Summary of Exodus: Chapters 1-9

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Parashat Shemot

Verses:124  [Siman:ויקח ]

Haftorah:[1] Isaiah 27:6-28:13; 29:22-23

 

Number of Mitzvot:

There are no Positive or Negative commands mentioned in Parashat Shemot.

 

Chapter 1

First Aliyah

  1. The family of Jacob who arrived in Egypt:
    • These are the names of the children of Israel who came to Egypt. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin, Don, Naftali, Gad, Asher. A total of seventy souls who descended from Jacob were in Egypt.
    • Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation passed away.
    • The Jewish people reproduced and multiplied to great numbers, and the earth became filled with them.

  1. The slavery begins:
    • The plan: A new king was appointed over Egypt who did not know Joseph. He told his nation that the Jewish people have multiplied more than us, and therefore we should conspire a plan to deal with them, lest they multiply even more and drive us out of our land.
    • The slavery: Pharaoh appointed tax collectors to make the Jewish people work in hard labor, and had them build cities of storage for Pharaoh, the cities of Pithom and Raamses. The more the Jews were oppressed, the more they multiplied. The Egyptians became disgusted by the Jewish people.
    • The Egyptians enslaved the Jews with crushing labor. They were worked with hard labor involving mortar and bricks and every labor of the field. All the labors they performed were crushing and back breaking work.

  1. The midwives Shifrah and Puah, and the decree to kill the boys:
    • Pharaoh instructed the Jewish midwives, Shifrah and Puah, to kill all the male children born to the Jewish people. The girls were to be spared. The midwives feared G-d and did not listen to his instructions and allowed the male children to live.

 

Second Aliyah

  • Pharaoh confronted the midwives and they replied that the Jewish people are akin to wild animals who give birth on their own. The Jewish people thus continued to multiply. G-d gave the midwives homes in reward of them fearing Him.
  • The decree to kill all the male born children in Egypt: Pharaoh then commanded his entire nation to kill their male born children, while sparing the females.

Chapter 2

  1. Moses is born and placed in the river:
    • A Levite man took a Levite daughter for a wife and the woman became pregnant and had a son. The mother saw that he was good and so she hid him for three months.
    • Moses is placed in the river: After this time expired, his mother placed him in a reed basket, smeared it with clay and tar, and entered him into the reeds of the banks of the Nile river. His sister stood from a distance to see what would happen to him.

  1. Baby Moses is rescued:
    • Bithiah rescues Moses: The daughter of Pharaoh [i.e. Bithiah] was strolling with her maidservants by the river and when she saw the basket, she stretched her hand and took it. She opened it and saw a lad crying and had mercy on him. She exclaimed that the child is from the Jewish people.
    • Jochebed nurses Moses: The sister of Moses [i.e. Miriam] offered Bithiah to bring a Jewish wet nurse to nurse the boy. After her acceptance, she summoned the boy’s mother who nursed her son in exchange for payment from Bithiah.
    • Moses grows up: The child grew up and became adopted by the daughter of Pharaoh as a son. She named him Moses, as he was drawn from the river.

 

Third Aliyah

  1. Moses kills the Egyptian and flees:
  • Moses grew up and visited his brethren, witnessing their slavery. He saw an Egyptian man hitting one of his Jewish brothers. Moses turned both ways, seeing no one around, he struck the Egyptian, killing him and buried him in the ground.
  • Moses flees: The second day he came out he saw two Jews fighting, and admonished the wicked man for hitting his friend. The wicked man replied, “Who placed you as a ruler over us, will you kill me like you did to the Egyptian?” Moses feared that word of the murder would spread, and eventually the news reached Pharaoh who desired to kill him. Moses fled to Midian to escape death.

