- Question: [Monday 10th Nissan, 5782]
I heard that this year we need to perform Biur Maasros before Pesach. Can you please explain to me the details of how this is done?
The following is a summary of points regarding the mitzvah of Biur Maasros:
- It only needs to be done by those who own Tevel, or separate Terumos and Maasros and have a Maaser Sheiyni coin which they used to redeem the Maaser Sheiyni. Thus, it is only really relevant to those who live in Eretz Yisrael, and separate their own Terumos and Maasros, such as from a fruit tree that grows in their backyard.
- The due date for Biur Maasros is customarily on Erev Yom Tov of Pesach of the 4th and 7th years of Shemitah. From the letter of the law, it is to be done by Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach, the 20th of Nissan which is the 6th day of Pesach, however the custom is to do so by Erev Pesach, the 14th of Nissan. One who did not do so on Erev Pesach is to do so on Erev Shevi’I Shel Pesach, as is the letter of the law. The following is what is required to be done by this date:
- Make sure that all produce [i.e. fruits, vegetables, grains] which requires Terumos and Maasros have had all their tithes removed from them.
- Make sure that all dough’s/breads that need Hafrashas Challah have their Challah removed from them.
- Make sure that all tithes, Terumos and Maasros [Rishon, Sheiyni and Ani], have been properly distributed, or destroyed.
- The Maaser Sheiyni coin is to be destroyed or redeemed onto a Peruta worth of fruit such as a Peruta worth of sugar, and then that fruit/sugar is to be destroyed [i.e. flush down sink].
Sources: See Michaber Y.D. 331:140-146; Rambam Hilchos Maaser Sheiyni 11; Admur 430:3 “As this Parsha discusses the bringing of the tithes to the storehouses, which is similar to what occurs on Erev Pesach, being that on Erev Pesach is the time of Biur. As on every Erev Pesach of the 4th and 7th year of the Shemitah it is an obligation upon every person to remove from his house all of the Maaseros of grains that he tithed in the past three years of Shemitah and that have remained in his house. On this Erev Pesach, he is obligated to remove it from his house and bring it to the house of the Levites. (Now, although there are those who say that the time for this obligation is not on Erev Pesach but rather on Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach, and so is the main Halachic ruling as brought in Y.D. 331:144, nevertheless, the widespread custom is like the former opinion.)”; Kitzur SHU”A Mitzvos Hateluyos Baretz 12; Hakashrus 15:41