The Laws of Pesach-Checklist of Laws

  1. Thirty days before Pesach:
  • Review: Begin learning the Halachos of Pesach starting from Purim [14th Adar]. Increase in learning these laws from Rosh Chodesh Nissan. It is proper to study Miseches Pesachim
  • Matzah: Those who follow Chabad custom, abstain from eating Matzah starting from Purim until the night of Pesach. One may eat egg Matzah, and may eat Matzah balls.
  • Sticky Chametz: Be careful to avoid getting Chametz stuck onto surfaces, in a way that the Chametz will not be easily removable. Accordingly, avoid unsupervised use of Chametz play-doh from thirty days before Pesach. It goes without saying that Pesach arts and crafts should not be made using play-doh
  • Sefarim: Be careful that Chametz crumbs do not fall in Sefarim from Purim and onwards.
  • Starch: Do not starch clothing or tablecloths with Chametz starch.
  • Traveling-Bedikas Chametz: One who will be traveling from home before Pesach must check his house for Chametz prior to leaving, if he does not plan to sell the Chametz in that home to a gentile. See The Laws of Bedikas Chametz for the full details of this issue.
  • Buying for Pesach: One is not to say on any item “This is for Pesach.” Rather he should say that “This is for Yom Tov.” This especially applies to meat.
  • Maos Chitim: Donate charity to the Maos Chitim fund.

  1. Purchase list for Pesach:
  • Vessels: Buy beautiful vessels in honor of Pesach.
  • Haggadah: Buy a personal Haggadah with pictures for your children.
  • Nuts and sweets: One is to buy nuts and sweets to distribute to the children on the Seder night and throughout Pesach.
  • Clothing and jewelry: One is to buy jewelry or clothing for his wife and daughters, and sweets for the children.
  • Seder purchases: Matzah, Wine, Lettuce; Horseradish; Revius size cups; Keara-Seder Plate; Matzah cover; plate for under Matzah’s.

  1. From Rosh Chodesh Nissan:
  • Prayer Omissions: Omit the following from Davening: Tachanun; Kel Erech Apayim; Tefila Ledavid; Av Harachamim on Shabbos, Tzidkascha Tzedek.
  • Cemetery: Some avoid visiting a cemetery and hence if there is a Yartzite in Nissan they visit the Kever on Erev Rosh Chodesh Nissan.
  • Nassi: Recite the Nassi each day after Davening, from Rosh Chodesh Nissan until the 13th of Nissan.
  • Birchas Ilanos: Recite the blessing upon seeing the blossom of a fruit tree for the first time. “Baruch Ata Haashem, Elokeinu Melech Haolam, Shelo Chiser Biolamo Klum Uvara Bo Brios Tovos Veilanos Tovos Leihanos Bahem Binei Adam.”
  • Mechiras Chametz: Remember to perform Mechiras Chametz through a Rabbi.
  • Shabbos Hagadol: This Shabbos is the beginning of the redemption. Take part in the Shabbos Hagadol Drasha. Recite Avadim Hayinu after Mincha.
  • Vihi Noam: Omit Vihi Noam on Motzei Shabbos Hagadol unless Pesach falls on Shabbos.

 

  1. Cleaning for Pesach:
  • Crumbs: One must clean for, and destroy, even a crumb of Chametz unless the crumb is dirty and less than a Kezayis [i.e. 27 grams] in size.
  • How-Bedika: After cleaning an area for Chametz, one should check it at night with a candle or flashlight to verify that it is clean. However, one should leave at least one room unchecked for the night of the 14th.
  • Where: One is to clean all areas that one remembers having entered Chametz into, or which is common for him to enter while eating.
  • Sold areas: Areas of Chametz that will be sold to the gentile do not require Bedika.
  • Unreachable areas: If possible, one is to pour bleach on Chametz that is found in unreachable areas. There is no need to unscrew an item in order to reach the Chametz.
  • Bathroom: Bathrooms need cleaning and checking for Chametz if one has small children at home.
  • Bedroom: Even if one never recalls entering Chametz into his room, if it is common for one to enter there to get something in middle of a Chametz meal or snack, then it is required to be checked.
  • Bookcase: A bookcase must be checked.
  • Books: Books do not need to be checked. However, do not place them on any eating table during Pesach.
  • Clothing: One is to check the pockets of clothing. However laundered clothing does not have to be checked. One is to check the cuff of pants.
  • Shtreimal: Some suggest checking and cleaning one’s Shtreimal.
  • Alcohol: Remove all whiskeys, beers and other Chametz alcohol and place it in the area that will be sold to the gentile.
  • Inedible products: One is not required to sell or put away inedible Chametz mixtures; cosmetics; perfumes; soaps; shampoo.
  • Medicines: One is not required to sell or put away medicines.
  • Keyboard: A keyboard for a computer should be sold to the gentile and a new Pesach keyboard should be used for Pesach.
  • Furniture & Appliances: Pieces of furniture or appliances which are not commonly moved and are the height of 24 cm, such as closets, book cases, and items of the like, do not have to be moved and have their Chametz cleaned even if one sees Chametz under them.
  • Chametz on walls or furniture: Chametz on walls or furniture are to be cleaned off.
  • Chametz vessels-Cleaning and storing: Chametz vessels are to be cleaned from Chametz and hidden in an area which he will not enter into throughout all the days of Pesach. The area is to be locked and have its key hidden away.