 

  1. Moses in Midian, his marriage and children:
  • Moses fled to Midian and settled there.
  • Moses gives the sheep of Jethro to drink: Moses sat by the well and saw the seven daughters of Jethro, who was the priest of Midian, coming towards the well in order to give water to their father’s flock. The shepherds came and drove them away and Moses got up and saved them and gave their flock to drink.
  • Moses marries Tzipporah and has children: The daughters came home to Reuel their father [i.e. Jethro] who was surprised at their early return home, and asked them as to the reason. They replied that a certain Egyptian man saved them from the shepherds and gave the flock to drink. Jethro replied that they should not have left the man there, and they should go call him to eat bread with us. Moses accepted the request and lived in Jethro’s home. Jethro gave his daughter Tzipporah to Moses as a wife. They had a son whom Moses named Gershom, in name of the fact that he was a stranger in a foreign land.

  1. G-d hears the screams of the children of Israel:
  • After many days, the king of Egypt died [i.e. was afflicted with leprosy] and the Jewish people groaned and cried due to the labor. Their scream ascended to G-d and He remembered the covenant he made with Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. G-d saw the Jewish people and G-d knew [their suffering].

 

Chapter 3

Fourth Aliyah

  1. The burning bush:
  • Moses was grazing the sheep of Jethro his father in-law and he guided the sheep far into the desert. He arrived to the mountain of G-d [i.e. Mount Sinai], towards Horeb. An angel of G-d appeared to him within the bush and Moses saw that the bush was burning but was not getting consumed. Moses said, “Let me turn to the bush to see this great phenomenon. Why is the bush not getting burnt?”
  • G-d asks Moses to redeem the Jewish people: G-d saw that Moses turned around to see the bush and He called to him from within the bush saying “Moses, Moses.” “Here I am,” replied Moses. G-d replied “Do not come any closer. Remove your shoes from your feet, as this ground that you are standing on is Holy. I am the G-d of your forefathers; Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.” Moses hid his face as he feared to gaze towards G-d. G-d told Moses “I have seen the suffering of my people and I have heard their scream and know their pain. I will descend to save them from the hands of the Egyptians and bring them out from Egypt to the good and spacious land which flows with milk and honey. I will bring them to the land of the Canaanite, Hittite, Amorite, Perizi, Hivvite and Jebusite nations. Now, I will send you to Pharaoh to take my nation out of Egypt.”

  1. The ensuing conversation of G-d and Moses:
    • Moses replied to G-d “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and take the Jewish people out of Egypt.” G-d responded by saying “I will be with you, and this is the sign [i.e. reason] that I have sent you, as when the nation leaves Egypt they will then serve G-d on this mountain.”
    • G-d’s name: Moses requested G-d for his name, just in case he is question by the Jewish people as to who sent him. G-d replied “Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh, and so you shall tell the Jewish people that Eheyeh sent you to them. Also tell them that the G-d of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob sent you to them.” This is my name forever and my remembrance for all generations.

Fifth Aliyah

  • Gather the elders of the Jewish people: G-d instructed Moses to gather the elders of Israel and tell them that the G-d of your fathers have appeared to me and He told me “I have remembered that which is being done to you in Egypt, and I shall take you out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of Canaan, a land of milk and honey.” G-d told Moses that the elders will listen to his voice.
  • The message to Pharaoh: G-d instructed Moses that he and the elders should come all together to the king of Egypt and tell him that G-d the G-d of the Hebrews has come to you, and you request to leave Egypt for a three-day journey to the desert to bring sacrifices to Him. Now, says G-d, I know that he will not adhere to your request to allow you to go, without a mighty hand [striking him].
  • G-d promises miracles and wealth: G-d told Moses: I will strike and smite Egypt with all of My wonders, and only afterwards will he send you. I will grant favor of the nation in eyes of the Egyptians and they will not leave empty handed. Each woman will request from her neighbor silver and gold vessels, and clothing, and you will place them on your children and leave Egypt.

