Thursday, 8th Nissan 5783/March 30, 2023
- Offering the Karbanos by the inauguration
- The Chatas bull: Aaron and his sons performed Semicha to the head of the Chatas bull offering. It was slaughtered, and its blood was taken by Moshe and placed on the corners of the Mizbeiach with his fingers. The remainder of the blood was poured on the foundation of the altar and it was sanctified to atone. Moshe offered onto the altar the fat that covers the intestines and the diaphragm of the liver and the two kidneys. The bull itself, its skin, meat and waste he burnt in a fire outside of the camp, as Hashem commanded Moshe.
- The Olah ram: Aaron and his sons performed Semicha to the head of the Olah ram offering. It was slaughtered, and its blood was thrown by Moshe around the Mizbeiach. The ram was dismembered, and Moshe offered its head and other limbs onto the altar. Its innards were washed in water. Moshe offered the entire ram to the altar as it is an Olah offering to Hashem.
Tanya Middle of Chapter 39
1. Yetzira-The world of residence of all other souls:
- Only the Neshama dwells in Beriyah while their Ruach of dwell in Yetzira: It is only the aspect of the soul known as the Neshamah of the above mentioned Tzadikim which reside in the world of Beriyah, however, their level of soul known as Ruach resides in the spiritual world of Yetzira.
- Only the Neshama intellectually comprehends G-dliness The reason for this is because it is only the aspect of the soul known as the Neshamah which experiences the intellectual perception of the infinite light of G-d [and hence deserves to reside in the world of Beriyah which contains revelation of G-d’s intellect].
- The Neshamos of all other Jews dwell in Yetzira: Likewise, the aspect of Neshama of the rest of Israel who served G-d with natural love and fear [as opposed to the intellectual love and fear experienced by the Tzadikim], dwell in the world of Yetzira.
- Gan Eden Hatachton: The world of Yetzira in which these souls reside is known as Gan Eden Hatachton.
- The souls are elevated to Beriyah on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh: The above abode in the world of Yetzira by the Ruach of the Tzadikim and the Neshamos of the rest of Israel, is only during the regular weekdays. However, on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh the souls of Yetzira are elevated to the world of Beirya through a pillar, and delight and receive pleasure from G-d and His divine Ray
- The elevating pillar: There is a pillar between the world of Yetzira, which is known as Gan Eden Hatachton, and Beriyah which is known as Gan Eden Haelyon, which serves as an elevator for the souls to go up on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh [and go back down after its leave].
2. Pleasure in G-d derives from intellectual comprehension of Him:
- Intellectual beings can only derive pleasure from matters that they comprehend and understand. Thus, the pleasure that they have in Gan Eden Haelyon derives from their understanding and comprehension of the infinite light of G-d as it is invested within His wisdom of the world of Beriyah.
3. Why the souls are elevated to Beriyah on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh
- The reason the souls receive an elevation on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh, unlike angels [which always remain in the world of Yetzira], is because although they only serve G-d in this world with their natural emotions of love and fear similar to angels, nonetheless, this itself was a result of their Iskfaya and battle with the side of evil which is invested in their body.
- The choice of love versus lust: The love and fear was only achieved due to their abstaining from evil, and crushing and subjugating their physical lusts, and through doing positive actions. These souls had freedom of choice to choose to follow the evil and give in to their lusts, heaven forbid. However, they chose to do good and subjugate the side of evil and cause the greatness of G-d greatness to be elevated in all worlds as light shines within the darkness [therefore, they merit to be elevated to the world of Beriyah on Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh].
4. The Torah and Mitzvos of all souls are elevated and united with the ten Sefiros:
- All the above discussion of the place of residence of souls is only with regards to the soul itself. However, it’s divine service and study of Torah are actually united with the ten Sefiros which are G-dliness, and with which G-d’s infinite light unites with in the greatest unity.
- Intellectual love elevates Torah and Mitzvos to the Sefiros of Beriyah: Those souls which served G-d with intellectual love and fear, have their Torah and service of G-d elevated to the Sefiros of the world of Beriyah.
- Natural love elevates Torah and Mitzvos to the Sefiros of Yetzirah: The Torah and Avoda of the souls who served Hashem with natural hidden love are united with the ten Sefiros of Yetzira.
- The unity of the Ten Sefiros with Atzilus and Or Ein Sof: Either way, whether the divine services elevated to the ten Sefiros of Beriyah or Yetzira, these ten Sefiros contain within them the ten Sefiros of Atzilus, and are united with them in a complete unity. In turn, the ten Sefiros of the world of Atzilus is united with their eminator which is the infinite G-d.
