A torn Tallis

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Mending a torn Tallis-The laws of a torn Tallis:[1]

A Tallis which has received a tear enters into various Halachic questions:

  1. Does the tear render the Tallis invalid or may it continue to be worn despite its tear?
  2. If the Tallis is rendered invalid, does it help to sew the torn area back together?
  3. If it does help to resew the torn area, must the Tzitzis attached to the torn area be first untied and then retied after the sewing is complete?

In general a torn Tallis does not become invalid, and may be worn in its torn state, unless it occurred near the corner area where the Tzitzis are tied. If a piece of the Tallis was torn off then the Tallis remains Kosher so long as the Tallis retains its minimum size [explained in Chapter 3 Halacha 7] and the corner area remains whole.

 

Part of the Tallis completely tore off together with a set of Tzitzis:

The Tallis completely split into two large parts:[2] If a Kosher Tallis split into two parts, hence leaving one or two Tzitzis on each side [the Tallis is invalid in its current state and needs to be sewed back together[3], however regarding whether one must first undo the Tzitzis, the rule is as follows:] If each part of the Tallis retains a Shiur Tallis and contains four legal corners[4], one may sew the sides back together with their Tzitzis [or sew each side to another Tallis[5]]. One is not required to undo the Tzitzis prior to the sewing and then retie them after the sewing is complete.[6] This however only applies if both of the torn parts contain Shiur Tallis in it of itself; if however only one of the parts contains Shiur Tallis while the other part does not, then upon resewing the sides together one must first undo the Tzitzis from the side that does not contain Shiur Tallis and then retie those Tzitzis after the sides are sewed together.[7] [If neither part of the Tallis contains Shiur Tallis, then one must remove all the Tzitzis from both parts of the Tallis and then retie them after the sewing is complete.[8] Practically, it is not possible for a Tallis Katan to completely tear in two parts and have both parts retain Shiur Tallis, and hence the above law is only practical by a Tallis Gadol.]

Corner of 6×6 cm completely off tore – Sewing back onto a Tallis with its Tzitzis:[9] If one of the corners of a Tallis completely tore off the Tallis together with the Tzitzis, or if the corner was cut off, [then if the corner is less than Shiur Tallis but is at least 6×6 cm[10]] then one may not sew this corner onto another Tallis[11] together with its Tzitzis, and rather the Tzitzis must be removed and then retied after the corner is sewed.[12] This prohibition applies even if the corner piece that was cut or torn is very large [much larger than the 6×6 cm square of the legal corner] and one desires to sew it to a Tallis that is missing a fourth corner. [This prohibition applies even if one desires to sew it back onto the same Tallis that it tore from.[13]] In the event that one did so, the set of Tzitzis that was on the torn corner is invalid and the Tzitzis must be removed and then retied.[14] This however only applies if the torn or cut corner piece is not large enough to the point that it contains Shiur Tallis in it of itself; if however the size of the cut corner piece contains Shiur Tallis, then it is permitted to sew the corner together with its Tzitzis to another Tallis which has three corners of Tzitzis[15] [as explained above], and it is not necessary to remove and then retie that set of Tzitzis after the corner is sewed.[16] It goes without saying that if one does not desire to sew this cut piece of Shiur Tallis to another Tallis, but rather desires to wear it on its own, that it is permitted to simply tie Tzitzis to the other three corners and it is not necessary to untie the original Tzitzis from it.[17]

If there is no other Kosher Tzitzis available:[18] Some Poskim[19] argue on the above and rule that Tzitzis that were tied to a corner never become invalid unless the torn piece does not retain even a minimum corner measurement of  3×3 Gudlin [6×6 cm]. Thus, even if the Tallis tore in half and there does not remain Shiur Tallis on the torn sides, but each side contains the size of 6×6 cm, it is permitted to resew the sides together with the Tzitzis, and one is not required to untie the Tzitzis and then retie them after the sewing.[20] This applies whether the sides completely split, or are attached to less than 6 cm of length.[21] Practically, one is to be stringent like the former opinion [which invalidates the Tzitzis and requires its removal and retying, if the sides do not retain Shiur Tallis], however if it is not possible to undo the Tzitzis and other Tzitzis are not available, then one may be lenient like this opinion [to sew the sides together while the Tzitzis is attached, if the torn piece retains a 6×6 cm size].[22] Such a case can occur if one of the strings of that Tzitzis tore below the length of 24 cm, but above Kdei Aniva [4 cm], and is hence only Kosher prior to being untied, however once it is untied it may no longer be tied back onto the corner. In such a case, if one does not have any other Tzitzis available at all, one may resew the sides together without removing the Tzitzis.    

Corner of less than 6×6 cm tore completely off-Sewing back onto Tallis:[23] If the corner area was completely torn, or cut, off from the Tallis, and it contains a dimension of less than 6×6 cm, then it is disputed as to whether it is valid to resew this torn corner back onto the Tallis, even if it does not contain Tzitzis, and one plans to tie new Tzitzis onto the corner after it is sewed.[24] [According to all however, it is invalid to sew the corner together with the Tzitzis.[25]] Practically, one is to be stringent when possible [not to resew a corner piece that is less than a 6×6 cm diameter, if it completely tore off the Tallis, even if one removes its Tzitzis]. [If one is unable to be stringent, he must nevertheless remove the Tzitzis from the corners prior to the sewing. If the corner area is a diameter of 6×6 cm or more, then it may be sewed on to the Tallis according to all, although the Tzitzis must be removed and then retied, as explained above.] It is due to this law that the custom became to sew a piece of cloth by [each of] the corners of the Tallis, as explained in Halacha 11F.[26] [Thus, in a case that the corner completely came off with its Tzitzis, and is less then 6×6 cm, one may sew a patch of 6 by 6 cm onto the Tallis in order to use it as a corner.]

