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Appointing an emissary to light the candles on one’s behalf:
One may appoint an emissary to light the Chanukah candles on his behalf. One may even appoint a person who has already lit the candles and fulfilled his obligation, so long as he is present during the lighting, as explained next. Thus, a woman may appoint a man to light on her behalf, even if the man has already lit. [Nevertheless, Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mebeshlucho, and hence if one is able to light the candles himself, he is to do in all cases, rather than have another light on his behalf.]
Being present during the lighting of the emissary: One must be present during the lighting of his emissary, and hear the blessings recited from him. One fulfills his obligation even if he did not answer Amen to the blessing. If one will not be present during the lighting of the emissary, then the emissary may not recite a blessing. [If one was not present during the lighting, then although he has fulfilled the Mitzvah of lighting the candles, some Poskim rule he has not fulfilled the blessing of Sheasa Nissim or Shehechiyanu on the first night, and he must thus say that (those) blessing(s) upon seeing Chanukah candles. Other Poskim however rule he has fulfilled his obligation with the emissary. Practically, one is not to repeat the blessings. Initially, however, if there is no person present, at the time of the emissaries lighting, who plans to fulfill his obligation with the current lighting, then one may not have the emissary light at all.]
Appointing a woman: A man may appoint a woman as an emissary to light the Chanukah candles on his behalf, and fulfill his obligation through hearing her say the blessing. This applies whether or not the woman is one’s wife, and applies even if the woman has already lit her own candles and fulfilled the Mitzvah. A woman may thus light candles on behalf of her household, as explained in Halacha 2D. Nevertheless, it is not proper for a wife to light on behalf of her husband, when her husband is able to light.
Appointing a child as an emissary: One may not appoint a child to light the candles on his/her behalf [even if he has reached the age of Chinuch], and if he does so the lighting is invalid, even if the adult placed the candles there [and even if he did so under adult supervision]. Some Poskim however rule it is permitted to appoint a child who has reached the age of Chinuch to light the candles on one’s behalf. Practically, even a child who has reached the age of Chinuch is invalid.
Appointing a Cheresh or Shoteh: One may not appoint a Cheresh or Shoteh to light the candles on his/her behalf, and if he does so the lighting is invalid, even if the adult placed the candles there.
May one light the first candle and have another light the rest? [In a time of need] one may have one person recite the blessings and light the first candle and have others light the remaining candles. [However, initially, one is to light all the candles himself and not delegate the lighting of other candles to other people. For this reason, one is not to delegate his child to light one of the Chanukah candles, even if one desires to educate him in the Mitzvah. One may however have the child light the Shamash, which is also a slight Mitzvah.] Regarding if one may have one person say the blessings and another lights the candles-see Halacha 4 in Q&A!
One may appoint another man or women above Bar/Bas Mitzvah to light the Chanukah candles on one’s behalf, even if the person has already lit the candles and fulfilled his obligation, so long as he is present during the lighting. Nonetheless, it is best for one to personally light the candles in all cases.
If one’s father is a Cheresh or Shoteh, who is to light the Chanukah candles?
One must have a different household member light the candles on behalf of the family.
Who is to recite the blessings when another person is lighting the candles on one’s behalf?
- Example: An ill person who cannot move from his bed asked someone to light the candles for him in his room. Who should say the blessings; the ill person or the person lighting?
If the person for whom the candles is being lit, knows how to recite the blessings, then he is to recite it, and not have the emissary say it. If, however, one does not know how to recite the blessing, then the emissary is to recite it.
What is the Nussach of the blessing when reciting the blessing on behalf of another?
Some Poskim say that an emissary who is lighting candles on behalf of another, in their presence, is to recite “Al Hadlakas Ner Chanukah”. The custom however is to recite the regular Nussach as is recited by one who is fulfilling the Mitzvah.
When an emissary lights on behalf of another person on the first night, is he to also say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?
Yes [if the person who the candles were lit on his behalf does not know how to recite the blessing].
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3-4
 M”A 676:4; Kneses Hagedola; Olas Shabbos 675:1; Shulchan Gavoa 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:20
 M”A ibid; The Rebbe Rashab’s wife would have a man light on her behalf when her husband was away from home during Chanukah. [Sefer Hasichos 5706 p. 21; Likkutei Sichos 30 p. 312]
 Kaf Hachaim 675:19; See also Levush 671; Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 671:12; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:13; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; M”B 671:48 based on Biur Hagr”a; Kaf Hachaim 671:80;
 M”A 676:4; Elya Raba 676:2 in name of Bach; P”M 675 A”A 4; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 676:12 See Igros Moshe 1:190 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3 for a complete understanding of this Halacha
 P”M ibid; Admur 213:4; Michaber 213:2; Rambam Brachos 1:11; Brachos 45b
 M”A 676:4 in name of Bach; Elya Raba 676:2; Kneses Hagedola; Olas Shabbos 675:1; Shulchan Gavoa 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:20; 676:12
The reason: As the Mitzvah is upon the body of the person, and he hence must be present. [M”A ibid in name of Bach]
 See Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3
 Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba ; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 675:3; See also Michaber 676:3 which contradicts 677:3; See Nitei Gavriel 12:5 and footnote 8 that contradicts himself.
 Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag
 M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190
 Igros Moshe 1:190; Simple implication of M”B 675:9 in name of P”M; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3
The reason: As the emissary cannot say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim if there is no one fulfilling their obligation with it. [Igros Moshe ibid]
 Michaber 675:3; M”A 675:4; Taz 675:4; Agudah; Bach; Kneses Hagedola; Levush; Olas Shabbos 675:1; Peri Chadash 675; Elya Raba 675:6; Shulchan Gavoa 675:6; Machazik Bracha 675:4; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:19
 This is referring to a woman which is not one’s wife. However, if one’s wife lights the candles at home then one fulfills his obligation even if he is not present at the time of the blessing. [676:3 as is evident from the law of a guest which has a wife which is lighting for him at home.]
 M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:20
 Biur Halacha 675:2 “Isha”
 Michaber 675:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:4 regarding a child who became Bar Mitzvah during Chanukah
 Implication of stam opinion of Michaber ibid; Michaber 689:2 regarding Megillah based on Tana Kama in Megillah 19b and so rules: Rosh; Bahag; Levush; Bach; Olas Shabbos 689:3; Peri Chadash.
 Shnos Chaim 142; M”B 675:11; Kaf Hachaim 675:25
 Michaber ibid; Shabbos 23b
The reason regarding Megillah and the same applies here: Although a child [that has reached the age of Chinuch] is also Rabbinically obligated to light candles, nevertheless, he may not fulfill the obligation of a Gadol, as for the child it is a Rabbinical command from two aspects [“Trei Derabanan”-Megillah is Rabbinical; a Katan is Rabbinical] while a Gadol is Rabbinically obligated from only one aspect [Chad Derabanan]. [Beis Yosef in name of Levush; Olas Shabbos 689:3; Peri Megadim 689 A”A 1; M”B 689:6; Kaf Hachaim 689:11]
 Second opinion in Michaber ibid; Ran in name of Baal Haittur, as rules Rebbe Yehuda in Megillah ibid
 Peri Chadash 675; Olas Shmuel 105; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 19; M”B 675:13; Kaf Hachaim 675:26
 Michaber 675:3
 Rama 671:7 regarding the lighting in Shul and the same applies for the lighting at home, as explained in M”A 671:11; Rashal 85; M”B 671:49; brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:82
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that when lighting at home, one must light all the candles himself. [Levush 671] Some Poskim rule that a Baal Nefesh is to suspect for this opinion. [Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 671:12; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:13; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim ibid]
 Biur Hagr”a; M”B 671:48; Kaf Hachaim 671:80; This certainly applies in order to suspect for the “other opinions” brought in previous footnote.
 The reason: As the main Mitzvah is fulfilled when a single candle is lit and the remaining candles are only Hiddur Mitzvah. [M”B 671:49; Kaf Hachaim 671:81]
 M”B 671:48 in name of Gr”a; This certainly applies in order to suspect for the “other opinions” brought in previous footnotes.
 Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim 671:83
 P”M 676 A”A 4; Admur 8:11 and in 585:5; 273:6; M”A 8:8; 585:3 based on Terumas Hadeshen 140; P”M 8 A”A 8; Opinion in M”B 585:5 and 692:10; Kaf Hachaim 8:21; 675:9; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 6 says the person may [not must] say the blessing and have the emissary light; See M”A 676:4 in name of Hagahos Maimanis and Kaf Hachaim 676:13 that one person can light and another can say the blessing, and they do not state that it’s better for the person to say the blessing rather than the emissary.
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the person may always say a blessing for the other even if he knows how to recite the blessing. [Rama 585:2 regarding Shofar; Elya Raba brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid] See also Rama 671:7; M”A 671:11; Kaf Hachaim 676:13 who implies the person saying the blessing is to always be the person lighting
 Reim on Smag, Bach, brought in M”A 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:12
 M”A 676:4; Kneses Hagedola 676:1; Peri Chadash; Elya Raba 676:2; Kaf Hachaim 676:12
 Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 676:15
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