Chapter 4

  1. Moses argues that the Jewish people will not believe him:
  • Moses replied to G-d saying that the Jewish people will not believe him, and not listen to him, as they will claim that G-d did not appear to him.
  • Moses’s staff turns into a snake: G-d then asked Moses “What is that which you are holding in your hand?” Moses replied, “It is a staff” G-d told Moses to throw it on the ground, and so he did, and it turned into a snake. Moses fled from the snake [out of fright]. G-d told Moses to grab it by the tail, and it turned back into a staff. G-d stated that this was done in order so the Jewish people believe that G-d appeared to you.
  • Moses’s hand turns white: G-d further told Moses to place his hand in his bosom and he did so. When he took it out, he saw that his hand was white like snow. G-d told Moses to reinsert his hand, and he did so, and when he removed it again it returned back to normal. G-d concluded that if the Jewish people will not believe the first sign then they will believe the second sign.
  • A third sign-Turning water into blood: G-d further stated, if they will not listen to the first two signs then you shall take water from the river and pour it on the ground and behold it will turn into blood.

  1. Moses argues against being appointed as messenger:
    • Moses argues that he can’t speak: Moses replied to G-d that he cannot do the job as he has speech disorders and thus cannot articulate his words properly. G-d responded that He is the one who grants the ability to speak, or to be mute, or deaf, or smart, or blind.
    • G-d appoints Aaron to join Moses in the mission: Moses again asked G-d to send a different person, and not him. G-d became angry with Moses and told him that his brother Aaron knows to speak, and he has come out to meet him, and he will rejoice in seeing you. G-d told Moses that he should speak to Aaron and tell him what to say and I will be with both of your mouths, and teach you both what to do. Aaron will do the speaking to the nation for you and you will be to him a master. G-d then told Moses to take the staff with him with which the miracles will be performed.

 

Sixth Aliyah

  1. Moses journeys back to Egypt:
  • Moses returned to Yeser his father in-law and asked him to allow him to go back to Egypt and visit his brethren. Jethro replied that he can go in peace. G-d appeared to Moses and told him to return to Egypt as all the men who seek to kill him have died.
  • Moses took his wife and sons and mounted them on the donkey and returned to Egypt. Moses took the staff with him.
  • Moses’s job in Egypt and his message to Pharaoh: G-d told Moses that when he returns to Egypt he should perform the miracles before Pharaoh, although I will strengthen his heart and he will not let the nation go. You are to tell Pharaoh: So says G-d, my firstborn son is the Jewish people, send my son out so he can serve Me, and if you refuse to send him I will kill your first-born son.
  1. Moses’s son is circumcised:
  • During the journey, while in the inn, G-d met Moses and desired to kill him [through an angel]. Tziporah took a sharp stone and circumcised the foreskin of her son. She threw it at Moses’s feet and exclaimed “You are to me a murderer of my husband.” The [angel] then loosened his grip on Moses.

 

  1. Moses meets Aaron in the desert:
  • G-d appeared to Aaron and told him to go greet Moses in the desert and he went and met Moses by the mountain of G-d and kissed him there. Moses told Aaron all that G-d spoke to him, and that he had sent him on a mission, and of all the miracles he had commanded him to perform.

 

  1. Moses and Aaron gather the elders and show the signs to the Jewish people:
  • Moses and Aaron [arrived and] gathered all the elders of the Jewish people. Aaron spoke all the words that Moses was told, and he performed the miracles in front of the nation. The nation believed them, that G-d had remembered the Jewish people and saw their affliction. The nation bowed their heads and prostrated.

 

Chapter 5

Seventh Aliyah

  1. Moses and Aaron approach Pharaoh and request that he frees the Jewish people:
  • Moses and Aaron then approached Pharaoh and told him “So has said the G-d of the Jews, let My people go so they can celebrate for Me in the desert.” Pharaoh replied “Who is this G-d that I shall listen to His voice to send the Jewish people? I do not know this G-d and I will not send them.” They again persisted “The G-d of the Hebrews came to us, so let us please go for a three-day journey to the desert to offer him sacrifices there, lest He strike us with plague or the sword.” Pharaoh replied to them “Why is Moses and Aaron disturbing the people from their work. Go mind your own business. The people of the land are many and you want to have them cease working!”

