Laws relevant when Shavuos falls on Motzei Shabbos
1. Erev Shabbos:
Haircuts: When Erev Shavuos coincides with Shabbos, one may get a haircut on Erev Shabbos which is the 48th day of the Omer. This applies even according to the Kabbalistic ruling and Chabad custom. [One may begin to take a haircut after sunrise of Erev Shabbos, although not the night before.]
Preparing a 48/72 hour candle: In years that Shavuos falls on Motzei Shabbos, one is to light a 48/72 hour candle in order to have a preexisting flame available to use on Yom Tov for candle lighting, and other purposes.
Yartzite/Yizkor candle: It is forbidden to light a candle on Yom Tov unless its light is needed for the room. Therefore, those who have a Yartzite on Yom Tov are to light the Yartzite candle before Shabbos. Likewise, those who light a Yizkor candle, are to light it before Shabbos. [Accordingly, in Eretz Yisrael, a 48-hour candle is to be lit before Shabbos, while in the Diaspora a 72-hour candle is to be lit before Shabbos.]
No Eiruv Tavshilin: Eiruv Tavshilin is not performed when Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos.
Placing plants, flours, and trees in the Shul and in one’s home: When Shavuos falls on Motzei Shabbos, one may not set up the plants on Shabbos. [Thus, those who are accustomed to spread plants, flowers, and trees in Shul and at home in honor of Shavuos, are to do so on Erev Shabbos, or on Motzei Shabbos after nightfall.]
Av Harachamim and Tzidkascha Tzedek: On Shabbos, Av Harachamim is omitted from before Musaf, and Tzidkascha Tzedek is omitted from Mincha.
Eating the Shabbos day meal before the 10th hour of the day on Shabbos: When Erev Yom Tov falls on Shabbos one is to start the Shabbos day meal prior to the beginning of the 10th hour of the day, in order to eat the Yom Tov meal with an appetite. [Practically, this is three Zmaniyos hours prior to sunset. Thus, if there are 60 minutes per Zmaniyos hour that day and sunset is at 6:00 P.M. one is to start the feast before 3:00 P.M.] If one transgressed or forgot and did not eat prior to the 10th hour, then he may eat a meal past the 10th hour.
Sleeping on Shabbos for the sake of Shavuos night: It is permitted to go to sleep on Shabbos for the sake of being awake on the night of Shavuos. One may even say that he is going to sleep for the sake of having strength to be awake and learn Torah. One however may not say “I am going to sleep today on Shabbos, so I have strength to do Melacha, such as cooking, after Shabbos”.
Preparations for Yom Tov: It is forbidden to do anything on Shabbos on behalf of after Shabbos, including on behalf of Yom Tov. This prohibition applies even against doing acts of preparation that do not contain any forbidden Melacha at all. [However, some Poskim rule that in a time of need, such as to prevent loss, and for the sake of a Mitzvah, one may be lenient to prepare on Shabbos on behalf of Yom Tov, if one completes the preparation with much time left in the day, and the preparation does not involve any Melacha normally forbidden to be done on Shabbos.]
- Examples: One must beware not to bring wine on Shabbos on behalf of Kiddush of Yom Tov night. Likewise, one is not to search in a Sefer Torah on Shabbos for the reading of Yom Tov. Likewise, one may not wash dishes on Shabbos on behalf of Yom Tov [until after Tzeis Hakochavim]. [Likewise, one may not make the beds [or tidy the home] on Shabbos on behalf of Yom Tov, unless it is also done for the sake of having a clean home on Shabbos. Likewise, one may not set the table or prepare the candles until after Tzeis Hakochavim. Likewise, one may not bring his Tikkun Leil Shavuos to Shul until after Shabbos, unless one plans to learn from it on Shabbos.]
Hadlakas Neiros-Candlelighting: When Erev Shavuos coincides with Shabbos the candles are only to be lit after nightfall, and only after reciting “Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.
Avoiding Tashmish: Some avoid marital relations beginning three nights before Shavuos, during the Shloshes Yimei Hagbala. However, according to the Arizal, one is only to abstain on the night of Shavuos, and hence one may have relations on Friday night.
May one remove food from the freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the second night meal?
Some Poskim rule it is permitted to remove foods from the freezer on the first day of Yom Tov on behalf of the meal of the second night of Yom Tov. Other Poskim, however, rule that it is forbidden to remove the food even in such a case. [See footnote for opinion of Admur in this matter. Practically, it is best to avoid removing the food from the freezer until after Tzeis Hakochavim. This especially applies in light of the fact that the food can be defrosted after nightfall on top of a source of heat, and be ready for the night meal. Nonetheless, if these options are not viable and delaying the removal until Tzeis Hakochavim will cause a real delay to the meal, then one may be lenient to remove the foods from the freezer with much time left in the day of Yom Tov, so it does not appear to others that it is being done for the night.]
May one place drinks in the fridge or freezer on the Shabbos on behalf of Yom Tov?
