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May the morning blessings be said after Shacharis if one forgot to say them beforehand?
A. The general rule:
If one davened Shacharis prior to reciting the morning blessings he is to recite all the morning blessings after davening [with exception to the blessings to be discussed below which are under debate, and besides for Birchas Hatorah, as will be discussed in D].
B. Elokaiy Neshama:
There is an opinion which states that the blessing of Elokaiy Neshama should not be recited if one already Davened. Practically, one should initially suspect for this opinion and recite this blessing prior to Shacharis. [However, in the event that one already Davened Shacharis he may nevertheless say the blessing, as rules the first opinion.]
C. Al Netilas Yadayim:
If one did not recite a blessing over washing prior to Shacharis, and he has already Davened, then some Poskim rule he may no longer wash with a blessing. Others rule one is still able to wash with a blessing. Some rule one is to wait until Mincha and then wash with a blessing.
D. Birchas Hatorah:
Coming up in Part 2!
One who Davened Shacharis prior to reciting the morning blessings after Davening may recite all the morning blessings, up until Birchas Hatorah, starting from Asher Yatzar until Hagomel Chassadim Tovim. It is disputed whether one may recite the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim after Davening.
Until when during the day may one recite Birchas Hashachar?
Initially, one is to recite Birchas Hashachar early in the morning, in close proximity to awakening. If one did not do so, the blessings may be said throughout the entire day [up until sunset]. Furthermore, some Poskim rule it may be said even at night, up until one goes to sleep. However, some Poskim argue that it may not be said the entire day and conclude that it may only be said until the 4th hour of the day [i.e. Sof Zman Tefila]. Other Poskim conclude that it may at the very least be said until midday, and those who say it until sunset are not to be protested. Practically, one is initially to be careful to recite the blessings as early as possible, and in the morning, although if this time was missed the blessings may be said up until sunset.
 Admur 52:1; Rama 52:1; Orchos Chaim Brachos 35; Kol Bo 5; Mahariy Abuhav
 The Rebbe implies from here that even the blessing over washing is to be said. [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag vol. 5 page 26. See Chapter 4 Halacha 2 in Q&A!] Seemingly however just like one must say, in order avoid contradiction, that the blessing over Torah is not included in the “all” mentioned above, so too there is room to say regarding the blessing over washing hands that it is not included. Vetzaruch Iyun. Although perhaps for this reason Admur wrote “all the morning blessings mentioned in chapter 46, thus excluding Birchas Hatorah which is mentioned only in chapter 47, and thus “all” is literal.]
 Admur ibid
 Peri Chadash 52; Yad Ahron on Beis Yosef; Chayeh Adam 8:8; Shalmei Tzibur p. 46; Kesher Gudal 5:10; Siddur Beis Oveid; ChesedLealafim 46:7; Kitzur SH”A 7:6; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 12; Kaf Hachaim 52:5
 The reason: As it is included in the blessing of Mechaya Meisim which one recited within the prayer and one has hence already fulfilled his obligation. [Admur ibid]
 Implication of Admur ibid who only writes that one should initially suspect for their opinion, and so learns Ketzos Hashulchan 5:7; See Mamar Mordechai 52:4; Shaareiy Tehsuvah 6:7; Kaf Hachaim ibid
Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule like the stringent opinion that one may not recite the blessing of Elokaiy Neshama after Davening. [All Poskim ibid]
 Chayeh Adam 7:5; Kitzur SH”A 7:6; M”B 4:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 2:4 footnote 16; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 4:3
 The reason: As the entire reason behind washing hands with a blessing was in order to sanctify oneself and serve Hashem with prayer, hence if one has already prayed there is no longer a command to wash with a blessing. This applies according to the Rosh who rules the entire purpose of the washing is as a preparation to have clean hands before prayer. Furthermore, possibly even according to the Rashba, the blessing was only instituted to be said prior to the first prayer of the day, which is Shacharis. A proof for this can be brought from the Siddur of Admur which rules that in a time of need that one does not have a vessel available one may dip his hands in rainwater and say a blessing before Davening. From the fact he does not say to dip the hands in the water without a blessing before Davening and then after Davening to wash with a blessing if a vessel becomes available, proves that he learns one may not say the blessing after Davening. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]
 Avodas Hayom, brought in Tosefes Chaim on Chayeh Adam ibid; Rebbe in Shulchan Menachem 1:6, brought Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 5:2; Biur Halacha 4 rules that after Davening one should use the bathroom and hence once again becomes liable to say a blessing according to the Rosh
 The Rebbe in Shulchan Menachem ibid asks on the ruling of the stringent opinion based on the fact that one still needs to Daven Mincha and hence due to Mincha he should be obligated to wash with a blessing [even according to the Rashba] in order to remove the impurity, sanctify himself as a new creation and prepare for prayer. This can also be inferred from Admur 51:1 which does not include the blessing over washing as one of the blessings that cannot be said after Davening. Nevertheless, the Rebbe concludes there in the letter that he does not want to explicitly rule this way being that he has not found other Poskim who agree with his ruling. [However, as mentioned in previous footnote, it has been revealed that there are Poskim who rule this way as well.]
 Birchas Habayis 32:10; Afikei Maginim 4:2; Chayeh Adam ibid leaves this matter in question
 See Admur 46:2-3; 71:1; Sefer Hasichos 1904 p. 20; Igros Kodesh 19:390; 18:277; Shulchan Menachem 1:6
 Setimas Kol Haposkim who mention no limit [Biur Halacha 53:1 “Kol Habrachos”]; Machatzis Hashekel 71:1; Ketzos Hashulchan 5:7 based on Admur 52:1 which does not differentiate in this matter; Mamar Mordechai, Nehar Shalom and Gr”a, brought in M”B 52:10; The M”B ibid concludes that one who relies on these opinions is not to be protested.
The reason: As the custom today is to recite the blessings based on the pleasures of the world [and not one’s individual pleasures] and there is thus no reason to limit these blessings to the morning. [See Biur Halacha ibid]
 Gra in Maaseh Rav brought in M”B ibid
 Derech Chaim Onen 4 based on M”A 71:1, brought in M”B ibid and negated in Biur Halacha 53:1 “Kol Habrachos”
 Mishneh Berurah 52:10 that initially it should not be delayed past the 4th hour, although Bedieved may be said until midday, as so is proven from many Achronim [Levushei Serud, Chochmas Adama, Shulchan Shlomo, brought in Biur Halacha ibid], and those who are lenient even past Chatzos are not to be protested
 M”B ibid
 See Biur Halacha ibid who at first writes that one may/should be lenient even after midday, but then concludes only that one who is lenient after midday is not protested. Practically, from the Setimas Haposkim one may be lenient until midday
Perhaps when he reaches the blessing about the resurrection in SE (the 2nd bracha), he is to have in mind that he does not desire to exempt himself from Elokai Neshama and that he desires to recite it after SE. And then he can say it after SE according to all.
Regarding your advice, it may not work according to the stringent opinion as you cant have in mind to not be yotzei if they hold that the essence of that blessing is making you Yotzei. Its like saying Elokaiy Neshama and having in mind not to be yotsei it.