Eating immediately after Kiddush-The obligation to eat the meal immediately after Kiddush

Eating immediately after Kiddush:[1]

Introduction:

In order for Kiddush to be valid [whether of night or day of Shabbos and Yom Tov] one is required to eat a “meal” afterwards [which consists of at least a Kezayis of Mezonos/Hamotzi or Revius of wine[2]].[3] The question dealt with in this article is in regards to the definition of “afterwards” and as to how much time after Kiddush must the “meal” be eaten, and the law Bedieved if a delay took place.

 

Within how much time after saying/hearing Kiddush must one eat Mezonos/Hamotzi?[4]

One is required to eat [a Kezayis of Mezonos/Hamotzi or Revius of wine[5]] in the area Kiddush was recited, immediately[6] after Kiddush.[7] One is not to delay eating for even a short time.[8] [Practically, one is to eat the above foods within four minutes of Kiddush.[9] Accordingly one is not to hold conversations that do not pertain to the meal between Kiddush and eating.[10] One however may delay for purposes relating to the meal.[11]]

 

Bedieved if one did not eat right away or did not intend to do so:

Did not have intent to eat right away or was negligent-Not Yotzei: If one did not eat after Kiddush [and did not drink a Revius of wine[12]] until some time has passed, then he does not fulfill his obligation and he must repeat Kiddush prior to eating.[13] There is no difference whether a short time passed or a long time passed [either way he does not fulfill his obligation].[14] [Practically, regarding the definition of a short time, see footnote.[15]] This however only applies if at the time that one made Kiddush one did not have in mind to eat right away, [or he had in mind to eat right away and was negligent in doing so]. If, however, one had in mind to eat right away and got an unexpected delay, then the law is as follows:

Had intent to eat right away and got delayed: If one had in mind to eat right away and due to uncontrollable reasons he did not eat until after the passing of some time, he fulfills his obligation and is not required to repeat Kiddush upon eating in the area that Kiddush was recited in.[16] This however only applies if he did not switch areas between the Kiddush and eating, and hence remained in the room that Kiddush was recited until he ate sometime later. However, if he switched areas in between [and delayed eating[17]] then he must repeat Kiddush [even if he did not eat right away due to reasons beyond his control, and even if he returned to the same room].[18]

If one did not have in mind to eat right away at the time of Kiddush, but he did so:[19] If at the time one said Kiddush he had in mind to only eat after the passage of some time, and he then changed his mind and ate right away in the area he said Kiddush, then he is not required to repeat Kiddush. This applies even if he had in mind at the time of making Kiddush that he would only eat later in a different house and not in the house he made Kiddush, nevertheless, if he ate right away in the house that he made Kiddush, then he fulfills his obligation.

Had in mind to eat in different area:[20] If at the time that one recited Kiddush he had in mind to eat in a different area of the house, then although initially one is not to do so, nevertheless, it is not considered an interval to walk there and eat the food in that area. [This applies even if it takes some time to walk there.[21]]

 

Summary:

After Kiddush one is required to eat [a Kezayis of Mezonos/Hamotzi or Revius of wine] right away, [within four minutes of Kiddush]. [However, one may delay for purposes relating to the meal.] If one ate right away within the area he made Kiddush, then he fulfills his obligation even if he did not have in mind to do so at the time he made Kiddush.

Bedieved if delayed: If one delayed eating for some time after Kiddush, then if he did not have in mind to eat right away at the time Kiddush was recited, he must repeat Kiddush prior to eating. If, however, he had in mind to eat right away, and the eating was delayed due to reasons beyond his control, he is not required to repeat Kiddush if he did not switch areas in-between.

Q&A

May one delay eating after Kiddush for the sake of matters that pertain to the meal?[22]

If one delayed eating after Kiddush due to involvement in matters pertaining to the meal then it is not considered an interval, even if he delayed a long time.[23] Thus, the interval that takes place between the conclusion of Kiddush and the start of Hamotzi is not considered problematic, as explained next. Likewise, one may remove his upper clothing between Kiddush and eating.[24]

If it takes several minutes until the entire family says Kiddush, washes hands and says Hamotzi, is one to go ahead and say Hamotzi on his own, or eat Mezonos prior to washing?[25]

One fulfills his obligation even if a long time passes after Kiddush until all the men are finished making Kiddush and everyone is done washing.[26]

May one go to the bathroom between Kiddush and eating?[27]

Yes.[28] However, it is best to initially avoid the situation and be careful to do so prior to Kiddush.

