Purim day

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Waking up early: [1]

One is to wake up early on Purim morning to go to Shul.


Eating prior to Shacharis:

It is forbidden to eat prior to hearing the Megillah reading during the day, just like it is forbidden to eat prior to the night reading.[2] In a time of great need [such as one who feels very weak or one who is sick[3]] one may eat a small snack prior to hearing the Megillah.[4] The definition of a snack is up to 57.6 grams of bread or Mezonos and 57.6 grams worth of an alcoholic beverage.[5] [Nevertheless, it is an act of piety to fast until after one hears the Megillah reading, just like it is an act of piety to fast prior to hearing the Shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah and shaking the Lulav on Sukkos.[6]]


May women eat prior to hearing Megillah?[7]

No. The above law applies equally to both men and women. However if she feels weak and not eating could damage her health, such as nursing or pregnant women, then she may eat a regular meal prior to the Megillah reading. This especially applies if she is waiting on her husband or father to come home in order to read the Megillah for her.



Shacharis follows a normal weekday Davening until Shemoneh Esrei, adding Al Hanissim in the Amidah. After the chazzan’s repetition of the Amidah, half Kaddish is recited.[9]

Tachanun: Tachanun is omitted on Purim.[10] Lamnatzeiach Yeancha is omitted from before Uva Letziyon.[11] Keil Erech Apayim is not recited prior to reading the Torah.[12] This applies on both the 14th and 15th of Adar.[13]

Torah Reading:[14] Following the half Kaddish after Shemoneh Esrei the Torah scroll is removed from the ark and one reads the portion of Amaleik from Parshas Beshalach.[15] Although this portion only contains nine verses, nevertheless it is read with each Aliyah receiving only three verses.[16] It is not the Ashkenazi custom to repeat the last verse a second time in order to read ten verses.[17] After the Torah reading half Kaddish is recited[18] which is followed by Hagba and Gelila.

Zeicher/Zecher: One reads first Zecher and then Zeicher in the Torah reading on Purim.[19] The Chabad custom is only to repeat the word Zecher and Zeicher, however others have the custom to repeat the entire verse twice.[20]

If one missed Parshas Zachor: Some Poskim[21] rule if one did not hear the reading on Parshas Zachor he can still fulfill the Biblical obligation through hearing the Torah reading of Amaleik which is read on Purim. Thus if one did not hear Parshas Zachor he should have in mind by the current reading to fulfill this Biblical Mitzvah.[22] See Chapter 3 Halacha 1B for further details on this subject!

If no Minyan is available:[23] If a Minyan is not available on Purim for the reading of Amalek, it is nevertheless to be read [without a blessing] with its proper tune.[24]

When is the Torah scroll returned to the Ark?[25] The Torah scroll remains held until after the Megillah reading and Ashrei /Uva Letziyon/Kaddish Tiskabel.

Machatzis Hashekel: Some have the custom to give the Machatzis Hashekel prior to Megillah reading of the day.[26] One who did not give the Machatzis Hashekel on Erev Purim is to follow this custom.

Megillah reading:[27] The Megillah is read immediately following the reading of the Torah [and the recital of the half Kaddish; Hagba and Gelila].

Wearing Tefillin during the Megillah reading?[28] One is not to remove his Tefillin until after the Megillah reading.[29] This applies even if one already finished Davening and is hearing the Megillah after Davening.[30] [The Megillah is read while still wearing the Rashi Tefillin.[31]]

The order of Davening after completing the Megillah reading:[32] After the Megillah reading, and the recital of Harav Es Riveinu/Shoshanas Yaakov, the congregation recites Ashrei and Uva Letziyon [Lamnatzeiach is omitted].[33] This is followed by complete Kaddish[34], Beis Yaakov, and Shir Shel Yom etc.

