Chapter 9: The Laws pertinent to the reading

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Chapter 9: The Laws pertinent to the reading

1. A valid Aliyah: The start and end points of the Aliyos and cases of invalidation:[1]

A. Introduction-The practical division of Aliyos accustomed today:

Customarily, all Chumashim today contain stopping points for each Aliya; Levi, Yisrael, Sheiyni, Shelishi, etc. Interestingly, the allocation of the grouping of verses that belong to each Aliya contains no source in Halachic literature, neither the Talmud nor Poskim. Some Poskim[2] even attribute the distribution of Aliyos to the printers of the Chumashim and not to Rabbanim. While the Talmud and Poskim[3] provide certain rules and guidelines regarding the amount of verses each Aliya must contain and lists certain areas in which one may not end an Aliya [as explained in B], no distribution of Aliyos is recorded anywhere. Hence, ideally, one may stop wherever he wishes, so long as he abides by the Halachic restrictions, and so was done by some Gedolei Yisrael[4], claiming that the current distribution does not take into account all the Halachic and Zoharic requirements. Nonetheless, the widespread Jewish custom, which is Torah, is to stop by the end points of each Aliyah as written in the Chumash, and so is to initially be followed.[5] Nonetheless, different Chumashim contain different distribution points of Aliyos. The distribution of Aliyos followed by Russian Jewry is based on the Chumash Torah Temima, and so is the Chabad custom until this day. [In a time of need, such as by those accustomed to add Aliyos on Shabbos, one may divide the Aliyos in whatever way Halachically allowed, as explained in B. Likewise, Bedieved, if one stopped the Aliyah elsewhere, in the permitted areas explained in B, certainly this is not disqualifying and the Baal Korei is to continue from where he left off.[6]]

B. What must be read?

Minimum of three verses: Every Aliya must have at least three Pesukim read for it to be valid.[7] If only two Pesukim were read the Aliyah is invalid. See Chapter 10 Halacha 1B for the full details of this matter!

Adding three new verses and initially not to repeat verses:[8] An Aliyah must contain three new verses that are read. If an Aliyah repeated the same words read in a previous Aliyah, then is not valid to count as part of the obligatory Aliyos [i.e. seven on Shabbos, five on Yom Tov, three on Mondays and Thursdays], unless the reader added three new verses that were not yet read. If three new verses were not read, then another Aliyah must be called up in its place. This is with exception to Rosh Chodesh, where we suffice with adding only two new verses in the next Aliyah, and with exception to Chol Hamoed Sukkos, in which we allow the Aliyos to repeat the same reading. The same applies in any case that one cannot add more new verses, such as if by Shishi they accidentally read until the end of the Parsha, and all other cases of the like.[9] [The above, however, is only Bedieved, however initially, one is never to repeat any verses from the previous Aliyah, even if he plans to read new verses.[10] This applies even against repeating one verse.[11] Likewise, amongst Ashkenazi provinces, one is not to repeat the same reading even by Aliyos that are considered Hosafos to the minimum Aliyos, as explained in Chapter 5 Halacha 3. Possibly this applies even if one plans to read three new verses by the Hosafos.[12]]

C. The required start and end points of an Aliyah:

Not to end within 3 verses of start or end of Parsha Pesucha/Setuma:[13] An Aliyah may not begin or end within three verses from a Parsha Pesucha or Setuma.[14] [If this was already done, then the next Olah is to begin from the area that the previous Olah ended, and is not to repeat from the start of the Pesucha/Setuma, or three verses beforehand. See Chapter 10 Halacha 1D for the full details of this matter!]

Ending with a two verse Parsha:[15] It is permitted to end prior to a two verse Parsha [and it is likewise permitted to end at the end of a two verse Parsha]. [This commonly occurs in Parshas Pekudei, which contains many Parshiyos of two verses, and the custom is to divide the Aliyos in a way that ends by two verse Parshiyos.[16] However, some Poskim[17] are stringent and forbid ending by the start or end of a two verse Parsha, unless it is absolutely necessary, such as the third Aliyah on Rosh Chodesh. Practically, one may end at the start of a two verse Parsha, although some Poskim[18] conclude that one is not initially to end at the end of a two verse Parsha. Nonetheless, the custom is to be lenient.[19]]

Starting and ending with a good matter:[20] One is to intend to begin and end an Aliyah with a verse of positivity. [Thus, by the Parsha of the curses, one is to read from at least three verses prior to the curses and conclude at least three verses after the curses. [21] This applies not just with Kerias Hatorah, but with any learning session.[22]]

D. Special laws of divisions by specific Parshiyos:[23]

Parshas Maasei:[24] One is to read all 42 journeys in the Parsha of Maasei in a single Aliyah and not make an interval in between. This is likewise the Chabad custom.[25]

Aseres Hadibros:[26] One is not to stop in the middle of the reading of the Aseres Hadibros in Parshas Yisro and Vaeschanon.

Shiras Hayam:[27] One is not to stop in the middle of the reading of Shiras Hayam in Parshas Beshalach.

Devarim:[28]  When reading the Kohen portion in the beginning of Parshas Devarim, some are accustomed for the reader to pause one verse before the usual break for Sheiyni, in order that the passage to be read for the next congregant should not open with the word Eichah [which recalls the Book of Lamentations read on Tisha B’av]. This was the original Chabad custom, although the widespread custom today is to stop by the regular area.[29]

Curses of Bechukosaiy and Ki Savo:[30] One is not to make an interval of Aliyos in the curses read in Parshas Bechukosaiy. Likewise, the custom is not to make an interval of Aliyos by the curses of Parshas Ki Savo.