 

May one sew a braided Tzitzis onto a corner?[27]

The Tzitzis must be braided while on the corner. Hence it is invalid to braid a Tzitzis and then sew it onto a corner of a Tallis.[28] This applies even if the Tzitzis was on another Tallis. Thus one may not cut the corner of a Tallis in order to free the Tzitzis and then sew the Tzitzis onto another Tallis. Likewise, invalidation applies even if the hole of a corner tore and the Tzitzis braid slipped off the Tallis and one desires to replace it to this corner during the sewing.

 

Tear within the Tallis but the piece remains attached:

The Tallis tore completely on one side outside the 6×6 corner area:[29] The above law in A only applies if one cut the Tallis, or the Tallis tore, into two completely separate parts. If however the two parts remain partially attached, then if there is still three Gudlin [6 cm] of attached area, the parts are considered as if they are still completely attached and have not been split at all. [see Picture A in end of Halacha] Hence, upon sewing the sides back together, one is not required to undo the Tzitzis [even if neither side contains Shiur Tallis]. [In such a case, the Tallis remains Kosher even if one does not sew the sides back together.[30]] However if the attached area is less than three Gudlin [6 cm; see Picture B in end of Halacha] then the sides are considered completely split, and therefore [if one of the sides does not contain Shiur Tallis] upon sewing the sides back together one must remove the Tzitzis from the side that does not contain Shiur Tallis and then retie it after the sewing.[31] [Some Poskim[32] however rule that so long as the corner is even partially attached, it is valid to resew it together with the Tzitzis using threads of non-Tzitzis material.[33] However, until the Tallis is sewed, it remains invalid according to all.[34] Practically, one is to suspect for the former opinion if possible [remove the Tzitzis prior to sewing].[35] This entire law however only applies if the tear did not occur within the 6×6 cm corner area of the Tallis, as brought next from Siddur Admur.]

The Tallis completely tore on one side within the 6×6 corner area above the hole:[36] The above law only applies if the tear did not occur within the 6×6 cm corner area of the Tallis. If however the Tallis tore from the edge, and the tear occurred [above the Tzitzis hole[37] but] within the 6×6 cm corner area[38], then it is invalid if the tear in that area is a length of more than 3 cm long.[39] This applies even though the remainder of the length remains attached a 6 cm length, and the area of the Tzitzis remains complete.[40] [See Picture C in end of Halacha] In such a case, if one sews the torn area together with the Tzitzis, the Tzitzis remains invalid according to all.[41] However, to remove the Tzitzis and then retie the Tzitzis onto the corner after the corner is resewed onto the Tallis is disputed. Some Poskim[42] rule it is valid to do so while other Poskim[43] rule it is invalid to do so[44], and in their opinion this Tallis is completely invalid and cannot be fixed. Practically, one is to suspect for their opinion if possible [and never wear these Tzitzis].[45] [An alternative solution is to sew a 6×6 cm piece of cloth to the back of this torn corner, and then attach the Tzitzis to it.[46]]

The Tallis completely tore on one side within the 6×6 corner area beneath the hole:[47] The above law only applies if the tear occurred above the hole, but within the 6×6 cm corner area of the Tallis. [Picture C] If however it occurred beneath the hole [Picture D], it remains valid[48], even if the entire piece under the hole came off, as explained in C below!

Summary-The corner area completely tore on one side: [This follows the same ruling stated previously regarding a Tallis that tore on one side within 6×6 cm of the corner.] If the corner tore above the hole, within the 6 by 6 cm area, either in length or width, and it ripped through the edge, and the rip is at least 3 cm long, then the Tallis is invalid and it is disputed as to whether this Tallis can be made Kosher if one sews the corner back on and removes the Tzitzis beforehand. Some opinions rule one may remove the Tzitzis and resew the corner, while others rule the corner is invalid even with sewing. Practically one is to suspect for their opinion when possible [and hence if possible one is to be stringent and never wear this Tallis, or alternatively is to sew a 6×6 cm piece of cloth to the back of this torn corner, and then attach the Tzitzis to it.[49]] If the corner tore beneath the hole, the Tzitzis remains valid as explained in Halacha C!

If the Tallis tore in the middle and is still attached on all ends:[50] If the Tallis tore in the middle, the Tallis remains valid even if the tear is very long and extends from one end of the Tallis to the other, so long as the Tallis still remains attached, even slightly, by both of its ends. It is not even necessary to even sew the torn area of the Tallis. [See Picture E] The same applies if the Tallis tore in the middle and the tear was both vertical and horizontal, the Tallis remains valid even without sewing, so long as the ends remain even slightly attached. [See Picture F] [This applies even if the ends are not attached for 6 cm on any side, nevertheless if it remains even slightly attached, it remains valid. However it requires further analysis if this would apply even in a case that the middle of the Tallis has torn on three sides and remains only attached from its bottom. See Picture H]

The corner tore in the middle and is still attached on all sides: [It is implied from the above law in Siddur Admur that even if the tear occurs within the corner area of 6×6 cm, the Tallis remains valid even without sewing, so long as the ends of the Tallis remain attached and have not been torn.[51] See Picture G. However, it requires further analysis if this would apply even in a case that the middle of the corner has torn on three sides and remains only attached from its bottom. See Picture H]

 

Summary of a torn Tallis

A. The status of the Tallis in its torn state:

If any part of the Tallis which contains a set of Tzitzis completely tears off the Tallis, the Tallis is rendered invalid until it is repaired to contain four corners and four sets of Tzitzis, as explained in B. If the torn piece remains still attached to the Tallis, then if it contains at least 6 cm of attached space and the tear did not occur within the 6×6 corner area, the Tallis remains valid and is not required to be resewn.