Item or Area Obligated to clean Not obligated
Bathroom If have kids must check. No need to check if no kids
Books   No need to check. However, some are stringent.
Bookcase Must be checked  
Bird cage Must be cleaned  
Briefcase Must be checked  
Car Clean and Check car. No need to unscrew the benches. Remove floor mats.  
Computer Keyboard should be sold to gentile  
Computer bag Clean and check  
Couch Must remove the cushions but no need to unscrew.  
Desk Clean and check  
Table Must be cleaned and checked. No need to undo screws to remove Chametz from cracks and crevices.  
Files Possibly need check between the folders and in box.  
Chair Must be cleaned and checked. No need to undo screws to remove Chametz from cracks and crevices.  
Kitchen Cabinets Clean and check  
Medicine cabinet May be owned. Chametz vitamins are to be sold  
Microwave Clean and check  
Oven Clean and check  
Phone cover Undo phone cover to check for Chametz under  
Bedroom Clean and check  
Suitcase Depends. If did not use throughout year, no need to check.  
Refrigerator Clean and check  

 

  1. Mechiras Chametz:
  • Selling actual Chametz: One may sell actual Chametz to the gentile, and so is the custom.
  • Appointing Rav: Before Erev Pesach, one is to visit a Rav and sign on a Shtar Harshaa [power of attorney] for him to sell ones Chametz. Ones wife and child may be appointed as a messenger to sell the Chametz for him, or to appoint the Rabbi to do it for him. One may appoint a Rabbi to do the sale for him over the internet, phone, or through email.
  • Kinyan: One is to perform a Kinyan with the Rav by acquiring an item that he owns [Gartel or Yarmulke] and lifting it one Tefach.
  • Area of Chametz: One is to write his address on the Shtar Harshah document. One is to also write the areas that the Chametz is found in.
  • Chametz stocks? A person who owns stocks of a company which deals with Chametz foods should include these stocks in the Mechiras Chametz.
  • Money to Rav: It is customary to give money to the Rav which is appointed to sell one’s Chametz.
  • Closing sold areas: All sold Chametz must be closed up in a room that one will not enter into during Pesach, or behind a Mechitza of ten Tefachim [80 cm.] tall.
  • Entering sold areas during Pesach: On Pesach, one may occasionally enter the Chametz room to retrieve an item.
  • Fridge/freezer: Do not store Chametz in the fridge or freezer unless the entire fridge and freezer will be closed off and sold.
  • Bedika to sold areas: One is not required to clean or do Bedika to any of the sold areas that are closed up or behind a Mechitza of ten Tefachim.
  • Selling home: One who is selling his entire home, and traveling away for Pesach, is not required to do a Bedika to the home beforehand and is likewise not required to perform the sale on the 13th. If he will be leaving his home after the entrance of the night of the 14th and will not arrive to his destination until his hosts Bedika is complete, then it is proper for him to clean one room of the house and do a Bedika there with a blessing on the night of the 14th.
  • Time Zones: One is to sell his Chametz through a Rav that is in the same time zone that he is in. If this is not possible, one may sell it through a Rav found in an earlier time zone, that takes Pesach in earlier than him. One may not sell it through a Rav that is found in a later time zone, that takes in Pesach later than him.
  • If one owns Chametz in a different time zone, then he may sell the Chametz in his current time zone although it is best to be stringent if his Chametz is in a time zone that accepts Pesach before his time zone, to sell that Chametz in its time zone.

