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Verses: 119 [Siman: פלט]
Haftorah: Joshua 2:1-24
|Number of Mitzvot:
There are a total of Three Mitzvot in Parashat Shelach; Two positive commands and One negative command. The following are the commands in the chronological order that they are brought in the Portion.
1. Mitzvah 385; Positive 154: To separate Challah from dough and give it to a Kohen.
2. Mitzvah 386; Positive 155: To tie Tzitzis fringes to the corner of one’s garments.
1. Mitzvah 387; Negative 232: The prohibition to swerve after the thoughts of the heart and sight of the eyes regarding matters that are contrary to Torah theology.
- Moses sends spies to Eretz Canaan:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should send men to tour the promised land of Canaan. One person is to be chosen from each tribe. Moses did as he was instructed and sent them from the Paran desert to the land of Canaan. All the men in the group were distinguished leaders of Israel.
- The names of those chosen for the delegation:
- Reuben: Shammua Ben Zaccur
- Simeon: Shafat Ben Chori
- Judah: Kaleb Ben Yefuneh
- Issachar: Yigal Ben Joseph
- Ephraim: Hosheia Ben Nun. Moses called him Joshua.
- Benjamin: Palti Ben Rafu
- Zebulun: Gaddiel Ben Sodi
- Manasseh: Gaddi Ben Susi
- Dan: Ammiel Ben Gemalli
- Asher: Setur Ben Michael
- Naftali: Nachbi Ben Vofsi
- Gad: Geuel Ben Machi.
- The purpose and instruction of their mission: Moses sent the above delegation to tour the land of Canaan and he told them to travel from the south and ascend the mountain. They should see the quality of the land, if it is good or bad, and if the nations that dwell on it are strong or weak, few or numerous, and if the cities are fortified or open. They should see if the land is fertile or lean, if it has trees or not. Moses asked them to bring back with them from the fruits of the land. That period of the year was the time of the ripening of the grapes.
- Their journey:
- They went and toured the land from the Tzin desert until Chamas.
- The giants: They went up the south and arrived at Hebron where the giants Achiman, Sheshai and Talmai are found. Hebron was built seven years before the city of Tzoan in Egypt.
- The fruits: They arrived at the Eshkol region and cut fruits from there. They took a cluster of grapes and two people carried it on a pole. They took pomegranates and figs.
- Their return and slanderous report:
- They returned to the camp of the Jewish people in the desert of Paran after a forty-day journey and reported what they saw and showed them the fruits of the land. They said that the land flows with milk and honey, contains mighty nations who live in large fortified cities, and contains giants. Amalek lives in the south, and the Hittite, Jebusite and Amorite live on the mountain. The Canaanite lives by the sea and near the Jordan river.
- Kaleb responds: Kaleb quieted the nation and told them that they would be able to conquer them. However, the other members of the delegation said that it is not possible, as those nations are much more powerful. They said that the land consumes its inhabitants. They described feeling like grasshoppers in the eyes of the giants. They spoke slander against the land.
- The nations reaction:
- The nation cried that night and complained against Moses and Aaron saying if only they would have died in Egypt, or in this desert, rather than be brought by G-d to that land to die by the sword and have their wives and children taken captive. It is better that we return to Egypt, and so they decided to appoint a leader to return to Egypt.
- Moses and Aaron fell on their faces. Joshua Ben Nun and Kaleb Ben Yefuna tore their clothing and they told the Jewish people that the land which they toured is very, very good.
- If G-d desires to bring us, He will bring us there, it is a land of milk and honey. Do not rebel against G-d, and do not fear the other nations as they will be like bread to us. Their protection has departed, and G-d will be with us. Do not fear!
- The entire nation wanted to pelt them with stones, and the glory of G-d suddenly appeared in the Tent of Meeting to all the Jewish people.
- G-d’s response:
- G-d responds with a threat of annihilation: G-d lamented to Moses of the state of the nation that after all the miracles He has done they still do not believe in Him and anger Him. “I will smite the nation and annihilate them and make a new greater nation from you Moses.”
- Moses’s defense: Moses pleaded to G-d not to destroy the nation, as this would cause the Egyptians and other nations to say that You could not conquer the promised land and therefore you made them die in the desert. Now, strengthen Your power “G-d, a G-d of mercy and compassion, slow to anger and abundant in kindness, Who forgives inquity.” Please forgive this nation just as you have forgiven them in Egypt until now. G-d replied that He agrees to forgive them as requested.
