Meoreiy Haeish

A. General Laws:

One is required to say a blessing of Borei[1] Meoreiy Haeish over a candle on every Motzei Shabbos, if he has a candle available.[2]

Should the listeners say their own blessing: Those listening to Havdala are to fulfill their blessing with the person saying Havdala[3], and are not to say the blessing over fire on their own.[4]

If one does not have a candle by Havdala?[5] If there is no candle readily available on Motzei Shabbos one is not required to search for a candle as is normally required to be done to fulfill other Mitzvos.[6]  [In the event that he does find a candle after Havdala he is to say the blessing then up until daybreak.]

Motzei Yom Kippur:[7] If one does not have a candle readily available on Motzei Yom Kippur[8], some say he is obligated to search for one to say the blessing over it.[9] On Motzei Yom Kippur the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish is only said on a candle which has remained lit from before Shabbos.[10]

If one cannot say Havdala on Motzei Shabbos:[11] In the event that one does not have any Halachicly valid beverages available for Havdala on Motzei Shabbos he is to nevertheless say the blessing over fire on Motzei Shabbos, as soon as he sees fire, and the blessing of Besamim if he has spices. [If however one will be able to say Havdala later on at night, it is better to delay these blessings of Besamim and Haeish until Havdala.[12]]

If one is saying Havdala on Sunday or onwards:[13] In the event that one is saying Havdala on Sunday or onwards, he does not recite the blessings of Haeish[14]  [irrelevant of whether or not he said these blessings on Motzei Shabbos]. Thus immediately after the blessing of Hagafen he is to begin the blessing of Hamavdil.

Repeating the blessing of Haeish for another person:[15] In the event that one is repeating Havdala for a person who did not yet hear Havdala and is unable to say it himself, it is proper not to repeat the blessing of Meorei Haeish for the listener being that he has already fulfilled his obligation.[16] [Rather one is to have the listener say the blessing himself[17]. If however there are children above the age of Chinuch listening to the Havdala one may repeat the blessing of Meorei Haeish on their behalf.[18]]

How close must one be to the candle?[19] One may only say a blessing over the flame if he is close enough to the flame to be able to benefit from it. It does not suffice to simply be able to see the flame. Benefiting in this context of Halacha is defined as being close enough to be able to use its light to differentiate between two coins of two different countries.  [Thus those listening to Havdala which are a distance from the flame must be close enough to the flame to be able to benefit from the actual flame if the electricity were to be off. Nevertheless there is no need to turn off the electricity.[20] In the event one said the blessing without being close enough to benefit from the flame, as explained above, some Poskim[21] rule that he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Nevertheless, if possible, one is to try to hear the blessing again from another person doing Havdala.]

Looking at ones hands:[22] [After the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish is recited[23]] it is customary to [place ones hands towards the flame] and gaze[24] at ones nails to see if he can benefit from the light and tell the difference between his nail and flesh[25]. It is also accustomed to gaze at the palm of the hands, as the lines of the palm contain an omen of blessing.[26] One is to thus fold his four fingers over his thumb [hiding the thumb[27]] into the palm of his hand, thus being able to see both his nails and palm simultaneously.[28] Some are accustomed [and so is our custom[29]] to then spread open the four fingers and look towards the back of the fingers by the nails. [While doing so the thumb still remains hidden under the four fingers.[30] One first looks at the palm of his hands with his fingers covering his thumb and only afterwards opens his hands and turns them over to see the back of his fingers.[31] It is our custom to place the cup down and look at the nails and palms of both hands.[32]]

  • On Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov:[33] When Motzei Shabbos coincides with Yom Tov, the custom is to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together[34], and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather we simply look at the candles[35] after the blessing and then continue with Yaknahaz.

If one cannot see the flame:[36] One must be able to see the actual flame when he says the blessing. Thus if the candle is covered or one is looking from an angle that does not allow him to see the flame [or someone is standing in front of him which is blocking the flame from being seen], he may not say the blessing even if he can fully benefit from the light of the candle.

The candle is in a glass covering:[37] If the candle is covered by glass, it is nevertheless permitted to say a blessing over it[38] (although there are opinions[39] which forbid doing so). [Hence if possible the glass is to be removed, although if he is unable to do so he may still say the blessing.[40]] See Q&A!