 

  1. Pharaoh increases the conditions of slavery:
  • No more straw but same work quota: After Moses’s failed request Pharaoh instructed the taskmasters and police to stop giving the people straw to make bricks and rather they will go themselves and gather the straw. “However, the quota of bricks that must be made daily will remain the same. They are being lazy and lax and that is why they are screaming to leave and slaughter for their G-d. Make them work harder and do not pay attention to words of falsity.”
  • The Jewish people are told the news: The taskmasters and police told the Jewish people of Pharaoh’s new work conditions and that they would need to gather their own straw, although the work quota would remain the same.
  • The Jewish police are beaten: The Jewish people scattered throughout Egypt to gather straw and the taskmasters would press them to finish the daily quota, as before. The police officers who were appointed by the taskmasters to supervise the work were beaten, as the Jewish people had not met the quota.
  • The Jewish police confront Pharaoh: The Jewish police cried before Pharaoh asking why he is doing this to his servants. “You are not giving us straw and you demand we still follow the daily quota and as a result we are being beaten. This is a sin upon your people. Pharaoh replied “You are being lazy, that is why you are requesting to leave to sacrifice to your G-d. Now, go back to work and straw will not be given to you, although the work quota will remain the same.” The Jewish police had to unfortunately relay the news back to the Jewish people that the quota will remain the same, and they had to see them in their suffering.

  1. The Jewish police confront Moses and Aaron:
    • The Jewish police met Moses and Aaron who were coming towards them as they left their audience with Pharaoh and they said to them “Let G-d look upon you and judge what you caused, as you have destroyed our standing in the face of Pharaoh and his servants, and you have now given them the sword to kill us.”

 

  1. Moses confronts G-d:
  • Moses returned to G-d saying “My master, why have you caused evil to befall this nation, why did you send me. Since I have come to Pharaoh to speak in Your name, not only have You not saved them, but he has harmed the people. G-d replied to Moses “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh, as with a mighty hand I will send them out of his land.”

 

Parashat Vaeira

Verses: 121 [Siman: גיבעול]

Haftorah: Ezekiel 28:25-29:21

Number of Mitzvot:

There are no Positive or Negative commands mentioned in Parashat Vaeira.

 

Chapter 6

First Aliyah

  1. G-d responds to Moses’s accusations:
    • G-d told Moses that He had appeared to his forefathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob with his name Shakaiy and did not make His name Havaya known to them. He had established His covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan. Now, “I have also heard the cry of the Jewish people who are enslaved in Egypt, and I have remembered my covenant.”

 

  1. The Torah recounts Moses’s appointment to approach Pharaoh:
    • G-d instructed Moses “Now, go tell the Jewish people that I will take them out from the Egyptian slavery, with an outstretched arm and great wonders. I will take you for me as a nation, and I will be your G-d. You will know that I am G-d your G-d who takes you out of the burdens of Egypt. I will bring you to the land that I promised your forefathers and give it to you as an inheritance.”
    • Moses spoke these words to the Jewish people, but was ignored due to the enormous work and labor.
    • G-d spoke to Moses saying, “Go speak to Pharaoh the king of Egypt and tell him to send the Jewish people from his land.” Moses replied back to G-d, “If even the Jewish people would not listen to me, how can I expect Pharaoh to listen, and I have a speech impairment.” G-d spoke to Moses and Aaron, commanding them regarding the children of Israel and Pharaoh, to take the Jewish people out of Egypt.

 