Hallel:[35] Hallel is not recited on Purim.[36]



Shacharis follows a normal weekday Davening until Shemoneh Esrei, adding al Hanissim in the Amidah. Tachanun is omitted. After the chazzan’s repetition of the Amidah, half Kaddish is recited followed by the Torah reading of the portion of Amaleik from Parshas Beshalach. After the Torah reading half Kaddish is recited which is followed by Hagba and Gelila. The Megillah is read immediately following the reading of the Torah and the recital of the half Kaddish. One is not to remove his Tefillin until after Megillah reading. This applies even if one already finished Davening and is hearing the Megillah after Davening. [The Megillah is read while still wearing the Rashi Tefillin.] After the Megillah reading the prayer proceeds with Ashrei, Uva Letziyon, complete Kaddish Beis Yaakov, Shir Shel Yom etc.



May one who is celebrating Purim on a different day receive an Aliyah for the Torah reading?[37]

  • Example: If Shimon traveled from Jerusalem to Beitar on the 14th after Alos and will be Davening Shacharis in Beitar. May he receive an Aliyah there? Alternatively, if Reuvein traveled from Beitar to Jerusalem on the 15th after Alos may he receive an Aliyah in Jerusalem?

Yes. He may receive an Aliyah even though it is not Purim for him on that day. [However there are opinions[38] that limit this ruling to a day that the Torah would in any event be read, such as a Monday or Thursday.]


Auspiciousness of prayer on this day:[39]

It is stated in the name of the Baal Shem Tov that on Purim one is to awaken early and bequest Hashem with prayer and supplication on all matters that pertain to his life, family, and livelihood. This is similar to Yom Kippur which is a day of prayer and so too Purim is a day of auspiciousness for one’s prayer to be accepted.


Reciting Tehillim on Purim:

Some[40] write one is to recite the Psalm 83 “Shir Mizmor Leasaf” on Purim. Others[41] write one is to recite Psalm 22 as this Psalm refers to Esther.



Mincha is to be Davened early on Purim day. The Purim meal is eaten after Mincha.[43]



If one has not yet read Megillah and the time of Mincha has arrived what is he to do first?[44]

It is best to first read the Megillah and only afterwards Daven Mincha. If it is right before sunset and he only has time to either read the Megillah or Daven Mincha, reading the Megillah takes precedence and he is to Daven Maariv twice as Tashlumin for Mincha.


May one Daven a Mincha Ketzara on Purim?[45]

Some write that those which are accustomed to Daven a Mincha Ketzara throughout the year are not to do so on Purim.[46]


[1] Mateh Moshe 1020; M”A 693/2; Elya Raba 693/8; M”B 692/6

The reason: One is to awaken early on Purim day being one has a lot of Mitzvahs to accomplish on this day, and the morning prayer takes more time than usual due to the Megillah reading. [Machatzis Hashekel 693/2]

The five days of early awakening: Purim is one of the five days of which one is to awaken early. These days are as follows: “Avraham” which stands for 1. Hoshanah Raba 2.Tishe Beav 3. Yom Kippur 4. Rosh Hashana 5. Purim. [Likkueti Mahrich] See Admur 429/16 regarding Erev Pesach and 624/14 regarding the day after Yom Kippur

[2] M”B 692/15; Kaf Hachaim 692/37; As the reading of the day is even more severe than the reading by night. [Shaar Hatziyon 692/27]

[3] M”B 692/14 in name of Derech Hachaim 3; Kaf Hachaim 692/36

[4] M”A 692/7; Elya Raba 692/11; M”B 692/14; Kaf Hachaim 692/36

Other Opinions: Some opinions rule one may not be lenient to eat any food before the reading. [Terumas Hadeshen 109]

[5] M”B 692/14 in name of Derech Hachaim 3; Kaf Hachaim 692/36

[6] See Rokeach Hagadol 353, brought in Alef Lamagen 581/81 and 588/2, and so is custom of many of Anash.