May a blind person say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish?[41] A blind person may not say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish in Havdala.[42] He is thus to say Havdala with the omission of this blessing.[43] [Initially one is not to fulfill his obligation with hearing Havdala from a blind person.[44] A blind person may say Havdala together with Meoreiy Haeish for the sake of children which have reached the age of Chinuch.[45]]

Saying Baruch Hamavdil prior to moving the candle: [46] One may not move the Havdala candle until he says Baruch Hamavdil or says Havdala in prayer.

 

Summary:

If a candle is available during Havdala, one is to say a blessing of Meoreiy Haeish over the candle. It is not necessary to turn off the lights during the blessing. One is to be close enough to the candle to be able to benefit from its light. Men are accustomed to place their finger nails near the flame. One must be able to see the actual flame when the blessing is said. Thus the candle may not be covered and people may not block one’s view of the flame.

If no candle is currently available he is to say Havdala without the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish. If a candle becomes available later on, on Motzei Shabbos, he may say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish up until daybreak of Sunday. When reciting Havdala on Sunday or onwards the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish is omitted.

Those listening to Havdala from another person are not to say their own blessing of Meoreiy Haeish. If however one is repeating Havdala for another person then that person is to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish.

 

Q&A

Until when on Motzei Shabbos may the blessing over fire be recited?[47]

The blessing over fire may be recited until Alos Hashachar. Some[48] question whether it may be recited past Alos Hashachar but before the time of Mi Sheyakir.

 

When is one to place his hands near the flame, before or after the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish?

Some Poskim[49] rule one is to [proximate his nails to the flame and] look at his nails only after the blessing is recited. Other Poskim[50] however rule one is to look at his nails near the flame before the blessing.[51] Other Poskim[52] rule one is to proximate the hands to the flame before the blessing and then look at them after the blessing. Practically Admur in the Siddur rules like the first opinion. The Rebbe was seen placing his hands towards the flame while reciting the blessing although he only fully positioned them by the flame and looked at them after the blessing was completed.

 

Does one fulfill his obligation if he did not spread his fingers near the flame?

So long as he was close enough to the flame to benefit from its light he fulfills the obligation.

 

Are women to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish when they say Havdala?[53]

Women are to say the blessing of Meorei Haeish when they say Havdala.[54]

 

Are women to place their hands by the fire and look at their nails by the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish?[55]

The custom is that women do not look at the nails.[56]

 

Must one turn off the lights when the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish is recited?[57]

No, as one is not required to actually benefit from the light, but rather to be close enough to potentially benefit from the light.[58]

 

May one benefit from light of a fire prior to saying Borei Meoreiy Haeish?

Yes.[59] However there are Poskim[60] which are stringent in this matter.[61]

 

May one light a match, candle or cigarette from the Havdala candle?[62]

It is forbidden to use the flame of the Havdala candle to light any other item until the blessing is said over it. Once the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish has been recited one may use it to light.

 

May one say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish if he can only see the flame through a mirror?[63]

No. It is considered as if he cannot see the flame.

 

B. The laws of the candle:

What type of candle is one to use for Havdala?[64] It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to use a torch for Havdala.[65] A torch is defined as any double wicked candle.[66] It is valid even if the two wicks of the candle do not touch each other. Thus if one braded two candles together into one candle it is defined as a torch (even though their wicks remain separated). (In the event that a double wicked candle is not available, one is two light two separate candles and have their flames touch each other when the blessing is recited.[67]) If this is not possible, or only one candle is available, one is to nevertheless say the blessing over a single wick candle.[68]

One may use two pieces of wood as a candle for Havdala, and place them together in a way they touch each other.