- The punishment: Nonetheless, the people will not go unpunished. All those who experienced and saw my miracles in Egypt and in the desert and challenged Me ten times and did not heed My voice, they will not see the promised land. However, My servant Kaleb, being he was not part of the slanderous report, he will enter the land.
- Travel: The Amalekites and Canaanites dwelled in the valley, and G-d instructed the Jewish people to return and journey towards the desert the next day.
- Moses informs the Jewish people of the punishments: G-d told Moses and Aaron to inform the Jewish people that their request was granted, and they will die in this dessert. Only Kaleb and Joshua, as well as their children whom they said would be taken captive, will enter the promised land. Your corpses will drop in this desert and your children will wander for forty years in it to bear your guilt, one year for each day of your journey.
- The Meraglim die: The spies who spoke slander of the land died in a plague before G-d.
- Attempt to conquer Amalek:
- Moses informed the children of Israel of all the above and they entered a deep state of mourning. They arose in the morning and ascended the mountain with intent to repent and enter the promised land. However, Moses warned them that they would not be successful as G-d does not allow it anymore. They will be smitten by their enemies if they continue, as G-d is no longer with them. However, they were stubborn and did not listen and ascended the mountain. Moses and the Aron did not move from the camp. The Amaleikites and Canaanites who lived on that mountain annihilated them.
- Voluntary Sacrifices of a vow and their Mincha and Nesachim:
- G-d told Moses to tell the Jewish people that when they arrive to the land and bring a voluntary offering from the cattle, or flock, due to a vow, or during the festivals, then it should be accompanied by a Mincha offering and wine libations.
- Sheep: For every sheep you should have a tenth of an Eipha of fine flour for a Mincha, mixed with a quarter of a Hin of oil, and a quarter of a Hin of wine as a libation.
- Ram: For every ram you should have two tenths of an Eipha of fine flour for a Mincha, mixed with a third of a Hin of oil, and a third of a Hin of wine as a libation.
- Bull: For every bull you should have three tenths of an Eipha of fine flour for a Mincha, mixed with half of a Hin of oil, and half of a Hin of wine as a libation.
- This applies both for you and for the converts who dwell with you. You will all follow the same laws.
- The Mitzvah of Hafrashas Challah:
- G-d told Moses to tell the Jewish people that when they enter the land and eat from the bread of the land, they shall set aside a portion for G-d. The first of the kneading is to be tithed as a Challah for G-d, similar to the Teruma separation.
- Sacrifices for unintentional sins:
- Entire congregation sinned: If the entire congregation performs a sin [relating to idolatry] due to an inaccurate ruling, then they are to bring one bull within its first year as an Olah offering, and its mincha and libation, and one he-goat as a Chatas ofering. G-d will forgive the nation.
- Individual sinned: If a single individual performs a sin [relating to idolatry] he is to bring one she-goat as a Chatas. G-d will forgive him for his sin.
- A brazen sinner: One who brazenly sins [with idolatry] will be cut off from his nation.
- The wood gatherer:
- The Jewish people were in the desert and they found a man gathering wood on Shabbat and brought him to Moses and Aaron for further instruction of what shall be done to him. He was placed in custody as they did not know what his punishment should be.
- The punishment: G-d said to Moses that the man shall die through stoning. The entire congregation is to stone him outside of the camp. The nation did as they were instructed, and he was stoned to death outside the camp.
- Mitzvah of Tzitzis fringes:
- G-d told Moses to tell the Jewish people to make Tzitzis fringes on the corners of their garments, and place a thread of Techeiles turquoise wool on each corner. By seeing the Tzitzis they will remember the Mitzvot of G-d and perform them and not stray after their hearts and eyes.
- I am G-d who took you out of Egypt
Verses: 95 [Siman: דניאל]
Haftorah: Samuel 1 11:14-12:22
|Number of Mitzvot:
There are a total of nine Mitzvot in Parashat Korach; Five positive commands and Four negative commands. The following are the commands in the order listed by the Sefer Hachinuch.
