Who may receive an Aliya?

Who may receive an Aliya?

A. General laws:

One who is illiterate: Although the Olah is to silently read along together with the Baal Korei, word for word[1], nevertheless, it is permitted to give an individual an Aliya even if he is unable to read along with the Baal Korei, such as one who is blind or is illiterate[2], or is in middle of Shema.

One who cannot stand:[3] The Olah must stand during the reading. One who cannot stand, such as one who is stuck to a wheel chair, may not receive an Aliyah.[4]

Blind:[5] It is permitted for a blind person to receive an Aliya[6], however, he should not be called up for Maftir of Yom Tov, or the four Parshiyos.

Being called up twice: One is not to be called up twice during the same Torah reading unless there is no one else who is able to be called up.[7] It is, however, permitted for one to get a second Aliyah by a different Torah reading, such as by another Minyan. This applies even to the same portion that he was called up for by the first time.[8]

B. Avel/Mourner during Shiva receiving an Aliyah:[9]

It is forbidden for an Avel to receive an Aliyah throughout Shiva.[10] This applies even if the Avel is a Kohen and there is no other Kohen available in the Minyan. [Rather a Yisrael is to be called up in his place.[11]]

On Shabbos:[12] It is forbidden for an Avel to receive an Aliyah even on Shabbos. If however he is the only Kohen [or Levi] available in the Minyan, then he may receive an Aliyah.[13] [Some Poskim[14] however rule that it best for the Kohen to leave the Shul and have a Yisrael called up in his place if this is not uncommon practice in the Minyan. It is however disputed amongst Poskim[15] if this likewise applies to a Levi.] Likewise, in any case in which not getting an Aliyah on Shabbos will cause the mourning to be publicized to the Minyan, it is an obligation for him to get an Aliyah. Thus, if the Avel was accidently called up for an Aliyah on Shabbos, he must go up.[16] Likewise, if he is accustomed to always receive a certain Aliyah, then he must go up for that Aliyah even if the Gabaiy does not call him by name.[17] [Based on this, the Rebbe was accustomed to receive an Aliyah on Shabbos during Shiva, as he did every Shabbos.[18]]

 

Q&A on Aliyah during the week

During the week, if the Avel is a Kohen/Levi is he to leave the Shul prior to the Aliyah?

Some Poskim[19] rule that the Avel is not required to leave the Shul prior to Cohen/Levi. Other Poskim[20] rule he is initially to leave the Shul beforehand.

 

If the Avel was accidently called up for an Aliyah during the week is he to go up?[21]

No. This applies even if he is a Kohen. However some Poskim[22] rule he is to go up for the Aliyah.

 

If the Minyan is made up of Aveilim, may an Avel receive an Aliyah?[23]

Yes.

 

May an Avel during Shiva be a Gabaiy and give out the Aliyos?

Some[24] write that he is to avoid doing so.

 

May an Avel during Shiva receive an Aliyah if he has a Chiyuv, such as a Yartzite, or a Baal Bris, and the like?

Some Poskim[25] rule he may not receive an Aliyah even on Shabbos. Other Poskim[26] rule he may receive an Aliyah.[27]

 

Q&A on Aliyah during Shabbos

May an Avel receive an Aliyah on Shabbos day if it is the 7th day of Aveilus?[28]

Shacharis: Although from the letter of the law he is allowed to receive an Aliyah during Shacharis, practically, he is not to do so.

Mincha: He may receive an Aliyah by Mincha. 

 

May an Avel prior to Shiva receive an Aliyah during Simchas Torah?

Yes.[29] However some write he is not to be called up as one of the five required Aliyos.[30]

 

Misc Q&A

May an Avel during Shiva read the Torah?

Weekday-Monday’s and Thursday’s: An Avel may not be the Baal Korei.[31]

Shabbos: An Avel may not read the Torah even on Shabbos.[32] If an Avel is the set Baal Korei in Shul for Shabbos he is to avoid Davening in that Shul during Shiva.[33] If he does Daven in that Shul then some Poskim[34] rule he may read the Torah for the Minyan. Other Poskim[35] however rule he is not to read it.

