Accepting Shabbos in close proximity to the candle lighting:

Accepting Shabbos in close proximity to the candle lighting:

Women who light Shabbos candles automatically accept Shabbos upon lighting them. However, men do not automatically accept Shabbos upon lighting the candles. Furthermore, even women, in a time of need, may stipulate to not accept Shabbos upon lighting the candles.[1] Nevertheless, even in such cases that Shabbos is not accepted immediately upon lighting, one must accept Shabbos in close proximity to the candle lighting [and may not delay too much time].[2] [Practically, one must accept Shabbos within ten minutes from the lighting.[3] This applies irrelevant of how close to Shabbos the candles are being lit.[4]] If one did not do so, and delayed accepting Shabbos until it is no longer in proximity to the lighting [i.e. within ten minutes], then (the original blessing was considered to be said in vain and[5]) one must extinguish the candles and relight it for the sake of Shabbos.[6] [However, one is not to recite a new blessing upon this relighting.[7]]

Having another person accept Shabbos in one’s stead:[8] In a time of need that a wife lights candles on condition to not accept Shabbos right away, she may delegate her husband to accept Shabbos in close proximity [i.e. within ten minutes] to the lighting, and is not required to do so herself. Nonetheless, initially in such a situation, it is better for the husband to light and accept Shabbos, than to do the above order.[9] [Some learn[10] that the above ability to have another person accept Shabbos within ten minutes from the lighting only applies to a husband on behalf of his wife, and not to other household members. Others[11] however learn it can be acceptede by any family member of that home.]

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[1] See Admur 263:7; Michaber 263:10; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 27

[2] Admur 263:6, 263:7 in parentheses; 263:11 in parentheses; Michaber 263:4 “And accept Shabbos immediately”; Rabbeinu Tam Tosafus Shabbos 25b; Rosh 2:18; Kitzur Dinei Hadlakas Neiros 4:10 and 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32

The reason: This is required in order for the lighting to be recognizable that it is being done for the sake of Shabbos. [Admur ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the above ruling of the Michaber ibid only applies in a case that one did not light the candles for the sake of Shabbos. If, however, the candles were lit for the sake of Shabbos, it is not necessary for men [or women in a time of need] to accept Shabbos immediately after candle lighting, after the time of Plag Hamincha, so long as. [Rav Akiva Eiger 263:4; M”B 263:20; Biur Halacha 263:4 “Mibiod Yom”; Eretz Tzevi 113; See Minchas Yitzchak 10:20] Furthermore, some Poskim rule that in today’s times that candlelight is no longer used to light up a home, lighting candles for Shabbos always remains recognizable that it is being done for Shabbos, even if one does not accept Shabbos right away, and a man [or woman in time of need] may hence light it and accept Shabbos later on whenever he wants. [Kinyan Torah 4:25; Pnei Shabbos 263 Beirurim 18; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32]

[3] Kuntrus Achron 263:2 that this is within much less than 14 minutes; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 17 concludes that this is within 10 minutes and so writes Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32 and Kitzur Dinei Hadlakas Neiros 4:10 and 15; Eretz Tzevi 1:113 says its about 8 minutes

[4] Admur 263:7 in parentheses [unlike possible implication of Admur 263:6 and Michaber 263:4 that the above law of approximation only applies when one is lighting candles much time before Shabbos]; Derech Hachaim [regarding lighting before sunset]; Tehila Ledavid 263:4 concludes like Admur ibid and that so is implication of Michaber ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 74:11 makes no differentiation; See Kitzur Halachaos 263 footnote 52

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that those who follow Rabbeinu Tam and light candles after sunset, do not have to accept Shabbos in proximation to the lighting, when lighting after sunset. [Derech Hachaim, brought in Tehila Ledavid ibid]

[5] Admur 263:11 in parentheses

[6] Admur 263:6; Rama 263:4; Tur 263; Rabbeinu Tam Tosafus Shabbos 25b; Rosh 2:18

[7] Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 28

[8] Admur 263:11 in parentheses

[9] Admur ibid “Nevertheless it is better for the husband to light and say the blessing…and if the above is not practical then..”

[10] Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos 263 footnote 55 based on Admur in Kuntrus Achron 263:2 that the wife is the husbands Shliach; See Kinyan Torah 4:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 footnote 137

[11] Shraga Hameir 5:20 based on Admur in Kuntrus Achron 263:2 who writes that the wife is part of the husbands household; Chayeh Halevi 1:33; SSH”K 43:24; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32

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