1. Mitzvah 388; Positive 156: For the Kohanim and Levites to guard the Temple every night, throughout the nights.
2. Mitzvah 392; Positive 157: To redeem a firstborn son.
3. Mitzvah 394; Positive 158: For the Levites to work in the Temple as guards, and singers.
4. Mitzvah 395; Positive 159: To separate 10% of the land produce to the Levites [i.e. Maaser].
5. Mitzvah 396; Positive 160: For the Levites to separate a portion [i.e. Teruma] from the tithe that they receive.
1. Mitzvah 389; Negative 233: The prohibition for the Levites to perform services of the Kohanim or vice versa.
2. Mitzvah 390; Negative 234: The prohibition for a non-Kohen to perform service in the Temple.
3. Mitzvah 391; Negative 235: The prohibition to leave the Temple unguarded anytime throughout the night.
4. Mitzvah 393; Negative 236: The prohibition to redeem the firstborn animal.
- Korach and his men confront Moses and Aaron:
- Korach, the son of Yitzhar, the son of Kehot, the son of Levi, took with him Datan, Abiram and On Ben Peles from the tribe of Reuben and confronted Moses. They came with a group of 250 leaders of the Jewish people who joined their fight against Moses. The group confronted Moses and Aaron with the claim that they made themselves the elite of the Jewish people when in truth all the Jewish people are holy.
- Moses’s response:
- Moses heard and fell on his face in reaction of their complaint.
- The offering of Ketores and G-d choosing the leader: Moses replied to Korach that by morning G-d will relate to everyone who in truth is meant to be the leaders of the Jewish people. This will be accomplished by having all the contenders, who desire to be leaders, offer Ketores incense onto the altar and whoever G-d chooses, he will be the holy one. Each man is to take a pan filled with fire and Ketores incense and offer it before G-d tomorrow.
- Moses admonishes the Levites: Moses reproached the tribe of Levi telling them that they should be satisfied with the fact that they were chosen by G-d to be the representatives of the Jewish people to serve G-d in the Tabernacle. “It is not right that you now step forward and demand to also become Kohanim. Why do you complain against Aaron, what is he that you should protest against him?”
- Moses summons Datan and Abiram: Moses summoned Datan and Abiram, the accomplices of Korach, to speak with them but they refused to come. They replied, “Moses took them out of a land of milk and honey to die in the dessert and he has no right to rule over us.”
- Datan and Abiram continued saying against Moses that he has not brought us into the Promised Land, and even if he would have their eyes bulged out they would not approach Moses.
- Moses’s wrath boiled at such an insidious reply and he turned to G-d stating “Do not accept their Ketores offering. I have not taken one donkey from these people and I have not done wrong to any of them.”
- Moses instructs the congregation regarding the Ketores offering:
- Moses told Korach that he and his entire congregation are to stand before G-d tomorrow together with Aaron. Each man is to take a pan filled with Ketores and offer it before G-d. There would be 250 pans of Ketores being offered [from Korach’s group]. Each of the contestants are to offer the Ketores in their pan.
- They placed fire in the pan and then placed the incense on top of the fire and brought it before the Tent of Meeting. Moses and Aaron were present.
- The Shekhinah appears: Korach gathered his entire group around Moses and Aaron, in front of the Tent of Meeting and the Shekhinah then appeared to the entire congregation.
- G-d instructs Moses:
- G-d spoke to Moses and Aaron saying that they are to separate themselves from the congregation as they will be destroyed in a moment. Moses and Aaron prostrated themselves before G-d and beseeched for his mercy, and that he should not punish the entire congregation because of the sin of one man.
- Moses instructs the Jewish people to disperse from the tent of Korach, Datan and Abiram:
- G-d instructed Moses to tell the congregation to disperse from the area of the encampments of Korach and Datan and Abiram. Moses, together with the elders of the Jewish people, approached Datan and Abiram’s [camp] and told the congregation to disperse from the tents of these evildoers, and not to touch anything that is theirs, lest they will be killed for their sins. The congregation listened and dispersed from the area of Korach’s and Datan and Abiram’s tent.
- Moses confronts Korach and Datan and gives them a severe warning:
- Datan and Abiram confronted Moses and came out of their tents with their wives and entire family.
- Moses warned them that G-d sent him to do all of these actions and the following will be the sign that I did not fabricate it from my heart. If you die like a regular man, then you know that I am a fraudster and G-d did not send me. If, however G-d will create a new creation, and the earth will open its mouth and swallow you, and all that you own, into the depths of purgatory, then that will the sign that you have started a fight with G-d.
- The earth swallows Koarch and kills his accomplices:
- As Moses finished speaking, the earth that was under them opened its mouth and swallowed their entire families and houses, and all the men who joined Korach, as well as all their property. They all descended alive into the depths of the earth and the earth covered them and they became lost from the congregation.
- The people surrounding the area began fleeing with fright, having heard the screams of those who were swallowed, as they feared that they too would be consumed.
- A fire exited from G-d and consumed the 250 men that offered the Ketores incense.