No other Baal Korei available:[36] In the event that there is no other Baal Korei available, the Avel may read the Torah for the congregation. This applies both on Shabbos and during the week.[37]

 

May an Avel during Shiva perform Hagba/Gelila/Pesicha?[38]

Yes.

Sitting down:[39] If the Avel does Hagba he may sit down afterwards on a chair with the Sefer Torah.

 

C. May one receive an Aliya to the Torah if he has not yet recited Birchas Hatorah?[40]

Yes. He is to recite the blessing of Asher Bachar Banu and read along inside together with the reader.[41] After the Aliya he is to recite the two blessings of Al Divrei Torah and Viharev Nah [prior to learning Torah[42]].[43] However the blessing of Asher Bachar Banu is not to be repeated afterwards.[44] Hence as soon as he concludes the second blessing he is to immediately recite the customary Birchas Kohanim.[45] Nevertheless, initially, before the Aliya the person is to quickly recite the first two blessings of Al Divreiy Torah and Viharev Nah, and then continue aloud with the blessing of Asher Bachar Banu said on the Torah.[46] Likewise when reciting the blessing of Asher Bachar Banu he is to have in mind to fulfill his obligation of Birchas Hatorah with this blessing.[47]

 

May one listen to Kerias Hatorah prior to saying Birchas Hatorah?[48]

No.

D. Calling up relatives to Aliya’s:[49]

From the letter of the law it is permitted to call two relatives to the Torah for an Aliyah one after the other. This applies whether they are brothers or father and son. However, the custom is to avoid doing so due to Ayin Hara.[50] If however one does not call the two relatives by name then it is allowed.[51] [Practically, however, the custom is not to call up relatives one after the other even if they are not called to the Torah by names.[52] This prohibition applies even if the relatives claim they are not particular about Ayin Hara.[53] It is however permitted to call up relatives for Aliyos if there is a break of an Aliyah in between in which a relative was not called up.[54]]

Shevi and Maftir:[55] One is not to call two relatives for Shevi and Maftir. [This however only applies by Maftir of Shabbos, in which one reads both Aliyos from the same Sefer Torah and therefore the Ayin Hara applies. If, however, the Shevi and Maftir are read from two different Sifrei Torah, as occurs on Yom Tov and whenever there are two Torah’s taken out on Shabbos, then the Aliya’s may be given to two relatives, one for Shevi and the second for Maftir.[56] However, when three Sifrei Torah are removed, relatives may not be called up for Shishi and Shevi, being that Kaddish is not recited in-between. Likewise, when two Sifrei Torah are removed during the week, relatives may not be called up for Shelishi and Revi, being that Kaddish is not recited in-between.[57] However, in a time of need one may be lenient.[58] In such a case the relative who received the previous Aliyah is to descend from the Amud before the new Aliyah is begun.[59]]

Summary:

Relatives such as a father and son, or siblings, are not to be called for an Aliyah one after the other. If there was another Aliyah in between it is permitted to do so. When two Sifrei Torah are removed, it is permitted to call them up for Shevi and Maftir.

Q&A

What relatives are included in the above prohibition against giving an Aliyah one after the other?

Father son:[60] The prohibition applies to a father and son [whether one calls up the son after the father or the father after the son].

Brothers:[61] The prohibition applies to brothers. [This applies whether they are brothers maternally and paternally, or are brothers only paternally, or are brothers only maternally.[62]].

Grandfather and Grandson: Some Poskim[63] rule it is permitted to call up a grandfather and grandson, or vice versa, one after the other [if they do not have the same name[64]]. Other Poskim[65] rule it is forbidden to call up a grandfather and grandson from his son, or vice versa, one after the other. However, a grandson from his daughter is permitted even according to this opinion.[66] Practically, one is to be stringent in this matter unless the community custom is to be lenient.[67] In a time of need one may be lenient.[68] Likewise, Bedieved, if the grandson/grandfather was already called up, he is to take the Aliyah.[69] Likewise, one may be lenient to call them up for Shevi’i and Maftir even in a single Sefer Torah.[70]

Father/son in-law:[71] It is permitted to call a father and son in-law to the Torah one after the other.