Haazinu:[31] The Parsha of Haazinu contains a traditional division of Aliyos, founded in Temple times, which is to be followed until today upon reading the Parsha from the Torah. The Siman of the divisions is Haziv Lach, standing for Haazinu [Devarim 32:1], Zechor [Devarim 32:7]; Yarkiveihu [Devarim 32:13]; Vayera [Devarim 32:19]; Lu Chochmu [Devarim 32:29]; Ki Esa El Shamayim [Devarim 32:40], until the end of the song. The seventh Aliyah reads from the end of the Shira until the end of the Parsha.[32] This division is only followed on Shabbos, and not on Monday’s and Thursday’s.[33]

The end of Vezos Habracha:[34] One may not make a break in the last eight verses of Vezos Habracha, and they are thus to be read consecutively.

2. Laws applicable during the reading:

A. Standing:

The Baal Korei, Olah [and Gabbai] must stand during the reading. See Chapter 4 Halacha 7D for the full details of this matter!

B. Holding onto the Torah:

The Baal Korei and Olah are required to hold onto the handle of the Sefer Torah during the reading.[35] The Baal Korei holds onto the left handle, while the Olah holds onto the right handle.[36]

C. Laws pertinent to the Olah and distribution of Aliyos:

See Chapters 5-7!

D. Laws pertinent to the congregation:

See Chapter 8!

E. Reciting Chazak Chazak Vinischazeik:

See Chapter 8 Halacha 9!

3. Between the Aliyos:

A. Covering the Torah Between Aliyos:

The Sephardic custom is to [leave the Sefer Torah open[37] and to merely] cover the Sefer Torah between the Aliyos.[38] However, the Ashkenazi custom is for the Sefer Torah to remain closed between Aliyos.[39] [If the Sefer Torah is closed, it is not also necessary for it to be covered, and should not be done.[40] Nonetheless, if there will be a long interval between Aliyos, then it is to also be covered. Likewise, it is to be covered after the last Aliyah, prior to Kaddish.[41] Practically, the widespread Ashkenazi custom today is to both close and cover the Sefer Torah between the Aliyos, even though this is not required.[42]]

B. Drasha between Aliyos:[43]

It is forbidden to stop between the Aliyos to explain the content that relates to the Aliyah that was read, or that will be read next.[44] Nevertheless, in a time of need, it is permitted to give a Drasha between the Aliyos regarding matters of Mussar, or Chizuk, or to raise charity.[45]

C. The blessing of Hagomel:[46]

The custom is for one who is obligated in the blessing of Hagomel, to recite it after Kerias Hatorah. [It is customary to honor the person with an Aliyah and have him recite the blessing after his Aliyah[47], although this is not obligatory, and he is not considered a Chiyuv to differ other Chiyuvim.[48] When saying Hagomel after the last Aliyah, one is not to do so until after the half Kaddish is recited.[49] When saying Hagomel after Maftir, it is questionable whether it is to be said before or after the Haftorah.[50] Practically, it is to be said after Maftir, before the Haftorah.[51]]

D. The blessing of Baruch Sheptarani:[52]

The father of a Bar Mitzvah boy recites the blessing of Baruch Sheptarani after his sons first Aliyah after his Bar Mitzvah.

When? Some Poskim[53] rule the blessing is to be said on Shabbos, upon the Bar Mitzvah boy getting his first Aliyah. Practically, however, the blessing is recited whenever the Aliyah takes place, whether on Monday, Thursday, Rosh Chodesh, or Shabbos, and so is the Chabad custom.[54]

Is the blessing said with Hashem’s name?[55] Some Poskim[56] rule that the blessing is said with Hashem’s name. Other Poskim[57], however, rule that it is said without Hashem’s name, and so is the widespread custom of the world, and so is the Chabad custom.[58] [One is not to answer Amen to the blessing when it is said without Hashem’s name.[59]]

The Nussach:[60] One is to say Baruch…Sheptarani Meionsho Shel Zeh. [However, the Chabad custom is to say Baruch Sheptarani Meionesh HaleZeh.[61]]

4. Mi Shebeirach:[62]

A. Background:

It is customary to bless different individuals between the Aliyos of Kerias Hatorah, or at the conclusion of the Aliyos. These include:

  1. Blessing the Olah.
  2. Blessing a Yoledes
  3. Blessing the sick
  4. Other occasions

B. Mi Shebeirach for an Olah:

On Shabbos and Yom Tov, it is customary to recite a Mi Shebeirach for the person who received an Aliyah, at the conclusion of his after blessing.[63] It is not customary to do so by the weekday reading.[64] [Initially, it was not customary in Lubavitch to recite Mi Shebeirach for each Olah, and the Nussach was not even printed in the Siddur.[65] Nonetheless, it was printed in the Siddur Torah Or, and has now become customary to recite on behalf of each Olah.]

Hagbah and Gelila:[66] On Shabbos, some are accustomed to reciting a Mi Shebeirach also for the Magbiha and Golel.

The Nussach: There are various Nusschaos of Mi Shebeirach for an Olah. The Chabad custom is to recite the Nussach printed in the Siddur, originally printed in the Siddur Torah Or.

The Nussach on Yom Tov: On Yom Tov, the custom is to say the words “Likvod Haregel” and add the blessing “Veyizku Lalos Laregel” within the Mi Shebeirach

The Nussach on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur: Some Poskim[67] write that one should not recite the words “Lekavod Yom Hadin” being that these are days of mercy. Practically the Chabad custom is to say “Lekavod Yom Hadin”.[68]

Name of father versus mother: One is to state the name of the father upon reciting a Mi Shebeirach for an Olah [i.e. Yaakov Ben Eliezer].