- The pans of the Ketores are used to plate the altar:
- G-d instructed Moses to tell Elazar to gather all the Ketores pans, as the pans have become holy. The pans are to be used for covering the Altar, and serve as a sign for the Jewish people. Elazar did as Moses commanded, and he gathered the pans and made it into a coating for the Altar to serve as a sign for the Jewish people that a non-Kohen may not offer Ketores before G-d, and that one is not to be like Korach and his accomplices.
- The congregation confronts Moses and Aaron:
- The next day, the entire Jewish people confronted Moses and Aaron with the claim that they killed G-d’s nation. As they were voicing their complaints the cloud of glory covered the Tent of Meeting and G-d appeared.
- Moses and Aaron entered the Tent of Meeting.
- G-d sends a plague to Israel:
- G-d spoke to Moses saying that he should remove himself from the congregation as He will kill them instantly. Moses [and Aaron] prostrated themselves before G-d.
- The plague began. Moses instructed Aaron to hurry and offer Ketores in order to atone for the nation and stop the plague. Aaron did as he was instructed and hurried to offer the Ketores, and the plague ended. A total of 14,700 Jews died in the plague, in addition to the deaths of Korach and his congregation
- A staff is gathered from each tribe and the staff of Aaron blossoms:
- G-d instructed Moses to take a staff from each one of the tribes of the Jewish people for a total of 12 staffs. Each tribe’s name is to be inscribed on their staff. Aaron’s name is to be written on the staff of the tribe of Levi. The staffs are to be placed in the Tent of Meeting and whoever is chosen, his staff will blossom, and thus the complaint of the Jewish people will subside.
- Moses spoke to the people of G-d’s instructions and the people did as Moses commanded, and the staffs were placed by Moses inside the Ohel tent. The next day, when Moses entered the Ohel tent he found that the staff of Aaron had blossomed and grew almonds. Moses removed all the staffs from before G-d and each person took his staff.
- G-d instructed Moses to preserve the staff of Aaron, and place it in the Heichal as a sign for the rebels and to end their complaint against Me.
- The Jewish people are in despair:
- After all the above events, the Jewish people cried to Moses in despair that they will all be doomed, as anyone who breaches the boundaries of the Kohanim is bound to die.
- G-d instructs Aaron to guard the Tabernacle:
- G-d told Aaron that he and his children will carry the responsibility of preventing breaches of non-Kohanim entering into the Temple.
- The tribe of Levi was given to Aaron to assist him in his work. The Levites are to guard the borders of the Tabernacle, although are not to serve in the Temple.
- G-d designates gifts to Aaron and the Kohanim:
- Offerings: G-d spoke to Aaron saying that He has given the Kohanim the rights to eat the meat of all the sacrifices, and flour offerings. Everything set aside from the sacrifcies is given to them. Only males are to eat the sacrifices in a most holy way. Only pure Kohanim may eat it.
- Teruma: The people are to give a Teruma donation to the Kohanim. The best of the grains and best of the wine and oil.
- Bikurim: The first of all their produce that is brought to G-d is given to you. It is to be eaten by those who are pure in your home.
- Cherem: Every Cherem [consecrated property] is to go to the Kohanim.
- Firstborns: The firstborn of a person and animal is to go to the Kohanim. The firstborn human and impure animals [i.e. donkey] are to be redeemed. The firstborn son is to be redeemed with five Shekalim after 30 days. The firstborn of pure animals is not to be redeemed, and is rather to have its blood and fat offered to the altar, as it is holy. You are, however, to eat its meat.
- Inheritance of the land: G-d told Aaron that the Kohanim will not receive an inheritance of the land in Israel, as I am your portion and heritage among the children of Israel.
- G-d designates gifts to the Levites:
- Tithe [i.e. Maaser]: The Levites are to receive a tithe of produce [i.e. Maaser] from the Jewish people in exchange for their work in the Temple, so that the Jewish people are to no longer come close to the Tent of Meeting and die.
- Inheritance of the land: The Levites will not receive an inheritance of land in Israel, as they were given the Maaser as their inheritance.
- Tithing the tithe [i.e. Terumas Maaser]: G-d commanded Moses to tell the Levites that they are to give Terumos Maaser [i.e. a tithe] from the Maaser that they receive from the Jewish people. The Teruma is to be given to Aaron the Kohen [and his sons the Kohanim]. Once the Teruma is set aside, they may then partake in the Maaser they received just like all other produce.
- The Maaser tithe may be eaten anywhere, by one’s entire family, as it is his wages for working in the Tent of Meeting.