[7] Piskeiy Teshuvos in name of Salmas Chaim 104

[8] 693/3-4

[9] Siddur Admur; P”M 693 A”A 1; Derech Hachaim 192/2; M”B 693/1

Krovetz: Some communities are accustomed to recite a Krovetz [a compilation of prayers that consist of stanzas that relate to Purim] during the Chazan’s repetition. [Mahril; Levush; Chasam Sofer; Meishiv Davar 1/13; Peri Hasada 2/35] Others however are not accustomed to say it. [Maaseh Rav 247; Chabad custom] The word Krovetz stands for “Kol Rina Veyishuaa Beahalei Tzaddikim”. Regarding where in the Chazan’s repetition the Krovetz is to be recited-see Piskeiy Teshuvos 693 footnote 12. Regarding saying Krovetz in Yerushalayim on Purim Meshulash-see Piskeiy Teshuvos 693/5

[10] Michaber 693/3; Siddur

[11] Rama ibid; The reason for this is because this psalm mentions Tzara [oppression] which is not applicable on Purim. [Levush; M”B 693/8]

[12] Rama ibid; Siddur Admur [before Kel Erech Apayim]

[13] M”B 693/8; Kaf Hachaim 693/20; As regarding both days it states “Yimei Mishteh Visimcha”

[14] 693/4

[15] Michaber ibid

The reason: The reason that this portion is read is because it discusses Amalek of which Haman was a descendent of. [Levush brought in Kaf Hachaim 693/22]

[16] In general we rule that the Torah reading may never contain less than ten verses total. The portion of Amalek found in Beshalach hence poses a Halachic problem in its reading being it only contains nine verses. It is nevertheless valid being that it is a full episode, and when a full episode is read we suffice with even less than ten verses. [Michaber 137/1; Taz 693/4; M”B 693/10] Nevertheless each Aliyah must have at least three verses read. [139/2]

[17] Rama ibid for the reason mentioned in the previous footnote.

Ruling of Michaber/Sefaradim: The Michaber ibid rules that it is accustomed to repeat the lass verse in this Parsha in order to have a total of ten verses that are read. Practically this is the accepted custom amongst the Sefaradim. [Kaf Hachaim 693/27]

[18] M”B 693/9

[19] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2/288; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid based on the Sefer Boneh Yerushalayim which is Meyuchas to the Alter Rebbe that by Beshalach the main Nusach is with a Tzeirei while by Ki Seitzei the main Nussach is with a Segal. Nevertheless we still read both Nuschaos as ruled the Toras Chesed.

[20] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 685/9

[21] M”A 685/1 and so rules Beir Heiytiv 685/2; P”M 685 M”Z 12; Shaareiy Efraim 8/85; Minchas Elazar 2/1; Kaf Hachaim 685/28

[22] Shaar Efraim 8/87; Kaf Hachaim 693/23

[23] Shaar Efraim 8/87; Kaf Hachaim 693/23; See Rama 685/7

[24] See Kaf Hachaim 685/35 regarding Parshas Zachor that if a Sefer Torah is available then it is to be read from a Sefer Torah. If a Sefer Torah is not available, it is to be read from a Chumash. Veztaruch Iyun if this likewise applies regarding the Purim reading.

[25] Tosafus Megillah 4a; Abudarham; Kol Bo 45; Shalmei Tzibur 329; Yifei Laleiv 2/9; Shaar Hakolel 11/22-5; Directive of Rebbe in Siddur Tehilas Hashem 1978 and onwards.

The reason: As in the Megillah we read the words “Layehudim Haysa Orah” and Orah means Torah. Hence it is proper to leave the Torah out in order to look at it when this verse is read. [Yifei Laleiv ibid]   

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule the Torah is to be returned to the ark prior to beginning the reading of the Megillah. [Rokeaich 229; Drashos Mahril Purim; Derech Hachaim 2; Levush; Beis Meir; Biur Halacha 693 “Motziin”] Their reasoning is because the person holding the Torah also needs to pay attention to the Megillah reading. [Beis Meir; Biur Halacha ibid] Practically each community is to follow their custom. [Kaf Hachaim 693/25]

The Chabad custom: Admur in the Siddur does not give a directive in this matter. The Shaar Hakolel ibid writes that he heard that in the Shul of the Tzemach Tzedek they held the Sefer Torah until after Tiskabel [of after Uva Letziyon]. In the Siddur Tehilas Hashem printed before 1978 it was written to return the Sefer Torah prior to reading the Megillah. However from 1978 and onwards they wrote, based on a response of the Rebbe, to return the Torah after the Kaddish that follows Uva Letziyon. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 127]

[26] M”A 694/2 [brought in M”B 694/4] writes that the custom in his country is to give the donation on Purim prior to reading the Megillah in Shacharis.

