Parshas Bechukosai-Summary of the Parsha

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Parshas Bechukosai

Pesukim: 78 [Siman: עזא]

Haftorah: Yermiyahu 16:19-17:14

Number of Mitzvos:

There are a total of 12 Mitzvos in Parshas Bechukosai; 7 positive commands and 5 negative commands. The following are the commands in the chronological order that they are brought in the Parsha.

 

A. Positive:

1. Mitzvah 350; Positive 136: To follow the laws of Erechin of a human, that one give the worth of a human to Hekdesh if he made a vow to do so.

2. Mitzvah 352; Positive 137: That the Temurah animal be considered holy.

3. Mitzvah 353; Positive 138: To follow the laws of Erechin of an animal, that one gives the worth of an animal to Hekdesh.

4. Mitzvah 354; Positive 139: To follow the laws of Erechin of a house, that one give the worth of the house to Hekdesh.

5. Mitzvah 355; Positive 140: To follow the laws of Erechin of a field, that one gives the worth of the field to Hekdesh.

6. Mitzvah 357; Positive 141: To follow the laws of Cherem, that the consecrated property be given to the Kohanim.

7. Mitzvah 360; Positive 142: To tithe one’s animals each year and eat it in Jerusalem.

 

B. Negative:

1. Mitzvah 351; Negative 215: Not to make a Temurah of Kodshim.

2. Mitzvah 356; Negative 216: Not to change the status of a Karban from one type of Karban to another type of Karban

3. Mitzvah 358; Negative 217: Not to sell land or objects that was declared as Cherem, and rather to give it to the Kohanim.

4. Mitzvah 359; Negative 218: Not to redeem a field of Cherem and rather to give it to the Kohanim.

5. Mitzvah 361; Negative 219: Not to sell the tithed animal.

Rishon

  1. The Blessings received for obeying G-d’s commands:
  • If the Jewish people follow the statutes of Hashem and observe His commands, I will bless them with the following blessings:
    • Rain at the appropriate time.
    • The earth will give produce.
    • The trees will grow fruits.
    • There will be so much abundance of produce that it will last until the next year’s harvest
    • You will eat your bread to satiation [and become satiated with small amounts of food].
    • You will dwell securely in your land.

Sheiyni

  • I will provide peace in the land, and you will lie without fear.
  • I will remove wild animals from the land.
  • A sword [of war] will not pass through your land.
  • You will chase your enemies and they will fall before you.
  • Five men will chase 100 enemy soldiers and 100 men will chase 10,000 enemy soldiers. Your enemies will fall before you to the sword.
  • I will cause you to be fruitful and multiply and establish my covenant with you.

 

Shelishi (Chamishi if connected to Behar)

  • You will still be able to eat from the old fruit when the new harvest arrives.
  • I will place my Tabernacle amongst you and will not become disgusted of you. I will walk amongst you and will become a G-d for you and you will become for Me a nation. I am Hashem who took you out of Egypt from being slaves. I broke the pegs of your yoke and I led you erect.
  1. The curses received for disobeying G-d’s commands:
  • If you do not listen to Me, do not obey all these commands, despise My statutes, and are repulsed by My laws to break My covenant, then I will do the following to you:
    • I will make you panic and make you waste away.
    • You will get fever, causing your eyes to sting.
    • Your sowing of the seed will be in vain as your enemies will eat your produce.
    • You will fall before your enemies and they will rule over you.
    • You will flee even though no one is chasing you.
  • If you still do not listen to me, I will increase tormenting you in seven ways for your sins:
    • I will break your pride.
    • I will turn your heavens into iron and your land like copper.
    • You will exert your energy in vain as your land will not give off produce and its trees will not give off fruit.
  • If you still do not listen to me, I will increase tormenting you in seven ways for your sins:
    • I will send wild animals to attack you and bereave you.
    • I will exterminate your cattle and diminish you.
    • Your roads will be destroyed.
  • If despite these you still do not listen to me, I will increase tormenting you in seven ways for your sins:
    • I will bring upon you an attack by the sword to avenge my covenant.
    • You will gather in your cities and have a plague sent against you.
    • You will be delivered to the hands of the enemies.
    • I will break for you the staff of your sustenance.
    • Ten women will bake bread in one oven and bring the bread back by weight.
    • You will eat but not be satiated.
  • If despite this you still do not listen to me, I will increase tormenting you in seven ways for your sins:
    • You will eat the flesh of your children, the flesh of your sons and daughters.
    • Your towers and idols will be destroyed.
    • I will pile your carcasses on the carcasses of your idols, and I will despise you.
    • I will destroy your cities and Temple.
    • I will not smell the scent of your offerings.
    • I will make your land desolate from you and your enemies.
    • I will disperse you amongst all the nations and empty the sword after you.
    • Your cities will be put to ruin.
  • Appeasing the Shemitah years: Through the above, the land will become appeased from its Shemitah years, from all its years of desolation. All its days of it being desolate it will rest for whatever it did not rest during the years you dwelled on it.
    • The survivors, I will make them paranoid in the lands of their exile. They will flee from the sound of the rustling of a leaf and they will fall without anyone chasing them.
    • You will die from the sword of a friend without anyone chasing you.
    • You will be unable to overcome your enemies. You will become lost amongst the nations and will be consumed by them.
  • You will suffer due to the sins of your forefathers. Then you will confess your sins and the sins of your ancestors due to ignoring my commands. I therefore also treated you with ignorance and brought you to the land of your enemies so that the hardness of your heart become humbled and you will then receive appeasement for your sins.
  1. The salvation after the suffering:
  • I will remember the covenant with Yaakov and Yitzchak and Avraham and remember the land. The land will be bereaved of you and receive appeasement.
  • Even when you are amongst the enemies, I will not abhor you or reject you, to destroy you and the covenant I made with you, as I am Hashem Your G-d. I will remember that I took you out of Egypt and to be a G-d onto you.
  • These are the laws that Hashem gave the Jewish people on Har Sinai through Moshe.