  1. Kosher for Pesach foods and products:
  • Chametz: This includes: Bread; Beer; Bulgur; Cereal extract; Couscous; Cookies; Crackers; Cracker meal; Flour of wheat, barley, oats, spelt or rye; Farina; Fu; Gluten; Kamet; Malt or malt extract; Pasta; Pita; Seitan; Semolina; Tabbouleh; Triticale; Triticum; Wheatgrass; Whisky
  • Kitniyus: Many legumes and seeds are considered Kitniyus. The following is a short Kitniyus list: Corn, Rice, Buckwheat, beans including soy, lentils, sesame, mustard, Millet, chickpeas, Peas, String beans, grouts, sun flour seeds, poppy seeds, cloves, fenugreek, green beans, cumin, caraway, linseed, cardamom, coriander, fennel; Anise, ascorbic acid, aspartame, beans (all types of beans e.g., kidney, lima, garbanzo), bean sprouts, BHA and BHT (in corn oil), black-eyed peas, buckwheat, calcium ascorbate, canola (rapeseed) oil, caraway, citric acid (sometimes Chametz), chickpeas, coriander, corn and corn oil, corn syrup, cumin, dextrose, emulsifiers, fennel, fenugreek, flax seeds, glucose, green beans, guar gum, hydrolyzed vegetable oil, kasha, kimmel, lecithin (all commercially produced lecithin is made from soy), lentils, licorice, Lucerne, lupine, maltodextrin (sometimes Chametz), millet, MSG (can be from beets [kosher for Pesach], corn [Kitniyos], or wheat [Chametz]), mustard and mustard flour, NutraSweet, peanuts, peas, polysorbates (sometimes Chametz), popcorn, poppy seeds, rice, saffron, sesame seeds, snow peas, sodium citrate, sodium erythorbate, sorbitan, sorbitol (could be Chametz unless manufactured in the U.S.A), soybeans and soy oil, stabilizers, starch (possibly Chametz), string beans, sunflower seeds, tofu, vitamin C (could be Chametz), xanthan gum (may be Chametz). Quinoa is disputed if it is Kitniyos. Flax seeds and hemp seeds from the letter of the law are not Kitniyos. However since they can be ground as flour, some opinions include them in the category of Kitniyos.
  • Matzah Ashira: Ashkenazim may not eat egg Matzah or any Matzah Ashira beginning from the 5th hour of Erev Pesach until after the conclusion of Pesach.
  • Processed foods: Many are accustomed not to eat any food that is processed. Thus, they do not eat any canned foods, packaged foods, etc. The Rebbe writes that Anash use oil with a good Hashgacha and not necessarily Shmaltz.
  • Sugar: Many are accustomed not to eat sugar on Pesach. Some boil their sugar before Pesach and make sugar water. The Rebbe stated he does not know if this custom of not eating sugar is a directive for the public.
  • Matzah Shruya: We are careful not to eat Matzah with any liquid. The Matzas are thus covered with a bag when eating them by a meal in order to prevent crumbs from falling into food. One may eat Matzah with 100% pure fruit or fruit juice such as avocado, olive oil and the like, if it is absolutely free of all water and condensation.
  • Other foods avoided: Honey; dried fruits; Cloves, Carcum; Tabak.
  • Non-edible products: Non-edible products that contain Chametz may be owned and used throughout Pesach. This includes: eardrops/eyedrops or other medical ointments, deodorant and perfume, facial creams, oils, and cosmetics, skin creams, shoe polish, soap, shampoo, gas, denatured cleaning alcohol, cleaning detergent, floor detergent. Lip stick, chap stick, toothpaste, mouthwash, should only be used with an authorization for Pesach. It is proper to use dish soap with a Hashgacha. Plastic plates and cutlery may be used without a Hashgacha. Paperware and paper goods are to be used only with a Hashgacha. Dental floss does not require a Hashgacha for Pesach unless it is flavored.
  • Medicine: Chewable pills or syrups need to be Kosher for Pesach. Swallow-able pills may be taken by one who is sick or in pain even if they are not Kosher for Pesach. If, however the pill contains a tasty coating, it is to have a Kosher for Pesach Hashgacha. There is no need to be stringent to avoid taking medicines which contain Kitniyos.
  • A full English and Hebrew Medicine list can be found on the Kelalit website: http://www.clalit.co.il
  • Vitamins: Vitamins need to be Kosher for Pesach. A full Kosher for Pesach vitamin list can be found in the Madrich of the Eida Hachareidis.

 

  1. Bedikas Chametz-Night of the 14th:
  • Where: All the areas that are obligated to be cleaned are likewise required to be checked for Chametz, if the area was not yet checked on the previous nights.
  • Sold areas: Areas of Chametz that will be sold to the gentile do not require Bedika.
  • Building lobby: The residents of a condominium are to appoint a person to perform the Bedikah in the stairs and lobby of the building.
  • Ten pieces of bread: Wrap 10 small pieces of hard bread within paper tape and scatter them throughout the areas that will be checked, making sure to take note of their whereabouts.
  • When: Begin the Bedika immediately after nightfall on the night of the 14th, after Davening Maariv.
  • Eating/Melacha: Do not perform Melacha, eat a meal, or learn Torah within a half hour before nightfall of the 14th until the Bedika is complete.
  • Maariv: One should Daven Maariv before the Bedikah.
  • Who: One’s male children who are above the age of 13, may be trusted to perform the Bedika. However, one should personally engage in at least some part of the Bedikah.
  • How: One is to search with a small single [one wick] candle. It is also permitted to use a flashlight or other form of electric light for the Bedika.
  • Blessing: Before one begins to check for the Chametz one says the blessing of “Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech Haolam Asher Kidishanu Bemitzvosav Vetzivanu Al Biur Chametz.”
  • Talking: Once the Bedikah has begun, one may not talk of unrelated matters, although it is permitted to talk of matters that relate to the Bedika.
  • Bittul: After the Bedika recite the Bittul of Kol Chamia Vechamira. Make sure to recite it in a language that you understand.
  • Guarding Chametz: Prior to the Bedika place all Chametz that one still owns in a guarded area from children and animals. During the Bedika guard all found Chametz from animals and children. After the Bedika place all the found Chametz in a guarded area.
  • Packing the found Chametz: After the search, one places the bag, together with the feather and any remnant of the candle, in a wooden spoon. All this is then wrapped in paper (except for the spoon handle which remains uncovered), and bound several times with string, which is then knotted. This is then thrown in the fire the next day by Biur Chametz.
  • Matzos: Check your Matzah for Kefulos. Remove a 2cm. circumference from the Kefula area and place it together with the Chametz.
  • Garbage: Remove Chametz garbage and place it in a public area for all. Don’t leave it in a building garbage.
  • Shul: The Gabaiy is to perform Bedikas Chametz in Shul with a blessing. This applies even if the Chametz of the Shul will be sold in Mechiras Chametz.

  1. Erev Pesach:
  • Fast day for Bechoros: If you are a Bechor, make sure to fast from Alos until Tzeis, or join a Siyum. This year due to the corona virus-do not fast!
  • Remember to avoid mentioning “This meat is for Pesach”. Rather say “This meat is for Yom Tov”.
  • Don’t eat lettuce; apples; pears; nuts until the Seder. One may eat eggs, chicken or meat, potatoes and onions.