- The souls are not elevated to the Sefiros: It is only the divine service of the souls that becomes elevated and united with the Sefiros however, the souls themselves do not get elevated to the Sefiros of their world, and rather reside in the chambers of that world, of Beriyah or Yetzira, so they can receive pleasure from the ray of the divine presence. This ray of the divine presence is itself a ray of the infinite light of G-d as it is united within the 10 Sefiros of the world of Beriyah or Yetzira,
- The souls receive pleasure from a ray of their divine service: The ray of G-dliness that the souls benefit from in Gan Eden is the ray of their actual Torah and Avoda, as the reward of a Mitzvah is the Mitzvah itself.
Rambam, Hilchos Aveilus
Chapter 3: The prohibition for a Kohen to defile himself to the dead
Halacha 1: The prohibition and liability for lashes
- Any Kohen which defiles himself to any corpse other than the six relatives mentioned in the Torah, or his wife, is liable for the penalty of lashes.
- Witnesses and warning: He’s only liable for lashes if he was pre-warned by witnesses who saw him in the act.
- The method of impurity: The above prohibition and liability applies whether one touches a corpse, or enters a tent with a corpse, or carries a corpse.
- The substance of impurity: It likewise applies whether one contacts the actual corpse, or a substance which was expelled from the corpse.
Halacha 2: Touching a grave
- If the Kohen touches a grave he is liable for the penalty of lashes.
- Touching its clothing: It is permitted for a Kohen to touch clothing that were on a corpse, even though he will become impure for seven days.
Halacha 3: Entered an impure Ohel and the status of a Gentile corpse
- A Kohen who enters an impure tent that became impure due to having contained a corpse is liable for lashes.
- This applies even if the impurity has already left the tent, being that the tent itself is still impure.
- The laws relating to the definition of a tent, as well as the substances that are intervene or carry the impurity, have already been explained in the laws of Tumas Meis.
- The corpse and grave of a Gentile: The corpse of a Gentile does not carry impurity to a tent, and hence not only may a Kohen enter a tent which contains the corpse of a Gentile, but he may even come in contact with their graves. He may thus enter a Gentile cemetery and step on their graves. However, he may not touch or carry the actual corpse of a Gentile.
Halacha 4: A Kohen who enters a cemetery or Ohel
- A Kohen who by mistake enters a cemetery or Ohel which contains a corpse, is not held liable if he leaves as soon as he is made aware of his mistake.
- If he delayed his exit: If he was made aware, that if he was prewarned, and did not jump and leave right away and delayed the amount of time it takes to bow down prior to leaving, then he is liable for lashes.
- If he enters and exits many times: A Kohen who enters and exits and then reenters the cemetery, is liable for lashes for each time that he enters the cemetery if he was warned prior to each time.
- If he touches a corpse many times: A Kohen who touched a corpse many times, is liable for lashes for each time that he touched it if he was warned prior to each touching.
- This applies even he did so 100 times, he would be liable for 100 sessions of lashes.
- If he remains in the cemetery or remains with his contact on the corpse: A Kohen who enters a cemetery or Ohel or touches a corpse and continues doing so without stop, is only liable for lashes one time even if he was warned constantly to stop while he continued to remain in the cemetery or contacting the corpse.
Halacha 5: One who causes a Kohen to become impure
- One who causes a Kohen to become impure transgresses a negative command of Lifnei Iver.
- Lashes: If the Kohen had the person intentionally [Bemeizid] defile him to the death, then he is liable for lashes while the perpetrator transgresses the negative command. If, however, the Kohen was not aware of the transgression [Beshogeg], then the perpetrator is liable for lashes
Halacha 6: The prohibition for a high priest to defile himself to any corpse even a relative
- It is forbidden for a high priest to defile himself to any corpse including a relative. Hence, he may not defile himself on behalf of his father or mother.
- Ohel: He may not even enter a tent which contains the corpse of his relative.
- Two transgressions: If the high priest defiles himself to a corpse, it is possible that he transgresses two negative commands, one for defiling himself to the dead and the second being for entering a tent with a corpse, and he would consequently become liable for two sessions of lashes.