 

May a Mi Shebeirach be recited for a Mamzer who received an Aliyah?

Some Poskim[69] question whether a Mi Shebeirach is to be recited, as its main purpose is to bless the individual with children, and Hashem does not desire the population of Mamzeirim.

 

C. Mi Shebeirach for Yoledes and naming of daughter:[70]

It is customary to bless a Yoledes with a Mi Shebeirach at the time of the naming of a daughter, and when the father of the son receives an Aliyah.

The Nussach: A separate Nussach of Mi Shebeirach is recited for the birth of a son versus the birth of a daughter. The exact change of wording can be found in the Siddur. The Chabad custom is to bless also by a daughter with the words “Legadla Letorah Ulechupa Ulimaasim Tovim.”[71]

Name of mother versus father: One is to state the name of the mother of the Yoledes upon reciting the Mi Shebeirach for a Yoledes [i.e. Shayna Bas Rivka]. However, when saying the name of the daughter, one states her name and the name of the father [who received the Aliyah].

D. Mi Shebeirach for the sick:

It is customary on Shabbos to recite a Mi Shebeirach on behalf of the sick. It is customarily recited after Shevi’i.[72] When necessary, a Mi Shebeirach can be recited also during the week, after Shelishi.

When two scrolls are removed: When two scrolls are removed, the Mi Shebeirach for the ill is customarily recited after Hagbah of the first scroll.

The Nussach:[73] A separate Nussach of Mi Shebeirach is recited for women and men. The exact change of wording can be found in the Siddur.

The Nussach on Shabbos:[74] It is forbidden for one to request physical needs on Shabbos, including the needs of a sick person, for him to become healthy.[75] Thus, during the Mi Shebeirach for the sick one is not to say “Hamakom Yishlach Refuah” but rather “Shabbos Hi Milizok Verefuah Kerova Lavo.”[76] The exact Nussach for the Mi Shebeirach on Shabbos can be found in the Siddur. It is an abridged version of the Nussach recited during the week.

The Nussach on Yom Tov: Some Poskim[77] rule that when saying a Mi Shebeirach for the sick on Yom Tov one is to say “Yom Tov Hi Milizok” Others[78] however are accustomed to recite Shabbos Hi Milizok.[79] [The Chabad custom is to recite “Shabbos Hi Milizok” also on Yom Tov.[80]]

The Nussach on Rosh Hashanah/Yom Kippur:[81] Upon saying a Mi Shebeirach for the sick on Rosh Hashanah or Yom Kippur it is not necessary to say “Shabbos Hi Milizok” or “Yom Tov Hi Milizok” as today is the day of judgment.

Name of mother versus father:[82] One is to state the name of the mother of the sick individual upon reciting the Mi Shebeirach for the sick [i.e. Yocheved Bas Rivka; Shimshon Ben Rivka].

E. Mi Shebeirach to change a name: [83]

It is customary to change the name of a sick person, as the changing of a name tears the evil decree against him.[84]

How is it done?[85] The ill person is blessed in Shul [during a Mi Shebeirach for Cholim] using his new name. [This is customarily done by giving the sick person, or a relative of the sick person, an Aliyah to the Torah, and then recite for him a Mi Shebeirach using the new name.[86] Some are accustomed to reciting certain prayers at this time. The added name, being that it is the main name, is to be said first when calling the person for an Aliyah to the Torah.[87]]

F. Mi Shebeirachs for other occasions:

For those who don’t talk in Shul:[88] After the Chelminiski pogroms in years Tach and Tat [1648-1649] which was blamed by the Torah giants on the excessive talking in Shul, a special Mi Shebeirach was established for those who abstain from talking.

For soldiers of Tzahal and Medinat Yisrael: Some Shuls are accustomed on Shabbos to recite a Mi Shebeirach for the soldiers of the Israeli army [by Pesichas Haron], and for the state of Israel. This is not the widespread custom amongst Chareidi Jewry, and is not the Chabad custom. [This of course is not to diminish in any which way the importance of praying for the success of the Israeli army in warfare.]

For one’s country: Some Shuls are accustomed on Shabbos to recite a Mi Shebeirach for their country. In the early 1900’s it was the widespread custom in almost all Shuls in America to recite a Mi Shebeirach for the USA. Nonetheless, today, this is not the widespread custom amongst Chareidi Jewry, and is not the Chabad custom. [This of course is not to diminish in any which way the importance of praying for the success of one country.]

G. Congregation answering Amen for a Mi Shebeirach:[89]

Whoever blesses another Jew, it is a Mitzvah[90] to answer Amen to his blessing. [This applies even though Hashem’s name is not mentioned in the blessing such as a Mi Shebeirach, or Harachaman, or a personal blessing given by a friend and the like.[91]]

H. One who is in middle of Davening and received an Aliyah:

One who received an Aliyah in middle of reading the Shema [or Pesukei Dezimra ] is certainly not to stop to request the Chazan/Gabbai to recite a Mi Shebeirach [on his behalf]. [If, however, the Gabbai already began the Mi Shebeirach and then forgot his name, he may say his name.] See Chapter 6 Halacha 6D for the full details of this matter!

I. Speaking during the Mi Shebeirach’s:

It is forbidden to speak even between the Aliyos, even when the Mi Shebeirach is recited. See Chapter 8 Halacha 3 for the full details of this matter!

5. Special laws applicable to different Parshiyos:

*For special laws applicable to the reading of the Four Parshiyos, Rosh Chodesh, fast days, and the readings on Holidays, see their relevant chapters!