Some[69] have the custom for reasons known to them to only use double wicked bees wax candles for Havdala, and not other types of candles or wood. [They designate this candle to be used only for Havdala.[70]]

It is proper to avoid using for Havdala, candles[71] which give off a bad odor, if it is possible to use other candles.[72]

Using a candle which was lit on Shabbos:[73] It is forbidden to say Meorei Haeish over a flame which was lit on Shabbos, even if it was lit by a gentile[74], unless it was Halachicly allowed for the candle to be lit.[75] This applies even if many hours have passed from after Shabbos.[76] If one said the blessing over such a candle [immediately[77]] after Shabbos, he must repeat the blessing over a valid candle, if it is available.[78] If however time has passed since the leave of Shabbos and he then said the blessing over the candle, he has fulfilled his obligation.[79]

It is however permitted to use for Havdala a candle which was lit before Shabbos and remained lit until after Shabbos.[80] It is likewise permitted for a Jew to light a candle on Motzei Shabbos from a candle which was lit on Shabbos, and use that candle for Havdala, even though the original flame is invalid as explained.[81] It is however forbidden for a gentile to light a candle from this candle which was lit on Shabbos and have a Jew use it for Havdala.[82]

Using a candle lit by a gentile:[83] One may not say a blessing over a candle that was lit by a gentile, even if it was lit after Shabbos[84], unless it was lit from a pre-existing flame which had originally been lit by a Jew[85]. In the event that one said a blessing over a flame lit by a gentile after Shabbos, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.[86]

Using a candle which was not lit for the sake of its light:[87] The blessing over fire is only said over a flame which is meant to be used for its light, as opposed to a fire lit for its heat or for purposes of respect. Therefore a blessing is not said over coals unless their intent is to give light, and they are so hot that one can ignite a twig from them.[88] Likewise a blessing is not said over a candle lit for prayer in Shul.[89] [One may however extinguish the candle and then light it for the purpose of Havdala.[90]] See Q&A Regarding Yartzite candles, candles of the Amud.

 

Summary:

It is best to use for Havdala a beeswax candle which contains at least two wicks. If one does not have a two wicked candle it suffices to light two candles and proximate their flames to the point that they merge. If only one candle is available, it may nevertheless be used.

It is forbidden to use a candle which was lit on Shabbos, although one may use its flame to light another candle. It is forbidden to use a candle lit by a gentile although one may use its flame to light another candle.

One may not use a candle which was lit for non-light purposes. Thus flames that were lit to transmit heat or for decor purposes are invalid.

 

Q&A

May one use a match to say Meorei Haeish?

Yes. One is to light two matches and hold their flames towards each other. [He is not however to place two matches adjacent to each other and then light it as this is considered like only one wick.[91]] If one only has one match it is permitted to say Havdala over a single lit match.

 

May one use an electric light to say Havdala?[92]

One is to initially only use the flame of a candle for Havdala. If a candle is not available the following is the ruling regarding if one may use an electric light:

Some Poskim[93] rule it is allowed. Others[94] rule it is forbidden[95]. According to all one may not use electric lamps or bulbs if the filament [wick] of the bulb cannot be seen, such as florescent lights, or lamps which are colored to the point they block vision of the filament.[96] Some[97] rule that all flash lights are invalid for Havdala even in a case of need.

 

May one use the flame of a lighter for Havdala?[98]

Yes.

 

May one use the flame of a gas stove to say Meorei Haeish?

In a time of need one may turn on the fire of a stove and use its light for Havdala.[99] One may not use the fire if it was turned on for cooking purposes.[100] Rather he is to extinguish the flame and then relight it for the purpose of using for Havdala. [101]

 

If one does not have a match can he ask a gentile to light his Havdala candle?

Yes. However the Jew himself is to place the candle by the flame rather than give it to the gentile to light.

 

May one use candles lit by an Avel for Havdala?[102]

Once Maariv has concluded one may do so.[103]

 

May one use a Yartzite candle for Havdala?[104]

No.[105]

 

May one wear eyeglasses during the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish?[106]

Yes. Although if the glasses are shaded, like eyeglasses, and hence change the shade of the light which one sees, it is best to remove them by the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish.

 

Must one open a window if it is separating between himself and the flame?[107]

It is best to do so.[108]


[1] If one skipped the word “Borei” there is a dispute amongst codifiers in whether he must repeat the blessing. [Kaf Hachaim 298/3]

[2] 298/1; This mitzvah was instituted due to that on Motzei Shabbos fire was first created, as on Motzei Shabbos Adam Harishon rubbed two stones against each other and created a spark of fire. Now although we do not say a blessing over the other creations, nevertheless regarding fire since over Shabbos it was forbidden to light fire, therefore now on Motzei Shabbos it is considered as if it was created anew, and we thus say a blessing over it when it was created. [Admur ibid] For this reason it is permitted on Motzei Shabbos to use a candle which was first ignited after Shabbos as opposed to before Shabbos, as the entire reason for the blessing is the new creation of the fire. This is opposed to Motzei Yom Kippur which requires a candle that was lit before Shabbos. [298/14]