Revi’i (Shishi if connected to Behar)

  1. Erechin-Nedarim/vows:
  • Hashem spoke to Moshe saying tell the Jewish people the following laws. When a man makes a vow to donate the value of a soul the following shall be the value to be donated.
  • Ages 20-60: The Erech [i.e. value] of a man between 20-60 years of age will be 50 silver Shekel. The Erech of a woman between 20-60 years of age will be 30 Shekel.
  • Ages 5-20: The Erech of a male child between 5-20 years of age will be 20 Shekel. The Erech of a female child between 5-20 years of age will be 10 Shekel.
  • Ages 0-5: The Erech of a male child between 0-5 years of age will be 5 Shekel. The Erech of a female child between 0-5 years of age will be 3 Shekel.
  • Above 60: The Erech of a man over 60 will be 15 Shekel. The Erech of a woman over 60 will be 10 Shekel.
  • If the donor is poor and he cannot pay the value stated above, he is to be evaluated by the Kohen and is to pay whatever he can afford.
  1. Temura:
  • It is forbidden to exchange a Karban for a different animal to have it take its place. This applies whether the second animal is of a better condition or a worse condition. If one went ahead and did so, then it and its substitute shall be holy.
  1. Hekdish-Donations of items to the Temple and their redemption status:
    • Animals: If one donates an impure [i.e. blemished] animal that cannot be brought as a sacrifice, it shall be brought to the Kohen and be evaluated by him. Whatever value the Kohen gives it is to be its sale price. If the original owner buys it, he is to add 20% to its value.
    • Home: One who donates his house, its value shall be based on the evaluation of the Kohen. If the original owner desires to redeem it, he is to add an extra 20% to its value and it shall then be his.

Chamishi (Shevi’i if connected to Behar)

  • Ancestral Field: One who donates his ancestral field to Hashem, its value is to be 50 silver Shekel per every area of land that a Chomer of barley can be sowed. Now, if the field was donated by the start of the Yovel, then the above is its value. However, if it was donated after the Yovel, then the Kohen is to sell it based on the amount of years remaining until the Yovel and subtract it from total value. If the original owner desires to redeem it, he is to add an extra 20% to its value and it shall then be his. If the owner does not redeem his field and it is sold to another, it may no longer be redeemed. It becomes the property of the Kohen when Yovel arrives.

Shishi

  • Purchased Field: One who donates his purchased field to Hashem, its value [of redemption] is to be based on the amount of years remaining until the Yovel. That sum is to be given as Hekdish to Hashem. In the Yovel year that field is to return to its original owner.
  • Bechor Beheima: A firstborn from one’s livestock, ox or sheep is not to be sanctified as it belongs to Hashem. One is not to sanctify a Bechor to the Temple. If the animal is impure, it is to be redeemed according to its value, and if the owner desires to redeem it, he is to add 20% to its price.
  • Cherem: All property that will be declared segregated to Hashem, whether from an animal or field, is not to be sold or redeemed. It is a Kodesh Kodoshim for Hashem.

 

Shevi’i

  • Person in Cherem: Any person that was put in Cherem (by the court for punishment) may not be redeemed, he is put to death.

 

  1. Maaser Rishon:
  • All tithes from produce of the land and fruits of the tree are holy to Hashem. If one redeems it, he must add 20% to its value.
  1. Maaser Behemos:
    • The 10th animal of cattle or flock which passes under the staff is to be consecrated to Hashem.
    • It is forbidden to switch a Karban to a different animal, whether good to bad or bad to good. If one went ahead and did so, then it and its substitute shall be holy, and shall not be redeemed.
    • These are the Mitzvos that Hashem commanded Moshe to teach the Jewish people on Mount Sinai.

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