 

Cases that the Tallis remains valid in its torn state:

1. The Tallis remains complete on all its ends and the tear occurred in the middle of the Tallis. This includes if the Tallis tore from near one end until near the second end, but both ends remain slightly attached. This applies even if the tear occurred in the corner. [Picture E-G]

2. The tear cut through one of the ends of the Tallis, although retains at least 6 cm of attached space, and the tear did not occur above the hole, within the 6×6 cm area of the corner. [Picture A]

 

Cases that the Tallis remains invalid in its torn state:

3. A piece of the Tallis tore off, together with a set of Tzitzis.

4. The Tallis tore through one end and the torn piece does not contain 6 cm of attached area to the Tallis. [Picture B]

5. The corner tore through one end within its 6×6 area, above the hole, and the tear is the length of 3 cm. [Picture C]

In all the above cases refer to B regarding if resewing the tear is valid, and regarding whether the Tzitzis must be untied and retied to the corner after the sewing.

 

B. Resewing the torn parts:

Whenever a Tallis becomes invalid due to tearing, as explained above, then whether one may sew the part back onto the Tallis, and revalidate it, is dependent on the size of the torn piece and the area of the tear. Whether one may sew the piece back on together with its attached Tzitzis is also dependent on the size of the torn piece and the area of the tear. The following is the law:

Piece completely tore off: Whenever a Tallis becomes invalid due to the complete tearing off of a corner from the Tallis together with its Tzitzis, then whether one may sew the part back onto the Tallis, and revalidate it, is dependent on the size of the torn corner. If both the Tallis and its torn part retain the minimum shiur of Tallis [1×1 Ama], then one may sew the sides back together with their Tzitzis. One is not required to undo the Tzitzis prior to the sewing. If however the torn part is less than Shiur Tallis, then if the torn piece is at least 6×6 cm, one may sew it back onto the Tallis after first removing the Tzitzis, and then retie the Tzitzis after the sewing is complete. If the torn piece is less than 6×6 cm then one is to be stringent not to sew it back onto the Tallis, even if he plans to remove the Tzitzis beforehand.

Piece still attached: Whenever a piece of the Tallis has torn but remains partially attached, then one may sew the part back onto the Tallis together with its Tzitzis if the tear occurred outside the 6×6 corner area and there remains 6 cm of attached space to the torn piece. One is not required to undo the fringes prior to the sewing. In such a case even if one does not resew the Tallis, it remains Kosher. If there is less than 6 cm of attached space to the torn piece, then although resewing is valid, nevertheless one must remove the fringes prior to resewing. If the Tallis ripped within the 6×6 cm corner area, either in length or width, and it ripped through the edge, above the Tzitzis hole, and the rip is at least 3cm long, then some opinions rule one must remove the Tzitzis and resew the corner, while others rule the corner is invalid even with sewing. Practically one is to suspect for their opinion when possible.

May one sew a corner onto the Tallis? If the corner is three by three Etzbaos [6×6 cm] it is permitted to sew it [without Tzitzis] onto a Tallis. The widespread custom today is to sew a piece of cloth by [each of] the corners of the Tallis, in order to gain an additional valid corner.

 

Q&A

What is the law if only the front part or only the back part of the corner ripped?[52]

As long as there is one corner intact the Tzitzis is valid. Thus, by today’s Talleisim which have an extra square corner sewed on the back of each corner, the corner remain valid so long as an invalidating tear has not occurred in both corners.

 

If the side of one’s Tallis tore and now contains more than four corners, must it be sewed prior to wearing?

If the Tallis did not tear in majority of its length or width, then one may wear it as usual.[53] If however the Tallis tore in majority of its length or width, then some Poskim[54] rule one is to immediately fix the Tallis and resew the tear.[55] Accordingly, one may not wear this Tallis with a blessing until it is sewn.[56] Some Poskim[57] rule one is required to undo all the Tzitzis and retie them after the tear is sewn, and the extra corners invalidated. Other Poskim[58] however rule one is not required to undo the Tzitzis and the mere sewing suffices, and so is the ruling of Admur.[59] This law applies likewise if the Tallis Katan tore in the neck hole and the tear extends for majority of the length.[60]

Ruling of Admur in Siddur:[61] According to Admur in the Siddur one is never required to resew the tear of a Tallis even if the tear forms more than four corners, unless the piece tore to the point that it is less than 6 cm attached, or is near the corner, as explained in the summary above.

 

If the Tallis Katan tore by the neck hole of one side, all the way down through the bottom of the Tallis, does it remain valid?

Some[62] write the Tallis is invalid and must have its Tzitzis removed and then resewn. It is unclear if this ruling stands correct according to Admur.[63]

 

What is the law if the shoulder area of the Tallis Katan tore?

Remains attached on one end: Some[64] rule that according to Admur in the Siddur there is no minimum size required for the shoulder material, and hence if each shoulder is still attached by one end [either inner or outer] it remains valid. Other Poskim[65] rule that if the two shoulders combined have torn in majority, the Tallis is invalid and is to have all of its Tzitzis removed and then its shoulders resewed and its Tzitzis retied. The custom is to resew the shoulders without removing the Tzitzis.[66]

One shoulder completely tore on both of its ends: If one shoulder completely tore on both its ends while the other remains intact, then the Tallis is invalid and must have its shoulders resewn.[67] Some Poskim[68] rule the one is not required to remove the Tzitzis prior to this sewing. Others[69] rule the Tzitzis must be removed and then retied.