This follows the same dispute as above. Practically, it is best to avoid doing so unless one plans to taste the cold drinks while it is still the first day of Yom Tov, in which case it is permitted according to all.
3. Shavuos night-Motzei Shabbos:
A. Saying Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing Melacha:
When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one may not begin doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov until he says Havdala, or recites Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh, after the conclusion of Shabbos. It is of importance to remind women of this requirement, and have them say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Yom Tov preparations.
B. Hadlakas Neiros-Candlelighting:
When Erev Shavuos coincides with Shabbos the candles are only to be lit after nightfall, and only after reciting “Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.
C. Vetodieinu in Maariv Shemoneh Esrei:
When Shavuos falls on Motzei Shabbos [i.e. Saturday night], then in the evening prayer of Shemoneh Esrei the paragraph of Vetodieinu/ותודיענו is added prior to the paragraph of ותתן לנו.
If one forgot to say Vetodieinu in Shemoneh Esrei what is he to do?
Some Poskim rule once he has begun saying “Vatiten Lanu Hashem” he is not to go back to say Vetodieinu and is rather to continue with Shemoneh Esrei as usual. In such a case he must beware to say Baruch Hamavdil prior to doing any Melacha which is permitted on Yom Tov. Other Poskim however rule that one who does go back to say it has upon whom to rely, so long as he has not yet finished the blessing of Mikadeish Yisrael Vehazmanim.
D. Kiddush when Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos-Yaknahaz:
When Yom Tov falls on Motzei Shabbos one says Yaknahaz in the order of Kiddush. The order of the blessings is: 1) Hagafen 2) Kiddush Hayom 3) Ner 4) Havdala 5) Shehechiyanu. This is called Yaknahaz.
Haeish: If one has a candle available, one is to recite a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush”, but prior to the blessing of Havdala. [The custom is to say the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish over the Yom Tov candles that were lit. We do not place the candles together, and nor do we place our nails towards them. Rather, we simply look at the candles after the blessing and then continue with Yaknahaz.]
Standing or sitting: [From the letter of the law] one may recite Kiddush of Yaknahaz in a sitting position. [However, the Chabad custom is to stand for Kiddush by all times, whether on Shabbos or Yom Tov.]
The Nussach of the Havdala: The dialect of the blessing of Havdala recited on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov contains seven stanzas of “Havdalos” and concludes with Bein Kodesh Lekodesh.
If one did not follow the correct order: If one did not say the blessings in the above order, and rather preceded one of the latter blessing to one of the earlier blessings, then he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation and is not to repeat any of the blessings already said. This, however, is with exception to if one preceded the blessing of Kiddush to the blessing of Hagafen, in which case one must repeat the blessing of Kiddush.
When Shavuos falls on Sunday the order for Kiddush on Shavuos night follows Yaknahaz. When one recites the blessing over the candle, it is our custom to merely look at it. We do not move it closer or spread our hands near it, or look at our nails.
Should women who already said Shehechiyanu by candle lighting answer Amen to the blessing of Shehechiyanu said by Kiddush?
Some Poskim rule that they may not answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechioyanu, due to it being considered an interval between the blessing and the drinking of the wine. Other Poskim, however, rule that women are allowed to answer Amen for the blessing of Shehechiyanu, and doing so is not considered an interval. Practically, the custom is like this latter opinion, to answer Amen after the blessing of Shehechiyanu.
May women drink from the wine of Kiddush on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov?
The custom is to allow women to drink from the wine of Kiddush of which Havdala was said over on Motzei Shabbos that coincides with Yom Tov. This is despite the fact that Havdala was recited over this wine and in general women do not drink from the leftover Havdala wine.
If during Kiddush of Yaknahaz one accidently concluded the blessing “Bein Kodesh Lechol”, what is he to do?
If he remembers right away, within “Kdei Dibur”, he is to correct himself and recite “Bein Kodesh Lekodesh”. If he did not remember within this time, he is to repeat the blessing of Hamavdil. If he already drank the wine, he is to say Havdala again over wine. Regarding if he should repeat the blessing of the wine, this matter is disputed in Poskim.
What is one to do if he forgot to say Havdala in Kiddush of Yom Tov which falls on Motzei Shabbos?
He is to say Havdala over wine immediately upon remembering, whether he remembers that night or the next day. If he remembered before the Yom Tov day meal, he is to say Havdala over a cup of wine and then eat the meal. If one remembered only on Sunday night which is also Yom Tov [in the Diaspora], then he is to say Havdala within Kiddush.
If one remembered by Bein Hashmashos on Sunday: If Sunday night is Motzei Yom Tov then he is to wait until then, and when he recites Havdala for Motzei Yom Tov he fulfills Havdala also for Shabbos. If, however, that night is the second night of Yom Tov then he is to say Havdala by Kiddush of the Yom Tov night meal.