A. Aseres Hadibros:[92]

The punctuation for the reading of the Aseres Hadibros: In the Ten Commandments, there are two forms of reading melodies. The readings differ in their stop points within the verses and in their vocalization.

First method:[93] In the first method each command is read as a single verse.[94] This applies whether the command is long [i.e. split to many verses] or short [the verse includes many commands]. This means that the verses of Anochi, Lo Yihyeh Lecha, Lo Saseh Lecha, lo Sishtachaveh and Oseh Chesed is all read as one verse.[95] Likewise, the verses of Zachor, Sheshes Yamim, Yom Hashevi’i, and Vehi Sheses are all read as one verse.[96] Likewise, the two words of Lo Tirtzach is one complete verse.[97] Likewise, the two words of Lo Tinaf is one complete verse.[98] The same applies for the words Lo Tignov.[99] [In this method, the words Tirtzach, Tinaf and Tignov are recited with a Taf and not a Saf.]

Second method:[100] In the second method, each verse is read as a single verse [even if they only contain part of the command or contain more than one command].[101] Thus, the verse of Anochi is one verse, and the verse of Lo Yihyeh Lecha is a second verse.[102] Likewise, Zachor is read as one verse, and Sheshes Yamim as a second verse.[103] Likewise, the words Lo Tirtzach, Lo Tinaf, Lo Tignov, and Lo Seaneh is all read as one verse.[104]

Final practice:[105] On Shavuos, the custom is to read for the congregation like the first method, to read each command as a separate verse.[106] Furthermore, there are those who are accustomed to read like the first method for the congregation even on Shabbos Parshas Yisro and on Shabbos Parshas Vaeschanan, and only a private individual who reads the verses to himself reads it in the second method.

B. The Torah portion of Bechukosaiy and Ki Savo:[107]

In the third Aliyah of Parshas Bechukosaiy and the sixth Aliyah of Parshas Ki Savo, the list of curses are read. Due to its negative connotation, various laws and customs have been adapted as a result.

Avoiding an interval by the curses:[108] One is not to make an interval of Aliyos in curses read in Parshas Bechukosaiy. Likewise, the custom is not to make an interval of Aliyos also by the curses of Parshas Ki Savo.

Not to begin with the curses:[109] One is to read from at least three verses prior to the curses and conclude at least three verses after the curses.

Not to call up by name for the Aliyah of the curses:[110] The custom is to not call anyone by name for the Aliyah of the curses, which is the 3rd Aliyah of Bechukosaiy and 6th Aliyah of Ki Savo, and rather whoever desires goes up for the Aliyah ]without being called[.[111] The blessings over the reading are said as usual, and it is forbidden to skip the blessings.[112] [Many are accustomed to designate this Aliyah to a specific person and in such a case] one is to avoid going up for this Aliyah in place of the person that it is set to be given to.[113] [Many are accustomed that the Baal Korei himself is designated to receive this Aliyah.[114] Practically, this is the Chabad custom.[115] The Baal Korei is not called up by name and hence begins the blessings on his own. The Baal Korei may receive a Mi Shebeirach with his name after the Aliyah.[116]]

Reading the curses in a low voice:[117] The custom is for the reader to lower his voice upon reading the curses. He raises his voice again only by the words “Eilu Divrei Habris” in the end of Shishi.

 

What is one to do if the Baal Korei is a Kohen?

As brought above, many are accustomed [and so is the Chabad custom] that the Baal Korei receives the Aliyah of the curses. If the Baal Korei is a Kohen, then some Poskim[118] rule he should read seven Aliyos prior to the curses and then go up and read the curses as an eighth Aliyah. However, it is not allowed for the Kohen to go up for the curses if it is still the 3rd, 6th or seventh Aliyah.[119] [Practically, however, according to the Chabad custom the Baal Korei may not add or change the Aliyos.[120] Therefore, the Kohen is not to go up and rather another person should do so without his name being called.]

 

C. The Torah reading of Beshalach/Ki Seitzei:

Zeicher/Zecher:[121] There is dispute amongst Poskim[122] as whether one is to read Zeicher Amalek or Zecher Amalek. Practically one is to read both dialects.[123] By the reading of Parshas Zachor [and Parshas Ki Seitzei] one reads first Zeicher and then Zecher. By the reading on Parshas Beshalach and Purim one reads first Zecher and then Zeicher.[124] The Chabad custom is to repeat only the word Zeicher and Zecher. Others have the custom to repeat the entire verse.[125] [By Parshas Beshalach and Ki Seitzei one is to repeat the words Zecher-Zeicher/Zeicher-Zecher in both Shevi’i and the Haftorah.[126]]

Fulfilling Mitzvah of Zecher Amalek in Parshas Ki Seitzei if one missed Parshas Zachar that year: If one did not hear the reading of Amalek on Parshas Zachar he can still fulfill his Biblical obligation through hearing the Torah reading of Amalek in Parshas Ki Seitzei.[127] [In such a case however one must have in mind to fulfill the Mitzvah of remembering Amalek upon hearing the reading. Some Poskim[128] write that one is to tell the Baal Korei to have in mind to fulfill his obligation.]

 

Noise making by Zachar:[129]

Many Gedolei Yisrael have protested against noise making at the end of the reading of Amalek.[130]

In a leap year is one to fulfill his obligation of Zachar also with the reading of Parshas Ki Seitzei?

Some Poskim[131] rule that in the year preceding a leap year, asides for Parshas Zachar, one is to intend to fulfill his obligation of remembering Amalek also during the reading of Parshas Ki Seitzei.[132] Others[133] however hold it is not necessary to do so.[134]

 

6. The order of reading when two or more Sifrei Torah are removed:

See Chapter 11 Halacha 5!