Verses: 87 [Siman: עזי, פז]
Haftorah: Judges 11:1-33
Number of Mitzvot:
There are a total of three Mitzvot in Parashat Chukat; Three positive commands and Zero negative commands. The following are the commands in the order listed by the Sefer Hachinuch.
1. Mitzvah 397/Positive 161: To prepare ash of the red cow for purification purposes.
2. Mitzvah 398/Positive 162: To follow the laws dictated by the Torah for one who has become impurified by contacting a corpse [i.e. Tumas Meis].
3. Mitzvah 399/Positive 163: To purify the impure using the Mei Niddah [water mixed with red heifer ashes] in accordance to the Torah law.
- The Mitzvah of the red heifer:
- G-d spoke to Moses and Aaron saying that they should tell the Jewish people about the Mitzvah of Parah Adumah. The Mitzvah of the Parah Adumah is the statute of the Torah.
- Criteria of the cow: The Jewish people should bring to you a perfectly red cow that is unblemished and has never worked.
- The service performed with the cow: Elazar Hakohen is to be given the cow and he is to take it outside the camp where it shall be slaughtered in his presence. Elazar is to take from its blood and sprinkle its blood with his finger seven times towards the Tent of Meeting. The entire cow is to be burnt in his presence, including its skin, meat, blood and waste. The Kohen is to take cedar wood, hyssop, and a wool crimson string, and throw it into the fire which is burning the cow.
- The Kohen becomes impure: The Kohen, and the one who burned the cow, are to immerse themselves and their clothing, and they shall be impure until evening, and may then enter the camp.
- The ash: The ash is to be gathered by a pure man and stored in a pure area outside the camp. The ash will be preserved for the Jewish people. The person who gathers the ash is to immerse his clothing, and he is impure until evening. These laws apply for all generations.
- The laws of impurity to a corpse [i.e. Tumas Meis]:
- Touching corpse: One who touches a corpse of any human is impure for 7 days. He is to be purified [with the Parah ash] on the 3rd and 7th day, otherwise he remains impure. If he enters the Temple prior to being purified with the Mei Niddah, he receives excision.
- Tent of a corpse: Anyone who enters the tent of a corpse is impure for 7 days. Likewise, everything in the tent shall be impure for seven days. An open vessel shall be impure.
- Touching grave: Whoever touches a man killed by a sword, or a corpse or a human bone or a grave is impure for seven days.
- The process of purification:
- Spring water is to be poured into a vessel, onto the ash of the cow
- A pure man is to dip Hyssop into the water and sprinkle it onto the tent, on all the vessels, and on all the people that are impure on the 3rd and 7th On the 7th day he is to immerse his clothing and body in water, and he becomes pure at night. If he enters the Temple prior to being purified with the red heifer water [i.e. Mei Niddah], he has defiled the Temple and will be cut off from his nation.
- The impurification of the purifier: One who sprinkles the Niddah water must immerse his garments and one who touches the Niddah water becomes impure until evening.
- Touching the impure person: Anything the impure person touches becomes impure until the evening.
- Miriam passes away:
- The nation arrived at the desert of Tzin in the first month and they settled in Kadeish.
- Miriam passed away there in the desert of Tzin and was buried there.
- The drought-Mei Meriva:
- After Miriam’s passing, there was a drought. The nation gathered around Moses and Aaron and fought with them [complaining that they did not have water]. “If only we would have died with our brothers. Why did you bring the congregation of G-d to this desert to die there, us and our animals? Why did you bring us out of Egypt to this evil place which has no seed or figs, grapes or pomegranates, and there is no water to drink?”
- Moses and Aaron left the people and entered the Tent of Meeting, and fell on their faces, and G-d’s glory appeared to them.
Third Aliyah (Second Aliyah when combined with Balak)
- Moses hits the rock: G-d instructed Moses to take the staff and gather the people, and Aaron, and speak to the rock in front of them, and it will give water to them and their animals. Moses did as G-d instructed him, and he took the staff from before G-d. Moses and Aaron gathered the nation before the rock and he chastised the Jewish people saying, “Listen rebels, will this rock give forth water for you?” Moses lifted his hand and he hit the rock twice with his staff and a lot of water came out, and the congregation and their animals drank.
- G-d admonishes and punishes Moses and Aaron: G-d told Moses and Aaron that because they did not believe in Him, and sanctify Him before the Jewish people, they will not enter into the Promised Land. This episode is called Mei Meriva as this is the area where the children of Israel fought with G-d and He was sanctified through them.