Torn piece completely came off Tallis:

  Valid without resew Must Resew-Tzitzis may remain Must Resew-Tzitzis must be removed Invalid-Resew does not help
Piece without Tzitzis             

              Yes[70]

     
Piece with Tzitzis-1×1 Ama    

Yes

   
Piece with Tzitzis-less than 1×1 Ama      

Yes[71]

 
Piece with Tzitzis-less than 6×6 cm        

Yes[72]

Torn piece still attached to Tallis:

  Valid without resew Must Resew-Tzitzis must be removed Invalid-Resew does not help
Tore in middle -sides remain intact             

              Yes

   
Tore through edge away from corner -6 cm remains attached  

Yes

   
Tore through edge away from corner –less than 6 cm remains attached    

 

Yes[73]

 
Tore through edge within corner, above hole –Tear is 3 cm      

Yes[74]

Tore through edge within corner –Tear is less than 3 cm  

Yes

   

 

Tore through edge within corner, beneath hole –Tear is 3 cm  

Yes

   

 

  

If the bottom of the corner [under the Tzitzis] tore off and Tzitzis remains complete:[75]

If after tying the Tzitzis to a hole that was made within its proper dimensions, a tear occurred in the area of the corner which is under the hole, to the point that the hole now measures less than 4 cm from the edge, the Tzitzis nevertheless remain valid.[76] It remains valid even if the hole tore until the rim of the corner, and the Tzitzis is hanging by a mere thread that is under the hole.[77] One is not required to sew the tear so long as the Tzitzis is hanging on even a mere thread.[78] Nevertheless, initially it is proper to strengthen the hole in a way that it will not tear, as explained in C. If the hole tore prior to placing the Tzitzis onto the hole, then one may not tie Tzitzis to this hole until he sews it in a way that it returns to hold the Tzitzis in its proper dimensions.[79] The same applies if one is replacing Tzitzis onto a torn hole, that it must be properly sewn prior to tying the new Tzitzis.[80]

 

If the corner hole tore:

See Halacha 12B!

 

May one sew a corner onto a garment?[81]

As explained in Halacha B, a corner that is 6×6 cm in dimensions is permitted to be sewed [without Tzitzis] onto a Tallis, and so is done even initially. If it is less than 6×6 cm one may not sew it.

 

What material is one to use to sew a tear that occurred within the corner?[82]

If the corner of the Tallis tore and requires stitching, then if the tearing occurred outside of the legal parameters for where the hole and its Tzitzis may be made, [i.e. the tear is below 4 cm from the bottom or side, or is above 6 cm from the bottom or side] then one may use any material thread for the sewing.[83] If however the tear occurred within the legal parameters of the hole and its Tzitzis, which is within 4-6 square cm from the bottom of the corner[84] [see Halacha 12A], then some Poskim[85] rule it is forbidden to sew using a white thread which is made of a material that is valid to be used as Tzitzis for that Tallis.[86] This applies even if the tear is very minor [and does not invalidate the Tallis]. For example, if the Tallis is made of linen one is not to sew the tear using linen threads, but rather is to use silk threads, or threads of other material; If the garment is made of silk, one is not to sew the tear using silk [or wool[87]] threads; If the Tallis is made of wool one is not to use wool threads to sew the corner but rather is to use silk threads, or threads of other material. [On a cotton garment one is neither to use wool nor cotton white threads, and is to use threads of other materials.] Practically, although there are Poskim that argue on this opinion, nevertheless one is to be stringent if possible.[88] According to all opinions, one may use a colored thread for this sewing.[89]

Sewing the rims of the holes:[90] Based on the above, one is not to sew the rim of the holes for the purpose of preventing tearing, using a white thread which is of a valid material for the Tzitzis of this garment. [Thus, on a wool garment one is not to use white wool threads to sew the corner. On a cotton garment one is neither to use wool nor cotton white threads, and is to rather use threads of other materials.]

 

Summary:

When possible, one is to be stringent not to sew within 4-6 square cm of the bottom and side of the corner, any white thread which is of a Kosher material of Tzitzis for that Tallis.

_______________________________________

[1] Admur 6-15; Menachos 40b; For a summary of the opinions in Rishonim on this issue, see Siddur Rav Raskin p. 49

[2] 15:8-9; Tosafus Menachos 40b

Other opinions brought in Admur: Some Poskim rule that Tzitzis that were tied to a corner never become invalid unless the torn piece does not retain even a minimum corner measurement of 3 x 3 Gudlin [6×6 cm]. [15:11; See below under “If one has no other Tzitzis available”]

Ruling of Michaber: Admur in Kuntrus Achron 15:2 learns that the Michaber 15:3-4 rules mainly like the lenient opinion, and that only a G-d fearing Jew needs to be stringent like the opinion of Tosafus.

[3] As it no longer has four corners with Tzitzis.

[4] Based on reason of Admur brought in next footnote “being that the Tzitzis still remained attached to a piece of garment that retains Shiur Tallis and contains four corners”; This implies that if the torn corner area became rounded due to the tear, or if it tore in a diagonal from end to end and hence became a three cornered Tallis, all of its Tzitzis must be removed prior to the re-sewing, even if both parts contain Shiur Tallis. So rules also: M”B 10:12; 15:6 in name of Derech Hachaim; Mor Uketzia; Artzos Hachaim; Kaf Hachaim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10:1; 15:3; See Admur 10:10; This is unlike the understanding of Piskeiy Teshuvos 15 footnote 16 in Admur 15:6, which learns the opposite in Admur there, however his proof is unclear and is clearly contradicted by Admur here.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the Tzitzis remain valid even if the garment loses a corner, being that the Tzitzis was originally tied to a four cornered garment. [Maharil 6; Tehila Ledavid 15:2]

[5] 15:7 as brought in next part of this Halacha

[6] 15:8; 15:7 regarding a corner that maintains Shiur Tallis; Aruch Hashulchan 15:9; Chazon Ish 3:18