[3] Now, although the listeners stand for Havdala, and by Birchas Hanehnin one never fulfills his obligation of hearing a blessing while standing, nevertheless this only applies by foods and drinks and not by other blessings. Furthermore these blessings are similar to an obligation and are thus not viewed within the same rules as Birchas Hanehnin. [213/5]

[4] As Berov Am Hadras Melech. [298/10; M”B 297/13]

[5] 298/1

[6] As we only say the blessing over fire in commemoration of the creation of fire [and hence if one does not have fire available there is no reason to say the blessing]. [Admur ibid]

Other Opinions: Kaf Hachaim 298/7 rules based on Zohar that one is to always strive to have a candle for Havdala.

[7] 298/2

[8] Even if Yom Kippur falls during the week. [ibid]

[9] As the blessing over fire on Motzei Yom Kippur is similar to the blessing of Havdala which is said to bless Hashem for distinguishing this day of Yom Kippur over other Yomim Tovim, as on this day lighting fire was forbidden until Motzei Yom Kippur. [Admur ibid]

[10] 298/14; see 624/5

[11] 298/3

[12] Ketzos Hashulchan 99 footnote 2

[13] 299/9

[14] As the blessing of fire is only said the time it was first created which was Motzei Shabbos. [ibid]

[15] 297/8-9

[16] 297/9 and so rules Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 15; Kaf Hachaim 298/2

A dispute on this matter is recorded in Admur:

The first [Stam] opinion rules it is permitted to repeat the blessing of Meorei Haeish for the listener even though he has already fulfilled his obligation. Their reasoning is because this is not similar to the blessing over spices of which we require him also to smell, as the blessing said over fire was not established for ones benefit, but rather in memory that fire was created on Motzei Shabbos. It is therefore not similar to Birchas Hanehnin.

Others however rule one may not repeat the blessing. Their reasoning is because even by Birchas Hamitzvos, only by those Mitzvos which are a complete obligation may one repeat the blessing for someone who did not yet fulfill his obligation. However those Mitzvos which are not a complete obligation, such as the blessing over fire on Motzei Shabbos, which one is not required to search for if fire is not readily available, by such Mitzvos one may not repeat the blessing for another.

Practically one is to suspect for the latter opinion in order not to enter himself into a questionable blessing in vain. [ibid]

Other Opinions: Bircheiy Yosef 298/1 and other Poskim rule one may repeat the blessing of Meorei Haeish.

[17] Kaf Hachaim 693/11

[18] Ketzos Hashulchan 99/7; Kitzur Halachos 298/16 based on 178/23 and 297/7 that one say all the blessings of Birchas Hanehnin for a child in order to educate them in Mitzvos. Seemingly the same would apply here, even though it is viewed as Birchas Hamitzvos and not Birchas Hanehnin.

[19] 298/6

[20] See Q&A

[21] Kaf Hachaim 298/22. His reasoning is because this is not a Mitzvah one has to search for and because the blessing is said over the general creation of fire rather than a specific fire. [ibid]

Vetzaruch Iyun according to Admur which rules one must repeat the blessing when one used a candle lit on Shabbos, perhaps then also here he would require the blessing to be repeated. See also Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 37 which argues against this ruling of the Kaf Hachaim.

[22] 298/6

[23] Siddur: “After the blessing one looks at his nails” See Q&A for more details.

[24] From the word “Lihistakeil” it is implied one is to concentrate on that area and not merely glance at it, and so is also implied from the reasons for why we look at the nails and palm.

[25] As if he is able to do so he is certainly able to recognize the difference between two coins. Another reason for looking at the nails is because nails are a omen of blessing as they always grow.[Admur ibid]

Other reasons: Based on Kabala one is to look at his nails to weaken the power of the evil forces which are strengthened on Motzei Shabbos. [Tolaas Yaakov brought in Taamei Haminhagim 415]

[26] The Tur 298 writes that the Rishonim were accustomed to stare and contemplate on the lines of the palm

[27] Siddur

[28] One hence sees only the outer side of his fingers where his nails are and not their inner side. [ibid; Machatzis Hashekel 298 on M”A 5; Tolaas Yaakov explains based on Kabala why we do not look at the outer side, see Taamei Haminhagim 415] 

This custom follows the custom of the Arizal as recorded in Shaar Hakavanos. Others however bring different testimony of the custom of the Arizal. The Machazikei Bracha 298/2 concludes one is to follow the testimony of the Shaar Hakavanos, which is the first custom recorded in Admur. [See Kaf Hachaim 298/19]1`

[29] So is the custom of the Rebbe. 

