of Admur he writes explicitly to return the Sefer Torah on Rosh Chodesh after Uva Letziyon, and so was the Chabad custom in all places until the year 1988. From the year 1988 it became accustomed in 770 to return the Sefer Torah to the Ark immediately after Gelila and not to wait for Uva Letziyon to be recited. This is unlike the Chabad custom followed throughout the year on Mondays and Thursday’s, which follows the ruling of the Michaber. Some suggest the reason for this custom is because it is not our custom to end Uva Letziyon aloud in order to avoid the necessity to say Kaddish immediately afterwards [see next Halacha] and hence in order to negate a mistake the custom became to immediately return the Sefer Torah to the Heichal, hence signifying the conclusion of the Chazan’s part of Davening. [See Hiskashrus 466 p. 15]

[229] Tosafos Megillah 4a; Abudarham; Kol Bo 45; Shalmei Tzibur 329; Yifei Laleiv 2:9; Shaar Hakolel 11:22-5; Directive of Rebbe in Siddur Tehilas Hashem 1978 and onwards.

[230] The reason: As in the Megillah we read the words “Layehudim Haysa Orah” and Orah means Torah. Hence it is proper to leave the Torah out in order to look at it when this verse is read. [Yifei Laleiv ibid]   

[231] Rokeaich 229; Drashos Maharil Purim; Derech Hachaim 2; Levush; Beis Meir; Biur Halacha 693 “Motziin”

[232] The reason: Their reasoning is because the person holding the Torah also needs to pay attention to the Megillah reading. [Beis Meir; Biur Halacha ibid] Practically each community is to follow their custom. [Kaf Hachaim 693:25]

[233] The Chabad custom: Admur in the Siddur does not give a directive in this matter. The Shaar Hakolel ibid writes that he heard that in the Shul of the Tzemach Tzedek they held the Sefer Torah until after Tiskabel [of after Uva Letziyon]. In the Siddur Tehilas Hashem printed before 1978 it was written to return the Sefer Torah prior to reading the Megillah. However, from 1978 and onwards they wrote, based on a response of the Rebbe, to return the Torah after the Kaddish that follows Uva Letziyon. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 127]

[234] 590:21; Rama 590:9; Tur 591; Levush 591; Kaf Hachaim 585:9

Other customs: The Rambam [Halacha 10] rules that the Torah scroll is to be returned to the Aron prior to the Shofar blowing. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] Regarding those congregations that are accustomed to all immerse in a Mikveh prior to the blowing and what they are to do with the Sefer Torah in the interim-see Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:1 and Poskim mentioned there!

[235] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 240

[236] Siddur Admur; The saying of Yehalelu is mentioned in: Admur 292:4; M”A 292:2; Siddur Rav Amram Gaon; Machzor Vitri p. 93; Mateh Moshe 256; Rokeiach

The reason behind this custom: Some explain that these verses are recited in order to emphasize that we serve Hashem himself and bow to him, and not to the G-dliness in the Torah, and therefore we say “Praised be Hashem as His name is alone exalted”. [Reb Chizkiya brought in Mateh Moshe ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because before Matan Torah the ray of Hashem was only in Heavens, and after Matan Torah Hashem shines His ray also below on earth. [Drashos Maharash, brought in Shaareiy Efraim Pischei Shearim 10:44; Ketzos Hashulchan 91 Footnote 4]

[237] Tehillim 148:13

[238] Yehalelu is meant to be said by the Chazan only and then be answered by the congregation. [Siddur Admur ibid; Mateh Moshe ibid] See however Hiskashrus footnote 10 in name of Rav Y.Y Ofen that at times when the Rebbe was Chazan the Rebbe let other’s say the Yehalelu. There is however no reason for why some of the congregation are accustomed to also say Yehalelu with the Chazan. However, Rabbi Y.L. Groner related to me that the Rebbe was accustomed to say Yehalelu together with the Chazan. See Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13 that the Chazan or the person holding the Torah may say Yehalelu

[239] Siddur Admur “On Monday’s and Thursday’s one enters the Sefer Torah to the Heichal and the Chazan says Yehalelu.”

When to say Yehalelu-before or during? Some write that Yehalelu and Hodu is recited prior to bringing the Sefer Torah back to the Aron, and after it is said it is brought to the Aron. [Machzor Vitri ibid; Implication of Mateh Moshe ibid; Shaareiy Efraim 10:41] However from Siddur Admur ibid it is implied that it is said while it is being brought to the Aron. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[240] Conclusion of Tehillim 148:13 and 148:14

[241] The reason: The reason why the congregation answers to the Chazan is to emphasize that not only do we praise Hashem, but also the heavens and earth and we then praise Hashem for giving us the Torah and elevating us from other nations. [Mateh Moshe ibid in name of Rav Chizkiya; See there in length for why the verse of Yehalelu is first said by the Chazan and then Hodu by the congregation.]

[242] Shaareiy Efraim 10:41; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 149 footnote 1 that so is the custom only on a day of Musaf and he asks that seemingly it should always be the custom for the Chazan to take and not the person holding it [i.e. the Magbiah], just as we do by Pesicha, and as implied from the Poskim who write that the Magbiah is to escort the Sefer Torah, not carry it!