The reason: As the Tzitzis did not become invalid through its Tallis splitting into two parts, being that the Tzitzis still remained attached to a piece of garment that retains Shiur Tallis and contains four corners, and therefore still retains their status of Kosher Tzitzis. It is simply that the Tzitzis have now separated from each other, and this separation does not invalidate them as all the Tzitzis of the entire world are placed one after the other [and are hence at first separate until all four Tzitzis are tied]. [ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not sew the garment back together, being that within the sewing process each garment loses one of its corners. Thus, in their opinion, one is required to first untie the Tzitzis of all four corners and then sew the parts together, or to not sew anything onto the corners, and add new Tzitzis to the newly formed corners. [Bach 15, brought in Taz ibid] Others rule that although one is not required to remove the Tzitzis of all four corners, nevertheless when sewing the pieces together one must remove the Tzitzis of one of the sides and then retie it after the sewing. [Taz 15:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 10; Chayeh Adam 11:28; Shulchan Hatahor 15:2; Artzos Hachaim 15:3 and 27; Kitzur SHU”A 9:9; M”B 15]

[7] 15:9

The reason: As the Tzitzis of the non-Shiur Tallis side have already become invalid as a result of the split, as they are now tied onto a piece of garment that does not contain Shiur Tallis and is completely exempt from Tzitzis. Now, since the Tzitzis have already become invalid it can no longer automatically become Kosher through simply sewing the piece back onto the other part, being that by doing so one is not doing any action to the actual Tzitzis and the Torah states “Gedilim Taaseh”, which teaches us that the Tzitzis must initially be made in a Kosher state, and is invalid if it was originally made invalid [i.e. Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy]. [ibid]

[8] Evident from Admur brought next; M”B 15:8; Neziros Shimshon 15:3

[9] 15:6-7; Siddur Admur [letter 20 Raskin]; Michaber 15:2; Menachos 41a

[10] Siddur Admur and Admur 15:12

[11] In truth, this applies whether one desires to sew it onto the Tallis from which it tore or was cut from, or onto a different Tallis which only has three corners, and one desires to now sew the fourth corner to the Tallis. [See above from Admur 15:9; Vetzaruch Iyun as to why Admur here specifically mentions the law regarding sewing the corner to a different Tallis, if in truth the same law applies even if he desires to sew it back to the same Tallis.] See footnotes below for other opinions!

[12] The reason the corner may be sewed back on: Since the tear did not occur within the corner dimensions, therefore it remains valid [according to all] to be resewed to the Tallis. [Siddur Admur]

The reason the Tzitzis must be removed: As the verse states “And you shall make Tzitzis on the corner of your garments” which teaches that at the time that the Tzitzis are tied to the corner, the corner must be tied to the main part of the garment, and only then does it have the ability to exempt the garment. However, if the Tzitzis was already attached to a corner that was torn from a different Tallis, then since at the time that it was tied to the corner, the corner was not attached to this Tallis, therefore it does not exempt this garment until he unties it from the corner and then reties it after the corner is sewed onto this Tallis. [ibid] Vetzaruch Iyun as to why this is not forbidden [also] due to Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy as Admur rules in 15:9, as a single corner is not obligated in Tzitzis? [The M”A 15:3 does not invalidate due to Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy when resewing a corner back onto the same Tallis, however Admur 15:9 clearly negates his ruling and rules like the Taz that it does apply, and hence Tzaruch Iyun as to why here the concept of Taaseh Velo Min Haasuiy is omitted. This question applies likewise on the Michaber 15:2. Perhaps however one can say that according to Admur the above reason is part of the concept of Taaseh Velo Min Haasuiy, as explained in Levushei Serud ibid that Taaseh Velo Min Haasuiy includes two aspects. According to this, sewing back onto a different garment is simply the second aspect of Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy. Vetzaruch Iyun as to why both aspects are necessary and as to what is the practical ramification between them according to Admur.]

Must the Tzitzis of the other corners also be removed and retied? One is not required to undo the Tzitzis of the other corners, prior to resewing the corner onto the Tallis. Only the Tzitzis of the detached corner which will be sewed must be removed and then retied. [Clear implication of Admur ibid; M”B 15:6] This however only applies if the Tallis retained four corners even after one of the corners tore. If however the corner of a Tallis tore off in a way that the torn area is round and does not form a corner, then since the Tallis now only contains three corners all of its Tzitzis are invalid, and must be removed and then retied after the fourth corner is resewed. [Implication of Admur 15:8 “being that the Tzitzis still remained attached to a piece of garment that retains Shiur Tallis and contains four corners”; So rules: M”B 10:12; 15:6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10:1]

[13] 15:9 due to Taaseh Velo Min Hassuiy [brought in previous Halacha]; Kuntrus Achron 15:1; Tosafus in Menachos ibid; Taz 15:4; Ateres Zekeinim 15:2; M”B 15:7; Derech Hachaim Vetzaruch Iyun as to why Michaber and Admur in 6-7 consistently states the prohibition regarding sewing it to another Tallis, hence implying that it would be permitted to sew onto the same Tallis. Furthermore, from the reason mentioned for the invalidation it implies that it would be permitted to resew with the Tzitzis back onto the same Tallis. Vetzaruch Iyun!

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to resew the corner back onto the original Tallis, even while its Tzitzis remain attached, and one is only required to first undo the Tzitzis when sewing onto a different Tallis, as then the above concept applies. [M”A 15:4]

[14] 15:6; 1st opinion in Siddur Admur [letter 20 Raskin]; Michaber ibid

[15] Seemingly this means that the Tallis contains four corners, but only three with Tzitzis, and hence needs another corner added with Tzitzis. If however the Tallis is of three corners, then seemingly its Tzitzis are invalid and must be removed and retied after the sewing of the 4th corner, as explained from Admur and Poskim in previous Halacha that the Tallis must retain four corners for it to remain valid. This is unlike the understanding of Piskeiy Teshuvos 15 footnote 16 in Admur here.