Ruling of Admur in Siddur: One is to look at his 4 fingernails which are folded over the thumb, while the thumb is not to be seen.  This is similar to the first custom mentioned above, which do not open their hands afterwards.

[30] Machatzis Hashekel 298 on M”A 298/5                                                                                                                                                                                                          

[31] So is implied from Admur, and so is the custom of the Rebbe. So rules Taz 298/2; Mahrahm Meratenberg 538

Other Opinions: The custom of the Rebbe Rashab was to first spread the hands and only after to close the fingers over the thumb. This custom is based on the Teshuvos Hageonim. [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 5/35; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 25]

Some have the custom to first look at the hands with the fingers closed over the thumbs, then they spread the fingers and then they once again close the fingers over the thumb as they did the first time. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] This was not the Rebbe’s custom.

[32] Custom of Rebbe
Opinion of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: One is to continue holding the cup in his left hand and look only at the nails of his right hand. [298/6]

[33] Sefer Haminhagim p. 76 [English]

[34] Some suggest this is due to that separating the candles from each other afterwards is similar to extinguishing. [see 502/7; Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 4]

[35] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 59 for a discussion amongst Poskim in how one is allowed to say the blessing of Haeish over the candle lit in honor of Yom Tov. Simply speaking however it is allowed being that Shabbos and Yom Tov candles are lit for the use of their light on the table as well as for Shalom Bayis.

[36] 298/17

[37] 298/17

[38] So rules Rashba; M”A 298/20; Elya Raba 298/25; Chayeh Adam 8/34

[39] Michaber 298/15; Darkei Moshe  and so concludes Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 14

[40] Ketzos Hashulchan 99/4 and footnote 6; Biur Halacha “Veneir Sheyeish Lo Shteiy Piyos”

Other Opinions: Kaf Hachaim 298/71 concludes Safek Brachos Lehakeil and one is thus to be stringent. So rules also Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 14

[41] 298/19

[42] As even one who can see may only say the blessing if he is close enough to benefit from its light. [ibid[

[43] This follows the ruling of M”A 298/17. However Rashba in the name of Geonim rules a blind person is exempt from Havdala. [See Kaf Hachaim 298/68]

[44] Ketzos Hashulchan 99 footnote 7

[45] Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 11 based on 297/7

[46] 299/19

[47] Ashel Avraham Butchacher Tinyana 299

[48] Ashel Avraham ibid

[49] Admur in Siddur; Shiyureiy Kneses Hagedola 298/3; Kitzur SHU”A 96/9; Igros Moshe 5/9; Ginas Veradim 2/3-25

[50] M”B 296/31; Mamar Mordechaiy 298/2; P”M 296 M”Z 6

[51] As they hold that by all blessings of praise to Hashem one first is to receive the benefit and then say the blessing. [Mamar Mordechaiy 298/2]

[52] Siddur Yaavetz

[53] Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12; So rules also Daas Torah 296; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeitzei 24; Kaf Hachaim 296/54; Igros Moshe 2/47; Kinyan Torah 1/88; Beir Moshe 4/28; Kaneh Bosem 3/17; Sheivet Haleivi 6/42; Yechaveh Daas 4/27

[54] So is proven from Admur which does not mention anywhere any differentiation regarding women in the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish. Furthermore, even according to those Poskim [M”B in Biur Halacha 296 “Lo Yavdilu Leatzman”] which side women are exempt from the blessing of fire, they are nevertheless permitted to say the blessing as is the law by all Mitzvos that they are exempt from. [Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12]

[55] Ketzos Hashulchan 96 footnote 12

[56] The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid suggests the reason for this is because before the sin of the tree of knowledge Adam was clothed in nails, and the sin which was caused by Chava caused him to lose these nails and have them remain only on the fingers, therefore they do not look at them.