May one change a baby between Kiddush and eating?

If the diaper smells and is disturbing the meal, then one may do so after Kiddush. However, it is best to initially avoid the situation and do so prior to Kiddush.

May one go to another room to wash hands for the meal?[29]

Yes.[30] However, it is best to initially avoid the situation and be careful to wash in the same room as where one recited Kiddush.[31]

 

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[1] Admur 273:5

[2] See Admur 273:7-8; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 9

[3] Admur 273:1; Michaber 473:1; Shmuel Pesachim 101a

[4] Admur 273:5

[5] See Admur 273:7-8; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 9

[6] Lit. “Lialter”

[7] Admur ibid; Rama 273:3; Iggur 387 in name of Maharil; Maharil 32; Ginas Veradim 2:20, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 273:2; Ben Ish Chaiy Bereishis 2:4; Kaf Hachaim 273:29

[8] Admur ibid; M”A 273:5; Darkei Moshe 273; Maharil ibid; M”B 273:12; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 10

[9] Ketzos Hashulchan 81:3 footnote 10

The reason: Certainly, the word “Lialter/immediately” does not mean a second later. [Aruch Hashulchan 273:4; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid] Thus, it seems that its time limit is the same amount for Achilas Peras which is equivalent to four minutes. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that he is to eat the food within the amount of time it takes to walk 22 Amos [30 seconds]. [Siddur Yaavetz, written by publishers] Other Poskim write that within a half hour it is still considered “immediately”. [Or Letziyon 2:20-24] Other Poskim rule one may delay even for one to two hours. [Poskim brought in Birkeiy Yosef 273 Shiyurei Bracha 1 and Kaf Hachaim 273:29, see footnotes below regarding Bedieved]; See Tzitz Eliezer 11:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4

[10] Mor Uketzia and Siddur Yaavetz

[11] See Q&A!

[12] This refers even to the person making Kiddush, meaning that if he drank a Revius of his Kiddush cup, then he is Yotzei Beideved in all cases. [Admur 273:9]

[13] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Iggur ibid; Maharil ibid

[14] Admur ibid; M”A 273:5; Darkei Moshe 273; Maharil ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 10

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even if one delayed eating right away to the point that his pleasure from the Kiddush wine dissipated, he is still Yotzei, and if he repeats Kiddush he is saying a blessing in vain. [Ginas Veradim 2:20; Shaareiy Teshuvah 273:2] Other Poskim rule he is only required to repeat Kiddush if he waited enough time for the food to be digested [which is 72 minutes]. [Maharikash, brought in Ginas Veradim ibid and Kaf Hachaim 273:29] Based on this second opinion, some Poskim rule it is valid even if he waited 1-2 hours prior to eating. [Poskim brought in Birkeiy Yosef 273 Shiyurei Bracha 1, Erech Hashulchan 273:2, Ben Ish Chaiy Bereishis 2:4 [concludes Safek Brachos Lihakel], Kaf Hachaim 273:29] Other Poskim conclude that one never repeats Kiddush unless he left the room for many hours or he completely removed his mind from the Kiddush [i.e. Hesech Hadaas]. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4]

[15] Ketzos Hashulchan ibid leaves more than four minutes in question. [Between 4-12 minutes is disputed in Poskim regarding if it is considered Kdei Achilas Peras] Accordingly, if more than four minutes passed one is to try to hear Kiddush from another person; Likewise, perhaps one can say that more than 12 minutes would be an obligation to repeat Kiddush, as Admur rules that even a short delay is invalidating, unless beyond control and he had intent to eat right away. See other Poskim listed in previous footnotes for other definitions of a short time and that some extend it for up to a half an hour or 1-2 hours.