[16] Admur 15:7 [and 8] based on Michaber 15:3, as explained in M”A 15:4

The reason: As at the time that the Tzitzis were made, the Tzitzis were attached to the main part of the garment, which is to this piece that contains Shiur Tallis, and is thus considered the main part of the garment. [ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one must remove the Tzitzis prior to sewing the piece onto another Tallis, and only when resewing to the same Tallis is one not required to remove the Tzitzis beforehand. [Taz 15:3; M”B 15:5 in name of Levush, Derech Hachaim] The reason for this is because the verse states “And you shall make Tzitzis on the corner of your garments” which teaches that at the time that the Tzitzis are tied to the corner the corner must be tied to the main part of the garment.

[17] Admur 15:7 based on Michaber 15:3 as explained in Taz 15:3

[18] Admur 15:11; 2nd opinion in Siddur Admur [letter 20 in Raskin]

[19] Nimukei Yosef Tzitzis as explains Beis Yosef; Piskei Rid Menachos 41a; Rambam 1:18

[20] The reason: As Tzitzis do not become invalidated when they are hanging on a piece of garment which does not contain Shiur Tallis, as since the Tzitzis are still hanging on the corner, as do all Tzitzis which hang on a corner, therefore it is valid. Thus, if the torn piece contains 3×3 Gudlin, which is the measurement required to be defined as a corner, then the Tzitzis which hang on that piece of garment remain Kosher and is not invalidated at all. For this reason one is not required to untie the Tzitzis and then retie it after the sewing, However if the torn piece does not retain a 3 x 3 Gudlin size by its corner area, then it is invalid even according to this opinion. [ibid]

[21] This means as follows: If the torn piece does not retain a 3 x 3 Gudlin size by its corner area, then even if the torn area did not completely tear from the rest of the Tallis, but still remained partially attached, nevertheless if it is not attached for a length of 3 Gudlin [6 cm], the Tzitzis is invalid. The reason is because it is considered completely torn off the Tallis, and its Tzitzis have thus become invalid being that they are hanging on a cloth that is not considered a corner at all. Therefore, in such a case, if one desires to sew this corner back onto the Tallis, one must first untie the invalid Tzitzis which are hanging on it and then retie them on the corner after the piece is resewn. Alternatively, one can simply tie the new Tzitzis onto the resewn corner. [ibid]

[22] Admur 15:11, based on Taz 15:4 that rules like Tosafus, as explained in Kuntrus Achron 15:2

Ruling of Michaber: Admur in Kuntrus Achron 15:2 learns that the Michaber 15:3-4 rules mainly like the lenient opinion, and that only a G-d fearing Jew needs to be stringent like the opinion of Tosafus.

[23] 15:12; Michaber 15:4; This dispute is brought in Siddur Admur [letter 19 in Raskin] regarding even if the corner did not completely tear off

[24] Some Poskim [Ittur Tzitzis 2:2; Rosh 11 in name of Rav Amram Gaon; first opinion in Michaber ibid] rule that if the torn piece is less than 3×3 Gudlin dimension, which is the measurement of a Halachic corner, then it is permanently invalid to have Tzitzis tied onto it, even if he unties the current Tzitzis that is tied to it and then ties a new set of Tzitzis onto it after it is resewed to the garment. The reason for this is because since this corner is not considered a garment, due to its lack of 3×3 dimensions, therefore the sewing does not help at all to attach it to the Tallis, and even after it is sewed it is considered separate from it and is not considered part of the Tallis. Therefore, if one ties Tzitzis to this corner, it does not validate the Tallis it is sewed to even if the Tzitzis are tied after the sewing is complete, as these Tzitzis are not considered to be attached to the Tallis at all. This sewn corner is considered similar to a fringe that has been sewed to the edge of a garment of which we rule that the Tzitzis may not be sewn onto it being it is not considered part of the Tallis, despite that it is included in the corner measurement of the 2-6 cm space allocated to tie the Tzitzis, as explained there in 11:19. Other Poskim [Nimukei Yosef; Piskei Harid] however argue on this ruling [and hold that a sewed corner is always valid even if it is not a dimension of 3×3 Gudlin]. [Admur ibid; Michaber ibid]

[25] As explained above in Admur 15:11

[26] 15:14; M”A 15:14; Ketzos Hashulchan 6:12-13

The reason: This is done in order to verify that the corner contains a single piece of garment that is at least 6×6 cm. [Back then], the majority of the garments, even the new garments, contained sewed [pieces of garment] within the corner area, which is three Gudlin from the edge of the corner. Now, according to some Poskim [explained in 15:12], there may not be any patch of clothing [which is less than 6×6 cm] sewed within 3 Gudlin from the corner, in the area that the Tzitzis are tied to [and if one sewed a patch to that area, according to this opinion, the patch is considered to be not attached to the Tallis, and hence if one ties Tzitzis to it, the Tzitzis is invalid]. Therefore, we place in the area that the Tzitzis are tied a cloth that is 6×6 cm and does not contain any patches, in order so the Tzitzis hang on an area that is fit to be called a corner according to all. [ibid] This extra piece of cloth is helpful even today in a case that the corner tore and needs stitching, in which case the backup corner serves as the Halachic corner of the garment.

[27] Implication of Rashi Menachos 41a [however see Rav Poalim below]; Lev Chaim 1:96 “so is the ruling of all the Achronim”; Yad Haketana 3:1 brought in Rav Poalim; Chayeh Adam 11:29; Kaf Hachaim 15:3 “One cannot permit prohibitions as result of unclear explanations”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:5 footnote 33

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to cut a whole braided Tzitzis off from a corner of a Tallis and then sew it [by its bottom area] onto the corner of another Tallis. [Rabbeinu Yeshaya [author of Tosafus Rid, 1100’s] brought in Sam Chaim p. 14 Hilchos Tzitzis; Birkeiy Yosef in Shiyurei Bracha 15:1; Rav Poalim 3:1; Artzos Hachaim 15:2 allows to return the strings to the same Tallis.] These Poskim hold it is not necessary for the braid to be made while the strings are attached to the Tallis.