_____________________________________________

[1] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:3

[2] Meoreiy Or Basar p. 156

[3] See Michaber 137:2 regarding that each Aliya must contain at least three verses; Michaber 138:1 that one may not end within three verses of a Setuma or Pesucha

[4] Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 132; Minchas Elazar 1:66; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[5] See Shaar Hatziyon 138:1

[6] Shaareiy Efraim; M”B 137:4; Nimukei Orach Chaim 137; Shaar Hatziyon 138:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:3

[7] Michaber 137:2

[8] Michaber 137:6; Admur 282:4; M”A 282:3; M”B 137:23; See Kaf Hachaim 137:33-41; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:6

Other opinions-Two new verses suffices: Some Poskim rule that Bedieved the Aliyah is valid even if only two new verses were read. [Machatzis Hashekel 137; M”B 282:9, unlike his ruling in 137:23; Aruch Hashulchan 137:5] The Poskim ibid negate this approach.

[9] See Halacha ?? regarding if the Baal Korei accidentally read until the end of the Parsha that the seventh Aliyah repeats the reading; For other scenarios: See Piskeiy Teshuvos 137:6; Beis Shlomo 19; Shaareiy Efraim 7:8;

[10] M”A 137:12; Levush 137; M”B 137:19

[11] See P”M 137 A”A 13; Kaf Hachaim 137:39

[12] Shaar Hatziyon 137:28; However, see Kaf Hachaim 137:39 who is lenient in such a case

[13] Michaber 138:1; Rama ibid that this applies whether to a Pesucha or Setuma; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:1-2

[14] The reason: One may not end within three verses of a Parsha, as one who leaves then may think that the next Olah will only read two verses. Likewise, one may not begin an Aliyah within three verses of a Parsha, as one who enters then will think that the previous Olah only read two verses. [Michaber ibid]

[15] Rama 138:1; Kneses Hagedola 138; Chayeh Adam 31:29; Kitzur SHU”A 23:20; Derech Hachaim; Kaf Hachaim 138:9; Ketzos Hashulchan 84:4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:1-2

[16] Aruch Hashulchan 138:2

[17] Shaareiy Efraim 7:31 regarding beginning and end [however he is a Daas Yechidah, as writes Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]; The following Poskim rule this way regarding end: Elya Raba; Peri Chadash; Halachos Ketanos 2:253, 256

[18] M”B 138:4; Shaar Hatziyon 138:13 negates Shaareiy Efraim ibid

[19] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[20] Rama 139:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:4

[21] M”A 428:8

[22] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 22

[23] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 138:3

[24] M”A 428/8 in name of Tzeror Hamor; Tzeror Hamor Parshas Masai: “The Chazan should not stop while reading the Parsha and is rather to read it with one person”; Kaf Hachaim 428/39

[25] Hayom Yom 23 Tammuz

[26] Elya Raba 143:6; Derech Hachaim 12; Kaf Hachaim 137:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[27] Elya Raba 143:6; Derech Hachaim 12; Kaf Hachaim 137:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[28] Ashel Avraham Butchach 137; Sefer Haminhagim p. 61: This is the custom as practiced in the shul of the Previous Rebbe and of the Rebbe Shlita. [In recent years, however, the reader customarily pauses at the usual break for Sheini.]; Luach Kolel Chabad; Al Minhagim Umekoroseihem of Rav Tuvia Bloy; Piskeiy Teshuvos 137 footnote 10

[29] See Hiskashrus

[30] Michaber ibid One does not make an interval in the reading of the curses in Bechukosaiy, and reads from three verses prior and three verses after the curses. However, by the curses of Ki Savo one may make an interval, [as they were said by Moshe in the singular tense and hence are not as severe-M”B 428:18]. Nevertheless, the custom is not to make an interval even by the curses of Ki Savo.”

[31] Michaber 428:5; Rosh Hashanah 31

[32] Michaber ibid

[33] Rama ibid

[34] Michaber 428:7

[35] Michaber 139:11 as explained in Taz 139:9

[36] M”A 139:13 in name of Kesavim

[37] Taz 139:6

[38] Michaber 139:5

[39] Rama ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan 25:12

[40] Taz 139:6; Elya Raba 139:9; See M”B 139:21; Kaf Hachaim 139:33

[41] Taz ibid; Elya Raba ibid; M”B ibid

[42] Kneses Hagedola 139:9; Mamar Mordechai 139:3; Kaf Hachaim ibid; However, the Taz 139:6 negates this custom

[43] Piskeiy Teshuvos 145:1

[44] Igros Moshe 4:40-21; See Michaber 145:3; Tur 145; M”B 145:4

[45] Ledavid Emes 6:61; Yechaveh Daas 5:7 based on Nachlas Yaakov 48

[46] Admur Seder 12:2; Luach 12:8; Michaber 219:3; Mordechai Remez 212; Tosafos Brachos 54b; Orchos Chaim 25; Shaareiy Efraim 4:27-32; Chikrei Minhagim 2:63

[47] See Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinayna 219

[48] Shaareiy Efraim 2:11; Biur Halacha 136:1 “Beshabbos Veyom Tov”

[49] See Shaareiy Efraim 10:9; Yerech Yaakov 40; Sefer Haminhagim p. 14; Toras Menachem 36:134; Shulchan Menachem 1:262; Chikrei Minhagim ibid

Other opinions and customs: Some Poskim rule that the Hagomel is to be said before the Kaddish. [Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinayna 219] Practically, so is the worldly custom. [See Chikrei Minhagim ibid]