Second Aliyah

  1. Moses and Aaron’s lineage:
    • The following are the heads of the families of the Jewish people:
    • The firstborn is Reuben. The following are his sons:
      1. Hanoch
      2. Pallu
  • Chetzron
  1. Carmi
  • Simeon had the following sons:
    1. Yemuel
    2. Yamin
  • Ohad
  1. Yachin
  2. Tzochar
  3. Saul the son of a Canaanite.
  • Levi had the following sons:
    1. Gershon
    2. Kehot
  • Merari
  • Levi lived for a total of 137 years.
  • Gershom had the following sons:
    1. Libni
    2. Shimei
  • Kehot had the following sons:
    1. Amram
    2. Yitzhar
  • Hebron
  1. Uzziel
  • Kehot lived for 133 years.
  • Merori had the following sons:
    1. Machli
    2. Mushi
  • Amram married his aunt Jochebed, and had Aaron and Moses.
  • Amram lived for 137 years.
  • Yitzhar had the following sons:
    1. Korach
    2. Nefeg
  • Zichri
  • Uzziel had the following sons:
    1. Mishael
    2. Eltzafan
  • Sisri
  • Aaron’s family: Aaron married Elisheba the daughter of Aminadov, and their children were: Nadab, Abihu, Elazar, and Ithamar
  • Korach’s family: The children of Korach were Assir, Elkanah, and Aviasaf.
  • Elazara’s family: Elazar the son of Aaron married one of the daughters of Putiel, and they had Pinchas.
  • These were the leaders of the family of Levites.

 

Chapter 7

Third Aliyah

  1. G-d instructs Moses:
    • G-d told Moses to go and tell Pharaoh all that I commanded you, and Moses replied that he has a speech impairment and hence cannot talk. G-d replied to Moses that He has appointed him as a ruler to Pharaoh, and Aaron will be his speaker. “You will speak all that I have commanded you, and Aaron will speak to Pharaoh, and he will send the Jewish people from his land. I will harden Pharaoh’s heart and increase my miracles and wonders in Egypt. Pharaoh will not listen to you, and I will smite Egypt and take out my nation from Egypt with great plagues. Egypt will then know that I am G-d.” Moses and Aaron did as they were told.
    • Moses was 80 years old while Aaron was 83 years old at the time they spoke to Pharaoh.

 

Fourth Aliyah

  1. The staff turns into a snake:
  • G-d instructs Moses and Aaron to throw the staff: G-d told Moses and Aaron that when Pharaoh asks them to show him a wonder, then you Moses should tell Aaron to throw the staff in front of Pharaoh and it will miraculously turn into a snake.
  • Moses and Aaron did as they were instructed, and they appeared before Pharaoh. Aaron threw the staff in front of Pharaoh and his servants, and it turned into a snake. Pharaoh summoned his sages and sorcerers, and they too did the above using witchcraft. They threw their staff and it turned into a serpent. Aaron’s staff then went ahead and swallowed their staff. Pharaoh hardened his heart and did not agree to let the people go, as G-d predicted.
  • Moses returned to G-d and G-d said to him that Pharaoh has refused to grant permission for the people to go. G-d then instructed Moses to perform the first plague, the plague of blood.

  1. The plague of blood:
  • G-d’s instructions to Moses to warn Pharaoh and perform the plague: G-d told Moses: Go to Pharaoh in the morning while he is going down to the river and meet him at the river banks. Bring your staff that was turned into a snake, with you. Tell him that G-d, the G-d of the Hebrews has sent me to you to demand that you let his people go serve him in the desert, and since you have thus far refused, He will now prove to you that He is G-d. “I will smite the river using my staff and it will turn into blood. The fish contained in the river will die and pollute the river. Egypt will not be able to drink water from the river.” G-d then told Moses to tell Aaron to take the staff and stretch it over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, wells, lakes and ponds, and it will turn into blood. All of Egypt will be filled with blood including wood and rocks.
  • Moses and Aaron turn the water into blood: Moses and Aaron did as G-d instructed them and he lifted the staff and struck the water in front of Pharaoh and his servants, and all the water in the river turned into blood. The fish in the river died and the river became polluted. The Egyptians could not drink from the river. There was blood in the entire land of Egypt.
  • Egyptian sorcerers do the same and Pharaoh remains stubborn: Egyptian sorcerers used witchcraft to do the same, and likewise turn water into blood. [As a result] Pharaoh hardened his heart and did not adhere their request, as predicted by Moses. Pharaoh went home and ignored the plague.
  • The effect on Egypt: All the Egyptians dug around the river in search for water, as they could not drink from the river. The river remained in its state of blood for seven days.