 

What is one to do if he was accidently called to the Torah after an invalidating relative [father/brother]?

If he already went up to the Bima then he is to acceSee Piskeiy Teshuvos the Aliyah.[72] It is proper in such a case for the relative who received the previous Aliyah to descend from the Bima right away and not wait until after the current Aliyah.[73] If he did not yet go up to the Bima then he is not to go up and rather another person is to be called up in his stead.[74]

 

If one called a person for an Aliyah and he was not in Shul, may the previous Aliyas son/relative be called for an Aliya?

Some Poskim[75] rule it is permitted to do so.[76] Other Poskim[77] rule it remains forbidden.

 

If one called a person for an Aliyah and he was not in Shul, may his son/relative be called up in his place?[78]

Yes.

 

May a child who is under Bar Mitzvah receive the Aliyah of Maftir if his father/relative received Shevi?[79]

Yes.

 

On Simchas Torah may relatives be called up one after the other?[80]

The custom is to be lenient in this matter.

 

May two relatives be called up for Hagba and Gelila?[81]

Yes. However, one is not to call them both up by name or give them both a Mi Shebeirach.

______________________________________________________________________

[1] Rama 135:4

[2] Rama 139:3 in name of Maharil

[3] Michaber and Rama 141:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:10

[4] Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:1

[5] Shaareiy Efraim 1:28; Ketzos Hashulchan 85:6

[6] Rama 139:3

[7] See Michaber 143:5 and 144:4; Rama 282:5; Admur 282:18

[8] Admur 282:17; Ketzos Hashulchan 85:9

[9] Michaber 384/2; Tur 384 in name of Mahritz Geios; See Nitei Gavriel 97 and 116; Pnei Baruch 10; 23/23

Custom of Rabbeim: The Rebbe Rayatz received an Aliyah on Shabbos and the weekday [i.e. Thursday] during the Aveilus. These Aliyos were not regular Aliyos that the Rebbe received weekly. [Igros Kodesh 6/103; Reshimos Hayoman p. 413, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5/270] The Rebbe ibid concludes that since he has not found a reason for the above, therefore he only received an Aliyah on Shabbos during Shiva. [Igros Kodesh ibid] However, in 1965 during the Shiva for his mother, the Rebbe recived an Aliyah on a weekday [i.e. Monday] during the Shiva. [Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 18]

[10] The reason: As it is forbidden for an Avel to learn Torah. Now, although in Avel is obligated to hear the Torah reading, nevertheless it is forbidden for him to get an Aliyah, as he may not teach Torah to others, and in previous times the custom was for the person getting the Aliyah to read the Torah out loud. [See Nitei Gavriel 97 footnote 6] Vetzrauch Iyun from M”B 548/16

[11] Beir Hagoleh ibid

[12] 400/1

[13] Rama ibid; Shach 384/3; Hagahos Maimanis 3

The reason: As otherwise it would be public Aveilus which is forbidden on Shabbos. [Shach ibid]

[14] Hagahos Maimanis in name of Maharam; Chasam Sofer 352, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 401/3; Poskim brought in Nitei Gavriel 116/2 footnote 3

[15] Some Poskim rule the Levci os to also leave the Shul. [Aruch Hashulchan 400/9] Other Poskim rule the Levi may receive the Aliyah. [Minchas Yitzchak 9/130] See Nitei Gavriel 116/3 footnote 5

[16] Michaber ibid

The reason: As if he does not go up it would be public Aveilus which is forbidden on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid]

[17] Michaber ibid that so did Rabbeinu Tam when he sat Shiva. Rabbeinu Tam was accustomed to always receive Shelishi, and during his Shiva he went up on his own for the Aliyah of Shelishi, even though the Gabaiy did not call up him up. He said the reason he did this is because since he receives Shelishi every Shabbos, one who now sees that he is not going up for Shelishi will say that he is not going up due to his Aveilus, and it is forbidden to show public Aveilus on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid]