[28] The reason: This is forbidden due to Taaseh Velo Min Hassuiy. [See Rashi ibid and Poskim ibid]

[29] 15:10; 2nd opinion in Siddur Admur [letter 20 in Raskin]; Tosafus Menachos 40b; Ketzos Hashulchan 6:10; Mishnes Yosef 5:8

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule if the piece has majority torn from the Tallis, it is considered detached, and hence the Tallis is invalid and the Tzitzis must be removed prior to resewing. [Artzos Hachaim 15:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 8; Chesed Lealafim 10:4; Kaf Hachaim 10:7; See Biur Halacha 4 “Kosher”; Chazon Ish 3:19; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:4]

[30] Siddur ibid in stringent opinion of Tosafus that when it retains 6 cm “It is then valid even without sewing”; Ketzos Hashulchan 6:10

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is always to resew a torn piece in order so it not be a more than four cornered Tallis. [Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 8; Chesed Lealafim 10:4; Kaf Hachaim 10:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15 footnote 22; See Halacha 10A in Q&A!]

[31] Admur ibid in Shulchan Aruch; 2nd opinion in Siddur Admur; Tosafus Menachos 40b

[32] 1st opinion in Siddur Admur; Michaber 15:4; Rabbeinu Yerucham 1:19-3

[33] Siddur Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as to why Admur here requires one to sew using non-Tzitzis material, if the tear is outside of the corner dimensions. Even the stringent opinion [Rashi] that requires non-Tzitzis material to be used for the sewing, is only particular about this when sewing within the legal corner dimensions. [See Admur 15:16; Halacha 11F and 13 F!; Rav Raskin footnote 107 leaves this matter inconclusive]

[34] Rav Raskin in Siddur footnote 106

[35] Siddur Admur ibid

[36] Siddur Admur [Letter 19 Raskin]; Ketzos Hashulchan 6:13; Olas Tamid 16:7 in name of Terumos Hadeshen 46

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch and other Poskim: In the Shulchan Aruch 15:13 Admur rules: [According to all opinions] the above stringency [that invalidates a less than 3×3 corner piece from being sewed to a Tallis] only applies if the corner piece completely tore off the Tallis. If however it is still even partially attached to the Tallis, even if it is not attached for a length of 3 Gudlin [6 cm] and contains only a minor area of attachment, [then although the Tzitzis is invalid, nevertheless] it is valid to resew the corner back onto the Tallis [after first removing its Tzitzis]. Doing so reconsiders the corner as part of the Tallis, and therefore the Tzitzis that are tied to it after the sewing exempts this Tallis according to all. [Admur ibid; M”A 15:11; Tosafus ibid]. Furthermore, some Poskim rule that if the corner is even slightly still attached the Tzitzis remains valid and resewing the corner is not necessary. [Michaber 15:4; Rabbeinu Yerucham 19:3] See Siddur Raskin footnote 97

[37] Meaning that the tear is above the hole, either vertically or horizontally. [See picture C versus picture D] One must establish that the ruling here in Admur refers to a tear above the hole as otherwise it would contradict his own ruling in 11:18; 11:15; Siddur Admur [Letter 16 Raskin] that even if the entire area under the hole tears off it is valid. So is also clearly implied from the reason of Admur “as if the entire corner was cut off” and Olas Tamid ibid, and so is implied from Ketzos Hashulchan 6:13 which writes “And the Tzitzis is within this cut area, even though the Tzitzis remain complete”; Rav S.D. Levin  agreed to this understanding of Admur. 

[38] This is the meaning of Admur in the Siddur when he writes “Whether the tear is by the length of the Tallis and begins from the bottom side of the Tallis within 6 cm, or the tear is from above to below and begins from the bottom within 6 cm of the side of the width.”

[39] The reason: As more than 3 cm is the majority of the length of the corner and it is hence considered as if the entire corner was cut off. [Siddur ibid]

[40] The reason: As since the corner is no longer complete as required, which is a 6×6 cm area, therefore the Tzitzis is invalid. [Siddur ibid]

[41] The reason: As these Tzitzis have already become invalid and the Torah states “Taaseh Velo Min Haasuiy” in an invalid state. [Siddur ibid]

[42] Nimukeiy Yosef in opinion of Rav Amram

[43] Rav Amram in opinion of Rosh

[44] The reason: As they hold that sewing does not help in a case that the corner tore through its edge within its 6×6 corner dimension, if the tear is 3 cm. long. [Siddur Admur]

[45] Siddur Admur; M”B 15:21

[46] Ketzos Hashulchan 6:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:5

[47] One must establish that the previous ruling here in Siddur Admur refers to a tear above the hole, as otherwise it would contradict his own ruling in 11:18; 11:15; Siddur Admur [Letter 16 Raskin] that even if the entire area under the hole tears off it is valid. So is also clearly implied from the reason of Admur “as if the entire corner was cut off” and Olas Tamid ibid, and so is implied from Ketzos Hashulchan 6:13 which writes “And the Tzitzis is within this cut area, even though the Tzitzis remain complete”; Rav S.D. Levin  agreed to this understanding of Admur. 

[48] The reason: As since the tear is beneath the parameter of the Tzitzis, the Tzitzis is not considered to have been cut off the Tallis together with this torn area. It is only when the tear is above the Tzitzis that the Tzitzis becomes invalid due to it being considered that the entire torn area has been torn off, together with the Tzitzis that is in that area.

[49] Ketzos Hashulchan 6:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:5

[50] Siddur Admur [letter 18 Raskin]; This ruling is not explicitly brought in previous Poskim The novelty in this ruling of Admur is that even though the attached area is not 6 cm long, nevertheless the Tallis remains valid, and the requirement of 6 cm attachment only applies if the tear reaches one of the ends of the Tallis.