 

Chapter 8

  1. The plague of frogs:
  • G-d’s instructions to Moses to warn Pharaoh and perform the plague: G-d told Moses to go to Pharaoh and tell him that G-d has commanded him to free His nation, so they can serve Him, and if you refuse to send them, your entire country will be struck by a plague of frogs. The river will become infested with frogs and they will enter your home, your bedrooms, your bed, the homes of your servants and people, your ovens and your dough. G-d told Moses to tell Aaron to stretch the staff over the rivers, ponds and lakes and bring the frogs over the land of Egypt.
  • Moses and Aaron infest Egypt with frogs: Aaron stretched his hand over the waters of Egypt and the frog emerged from the river, and they covered the land
  • Egyptian sorcerers do the same: The Egyptian sorcerers used witchcraft to do the same, and likewise brought frogs onto the land of Egypt.
  • Pharaoh capitulates to the demands: Pharaoh hardened his heart and did not adhere their request as predicted by Moses. Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and asked them to Daven to G-d to remove the frogs from him and his nation, and I will agree to let the people go to serve G-d. Moses asked Pharaoh as to when he wants him to pray to G-d to remove the frogs from amongst his nation, and Pharaoh replied [that he should pray for them to be removed] the [very] next day. Moses agreed.

 

Fifth Aliyah

  • Moses prays: Moses and Aaron left the presence of Pharaoh and prayed to G-d regarding the frogs. G-d did as Moses requested, and the frogs died within the houses and courtyards and fields. The dead frogs were heaped up into piles and they polluted the land.
  • Pharaoh refuses to let them go: Pharaoh saw that his country was relieved of the plague and he hardened his heart to not adhere to G-d’s command to let the people go.

  1. The plague of lice:
    • G-d’s instructions to Moses to perform the plague: G-d told Moses to tell Aaron to take the staff and hit the dust of the earth, and it will turn into lice. All of Egypt will be filled with lice.
    • Moses and Aaron turn the dust of the land to lice: Moses and Aaron did as G-d instructed them and he lifted the staff and struck the dust of the earth and there were lice all over the people and animals. All of the dust of Egypt turned to lice.
    • Egyptian sorcerers fail to replicate the miracle, but Pharaoh remains stubborn: The Egyptian sorcerers tried using witchcraft to do the same and were unsuccessful. They came to Pharaoh and told him that this plague is the hand of G-d. Pharaoh, however, hardened his heart and refused to adhere to G-d’s demands.

 

  1. The plague of wild animals [Arov]:
    • G-d’s instructions to Moses to warn Pharaoh and perform the plague: G-d told Moses: awaken early in the morning and greet Pharaoh by the river and tell him that G-d demands that he let His people go so they can serve Him, and if you refuse to send them, I will send against you and your servants wild animals. The wild animals will fill the houses of Egypt and its grounds. I will distinguish on that day between the land of Goshen, on which my nation stands, by not having any wild animals there. You then shall know that I am G-d of the land.

 

Sixth Aliyah

  • The plague: G-d did as he warned, and He brought a heavy mixture of wild animals to Pharaoh’s home and the home of his servants, and they caused destruction throughout the entire land
  • Pharaoh reaction and the ensuing negotiations: Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and told them that they may make sacrifices to their G-d in Egypt. Moses replied that they cannot do so, as it is an abomination in Egypt to slaughter to G-d, and the Egyptians will stone us for doing so. We need to travel a three-day journey, so we can slaughter for our G-d as He will instruct us. Pharaoh replied that he will agree to send them so they could sacrifice to their Lord in the desert, so long as Moses does not go far and he prays for him. Moses replied that as soon as he leaves, he will pray to G-d on his behalf to remove the wild animals tomorrow, although Pharaoh may no longer retract his word and refuse to let the people go to sacrifice to G-d.
  • Moses prays: Moses left his audience with Pharaoh and Davened to G-d. G-d did as Moses asked for and he removed the wild animals from Pharaoh and his nation, not one remained.
  • Pharaoh refuses to let them go: Pharaoh hardened his heart this time as well and refused to let the people go.