 

Shacharis:

  • Awake early to Daven Shacharis
  • Omit Mizmor Lesoda until after Pesach

 

To do before beginning of 5th hour of the day:

  • Finish any last minute Kashering prior to the 5th
  • Kasher the teeth prior to the 5th
  • Finish eating Chametz prior to the 5th hour of the day [i.e. Sof Zeman Tefila]. It is forbidden to eat Chametz once the 5th hour has begun. Look in a Jewish calendar to verify the 5th hour of your region.
  • Do not eat Matzah Ashira, egg Matzah, starting from the 5th hour until the end of Pesach.

To do before the beginning of the 6th hour:

  • Remove all Chametz leftovers from the house.
  • Garbage: Make sure the Chametz garbage is removed to an area that is public for all, and has not remained in a building shoot.
  • Pockets: Clean out your Chametz pockets.
  • Close closets: Close up any closets sold to gentile.
  • Biur Chametz: Burn at least a Kezayis Chametz. Burn the bag containing the ten pieces of bread, together with the feather and any remnant of the candle, and the wooden spoon.
  • Bittul: After burning the Chametz, recite the Bittul of Kol Chamira in a language that you understand. The Bittul must be recited prior to the 6th Don’t recite the Bittul until at least a Kezayis of the Chametz burns.

To do before midday:

  • Starting from midday [Chatzos] do not perform any Melacha that may not be performed on Chol Hamoed
  • Cut nails and receive a haircut before Chatzos
  • Print whatever Pesach papers you will need before Chatzos.

 

To do before 10th hour:

  • Food restrictions that apply past the 10th hour [Three Zmaniyos hours before sunset]: Don’t eat a large amount of food.
  • One may eat a small amount of fruits and other foods.
  • One may not drink wine or grape juice at this time.

  

Eiruv Tavshilin [In years applicable]

  • In the Diaspora, whenever the 2nd day of Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos one performs an Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Pesach [Wednesday].
  • The owner of the house takes a whole loaf/role of bread/Matzah the size of a Kibeitza [which is to later be used on Shabbos] and a Kezayis of a cooked piece of meat or other food which one eats together with bread.
  • If one has another person to use to acquire the food to him on behalf of the city then the owner is to say:

“אני מזכה לכל־מי שרוצה לזכות ולסמוך על ערוב זה”

  • The person who is acquiring the food for the townspeople then lifts the food up one Tefach.
  • The owner then takes back the food and recites the following blessing:

ברוך אתה ה’ אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות  עירוב.

  • If one does not have another person to use to acquire the food to the townspeople, then he is to simply hold the food and begin with the above blessing.
  • After the blessing one says in a language that he understands “With this Eiruv it will be permitted for us to bake and cook and insulate foods, and light candles and to do all our needs on Yom Tov for Shabbos”.

בדין יהא שרא לנא לאפויי ולבשולי ולאטמוני ולאדלוקי שרגא ולתקנא ולמעבד כל צרכנא מיומא טבא

לשבתא לנא ולכל ישראל הדרים בעיר הזאת

Seder preparation to do list:

  • Immerse new vessels in a Mikveh. This year due to the coronavirus, give the vessel to a gentile to exempt from tevila.
  • The leader of the Seder is to review the Hagadah and story of the exodus with the Mefarshim and contemplate the best ways of giving over the information to the participants, each on his level.
  • It is strongly advised for the Seder participants to take a nap on Erev Pesach. This is especially imperative upon the leader of the Seder and upon the children of the home, in order so they have strength to stay awake.
  • Immerse new vessels in a Mikveh
  • Don’t eat lettuce; apples; pears; nuts
  • Wash and clean the lettuce. Don’t soak the lettuce that will be used for Maror, in water, for 24 hours.
  • Those who follow the custom of abstaining from eating Gebrochts, are to make sure to dry the lettuce that will be used for the Koreich sandwich.
  • One is to grind the horseradish before Yom Tov and keep it in a closed container.
  • Roast the Zeroa-neck of the chicken.
  • Prepare the Charoses: The Charoses is made from apples, pears, almonds and wine. It is our custom to only add the wine later on during the Seder. In years that Pesach falls on Shabbos, place wine in the Charoses before Shabbos.
  • One is not to say regarding meat or poultry, that “This meat is for Pesach” or “Buy me this meat for Pesach.”
  • Do not roast any meat or poultry to be eaten for Seder night. One may roast fish. Don’t cook the meat in a pot without liquids, even if it will simmer in its own juice. One may roast the meat and then cook it.
  • Set up the Seder table.
  • Prepare cushions on seat for leaning. Women don’t lean.
  • Check the Matzos for Kefulos and Sheleimos.
  • Separate Challah from the Matzos, if needed.
  • Prepare the bags of Kezayis of Matzah and Maror for all participants. Weigh/measure the Kezaeisim beforehand.
  • Prepare the Karpas
  • Make salt water.
  • Cook the egg for Beitza.
  • If you don’t have a broken plate for the spilling of the wine by the Makos, then chip a plastic bowl before Yom Tov.