[57] Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 298/5

[58] Tehila Ledavid 298/4

[59] M”B 298/4

[60] Ashel Avraham Butchach 298

[61] Kaf Hachaim 693/10 states that this matter is disputed in Poskim and concludes that each person is to follow his custom. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298/1

[62] Biur Halacha 154/14 “Shedolkin Limitzvasan”                                                              

[63] Shalmas Chaim 253

[64] 298/4

[65] The reason for this is because a torch contains many pieces of wood and many different flames, and the simple wording of the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish is referring to many flames. [Admur ibid]

[66] An actual torch is made up of many pieces of wood. Nevertheless included within this definition regarding Havdala is any candle that contains two wicks. Hence an oil candle which has two wicks that protrude from the same exit hole is considered a torch. Similarly a wax candle which has two wicks come out from its top is a torch. [Admur ibid]

[67] As when the flames are joined it is considered a torch as there are many colors of flame joined together. If however the flames do not touch each other, then even if they are very close to each other, it is not defined as a torch. [Admur ibid]

This ruling has not been found in earlier Poskim, and is seemingly a novelty of Admur. This has become the widespread custom. [Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 3] In truth however seemingly Admur learned this way from the Magen Avraham 298/4 [towards end] which gives room for such an explanation, and so learn other Poskim, as brought in Tehila Ledavid 298/2, see there.

[68] As even a single fire contains many colors, red, white and yellow, and it hence falls under the term Meoreiy Haeish said in the blessing. [Admur ibid]

[69] This opinion brought in Admur is of the Arizal, brought in Kaf Hachaim 298/12

[70] Mishnes Chassidim brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 99 footnote 3

[71] In Admur this is mentioned regarding cane wood torches, although seemingly it would apply to all types of bad smelling candles.

[72] As on Motzei Shabbos we need to comfort the soul with a good smell. [Admur ibid]

[73] 298/7

[74] As one can only say a blessing over fire which was not lit through forbidden Melacha. Thus even if a gentile lit it on Shabbos for his own use it cannot be used as nevertheless this lighting is a forbidden Melacha for a Jew.

[75] Such as for the sake of a Yoledes or a dangerously ill person, or a gentile did so for a one who is bedridden even if he is not dangerously ill. [ibid]

Other Opinions: Some [Rame brought in M”A 298/10] rule one may not say a blessing over a candle lit by a gentile on Shabbos, even if it was lit for the sake of an ill person, as one may never say a blessing on a candle lit by a gentile. [See Kaf Hachaim 298/27-28]

[76] 298/9; Due to a decree one may come to say a blessing on this flame immediately after Shabbos prior to it having ability to spread on the candle. [ibid]

[77] 298/9 and 11

[78] Other Opinions: Kaf Hachaim 298/25 rules one never repeats the blessing Bedieved if he used an invalid candle.

[79] 298/11; As since the flame has further spread after Shabbos it is only forbidden to use it for Havdala due to a decree, and in such a case Bedieved one is not required to repeat the blessing. [ibid]

Regarding the amount of time the candle has to be lit after Shabbos Admur [298/9] writes “immediately” regarding the time of Issur, hence implying after this immediate time it is only forbidden due to a decree. Vetzrauch Iyun!

[80] As there was no forbidden Melacha done to this candle on Shabbos itself. [ibid]

[81] 298/9; As although this newly lit candle contains the original flame it also contains a new flame of its own which spread from the old flame, and it is on this new flame that was now lit on Motzei Shabbos that the blessing is covering. It however remains forbidden to say a blessing over the original candle even if much time passed after Shabbos and hence a new flame has been added to the original flame. This is due to a decree one may come to say a blessing over the original flame, immediately after Shabbos prior to it having the ability to further spread. This suspicion that one may come to say a blessing over the original flame right after Shabbos does not apply when a Jew lights a candle from a candle that was lit on Shabbos, as usually a flame which was lit on Shabbos was lit by a gentile, and we do not make decrees that if we allow one to say a blessing on the candle of a Jew he may come to say a blessing over the candle of a Gentile.[ibid]

[82] So is implied from Admur in previous footnote. Seemingly however if the candle was lit by a Jew on Shabbos and then a gentile lit a candle from it after Shabbos it is valid, as we do not make decrees of coming to confuse a gentile for a Jew. Vetzaruch Iyun as perhaps it is only the opposite, that we do not confuse a Jew for a gentile in decrees. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[83] 298/9-10