- The calculation is as follows: If he simply touches or carries a corpse then he is liable for one session of lashes. If, however, he entered a tent and remaind there after someone died, then he is liable for two sessions of lashes
- If prior to the high priest entering the tent which contains a corpse, he defiled himself to a corpse, then he is liable for two sessions of lashes.
Halacha 8: A Meis Mitzvah
- It is a mitzvah and command for one to help to bury a Meis Mitzvah.
- This applies even for a Kohen and even for the high priest. The oral tradition maintains that even they are commanded to defile themselves to a corpse who is a Meis Mitzvah.
- What is a Meis Mitzvah? A Meis Mitzvah is a Jewish corpse that was found thrown on the road which does not have anyone to bury him other than the person who met the corpse.
- If the priest is with other people: If the priest met the corpse together with other people, then he may not defile himself to the corpse and is to rather let them deal with it.
- If the priest can call other people: If the priest is able to call other people to bury the corpse, then he may not defile himself to the corpse and is to rather call other people and let them deal with it.
Halacha 9: Precedents in dealing with a Meis Mitzvah
- A Kohen versus a Nazir by a Meis Mitzvah: If a Kohen and Nazir were walking together when they bumped into a Meis Mitzvah, then the Nazir is to deal with the corpse and not the Kohen, being that his prohibition is only temporary.
- A Kohen Hedyot versus a Kohen Gadol by a Meis Mitzvah: If a Kohen Hedyot and Kohen Gadol were walking together when they bumped into a Meis Mitzvah, then the Kohen Hedyot is to deal with the corpse and not the Kohen Gadol.
- The general rule is that whoever has a lower status of holiness is to be the one to deal with the corpse.
- A Segan Kohen Gadol versus a Meshuach Milchama by a Meis Mitzvah: If a Segan Kohen Gadol and Kohen Meshuach Milchama were walking together when they bumped into a Meis Mitzvah, then the Meshuach Milchama is to deal with the corpse and not the Segan Kohen Gadol.
Halacha 10: A Kohen defiling himself to a Nassi
- If a nasi passes away, then all the Jewish people, including even a Kohen, are to defile themselves on his behalf, as is the rule by a Meis Mitzvah.
Halacha 11: The law of a Kohenes and Chalal
- Kohenes: The daughters of Kohanim are not under a prohibition against defiling themselves to the dead.
- Challal: It is permitted for a Kohen who is a Challal to the final himself to the dead.
Halacha 12: The law of a Kohen who is a child
- Causing him to become impure: It is forbidden for an adult to defile a child who is a Kohen.
- Stopping him from becoming impure: There is no obligation upon the courts to stop a child who is a Kohen from defiling himself to a corpse, however his father must educate him against doing so.
Halacha 13: Rabbinical impurities
- The four cubits of the corpse: It is rabbinically forbidden for a Kohen to enter within the four cubits parameter of a corpse, and if he does so he is liable for rabbinical lashes.
- Beis Haperas: It is rabbinically forbidden for a Kohen to enter a cemetery which is defined as a Beis Haperas, and if he does so he is liable for rabbinical lashes.
- The Diaspora: It is rabbinically forbidden for a Kohen to leave the land of Israel to the Diaspora, and if he does so he is liable for rabbinical lashes.
- Mixtures of bloods: It is rabbinically forbidden for a Kohen to defile himself to a mixture of bloods [i.e. Da Tevusa], and if he does so he is liable for rabbinical lashes.
- Gravestone: It is rabbinically forbidden for a Kohen to touch a lone gravestone, and if he does so he is liable for rabbinical lashes. If, however, he enters a cemetery then he is biblically liable for lashes.
- All the above are considered primary rabbinical impurities.
Halacha 14: Cases of exception by a rabbinical impurity
- Entering Diaspora for sake of mitzvah: It is permitted for a Kohen to enter a Beis Haperas or leave to the Diaspora for the sake of a mitzvah, if there is no other way to fulfill the mitzvah.
- For example, he may go to the Diaspora for the sake of marrying a woman or learning Torah.
- This applies even if he is able to learn Torah in Israel, as one does not merit to learn from every individual.
- Defiling oneself to a rabbinical impurity: It is permitted for a Kohen to defile himself to a rabbinical impurity for the sake of respect of humanity.
- For example, he may enter the Beis Haperas for the sake of escorting a mourner.
- Likewise, he may skip on top of graves for the sake of greeting a king, whether of Israel or another nation.
- Likewise, he may defile himself with a rabbinical impurity for the sake of participating in a lawsuit against Gentiles.
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