[16] Admur ibid; M”A ibid; Implication of Rama ibid “He must eat right away or have intent to eat right away” [as learns Levushei Serud on M”A ibid, see however Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid who learns differently]; Based on Rav Huna in Pesachim 101a

[17] Biur Halacha 273:3 “Lealter” that even Admur and other Poskim in next footnote agree that leaving a room and then returning to that room is only an interval if one delayed a while until he ate [see there in length], and so is implied from the wording of Admur ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 11 in name of Biur Halacha ibid, although he concludes that by the day Kiddush one is to be stringent to repeat the Kiddush, saying of Hagafen, even if he returned back to the room right away.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if even if he returns to his area to eat right away he must repeat Kiddush since he left the room. [Pesach Devir in name of Nachals Tzevi, brought in Biur Halacha ibid]

[18] Admur ibid in his understanding of M”A ibid; Chayeh Adam 6:21; Poskim in M”B 273:12-13 and Shaar Hatziyon 13; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid footnote 11

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if he returns to his area to eat, then he fulfills his obligation. [Kneses Hagedola 273:9, brought in M”B 273:12; Tosefes Shabbos 273:8; Implication of Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid who explains that he refers to the story with Rav Huna in he ate in a new place; Kaf Hachaim 273:25 regarding Bedieved; M”B in Shaar Hatziyon ibid concludes he is not sure of the final ruling]

[19] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; Beis Yosef 273; M”A 273:6; Taz 273:2; Based on Abayey 101a

If he did not have in mind to eat at all after Kiddush: Some Poskim rule if one did not have in mind to eat at all after Kiddush, neither here or there, then he is not Yotzei Kiddush even if he changes his mind and eats in that area right away. [Levush 273 in understanding of Rama, brought in Machatzis Hashekel ibid; P”M 273 A”A 5-6 in opinion of M”A ibid; See Levushei Serud ibid; See Kaf Hachaim 273:26-27] From Admur and Poskim ibid however it is understood that he is Yotzei even in such a case. [P”M 273 A”A 5 and Machatzios Hashekel ibid that so is implied from Rama ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 273:16 that Admur and others negate Levush; Derech Hachaim 3; Kaf Hachaim 273:27]

[20] Admur 273:2-3 that if one had in mind it’s not considered an interval, although it is best to be stringent as some argue; M”A 273:5; Maharil ibid; M”B 273:12 and Biur Halacha 273:3 “Oy Shehaya”

[21] M”A 273:5; Darkei Moshe ibid; Maharil ibid; M”B 273:12 and Biur Halacha 273:3 “Oy Shehaya”; Kaf Hachaim 273:23

The reason: As the delay of walking to that area is considered done for the sake of the meal, and any delay for the sake of a meal is not considered an interval. [Biur Halacha ibid; Kaf Hachaim 273:24 in understanding of M”A ibid]

[22] M”B 273:14; Kaf Hachaim 273:25; Ketzos Hashulchan 81 footnote 10; Ashel Avraham Butchach 273; Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4

[23] The proof: The night of the Seder we delay several hours between Kiddush and Hamotzi, and the reason it is not an interval is because it pertains to the meal. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; Ashel Avraham Butchach ibid]

[24] Aruch Hashulchan 273:4

[25] Piskeiy Teshuvos 273 footnote 36 in name of Minchas Yitzchak

[26] The reason: As the delay of washing is considered a preparation for the meal, which is not counted as a delay, as explained above.

[27] M”B 273:12; Kaf Hachaim 273:25

[28] The reason: As this is considered done for the need of the meal, which is permitted to delay on its behalf even if one goes from room to room. [M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid that this applies even according to Admur ibid who rules that delay plus change of room is an invalidation; See Biur Halacha 273:3 “Oh Sheyihei”]

[29] Kaf Hachaim 273:25

[30] The reason: As this is considered done for the need of the meal, which is permitted to delay on its behalf even if one goes from room to room. [M”B 273:12; Kaf Hachaim ibid that this applies even according to Admur ibid who rules that delay plus change of room is an invalidation; See Biur Halacha 273:3 “Oh Sheyihei”]

[31] Tehila Ledavid 273:1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 273:4 footnote 38

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