0. Introduction to the Laws of Muktzah

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Our sages decreed that one may not move certain items on Shabbos in their usual way. This chapter will discuss the details of this restriction, with regards to which type of vessels the restriction applies, and what forms of moving are restricted. There are different categories of Muktzah, each having their own set of laws.



  • Tiltul Min Hatzad: Literally means “moving [a Muktzah item] from the side”. It can refer to either moving Muktzah through use of one’s body other than his hands[1], or moving Muktzah through moving another non-Muktzah item in his hands[2].
  • MMC”K: Refers to Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis, which is a category of Muktzah.
  • MM”G: Refers to Muktzah Machmas Gufo, which is a category of Muktzah.
  • MM”I Refers to Muktzah Machmas Issur, which is a category of Muktzah.
  • Legufo: Refers to moving an item for the need of using it.
  • Lemikomo: Refers to moving an item for the need of using the space under it.
  • Leatzmo: Refers to moving an item in order to save it from damage.


Definition of the word Muktzah:

The word Muktzah simply means set aside, and refers to an item that is off one’s mind on Shabbos. The reason for why the item is off one’s mind is what differentiates between the different types of Muktzah.[3] Some[4] of these Muktzah categories are forbidden to be moved, and some[5] of these Muktzah categories are permitted to be moved. Hence Muktzah does not necessarily refer to an item that is forbidden to be moved on Shabbos, but rather something that is off my mind on Shabbos. Furthermore, there are certain items that are not defined as “Muktzah” [off your mind] at all, but nevertheless the Sages prohibited their movement due to other reasons.[6]

Is a Keli Shemilachto Lissur considered a true category of Muktzah [off the mind] or is its prohibition simply due to that one may come to do Melacha with it?

Some[7] sources imply that it is not a category of Muktzah, and I simply forbidden due to that one may come to do a Melacha with it. Other sources[8] however imply that is considered a category of Muktzah. Interesting to note that throughout all of the laws of Muktzah we do not find the term Muktzah Machmas Issur used regarding a Keli Shemilachto Lissur, even though this term is used regarding Muktzha Mahcmas Chisron Kis and Muktzah Machmas Gufo. This implies that it is not a true category of Muktzah [off the mind].

Touching Muktzah blemishes one’s soul:

In Tanya Chapter 46 Admur states that moving Muktzah blemishes the soul of all Jews.

The deep concentration that Admur invested in writing the laws of Muktzah:

“Admur had veins bulging out of his skull in writing all the deep Sevaros of the laws of Muktzah[9]


[1] Rashi Shabbos 141b; Admur 276:9-10; 277:6 “or through shaking it off or Tiltul Min Hatzad”; M”B 311:30; This is also called Tiltul Kelachar Yad. [See 308:15; 301:39]

[2] Shabbos 123a; 311:14

[3] See Admur 308:7

[4] Such as Muktzha Machmas Chisaron Kis and Gufo. [See Admur 308:7 and 10]

[5] Such as Muktzah Machmas Sechorah and Muktzah Machmas Mius. [See Admur 308:7 “We find that we have learned that there are three different categories of Muktzah by vessels. Two [of these categories] are permitted to be moved and the third is forbidden to move. 1) [An item which is] set aside due to its repulsiveness and 2) an item which is set aside from being used for any other use are permitted [to move]. 3) [An item] which is set aside due to chance of loss of worth [if it were to be used for other purposes, I.e. “Muktzah Machamas Chisaron Kis“] is forbidden [to move].”]; Michaber 279:6 lists Muktzah Machmas Mius as permitted to be moved.

[6] See 308:47 regarding a couch with a detached leg; see 279:8 regarding a candelabra; A Keli Shemilachto Liheter is forbidden to be moved for no purpose at all and it certainly is not defined as Muktzah!

[7] Admur 308:1 does not list it as one of the reasons behind Issur Muktzah; Admur 308:7 does not list it as one of the categories of Muktzah that is permitted to be moved; It is not called Muktzah Machmas Issur in any area in Hilchos Shabbos; Gr”a Yoreh Deah 266:2 [see also Gr”a Orach Chaim 266]

[8] Beis Yosef Hakdama 308 and P”M in Hakdama 308 list Machmas Issur as part of the 6 categories of “Muktzah”; Admur 495:13 defines it for the first and only time as “Muktzah Machmas Issur”; Biur Halacha 308:13 “Kardom Lachtoch” writes “From where do we know that he removed his mind from it”; Ketzos Hashulchan 108:1 lists Machmas Issur as one of the categories.

[9] Sefer Neharei Eish Likkutei Dibburim 152

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