[18] Custom of Rebbe and Rebbe Rayatz , brought in Igros Kodesh 6/103, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5/270

[19] Meiri Moed Katan 15a; Nitei Gavriel 97/3

[20] M”B 135/45 in name of Elya Raba and other Poskim; Shaarei Efraim 8/9

[21] Shaarei Efraim 8/9; Derech Hachaim

[22] See Nitei Gavriel 97 footnote 8 in name of Tiferes Yisrael

[23] Nitei Gavriel 97/6

[24] Nitei Gavriel 97/11

[25] Taz 400/1 in name of Rashal 71; Maharit; Kneses Hagedola, Nachalas Shiva 17; Neman Shmuel 39, brought in Birkeiy Yosef 400; Poskim brought in Nitei Gavriel 116 footnote 11 and 136/6

[26] Peri Chadash; Daas Eish  6 brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 400/5

[27] The reason: As otherwise it is considered public Aveilus. [ibid]

[28] Taz 402/5 based on Rabbeinu Yechial in Tur 402; Gilyon Maharsha 384/1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he may not receive an Aliyah even on Micnha of Shabbos, as we do not say Miktzas Hayom Kekulo on Shabbos. [Bach, brought in Taz ibid; The Taz negates his opinion]

[29] Pischeiy Teshuvos 399/1 in name of Eish Daas; See Nitei Gavriel Sukkos 101/5

[30] See M”B 548/16

[31] Birkeiy Yosef 400; Dvar Moshe 70; See Michaber 384/1

[32] Birkeiy Yosef 400; Dvar Moshe 70

[33] Kitzur SHU”A 219/3; Pnei Baruch 23/23

[34] Birkeiy Yosef ibid; Devar Moshe 70; Poskim brought in Pnei Baruch 23/23

[35] Poskim brought in Pnei Baruch 23/23

[36] Nitei Gavriel 97/5

[37] The reason: As this is similar to a case of Rabim Tzerichim Lo”

[38] Taz 384/1; Aruch Hashulchan 384/8

[39] Derisha 384; Pnei Baruch 10/24

[40] Michaber 139:9; Ketzos Hashulchan 5:9

[41] This is understood from the fact the Michaber did not rule that he is not to read, and so is understood from all the Poskim, and so writes Piskeiy Teshuvos 139:14.

[42] So is implied from M”A 139:12

[43] M”A 139:12, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 5:9

Other Opinions: The Levush [brought in Peri Megadim 139 A”A 12] rules he is exempt from all the blessings.

[44] Michaber 139:9; as its considered that he already fulfilled his obligation of this blessing with reciting it over the Torah Scroll.

[45] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

[46] Peri Megadim 47 M”Z 10; 135 A”A Pesicha

[47] Kaf Hachaim 139:47

[48] Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:7

[49] 141:6; Kol Bo 20; Mordechai

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden from the letter of the law to call two relatives one after the other, being that they are considered invalid witnesses. [Orchos Chaim, brought in Beis Yosef; Ateres Zekeinim 141:3; P”M 141 A”A 8] According to this opinion:reason, all relatives that are invalid to testify for each other are likewise not to be called to the Torah one after the other. [P”M ibid] Practically, we do not rule like this opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 141:25 based on Gr”a who proofs from the Gemara that even Pesulei Eidus may receive Aliyos, and so is the final ruling of Michaber ibid who rules the prohibition is only due to Maaras Ayin.]

[50] Michaber ibid;

[51] Rama ibid regarding Shevi and Maftir and M”B 141:21 in name of Achronim applies this also to other Aliyos; Emunas Shmuel 47; Elya Raba 141:7; Chesed Lealafim 141:16; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:26; M”B 141:21 [see there however that this only applies in communities that never call up by name, however to initially not call up by name just for this purpose is forbidden, as this itself serves as a recognition. However, see Shaareiy Efraim 1:32 who writes one may be lenient in a time of great need, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 141:22]

[52] Kisei Eliyahu 141; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:32 and so concludes Kaf Hachaim that so is the custom even in those communities that do not call the Aliyos by name; Yechaveh Daas 3:50