[50] See Toras Menachem 36:134 that when the Rebbe Rayatz needed to say Hagomel after returning from Kastrama, there was a debate amongst the Rabbanim in this matter and the Rebbe does not recall what the Rebbe Rayatz practically did; See Chikrei Haminhagim ibid

[51] Ruach Chaim 144:3; Yerech Yaakov 40 [end]

Other customs: See Nivei Shalom 36 that their custom is to say it after the Haftorah

[52] Rama 225:2; Midrash Raba Toldos 63; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 225:4-6; Siddur Raskin footnote 87

[53] M”A 225:4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 225 footnote 39

[54] Aruch Hashulchan 225:4; Hayom Yom 12th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 7:228; Shulchan Menachem 1:263; Piskeiy Teshuvos 225:6

[55] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 225:5; Nitei Gavriel Bar Mitzvah p. 100

[56] 1st opinion in Rama 225:2; Siddur Admur as edited by the Maharil writes it with Hashem’s name [See Shaar Hakolel 24; Siddur Raskin ibid]; Migaleh Amukos Toldos; Maharil; Gr”a; Chayeh Adam; Kitzur SHU”A 61:8; Aruch Hashulchan 225:4; M”B 225:8 that one who says the blessing “Lo Hifsid”; See Chasan Sofer 96; Piskeiy Teshuvos 225:5 footnote 36; Kuntrus Hassidur p. 375 footnote 3

[57] Rama 225:2 that it is good to say it without Sheim Umalchus; Derech Hachaim; Siddur Yaavetz; Ben Ish Chaiy Re’eh 1:17; Kaf Hachaim 225:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 225:5 footnote 37

[58] Hayom Yom 12th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 7:228; Shulchan Menachem 1:263; See Hiskashrus 435 p. 12; Siddur of Rav Raskin;

The custom of the Chabad Rabbeim: The Chabad Rabbeim were accustomed to reciting this blessing with Hashem’s name. [Sichas 5696 p. 89 that so did the Alter Rebbe] This was not a directive to the public. [Rebbe in Igros Kodesh ibid in name of the Rebbe Rayatz] See Hilchos Vehalichos Bar Mitzvah p. 78

[59] Betzeil Hachochmah 5:90

[60] Rama ibid

[61] Siddur Admur; See Siddur of Rav Raskin ibid

[62] See Rama 284:7; Admur 284:14; Nesivim Bisedei Hashlichus 1:310; Pardes Chabad 8:114; Shulchan Menachem 1:263-267; Yalkut Dinei Kerias Hatorah p. 1378

[63] See Kaf Hachaim 284:38

[64] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 136:8 footnote 66

[65] Igros Kodesh 2:327; Hiskashrus 305 p. 18

[66] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 141:5

[67] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 715

[68] Otzer Minhagei Chabad 213; See Shaar Hakolel 26:5; Nesivos Bisade Hashlichos 1 p. 312

[69] See Likkutei Chaver Ben Chaim in end of Sefer; Piskeiy Teshuvos 139 footnote 25

[70] See Derisha Y.D. 360:2; Mishmeres Shalom Kudinav 20:2

[71] Igros Kodesh 5:149; 12:341

[72] See Rama 284:7; Admur 284:14 that the Mi Shebeirach for the Tzibur is recited after Kerias Hatorah

[73] See Igros kodesh 12:342 and 11:336 that we say Lechol Eivareha upon saying a Mi Shebeirach for a woman, as opposed to Ramach Eivareha.

[74] Admur 187:1; 188:8-9

[75] Admur 288:8 and 9

[76] Admur 287:1; M”A 288:14; Shaareiy Ephraim 10:44

Other opinions: Some communities are accustomed to recite “Hamakom Yishlach Lecha Refua Sheleima Besoch Shaar Cholei Yisrael” even on Shabbos, seemingly relying on the opinion of Ramban ibid. [M”A 288:14] However, to say more than this is forbidden according to all opinions. [M”A ibid]

[77] See Mateh Ephraim 584:25; Siddur Yaavetz; Likkutei Maharich p. 29

[78] Shaar Hakolel 26:4-2; Sefer Chamisha Mamaros and Chaim Veshalom Seder Kerias Hatorah of Munkatcher; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 47:22

[79] The reason: As also Yom Tov is called Shabbos. [Shaar Hakolel ibid; Chaim Veshalom ibid] Alternatively, as this statement has mystical meaning, as its Roshei Teves represent the name of Hashem that heals the sick. [Chaim Veshalom ibid; See also Toras Levi Yitzchak Gittin 7; Meiri Shabbos 12; Likkutei Sichos 11:296; 16:520 that Shabbos itself brings the Refua]

[80] See Shaar Hakolel ibid; Received from Rabbi Leibel Groner in written correspondence; And so also ruled to me Rabbi Y.S. Ginzberg and Rav Eli Landau, although they did not receive any explicit tradition in this matter

[81] M”E 584:25

[82] Igros Kodesh 8:281; See Zohar 1:84; Panim Yafos Behalosecha Divrei Torah Tinyana 4

[83] Rama Y.D. 335/10; Michaber E.H. 129/18; Rosh Hashanah 16b “Four matters tear the evil decree against a person and one of them is changing the name”; See Yuma 83b

[84] The source: So was seen regarding Sarah, that after her name was changed, she was able to have children and the original decree of barrenness was removed. [Rosh Hashanah ibid]

Selling the child: See Sefer Chassidim 245 that it is a Segula for the parents to sell the sick child to another person, and through doing so the child has his decree removed.

[85] Rama Y.D. 335/10; Shulchan Menachem 5/164

[86] Igros Kodesh 13/250 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5/165] See however Sefer Hamamarim 1949 p. 90 that when the son of the Alter Rebbe, Avraham, was sick, they changed his name to Chaim Avraham in the presence of a Minyan of Jews, not during Davening or Kerias Hatorah.