[84] A dispute on this matter is recorded in Admur 298/10:

Some [M”A in name of Rameh] rule that if the gentile ignited a flame on Motzei Shabbos, such as through matches or a lighter, or lit a candle from a flame lit before Shabbos [by a gentile], or from a flame lit on Shabbos [by a gentile] in a permitted way, it is forbidden to say a blessing over this flame.  It is however permitted to say a blessing over a second candle which was lit from this candle, if the same gentile lit the second candle as well. [If however another gentile lit this candle it is forbidden, as explained in 298/9.]

Others however rule the opposite of the above opinion that the original candle lit by the gentile after Shabbos contains no decree. Thus if he ignited the flame or lit it from a flame lit from before Shabbos one may say a blessing over it. However if a gentile lights a second candle from this flame one may not say a blessing over the second candle as the Sages invalidated all candles lit by a gentile if they were not lit from a candle that was originally lit by a Jew [unless they are being ignited for the first time] due to a decree one may come to use a candle that was lit on Shabbos.

Practically, Admur concludes one is to suspect for both opinions and hence not say a blessing over the original candle or second candle lit by the gentile, rather a Jew is to light another candle from that candle.

Other Opinions: The M”B 298/23 rules that only the second candle lit by the gentile from the candle of a gentile is invalid while an original candle lit by a gentile is valid.

[85] If however it was originally lit by a gentile, one may not say a blessing over it due to a decree one may come to say a blessing over a candle which was lit on Shabbos by a gentile, and he will say the blessing over it immediately after Shabbos prior to the candle having a chance to spread its flame. If however the gentile lit the candle from a candle which was lit by a Jew after Shabbos, then even if the Jew himself had lit his candle from the candle of a gentile, it is valid for the blessing, as any time there is a Jew in the middle the decree that one may come to use the original flame does not apply. It goes without saying that one may say a blessing over a candle which was lit by a gentile if the gentile himself lit the candle from a candle which was ignited by a Jew on Motzei Shabbos, or on Erev Shabbos and has remained lit until after Shabbos. [298/9]

[86] This applies even if the candle was lit from another candle of a gentile, being such a candle is only invalid due to a decree. [298/11] It certainly applies if the candle was the original candle was lit by a gentile, as explained above that some opinions rule even initially such a candle may be used. [298/10]

[87] 298/15-17

[88] 298/15

[89] 298/17; As such candles are lit for the respect of the Shechina and not for their light. If however in truth the candles were lit due to lack of light in Shul, they may be used. [ibid] Likewise, in the event that one did say Havdala using the Shul candles, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation, as these candles are also lit for their light, as we Daven with their light. [624/8] Perhaps however today that we Daven with electric light, and hence the Shul candles do not add much light, one would be required to repeat the blessing. So rules Piskeiy Teshuvos 298/8 footnote 54 that one must repeat the blessing of Haeish .

[90] Kaf Hachaim 298/54

[91] See M”B 298/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 15

[92] Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 298/10

[93] Nachalas Shimon 15 in name of Rav Chaim of Brisk; Kochavei Yitzchak 1/11 in name of Rav Chaim Ozer Goredansky; Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 96/6 in name of the Darkei Teshuvah; Har Tzevi 2/114 in name of the Ragitchaver Gaon; Mishpitei Uziel 9

[94] See Mahrshag 2/107; Har Tzevi 2/114; Meoreiy Haeish 5; Yabia Omer 1/17

[95] As the Havdala candle must contain a flame and wick of which an electric current is lacking.

[96] Meoreiy Haeish ibid

[97] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[98] Piskeiy Teshuvos 298/10

[99] SSH”K 61 footnote 87

[100] Ketzos Hashulchan 99 footnote 8

[101] Kaf Hachaim 298/54

[102] Kaf Hachaim 298/65

[103] As they are no longer being used for their purpose.

[104] M”B 298/30

[105] As it has been lit for the soul of the departed and not for light.

[106] Ketzos Hashulchan 99 footnote 6

[107] See Ketzos Hashulchan 99 footnote 6

[108] Biur Halacha 298 “Oa Besocho” requires the window to be opened. However Ketzos Hashulchan ibid leaves doubt in this matter.

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