*8 The Pesach Seder:

See Halacha 15 and our corresponding Sefer “The Laws & Customs of the Pesach Seder-Summary Edition” for the full details of this matter!

  1. The Pesach Davening:

Mincha Erev Pesach:

  • If Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos, recite Hodu and Patach Eliyahu before Mincha.
  • Recite the Seder Karban Pesach after Mincha, before sunset]

Maariv:

  • After Shemoneh Esrei [and on Shabbos after Vayechulu], recite the complete Hallel with a blessing before and after.
  • After Hallel recite Kaddish with Tiskabel
  • Pesach falls on Shabbos: Begin with Mizmor Ledavid if Pesach falls on Shabbos. Recite Gam Besimcha in Lecha Dodi. Recite Vayechulu after Shemoneh Esrei. Do not recite Meiyn Sheva even if Pesach falls on Shabbos. Recite Hallel. Recite Kaddish Tiskabel. Recite Mizmor Ledavid. Recite half Kaddish. Recite Barchu. Recite Aleinu and Kaddish Yasom.

Shacharis/Musaf:

  • Take out two Sifrei Torah.
  • 5 people are called to 1st Torah; 6th to Maftir. [On Shabbos read 7 Aliyos in first Torah.]
  • In Musaf of first day of Pesach stop reciting Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem and rather recite Morid Hatal.
  • On the day of the holiday the Rabbi of each community expounds on the meaning and miracles of that holiday.

Maariv of 16th:

  • Begin to recite Sefiras Haomer.

  1. Throughout Pesach reminders:
  • Do not touch Chametz with exception to when destroying it.
  • Have special meal in honor of Esther on the 2nd day of Yom Tov in the Diaspora, and in Eretz Yisrael on the 1st day of Chol Hamoed.
  • Begin Learning Tractate Sota on the 2nd day of Sefira.
  • On Chol Hamoed remove two Torah scrolls. Call up three people to the 1st Torah and a 4th for Maftir.
  • Men are to drink a Revius of wine daily.
  • It is permitted to remove items from the sold area on occasion, when necessary.

  1. Erev Shevii Shel Pesach:
  • Perform Eiruv Tavshilin on Thursday in years that it coincides with Erev Shabbos
  • In Israel perform Biur Maasros in the 4th and 6th year
  • Do not recite Shehechiyanu during candle lighting.

  1. Shevii Shel Pesach:
  • Stay awake the entire night learning Torah. Learn the Mamar in Torah Or of Hayam Yanos and Vehinif.
  • In Israel recite Yizkor before Musaf
  • In Israel, eat Moshiach Seuda after Mincha: Drink four cups of wine; sing Niggunim of all Rabboseinu Nissieinu; Sing the Niggun of the Shpoleh Zeida; Moshiach Tantz
  • Shevi Shel Pesach that coincides with Erev Shabbos: In Israel, recite Shnayim Mikra past midday. Eat Moshiach Seuda before 10th hour of day. Prior to Mincha, Hodu is omitted but Patach Eliyahu is said.

  1. Achron Shel Pesach in Diaspora
  • Eat Gebrocks
  • Moshiach Seuda: Drink four cups of wine; sing Niggunim of all Rabboseinu Nissieinu; Sing the Niggun of the Shpoleh Zeida; Moshiach Tantz

  1. The Seder on Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael when Shevii Shel Pesach falls on Friday:
  • One may not cook Gebrochts or Kitniyos on Shevii Shel Pesach which falls on Erev Shabbos.
  • The custom is not to eat Chametz on Shabbos, even if sold to gentile.
  • Kitniyus may be eaten on Shabbos

  1. First Shabbos after Pesach:
  • Knead the Challah dough in the shape of a key.
  • Begin reciting Pirkei Avos

  1. After Pesach:
  • Increase a little in eating and drinking on Isru Chag.
  • Even a Chasan and Kalah on the day of their wedding may not fast on this day.
  • Buying Chametz: Make sure the store sold their Chametz.
  • Knead Challah in the shape of a key the first Shabbos after Pesach.
  • Recite Pirkei Avos after Mincha starting the Shabbos after Pesach

 

 

The Kashering Checklist

  1. Is the vessel Kasherable?
  • If the material is made or coated with earthenware; glass; porcelain, enamel, Teflon then it is not Kasherable.
  • If the vessel was used for cooking with water then it needs Hagalah. If it was used for baking without liquid then it needs Libun Chamor.
  • If the vessel is attached using glue it’s not Kasherable.
  • If the vessel is rusty or contains cracks or holes then one must perform Libun Kal to those areas.

  1. Preparing the vessel for Kashering:
  • Clean and wash the vessel well.
  • If the vessel is rusty or contains cracks or holes then one must perform Libun Kal to those areas.
  • Dry the vessel from the water.
  • Do not use the vessel for a period of 24 hours.

  1. The vessel one is Kashering inside of:
  • The Kashering vessel is to either be new [never used for Chametz], or is to be koshered prior to use. A Pesach vessel should not be used unless one plans to Kosher it afterwards, as explained next.
  • If one desires to use the Kashering vessel for Pesach, then one is to Kasher it. One may do so with the same boiling water and Even Meluban.
  1. How to Kasher:
  • Only one who is expert in the laws of Koshering is to be trusted with the task.
  • Clean and dry the vessels prior to Hagallah.
  • Prepare a pot of boiling hot water. The pot is to be either new or Kashered prior to use.
  • Perform Hagalah prior to the 5th hour of Erev Pesach.
  • The water must be boiling throughout the entire time that one immerses the vessels inside of it.
  • Do not Kasher many vessels together if they will touch each other.
  • Immerse the clean and dry vessel into the pot until it is completely submerged within the water.
  • Leave the vessel in the water momentarily and then immediately remove the vessel from the water.
  • After removing the vessel immediately immerse it in cold water.