Chapter 9

  1. The animal plague [Dever]:
    • G-d’s instructions to Moses to warn Pharaoh and perform the plague: G-d told Moses to go to Pharaoh and tell him that G-d the G-d of the Hebrews demands that he let His people go so they can serve Him, and if you refuse to send them, He will send a heavy disease against your animals that are in the field. This includes the horses, donkeys, camels, cattle, and flock. It will be a very severe epidemic. G-d will distinguish between the livestock of the Jewish people and that of the Egyptians, and not one Jewish owned animal will die. G-d set an appointed time, saying that the plague will come the next day.
    • The plague: The next day G-d did as he warned, and all the animals of the Egyptians died while amongst the Jewish people not even one died.
    • Pharaoh refuses to let them go: Pharaoh sent messengers to confirm that indeed no animals died amongst the Jewish people, although nevertheless his heart became hardened and he refused to let the people go.

 

  1. The plague of boils [Shechin]:
    • G-d’s instructions to Moses to perform the plague: G-d told Moses and Aaron to take a handful of soot, and Moses should throw it upwards towards the heavens, in the presence of Pharaoh. The soot will spread over all of Egypt and turn into boils and blisters on the people and animals.
    • The plague: They took the soot, and in the presence of Pharaoh, Moses threw it towards the heavens and sure enough it turned into boils and blisters on the skin of man and animals.
    • Egyptian sorcerers: The sorcerers could not stand in front of Moses due to the boils.
    • Pharaoh refuses to let them go: G-d hardened the heart of Pharaoh and he refused to let the people go, as G-d predicted.

 

  1. The plague of hail [Barad]:
    • G-d’s instructions to Moses to warn Pharaoh: G-d told Moses to awaken early in the morning and stand before Pharaoh and tell him that G-d the G-d of the Hebrews demands that he let His people go so they can serve Him, and if you refuse to send them, this time He will send against you all of his plagues so you know that there is none like Me in Egypt. If I wanted, I could have already wiped you and your nation off the face of the earth. However, I spared you, so you can witness my powers and so My name be declared throughout the world.

Seventh Aliyah

  • If you still oppress My people and refuse to release them, tomorrow I will rain upon you a very heavy hail of which there has never been before in Egypt.
  • G-d warns the Egyptians to bring in their livestock: Now, send your cattle and everything you have in the field into your homes, as anything that remains outside will be destroyed through the hail. The G-d fearing Egyptians adhered to G-d’s warning, and brought their slaves and livestock inside. However, those who did not heed His call, left them outside in the field.
  • G-d’s instructions to Moses to perform the plague: G-d said to Moses: Stretch your hand towards the heavens and hail will fall in all the land of Egypt, on the people and the animals, and on all the vegetation of the earth of Egypt.
  • The plague: Moses did as he was told and stretched his hand towards the heavens and G-d sent thunder and hail and fire struck the ground. The hail contained fire blazing within it. It was very heavy, nothing like Egypt has every seen as a nation. The hail struck everything in the field, from man to animal to vegetation. It broke all the trees. Only in the land of Goshen where the Jewish people lived was there no hail.
  • Pharaoh summons Moses: Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron and told them that he has truly sinned this time, and that G-d is the righteous and he and his nation are the sinners. Pharaoh asked that Moses pray to G-d for the thunder and hail to end and he will send them out without refusing any longer. Moses replied that he will leave the city and stretch his hands to G-d in prayer so that the thunder and hail should end so that they know that the earth belongs to G-d, although he knows that Pharaoh and his people have yet to fear G-d.
  • The damage: The flax and the barley were destroyed although the wheat and spelt survived the hail as they had yet to ripen.
  • Moses prays: Moses left his audience with Pharaoh and left the city. He stretched his arms to G-d in prayer, and the thunder and hail ceased, and the rain stopped falling.
  • Pharaoh refuses to let them go: Pharaoh saw that the rain and hail ceased, and he hardened his heart

 ________________________

[1] So is followed by Ashkenazi and Chabad communities. However, Sefaradi communities read from Yermiyahu 1:1-2:3

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