[87] See Beis Shmuel 129/34; Igros Kodesh 13/250 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5/165]

[88] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 151 footnote 9

[89] Admur 189:6; M”A 215:3 in name of Midrash; Chesed Lealafim 215:4; Kaf Hachaim 215:11

[90] Admur ibid

Is this a Mitzvah or obligation? From the wording of Admur ibid it is implied that it is not an obligation but a Midas Chassidus and so is also implied from Orchos Chaim Kerias Hatorah 3 that says “It is permitted to answer Amen” and so rules Emek Sheila 53:2. However some Poskim rule it is an see an obligation to answer Amen to a prayer or blessing, such as Harachaman. [M”A 215:3 in name of Midrash; Chesed Lealafim 215:4; Kaf Hachaim 215:11]

[91] See Aruch Hashulchan 215:1; Kaf Hachaim ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 215:7 footnote 42

[92] Admur 494:8-11; See M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Elya Raba 142:1; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14

Reading the Aseres Hadibros aloud with the Baal Korei: Some communities were accustomed to read the Aseres Hadibros aloud with the Baal Korei and simply have the Baal Korei recite the last verse aloud, alone. [See Terumas Hadeshen 24; Minchas Yitzchak 3:12] Practically, we do not rule like this custom. [Biur Halacha 146:2 “Velikros”]

[93] Admur 494:8

[94] The reason: The reason for this custom is because they follow the way the commands were written in the Torah [I.e. Kesiv], in which each command was written as its own Parsha. From Anochi until Lo Sisa is one Parsha Setuma, and one command, and it is therefore read as a single verse. Likewise, from Zachor until Lo Tirtzach is a single Parsha Setuma. However, Lo Tirtzach until Lo Tachmod is written in four Parshiyos Setumos, as they are four commands, and therefore they are read as four verses. [494:10]

[95] The reason: As Anochi and Lo Yihyeh Lecha were said simultaneously. It is for this reason that the Nun of the word Panaiy is vocalized with a Patach and not a Kamatz, as there is no stop [Asnachta or end of verse] by it. [Admur ibid]

[96] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Chaf of the word “Chol” which is in proximity to the word “Veasisa” is Refuyah and not Degusha. [Admur ibid]

[97] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Tzaddik of the word Tirtzach is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that there is a conclusion of verse at this area. Likewise, the Taf is Degusha being that the word Lo is vocalized with a Mafsik, which is a Tafcha. [Admur ibid]

[98] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Tinaf is Degusha and the Alef is vocalized with a Kamatz being that there is a conclusion of verse at this area. [Admur ibid]

[99] The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Tignov is Degusha. [Admur ibid]

[100] Admur 494:9

[101] One reads the verses as they have been allocated to be read from the Torah [i.e. Keri]. Thus, at times a single verse includes many commands, and at times the same command is read in many verses.

[102] The vocalization: According to this method, the Nun of Panaiy is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that it represents the end  the verse. [Admur ibid]

[103] The vocalization: According to this method the Chaf of the word “Kol” is Degusha. [Admur ibid]

[104] The reason: The reason for this custom is because they follow the way the verses are to be read according to Kri, as from Lo Sirtzach until Lo Sachmod there is only one verse. The reason for why this custom does not allow one to stop in middle of the verse and read it in accordance to the commands is because it is forbidden to completely stop in middle of a verse, even when one is reading the verse in private, as all the stop marks in the Torah are a tradition to Moshe from Sinai, and it is forbidden to stop in an area that Moshe did not make a stop in accordance to his tradition from Sinai. Now, since it is forbidden to make a complete stop in middle of these four small Parshiyos [from Lo Sirtzach to Lo Sinaf], therefore, when they are read in one setting they are read in a continuous melody which connects them into one verse, being that they are in truth one verse, as there is no verse in the entire Torah that contains less than three words. Likewise, from Anochi until Lo Sisa and from Zachor until Lo Sirtzach, there are various verses in the reading. Accordingly, a private individual may make a complete stop in the middle of the Parsha of Anochi and Zachor, so long as he does so at the end of a verse. Furthermore, even when reading in public there is no prohibition to stop in these areas due to stopping in middle of a verse, but rather due to those who enter and exit during the reading, as explained in 138:1. Therefore, they are read in a melody that makes a break between them, in order to turn them into many verses, being that in truth they are considered many verses regarding the number of verses they contain. [Admur 494:11; M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14]

The vocalization: It is for this reason that the Taf of Sirtzach, Sinaf, Signov, Seaneh is Refuyah and the Tzaddik of the word Sirtzach is vocalized with Patach, and the Alef of Sinaf is vocalized with a Kamatz, being that it has an Asnachta. [Admur ibid]

[105] Admur 494:11; M”A 494; Masas Binyamin 6; Elya Raba 142:1; Chizkuni Shemos 20:14

[106] The reason: As on Shavuos the Ten Commandments were given and therefore it is read in accordance to the way they were given, which is each command as a different verse. [Admur ibid]

[107] 428:6

[108] Michaber ibid One does not make an interval in the reading of the curses in Bechukosaiy, and reads from three verses prior and three verses after the curses. However, by the curses of Ki Savo one may make an interval, [as they were said by Moshe in the singular tense and hence are not as severe-M”B 428:18]. Nevertheless, the custom is not to make an interval even by the curses of Ki Savo.”