[51] Footnote 94 Siddur Raskin

[52] Admur 15:14, brought in 10 F!; See Chelek Levi 5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:5 footnote 35; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 11; Tehila Ledavid 11:9 and Nefesh Chayah 10:4 leave this matter in question.

[53] As a corner is only defined as a Halachic corner if it is split for majority of the length of the Tallis, as explained in Halacha 11A.

[54] Chesed Lealafim 10:4; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 8; Kaf Hachaim 10:7

[55] The reason: As this Tallis now contains more than 4 corners which is initially not to be done, as explained in Halacha 11A!

[56] So rules regarding any 5 cornered garment: Kaf Hachaim 10:1 in name of Pnei Yitzchak; Chidushei Harim 1

[57] Chesed Lealafim 10:4; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 8; Kaf Hachaim 10:7

[58] Toras Chaim Sofer 10:1; Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10:2 footnote 15

[59] Admur 15:10 and in Siddur rules that so long as 6 cm remain attached it may be resewed with the Tzitzis.

[60] M”B 10:3 in name of Peri Megadim

[61] Siddur Admur [letter 20 in Raskin] in stringent opinion of Tosafus that when it retains 6 cm “It is then valid even without sewing”; Ketzos Hashulchan 6:10

[62] Piskeiy Teshuvos 15 footnote 26 as the Tallis is no longer a garment.

[63] As perhaps since it is still attached to the shoulder material, it is considered 6 cm attached and is hence valid. On the other hand, perhaps we view the one Ama of each side as its own entity in terms of the tearing laws. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[64] Ketzos Hashulchan Hosafos p. 86

[65] Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:4

[66] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[67] Orchos Chaim 15:3 in name of Neziros Shimshon

[68] Chazon Ish 3:19

[69] Neziros Shimshon ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:4

[70] This applies only if the Tallis still retains Shiur Tallis, which is 1×1 Ama on both sides. This applies even if a piece of corner tore off, within the 6×6 area, it nevertheless remains valid.

[71] This matter is a dispute and we are stringent.

[72] This matter is a dispute and we are stringent.

[73] Whether the Tzitzis must be removed prior to sewing is a dispute and we are stringent.

[74] This matter is a dispute and we are stringent.

[75] 11:18; 11:15; Siddur Admur [Letter 16 Raskin]; Tur 18; Rashi Menachos 42a

If the corner tore a length of 3cm: In the Siddur [See Halacha B] Admur rules that if the corner tore off for a length of 3 cm then the corner is no longer valid, irrelevant of the hole. In order for the two rulings not to contradict, one must establish that the case there refers to a tear above the hole [picture C above] while here it refers to a cut below the hole. [Picture D above] See Halacha B!

[76] The reason: As the Torah was only particular that the Tzitzis be tied to the legal corner area at the time of its attachment to the corner, as the verse states “And make for them Tzitzis on the corner”, which hence implies that only when making the Tzitzis must it be on the correct area of the corner. [Admur ibid; Levush 11:10]

How much of the Tzitzis must be tied to the hole prior to tearing? If even one loop and knot were made prior to the tearing, it is valid. [M”B 11:43; See Admur 11:23]

[77] 15:15; Siddur Admur; Biur Halacha 11 “Ad” in name of Rambam

[78] Siddur Admur

[79] See 15:15; Siddur Admur brought next

[80] Siddur Admur [16 in Raskin]

[81] 15:12

[82] 15:16; Michaber 15:6

[83] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that according to Rashi ibid one is to avoid any thread that is valid for Tzitzis even below 4 cm from the corner. [Chazon Ish 3:19]

Ruling of Admur in Siddur: See Siddur Admur [letter 20 in Raskin] that writes that if a tear occurred outside the corner one is to sew using a non-Tzitzis material thread. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol! Rav Raskin in footnote 107 leaves this matter inconclusive!

[84] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

[85] Rashi Menachos 41a; Rosh 2:11

[86] The reason: These Poskim rule it is forbidden to sew within the legal dimensions of the corner [4-6 cm] any thread which is a Kosher material of Tzitzis for that clothing, due to a decree of the Sages that there may be some leftover thread after the sewing is complete and one may come to use it to make the Tzitzis through tying it to one of the original four strings, in the event that one of the four strings are short. This thread is invalid for Tzitzis being that it was not woven for the sake of Tzitzis. [Admur ibid; M”A 15:5] Other Poskim however rule the reason is because of Taaseh Velo Min Hasuiy. [Rashi ibid; Aruch Hashulchan 15:10]

Is the Tallis Pasul Bedieved according to this opinion: Some Poskim rule if one sewed using valid Tzitzis material within the corner dimensions, then according to Rashi the Tallis is invalid even Bedieved. [See Biur Halacha 15 “Eicha”]

[87] As wool Tzitzis is valid for any material garment.

[88] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that in today’s times, that the custom is to always use wool Tzitzis strings on any material garment, it is permitted to sew within the corner dimension with a thread that is the same material as the garment. [Aruch Hashulchan 15:10 and 16 as rules Admur next regarding a colored thread] It is based on this opinion that Tallis manufacturers are lenient to use cotton threads to make the hole of even a cotton Tallis Katan, being that the Tzitzis is always made of wool. Practically however one is to try to be stringent in this matter. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 15:6]

[89] Admur ibid; M”B 15:18 in name of Derech Hachaim; Aruch Hashulchan 15:16; Kaf Hachaim 15:36

The reason: There is no need to suspect that one may come to join a colored thread to the other Tzitzis strings, as in today’s times we are no longer accustomed to ever make colored Tzitzis. [Admur ibid; Poskim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim argue that one may not use a colored thread if it is made of the same material as the garment. [Chazon Ish 3:19]

[90] 15:16

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