 

  1. Kashering a stove:
  • The grates: Require Libun Chamur [heated with a blow torch until sparks come out]. If one cannot do Libbun Chamor, then one is to clean it very well and wrap the grates in thick aluminum that will last throughout Pesach.
  • Burners: Clean the burners and use toothpicks or needles to remove any dirt or food from within the gas holes of the burner. Afterwards, turn on the fire for some time to accomplish Libun Kal.
  • Stove top surface: One is to clean the stove surface well and then do Iruiy Keli Rishon to it. If the surface is made of non-Kasherable material, such as enamel, that it must be covered with aluminum.
  • Knobs: One is to clean the stove knobs very well, cover them, or attach clean replacement knobs.
  • Covering all items: Practically the custom is that even after Kashering all the above items of the stove, one covers all the surfaces with aluminum.

  1. Kashering an Oven
  • An oven with self-cleaning mode can be Kashered by simply placing it through the self-clean cycle. An oven with a “Continuous cleaning” cycle is not valid.
  • If one’s oven does not have self-clean oven it is very difficult to Kasher and hence one is to buy a Pesach oven, or alternatively Kasher it in the following way:
  • Clean the oven well using a Chametz killing agent, such as bleach or oven stain remover.
  • Wait 24 hours prior to Koshering.
  • Turn the oven on for a period of at least one hour to its highest temperature or blow torch the oven from the inside.
  • After the Kashering process is complete, one should cover the walls and floors with aluminum foil.

  1. Kashering a Counter or Table:
  • Clean and dry the table or counter surface.
  • Pour boiling water from a Keli Rishon onto the surface. Use a hot iron to simultaneously press on the water and bring it to a boil. Alternatively, use an electric water boiler that is still attached to the plug and pour it over the surface while boiling.
  • Covering the counter or table: The custom is to cover the counter after it is Kashered.
  • The walls of the counter: Are to have boiling water from a Keli Rishon poured over it and then covered.

  1. Kashering the Fridge:
  • One is to wash it down very well using a water based killing agent, such as bleach and the like.
  • The elastic insulation: One must take special care to wash well the elastic insulation from Chametz crumbs. A suggestive form of cleaning is to use Q-tips dipped in bleach.
  • Bedikas Chametz: One is to perform Bedikas Chametz to his fridge prior to entering the Pesach foods back into or and prior to covering it shelves.
  • Covering the shelves: Some are accustomed to cover the shelves of the fridge.
  • Cord: One is to clean the electric cord of the fridge that enters into the outlet.

 

  1. Kashering a sink:
  • If the sink is made of Porcelain or Enamel, it cannot be Kashered. One is to pour boiling water from a Keli Rishon on such a material sink. One is then to insert a sink insert which will be used throughout Pesach.
  • If the sink is made of metal, then it can be Kashered through pouring boiling water from a Keli Rishon on the sink.
  • The spout: The custom is to clean and wash the spouts of the sink as throughout the year they have been used with hands that are dirty from Chametz. [One is to pour boiling water of the spout, and leave it open with the hot water running.]
  • Knobs: Wash and clean.
  • The drain: Pour boiling water that contains bleach or Drano down the drain.
  • Metal strainer: Perform Iruiy Keli Rishon.
  • Using the hot water on Pesach: It is advised not to use hot water that is over Yad Soledes [110° F] on Pesach in a sink that is not made of Kasherable material, and has thus not been Koshered.

 

The Seder Checklist

  1. Erev Pesach Seder preparation list:
  • Immerse new vessels in a Mikveh
  • Don’t eat lettuce; apples; pears; nuts
  • Wash and clean the lettuce. Don’t soak the lettuce that will be used for Maror, in water, for 24 hours.
  • Roast the Zeroa-neck of the chicken. In years that Pesach falls on Shabbos, place wine in the Charoses before Shabbos. Alternatively, place the Charoses in a large amount of wine prior to the dipping, and mix with your finger. We are particular to add only some of the Charoses to the wine rather than its entirety, in order to keep some of the Charoses free from liquids.
  • Prepare the Charoses: The Charoses is made from apples, pears, almonds and wine. It is our custom to only add the wine later on during the Seder.
  • Do not roast any meat or poultry to be eaten for Seder night. One may roast fish. Don’t cook the meat in a pot without liquids, even if it will simmer in its own juice. One may roast the meat and then cook it.
  • Set up the Seder table
  • Check the Matzos for Kefulos.
  • Separate Challah from the Matzos if needed.
  • Make salt water
  • Cook the egg for Beitza.
  • If you don’t have a broken plate for the spilling of the wine by the Makos, then chip a plastic bowl before Yom Tov.