[109] M”A 428:8

[110] Rama 428:6

[111] The reason: As we suspect that if one is called by name he may not want to go up for the Aliyah and will despise the curses [as well as doing so shortens one’s life-Brachos 55a]. Hence, one is to arrange in advance who is to receive this Aliyah. [Levush 428; M”B 428:19; Biur Halacha “Beshmo”; Kaf Hachaim 428:40]

[112] Halef Lecha Shlomo 63; Avnei Tzedek 112; Machaneh Chaim 3:16; Minchas Elazar 1:66; Igros Moshe 2:35; Yabia Omer 7:19; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 139:8

[113] M”A 428:8 in name of Mahril “The Mahril despised those that went up for the Aliyah as it is only to be given to the Shamash who is hired for this purpose.”

Will something evil befall one who receives this Aliyah? Those who go up for this Aliyah suspect that something evil will befall them. However, certainly if one is doing so out of respect for the Torah, nothing evil will befall him. [M”B 428:17] The Sefer Chassidim 766 states that in previous generations they would call an ignoramus for this Aliyah in order so the evil does not befall a Torah scholar. Nevertheless, if a Torah scholar was called up, he is not to refrain from reading it. [brought in Kaf Hachaim 428:34] The Kneses Hagedola states that no evil will befall anyone, as one has no intent to recite curses at all. [brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid] In Shaar Hakavanos p. 73 and Peri Eitz Chaim it states that the Arizal went up to the Torah for this Aliyah and read the Torah as is the Sephardic custom.

[114] M”B 428:17 “This is a proper custom”; Kaf Hachaim 282:8; 428:35 “So is the custom today”; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 203

[115] Hayom Yom p. 88; Sefer Haminhagim p. 31; Igros Kodesh 15:453See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 19

[116] Hiskashrus 840

[117] Peri Chadash 428:7; M”A 428:8 in name of Kneses Hagedola regarding Parshas Haeigel; Kaf Hachaim 428:38; Hiskashrus 840. In Shaar Hakavanos and Peri Eitz Chaim it states that the Arizal went up to the Torah for this Aliyah and read it in a loud voice.

[118] M”B 428:17

[119] See Rama 135:10

[120] Tzemach Tzedek 35 [Custom of Alter Rebbe who was the Baal Korei]; Sefer Haminhagim p. 31; Igros Kodesh 3:31

[121] Igros Kodesh 18 [letter 905, printed in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:288]; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22 and glosses to volume 3 (p.74b)

[122] This dispute is recorded in M”B 685:18; The Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag ibid writes his source is from the Mesorah; Some Poskim rule the main Nussach is with a Tzeirei. [Bitzel Hachachma 6:50; Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:9] Others rule the main Nussach is with a Segal. [Maaseh Rav 134 that so was the custom of the Gra; Ketzos Hashulchan 84 footnote 22; In the glosses to volume 3 (p.74b) he proves that this was also the opinion of the Tzemach Tzedek] In conclusion the Rebbe and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid rule that by Beshalach the main Nusach is with a Segol while by Ki Seitzei the main Nussach is with a Tzerei. Nevertheless, we still read both Nuschaos as will be explained.

The saying of the Toras Chesed: The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid quotes that the Toras Chesed stated regarding this dispute “Zecher, Zeicher, the main thing is to blot them out properly”.

[123] M”B ibid; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid in name of Toras Chesed; Igros Kodesh ibid 

Background:

The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid writes that those which are meticulous would read it one time with a Tzeirei and one time with a Segal. By the reading of Beshalach and Ki Seitzei [when the Parsha is read twice, once for Shevi’i and a second time for Maftir] they would read it one way by Shevi’i and the second way by Maftir. By Purim and Parshas Zachor [in which the portion is only read once] they would repeat the verse twice. In the glosses to volume 3 (p.74b) he concludes that this is the custom, to read both Zeicher and Zecher, and so was the directive of Rav Shneur Zalman of Lublin, the author of Toras Chesed. To note however that there he mentions that the Baal Korei in Lubavitch stated they by Beshalach they would read only with a Segal, and by Ki Seitzei only with a Tzeirei.

[124] So concludes the Rebbe ibid in Igros Kodesh and Ketzos Hashulchan ibid

The reason behind this order of Zeicher:Zecher: This ruling is based on the Sefer Boneh Yerushalayim which is Meyuchas to the Alter Rebbe. There it states that by Beshalach the main Nussach is with a Segol while by Ki Seitzei the main Nussach is with a Tzeirei. [Nevertheless, we still read both Nuschaos as ruled the Toras Chesed.] Thus, by Beshalach we first read it with a Segal [Zecher] and then with a Tzeirei [Zeicher], as the first word read is viewed as the main Nussach. By Ki Seitzei we follow the opposite order as the word Zeicher is the main Nussach. [Igros Kodesh ibid; Boneh Yerushalayim ibid brought in Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

[125] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 685:9

[126] Igros Kodesh ibid; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 18; unlike the custom recorded in Ketzos Hashulchan 85 footnote 22, and the supplements in the back of the Sefer, that one is to read Zeicher by Shevi’i and Zecher by Maftir.

[127] Aruch Hashulchan 685:5; Hisvadyos 1989 2 p. 442-446 printed in Shaar Hamoadim Adar 46-47

[128] Har Tzevi 1:58

[129] Hiskashrus 109 and 1025; Yalkut Yosef 5:259

[130] Seemingly the reason for this is due to a Hefsek, interval, in the reading or between the reading and the blessing.

[131] Maharam Shick Mitzvah 605

[132] As after 12 months have passed without remembering Amalek it is considered as if one has forgotten it. [ibid]

[133] Divreiy Yoel 33

[134] As the extra month during a leap year is all considered part of that year and hence it is not considered that more than 12 months have passed. [ibid]

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