[27] 693/4; Siddur Admur; Tosafus; Abudarham; Rokeiach; Drashos Mahril

Other Opinions: Some Poskim write one is to recite Ashrei after the Torah reading and only then read the Megillah. [Kol Bo 45; Shalmei Tzibur 329; Erech Hashulchan 693/4; Yifei Laleiv 2/9; custom of Mitzraim brought in Kaf Hachaim 693/28]

[28] Mateh Moshe 1020; M”A 693/2; Elya Raba 693/8; M”B 693/6

[29] The reason: As we expound the word “Vikar” to mean Tefillin. [ibid]

[30] P”M 693 A”A 2; There he explains that this is the entire novelty of the M”A ibid, as in any event one is not to remove his Tefillin until after Uva Letziyon, as ruled in 25/37

[31] Sefer Haminhagim p. 183 [English]

Other Opinions: Others have the custom to wear Rabbeinu Tam Tefillin during the reading of the Megillah. [Mishmeres Shalom Kodinav 50/4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 693 footnote 17] Some are accustomed to wear both Rashi and Rabbeinu Tam simultaneously for the Megillah reading. [Shaar Yissachar Parshas Zachor 2]

[32] Siddur Admur

[33] 693/4; Siddur Admur; Tosafus; Abudarham; Rokeaich; Drashos Mahril; See other opinions mentioned in previous footnotes regarding reciting Ashrei before the Megillah reading.

Half Kaddish: There is no half Kaddish recited between the Megillah reading and Ashrei. Those that do so are mistaken. [M”B 693/11]

[34] Siddur Admur; P”M 693 A”A 1; Derech Hachaim 192/2; M”B 693/1

[35] Michaber 693/3

[36] The reason: As we are still slaves of Achashveirosh [in exile]. It is thus not similar at all to the exodus. Alternatively it is because the Megillah itself is considered like a praise [Hallel] to Hashem. [Megillah 14a; M”A 693/2; M”B 693/7] The practical ramification between the reasons is regarding one who is unable to hear Megillah on Purim, is he to say Hallel? According to the first reason, Hallel is not to be said, while according to the second reason it is to be said. [Meiri 15a] Practically the Poskim rule that Hallel is not to be recited even by one who is unable to hear Megillah. [Birkeiy Yosef 693/4] Nevertheless it is best to read Hallel without a blessing. [Shiyurei Bracha 693/1; Teshuvah Meahva 1/45; Ruach Chaim 693/4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 693/2; Kaf Hachaim 693/18] See Likkutei Sichos 36 p. 167 for an analysis on this subject.

[37] Shvus Yaakov 1/40 brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 693; Kaf Hachaim 693/24; Piskeiy Teshuvos 694/9

[38] Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 141/20; See Minchas Elazar 2/74

[39] Segulos Yisrael 66; 80/4

[40] Beir Heiytiv 693/4 in name of Bach and Tosafus

[41] Abudarham; Elya Raba; Chasam Sofer; Likkutei Mahrich; Aruch Hashulchan 693/4; See Kav Hayashar chapter 97

[42] Rama 695/2; Sefer Haminhagim p. 172 [English]

[43] The reason: The reason for delaying the meal until after Mincha is because in the morning most people are very busy with the Mitzvos of Purim [Mishloach Manos; Matanos Laevyonim; reading the Megillah] and hence they do not have time to properly celebrate the meal. [Terumos Hadeshen 110]

[44] Kaf Hachaim 687/19 in name of Nehar Shalom; See Michaber 687/2 and the commentators there!

[45] Piskeiy Teshuvos 682/2

[46] The reason: In order so one is able to recite Al Hanissim with the Minyan.


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