 

  1. Upon coming home:
  • One is to return home immediately after Davening has concluded in order to begin the Seder right away.
  • Prepare vessels of gold and silver and wear silk and expensive garments of all that Hashem has made available for ones family.
  • One may feed the kids a little food before the Seder. Children below Chinuch may be given Matzah.
    • One is to distribute nuts to the kids prior to the Seder.
    • One is to begin the Seder as soon as he comes home, without delay.
    • When Pesach falls on Shabbos one is to recite Shalom Aleichem and Eishes Chayil in an undertone upon returning from Shul.
    • Prepare cushions on seat for leaning. Women don’t lean.

 

  1. Setting up the Kearah:
  • Take three curved shaped Matzas. Verify that the Matzas are complete [Shaleim] and do not contain any folded [Kefulos] areas
  • Place a plate on bottom, and place the Matzas on top of the plate
  • First place the Yisrael and then the Levi, and then the Kohen. The Matzas are separated from each other with a cloth. The largest of the Matzas is to be used for Levi.
  • Place the Simanim directly on top of the Matzah cover. We do not use small bowls to place it in.
  • Dry the Maror prior to placing it on the cover.
  • One is to use romaine lettuce and horseradish for both Maror and Chazeres. This means that both vegetables are to be placed by the area of Maror and likewise by the area of Chazeres. If the leaves of the Chazeres became dry then one cannot fulfill his obligation with them.
  • The Rebbe used an egg with a shell.
  • Set the plate up in the following order:
  1. General Directives:
    • Look inside the Hagadah prior to each step and read the Siman of that step.
    • Always drink each of the 4 cups entirely in one shot.
    • Lean by Matzah, Korech, Afikoman, 4 cups of wine. Lean to the left. This includes lefties. If one forgot to lean by the above required parts then by Matzah of Motzi Matzah [not Afikoman or Korech] and by the second cup of wine, one is to repeat the eating/drinking.
    • Women do not have to lean
    • The Shiurim:
      • Matza 28.8 grams By Koreich and Afikoman, in time of need may take 21.2 grams
      • Maror 27 grams Lechatchila if unable than 21.2.
      • Achilas Pras: 4 Minutes.
  1. Children:

Girls and boys who have reached the age of Chinuch, that can understand the story of the exodus, are obligated in the following:

  • 4 Kosos;
  • Maggid
  • Birchas Hamazon
  • Hallel
  • Halel Hagadol
  • Nishmas
  1. Kadesh:
    • Before Kiddush read each one of the Simanim.
    • One may pour the wine for himself.
    • Have in mind by Kadesh to drink more wine before the second cup.
    • Drink the entire cup of wine in one shot without wait.
    • Don’t drink wine or any alcohol until after Maggid and 2nd Kos [unless needs to]. May drink other beverages.

Purpose: Kiddush and Corresponds to the first of the four Geuloas “Vehotzeisi”.

  1. Urchatz:
  • Before washing say the Simanim of Urchatz and Karpas.
  • Wash just like bread but without a blessing.
  • Don’t speak until after the Karpas is eaten.
  • If one said a blessing of Al Netials Yadayim then follow this order: Do Yachatz; Motzi Matzah; Karpas without a bracha and then Maggid Maror etc

Purpose: So children wonder and ask and begin questions of the order of the Seder;

  1. Karpas
  • Use onion for Karpas.
  • Dip in salt water before saying the Bracha.
  • Have Kavana to be Moitzi the Maror
  • Eat less than 17 grams.
  • Don’t say Bracha Achrona even if ate a Kezayis of Karpas.
  • Don’t lean.
  • Don’t return the remaining onion to bowl.

Purpose: So the children ask questions; Represents the slavery in Egypt; Samech Perech

  1. Yachatz:
  • Break the middle Matzah [Levi] inside the cloth without seeing,
  • Take the larger piece and break to 5 pieces and use for Afikoman
  • Place Afikoman between two pillows
  • The smaller half is placed back in between the two matzos. There should be at least a Kezayis remaining in the middle Matzah that is placed back, [and if there is not, then one should add Matzah to it].

Purpose: Poor man’s bread; Three Matzos are Avraham; Yitzchak and Yaakov; The reason we break the middle Matzah is because Yitzchak has two sides, laughter and severity.

  1. Maggid:
  • Each person is to say the Hagadah to themselves.
  • Say the Hagadah with a Niggun and loudly
  • Uncover all three Matzos throughout Maggid except for when the cup of wine is raised.
  • Explain the Hagadah to the women and children so they all understand.
  • Hei Lachma Anaya: The Matzah is to be lifted while this paragraph is said. [However the custom of the Rabbeim is to only reveal the matzos and not to actually lift them.]
  • Mah Nishtana: Pour the 2nd cup of wine prior to Mah Nishtana.
  • Before Mah Nishtana move the Kearah to the side [and cover it].
  • Youngest son asks Mah Nishtana. If there is no son, then the youngest daughter is to ask.
  • Each person is to repeat the Mah Nishtana after the children say it.
  • After Mah Nishtana one returns the Kearah and reveals the Matzas.
  • Vhi Sheamda: Cover Matzos and then lift Kos.
  • Spilling wine:
    • Spill the wine with the cup itself.
    • Use a broken dish to pour the wine into.
    • Have intent to spill the wrath when spilling the wine.
    • Refill the wine after all spills are finished.
  • Dayeinu: One is not to make a Hefsek by Dayeinu.
  • Matza Zu: Hold onto the middle [and bottom] Matzah within the covering
  • Maror zu: Place two hands on the Maror.