[243] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid that so is custom on Mondays and Thursdays; Likkut of Rav Shimon Yakobavitch, printed in Hiskashrus 212:25 who wrote “the Magbia brings the Sefer Torah” although the Rebbe crossed out the word “Hamagbia”

[244] Hiskashrus 449:18 footnote 43

[245] Shaareiy Efraim 10:41; Piskeiy Teshuvos 149:4

[246] Siddur Admur “On Monday’s and Thursday’s one enters the Sefer Torah to the Heichal and the Chazan says Yehalelu.”

When to say Yehalelu-before or during the return of the Torah? Some write that Yehalelu and Hodu is recited prior to bringing the Sefer Torah back to the Aron, and after it is said, it is brought to the Aron. [Machzor Vitri ibid; Implication of Mateh Moshe ibid; Shaareiy Efraim 10:41] However from Siddur Admur ibid it is implied that it is said while it is being brought to the Aron. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[247] See Ketzos Hashulchan 91 footnote 4 “If Kaddish is said while the Sefer Torah is brought to the heychal and people come to kiss it and say Yehalelu it will cause confusion and people will not listen to the Kaddish.”

[248] Admur 292:4; M”A 292:2

[249] Yad Efraim 292 on M”A ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 91 Footnote 4

[250] Implication of Igros Kodesh 313; Sefer Haminhagim p. 66 [English] [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:109]

[251] Siddur Harav Raskin p. 320; Likkut of Rav Shimon Yakobavitch, printed in Hiskashrus 212:25; Rabbi Groner in correspondence that the Rebbe said Yehalelu after the Kaddish

[252] Beir Heiytiv 134:4; M”B 141:25 [regarding bringing to Bima]; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:11

[253] M”B 141:25 [regarding bringing to Bima]

[254] Rama 134:2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:11

[255] Minchas Yechiel 2:85; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:11; 147:5

Custom of Chazon Ish: The Chazon Ish was accustomed to hold the Sefer Torah with the front facing his chest and the back facing the people. [Orchos Rabbeinu 3:214; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:5 footnote 16]

[256] Shaareiy Efraim 10:2; M”B 282:1; Shaar Hatziyon 282:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134 footnote 54

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that a lefty is to hold the Sefer Torah by his left side. [P”M 141 M”Z 3; 134 A”A 5 leaves this matter in question]

[257] Shaareiy Efraim ibid

[258] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 149:1

[259] Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13

[260] Rama 149:1; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12

[261] Implication of Rama ibid; Siddur Yaavetz; P”M 149 A”A 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 149:1

[262] Makor Chaim [of Chavos Yair] 149; Kaf Hachaim 134:10; Toras Chaim Sofer 134:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:10

[263] See Ledavid Emes 26; Shaareiy Efraim 10:4; Kaf Hachaim 149:10; Piskeiy Teshuvos 149:1

[264] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[265] Rama 149:1; Hagahos Maimanis Tefilla 12

[266] Ketzos Hashulchan 25 footnote 61

[267] Rama 149:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:10; 149:2

[268] Siddur Yaavetz

[269] Siddur Yaavetz; Or Tsaddikim 69; Shaareiy Efraim 10:4; Kaf Hachaim 149:7 that so was custom of Arizal; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:12 footnote 47; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:10

[270] Yesod Veshoresh Haavoda 8:8 “To simply touch the cloth and then kiss one’s hands is a Minhag Boros”; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:12 footnote 47; Piskeiy Teshuvos 134:10

[271] Minhagei Chazon Ish 5:7, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 149:2 footnote 11

[272] Siddur Yaavetz; Or Tsaddikim 69; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda 8:8 in name of Arizal; Shaareiy Efraim 10:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[273] See Or Tsaddikim ibid; Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[274] Kitzur Shelah defends the practice, as it nevertheless appears that he is trying to kiss it, brought in Shaareiy Efraim ibid in Pischeiy Shearim; See also Siddur Tzelusa Deavraham that the Rav of Tzechnav did not allow people to kiss it due to spread of germs [see, however, Halichos Shlomo 12 footnote 18 in name of Rav SZ”A who negates this]; See also regarding a Mezuzah: Rama 285:2; Birkeiy Yosef Y.D. 285:4

[275] Shaareiy Efraim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[276] Tur 284 regarding Shabbos; Bach 284 that it is only to be said on Shabbos; The following sources mention regarding weekday and Shabbos: Kitzur Shlah; Siddur Yaavetz; M”B 149:8; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:13; See Piskeiy Teshuvos  149:4

[277] Omitted by Admur in Siddur

[278] Shevet Halevi 3:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[279] Piskeiy Teshuvos 147:2 based on Hagahos Tirana that some places would distribute the Hotzah and Hachnasa to two different people; Lubavitch Vechayaleha [Rav Rafael Kahn] p. 3 that the Rebbe Rashab was always the Motzi but not the Machnis and that he does not know from where the new custom started for the Motzi to wait to take the Sefer Torah from the person bringing it to the Aron. See Chikrei Haminhagim 1:160

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