The reason: As nevertheless the name is mentioned by the Mi Shebeirach. [Kisei Eliyahu ibid]

[53] Hagahos Beis Yosef; Elya Raba 141:8; Birkeiy Yosef 141:7; Yosef Ometz 16:4; M”B 141:19; Shaareiy Efraim 1:6; Derech Hachiam 14; Kitzur SHU”A 23:13; M”B 141:19; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:29

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted for relatives to forgive their particularness on this matter. [Noheig Katzon Yosef, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid; Aruch Hashulchan 141:8] Practically, we do not rule like this opinion. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[54] Implication of Michaber and Rama ibid; Mateh Yehuda 141:7; Machazik Bracha 141:4; Kaf Hachaim 141:30

Other opinions: Some communities are accustomed not to call up relatives for Aliyos even if there is a break of an Aliyah in between. Brought in Mateh Yehuda ibid] Practically, this is not the widespread custom and so is the custom in Egypt, Eretz Yisrael, Turkey, and most of the world, although those that have a custom to be stringent even in such a case are to follow it. Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[55] Rama ibid; Maharil

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may call two relatives for an Aliyah one after the other for Shevi and Maftir being that the Kaddish is considered an interval in between. [Maharikash, brought in Kneses Hagedola 1431:5 and Kaf Hachaim 141:33] Practically, we are stringent in this matter as rule majority of Poskim. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] However some Poskim rule one may be lenient like this opinion in a time of need. [Toras Chaim Sofer 141; Eretz Tzevi 1:39; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:5]

[56] Kneses Hagedola 141:5; Beir Heiytiv 141:6; Olas Tamid 141:13; Elya Raba 141:7; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:33

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even in such a case that two Sifrei Torah are taken out one is not to call two relatives for an Aliyah one after the other. [Mateh Yehuda 141:7, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid] Practically we are lenient in this matter as rule majority of Poskim. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[57] Shaareiy Efraim 1:32; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:67; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:5

[58] Poskim ibid

[59] Toras Chaim Sofer 141; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:67

[60] Michaber ibid

[61] Michaber ibid

[62] Kneses Hagedola 141:7; Olas Tamid 141:13; Elya Raba 141:8; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:26; Ketzos Hashulchan 85:6

[63] Peri Chadash, brought in P”M 141:8; Machazik Bracha 141:5 that some are accustomed like Peri Chadash

[64] Kaf Hachaim 141:27

[65] Kneses Hagedola 141:8, brought in P”M 141:8; Olas Tamid 141:13; Elya Raba 141:8; Mateh Yehuda 141:7; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:27; Ketzos Hashulchan 85:6

[66] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[67] Kaf Hachaim ibid

The reason: As the majority of Poskim prohibit it as well as danger is to be Halachiclaly viewed even more strcit than an Issur. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[68] M”B 141:19

[69] Shaareiy Efraim 1:33

[70] Shaareiy Efraim 1:33; Ketzos Hashulchan 85:6

[71] Pesach Hadvir 147; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim are stringent in this matter. [Sefer Hachaim [Falagi] 11] Practically, the custom is to be lenient. [Pesach Hadvir ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 24]

[72] Kneses Hagedola 141:4; Hagahos Beis Yosef; Elya Raba 141:8; Peri Chadash 141:6; Mateh Yehuda 141:7; Derech Hachiam 14; Kitzur SHU”A 23:13; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:28

[73] Toras Chaim Sofer 141:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:4

[74] Shaareiy Efraim 1:33; M”B 141:18

[75] Shvus Yaakov 3:10

[76] The reason: As since another person was called after the relative, it is enough of an interval to eliminate any Ayin Hara, even though the person did not actually take the Aliyah. [ibid]

[77] Yosef Ometz 16:4; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:31

[78] Shevet Hakehasi 2:65

[79] Kneses Hagedola 141:6; Olas Tamid 141:13; Elya Raba 141:7; Derech Hachiam 14; M”B 141:20; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 141:34

[80] Shaareiy Efraim 1:32; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:4

[81] Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 23:10 in name of Avnei Chefetz 16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:5

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?