- Moses asks for passage through Edom:
- The request: Moses sent messengers from Kadeish to the king of Edom asking permission to pass through their land. Moses told him of all the troubles that their brother, the Jewish people have surpassed. He told him of the suffering of the Jewish people in Egypt and how G-d saved them after they screamed to Him. “We are now in the city of Kadeish, which is at the edge of your border, please let us pass through your land. We will not pass through fields or vineyards and will not drink the well water. We shall travel the king’s road and not swerve right or left.”
- The response: Edom refused to allow the Jewish people to pass, and threatened to greet them with the sword. The Jewish people replied [with a counter offer] that they will travel through the highway and drink their waters for payment. Still, the Edomites refused and they came to greet the Jewish people with a heavy army. The Jewish people [had no choice] and swerved away to a different direction.
Fifth Aliyah (Third Aliyah when combined with Balak)
- Aaron passes away:
- The instructions: the children of Israel traveled from Kadeish and arrived to Mount Hahar. G-d told Moses and Aaron on Mount Hahar of Aaron’s forthcoming death. “Aaron will pass away as he will not enter the promised land due to having defied Me by Mei Meriva.” G-d told Moses to take Aaron and Elazar up to the mountain and remove the clothing of Aaron and dress Elazar his son, and Aaron will die there.
- The passing: Moses did as G-d instructed and brought them up the mountain in front of the entire nation. Moses removed Aaron’s priestly clothing and he dressed Elazar in them. Aaron passed away on the summit of the mountain and Moses and Elazar descended from the mountain. The entire congregation saw that Aaron passed away and they cried [and mourned] his passing for thirty days.
- Amalek attacks the Jews:
- The Canaanite king of Arad who dwells in the south [and is otherwise known as Amelik] heard that the Jewish people are in the vicinity, and they fought against the Jewish people and captured a captive.
- The vow: the children of Israel made a vow to G-d that if He gives this nation into their hands, and they win the battle, they will consecrate all of the city spoils to the Temple. G-d heard their pleas and handed the Canaanites to their hands.
- The victory: the children of Israel captured the nation and their cities and consecrated it for G-d. That area was called Charmah.
- Complaint against water and food and the subsequent plague of snakes:
- The complaint: The Jewish people traveled past Mount Hahar and circumvented the land of Edom. The nation became tired of the travel and complained against G-d and Moses asking why he took them out of Egypt to die in the desert. “There is no food or water and we have reached our limit with the insubstantial bread.”
- The plague of snakes: G-d smote the nation with burning snakes and they bit the Jewish people, and many people died. The Jewish people remorsefully came to Moses confessing to their sin of speaking against him and G-d. They asked Moses to Daven for them to G-d and remove the snakes. Moses Davened on their behalf.
- The cure: G-d instructed Moses to make a snake and place it around a pole and whoever was bitten is to look at it and live. Moses did as he was instructed and made a copper snake, placing it by the pole. Whoever was bitten by the snake would look at the copper snake and live.
- The travels of the children of Israel:
- The children of Israel traveled and camped in Ovos. They traveled from Ovos and camped in Iyei Ha’avarim, which faces Moab at the east. From there they traveled and camped in the Valley of Zered. From there they traveled and encamped on the other side of Arnon, which is on the border between Moab and the Amorites.
- The failed ambush: [The Amorites were killed by G-d as they attempted an ambush. The mountains came together and crushed them in their caves. The well revealed the great miracle to the Jewish people and hence] the Jewish people sang praise to G-d for the well.
- War with Sihon and Og:
- The request: The Jewish people sent messengers to Sihon the Amorite king asking permission to pass through his land. “Let us pass through your land. We will not pass through fields or vineyards and will not drink the well water. We shall travel the king’s road until we cross your border.”
- The battle with Sihon: Sihon refused entry to the Jewish people and he gathered his entire nation to greet the Jewish people in the desert and wage war with them. the children of Israel waged a successful war against Sihon and conquered all of his cities and settled in them.
- The battle of Yaazor: Moses sent spies to Yaazor and they conquered the city and drove out the Amorites from there.
- The battle of Og: They left from there towards Bashan and Og. The king of Bashan came to battle them with all of his nation. G-d told Moses not to fear Og as he, his nation, and his land, will be delivered to his hands, just as was done with Sihon. Og and his entire nation were smitten to the point of no survivors and they took possession of his land.
- The Jewish people traveled and encamped in the plains of Moab, opposite the Jordon, near Jericho.