Purpose: Fulfilling Biblical command of Vihigadita; Say it in length and detail of miracles-Mitzvah applies until fall asleep.

  1. Rachtza:
  • Prepare the Matzos for all the participants before the washing.
  • One now washes for the Matzah just as he would wash before eating bread. A blessing is recited prior to the washing.
  1. Moitzi Matza:
  • Holding the Matzas: Upon saying the blessing of Hamotzi one takes hold of the two whole Matzas and the middle broken Matzah. Immediately after this blessing one drops the bottom Matzah, and says the blessing of Matzah with only the top and middle Matzah in his hand.
  • Having in mind: When saying the blessing over the mitzvah of eating Matzah one should also have in mind the Matzah eaten by Korech, as well as the Matzah eaten by the Afikoman.
    • Each participant says both blessings themselves on their own pieces of Matzah.
    • Salt: One does not dip the Matzah in salt. However one is to have salt on the table.
    • How much to eat: One is to break off a Kezayis from both the whole and split Matzah and eat a Kezayis of each at the same time. One is to enter both kezeiysim into his mouth at the same time.
    • Every participant is to eat 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes.
    • The leader of the home is to give a piece of both the middle and upper Matzah to all the participants.
    • Leaning: One must lean upon eating the Matzah. This applies to both Kizeisim eaten by the leader of the table. If one did not lean then he must re-eat another Kezayis of Matzah.
    • Eat within Achilas Peras which is 4 minutes.
    • Hefsek: Don’t talk of unrelated subjects until after Matzah of Korech
    • An old or sick person may dip Kezayis Matzah in water to eat.

Purpose: Fulfilling Biblical command of eating Matzah.

  1. Maror:
  • The Maror is to be eaten immediately after eating the Matzah.
  • Lettuce and horseradish: For Maror we eat both from the lettuce leaves and horseradish that was placed for the top Maror.
  • How much Maror: Try to eat 27 grams of Maror within 4 minutes. If this is difficult eat 17 grams worth of leaves which is approximately one large leaf or two medium leaves. Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount.
    • Dipping the Maror in the Charoses: Before eating the Maror it is to be partially dipped into the Charoses. After the Maror is dipped into the Charoses one is to immediately shake it off.
    • If the Charoses did not have wine added to it before Shabbos then: Dip some [not all] Charoses to a large amount of wine and mix it with ones hand or with the vessel itself, through shaking it.
    • First dip the Maror in the Charoses and then say the Bracha.
    • Have in mind: Have in mind the Maror of Korech upon saying the blessing over the Maror.
    • How much time to eat: Eat the above amount within 4 minutes.
    • Leaning: One does not lean.
  1. Korech:
  • For the Maror of Korech we eat both from the lettuce leaves and horseradish of the second Maror [Chazeres].
  • Eat a Kezayis of Matzah and a Kezayis of Maror simultaneously. Initially eat 27 grams of Maror and 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult eat 17 grams of Maror, and 17 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. Both the lettuce leaves and horseradish combine to make up this amount.
  • Don’t dip Maror onto the Charoses. Simply dab on it some dry Charoses [without wine].
  • Eat Leaning
  • Eat within 4 minutes.
  1. Shulchan Orach:
  • Begin with eating the egg dipped in salt water.
  • Check the plates to avoid crumbs of Matzah prior to placing food on it.
  • Don’t eat too much before Afikoman.
  • We do not lean

Purpose: Fulfill Mitzvah of Seudas Yom Tov and freedom.

  1. Tzafun:
  • Eat the Afikoman before Chatzos. [12:43] On the second night in the Diaspora one can eat it until morning.
  • Eat two Kezeisim [54 grams] of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult, eat only one Kezayis [27 grams] and intend that the Kezayis serve to commemorate whichever subject requires commemoration. Try to eat 27 grams of Matzah within 4 minutes. If this is difficult then eat 17 grams.
  • Stipulate if can only eat one Kezayis.
  • Eat leaning. Bedieved no need re-eat.
  • Eat on same table. Don’t switch tables.

 

  1. Beirach:
  • Pour the cup of Eliyahu.
  • After pouring the cup of Eliyahu pour the third cup before Birchas Hamazon.
  • Don’t place the Mayim Achronim on the lips.
  • No drinking after 3rd cup, not even water.
  • One may drink entire 3rd cup even if has much more than Revius.
  1. Hallel:
  • Pour the 4th cup
  • Shefoch Chamascha is very auspicious time to ask for things from Hashem.
  • Open all doors to the public.
  • There is no need to finish Hallel before Chatzos.
  • One may finish Hallel in a different house.
  • One is to make a Zimun for Hallel.
  • Don’t make an interval between the end of Hallel and drinking the 4th
  1. Nirtza:
  • Pour the wine of the Kos Shel Eliyahu back into the bottle. One sings Keili Ata of the Alter Rebbe upon doing so.
  1. After the Seder:
  • Do not eat or drink anything, including water, after having drunk the 4th cup, until one awakens from sleep of that night.
  • Discuss and deal with the laws of Pesach and the story of the Exodus until one is overcome by sleep.
  • Say an abridged version of Kerias Shema. One only says the 1st paragraph of the Shema and then goes straight to Hamapil. On the 2nd night of Pesach however one says the regular paragraphs as is said on any Yom Tov.

 

 

 

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