 Moreh Baetzba 8:221; Minchas Elazar 3:65; Kaf Hachaim 493:13; Shevach Hamoadim p. 235 footnote 10 in name of Rav Shmuel Levitin that so was the custom in Lubavitch; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 290
Other opinions: The Rashash questioned whether one may get a haircut on the 48th day of Omer even in such a case. He concluded that if he would not have been forced into it, he would not have gotten a haircut on the 48th. [Nehar Shalom p. 25]
 The reason: Although in general, based on the custom of the Arizal, we avoid haircuts until Erev Shavuos, this only applies when Erev Shavuos falls on a weekday, as one cannot enter into the festival with improper attire. Furthermore, it is recorded in Shaar Hakavanos that Rav Chaim Vital was always accustomed to get a haircut on the 48th day of Omer. Some learn this itself was due to Kabalistic reasons. Furthermore, even according to the Rashash who leaned to be stringent not to take a haircut on Erev Shabbos in such a coincidence, nevertheless he too forced himself to do so. Hence there is no room to be stringent on the above, and on the contrary one should do so. [See Minchas Elazar ibid]
 Initially, one should not take a haircut on Thursday night, and should wait until Friday morning, after Shacharis. This applies every week of the year, and especially applies this year before Shavuos. If, however, one will not be able to get a haircut on Friday, such as there is no barber available on Friday, then one may do so on Thursday night. Getting a haircut on Thursday night as opposed to Friday morning faces the following question:
- Is it permitted to get a haircut at night?
- Is it permitted to get a haircut prior to sunrise of the 48th/49th day of the Omer?
- Is it permitted to get a haircut for Shabbos on Thursday night if one can simply wait until Friday?
Practically, many of these matters are under debate. It is debated amongst the Poskim as to whether one should abstain from ever getting a haircut at night. Some say, that one should always abstain from getting a haircut at night as if we abstain from getting haircuts during the period of Sefira due to the Gevuros-severities that exists then, then certainly one should avoid getting a haircut at night, which is also a time of severities. [See regarding whether one may get a haircut at night: No: Moed Lecho Chaiy 6:7; Yes: Pekudas Eliezer 493 that so is the custom, and so was the custom of Rav Chaim Vital] Now, although we do not rule this way and allow even initially for one to get a haircut at night, practically, due to the other issues mentioned above, one should avoid doing so in the above scenario. The reason for this is as follows: There exist many different customs regarding the 33-day mourning period of Sefira and when it is to be followed, with one custom holding that it begins after Rosh Chodesh Iyar and extends until the morning of Erev Shavuos, which is the 33rd day of mourning, as “Miktzas Hayom Kekulo.” According to this approach, one certainly may not get a haircut until after sunrise of Erev Shavuos, and this certainly applies in years that Erev Shabbos is the 48th day of counting, that one may not get a haircut until sunrise of Erev Shabbos. [Admur 493:3] Now, regarding the Chabad custom, the widespread custom is to be stringent and follow the mourning customs throughout the entire period of Sefira, being stringent like all the various opinions of the time period of mourning. Accordingly, one should not get a haircut on Thursday night, and is to wait until Friday morning especially in years that Friday morning is the 48th day of Sefira, and not the 49th day. This is in addition to the un-conclusive debate as to whether things that are done Thursday night are recognizable to have been done for the honor of Shabbos, and therefore since the haircut is being allowed for the sake of the honor of Shabbos and Yom Tov, and in general throughout the year is always to be done on Erev Shabbos for the sake of Shabbos, it is best to circumvent the debate and simply do so on Erev Shabbos, after sunrise and Shacharis. [See regarding the debate of whether Thursday night is really considered Erev Shabbos: Shevet Halevi 9:129; Rav SZ”A, brought in Yom Tov Kehilchaso 25 footnote 12 p. 496; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov Vol. 2 chapter 81 footnote 18; Yom Tov Kehilchaso 25 footnote 12; Rebbe in Toras Menachem 5747 Vol. 4 p. 426] Nonetheless, in a time of need when getting a haircut on Friday is not possible, one may be lenient.
 See Admur 514:13-14; Biur Halacha 514:5 “Ner”; Kaf Hachaim 514:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 514:14; Nitei Gavriel 55:2
 Admur 514:13; Michaber 514:5
 Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 70; Nitei Gavriel ibid; See SSH”K 13 footnote 27
The reason: As it is forbidden to light a Ner Shel Batala on Yom Tov. [Admur 514:13; Michaber 514:5]
 Admur 494:14; M”A 494:5; Maharil
 The reason: Although the plants are not Muktzah and hence may be moved nevertheless one may not spread them on Shabbos, as when one spreads them on Shabbos for the sake of Yom Tov he is preparing on Shabbos for Yom Tov, and it is forbidden to prepare anything from Shabbos to Yom Tov, even a matter that does not contain any nuance of a Melacha, as explained in 503:3 [and 455:11]. [Admur ibid; M”A ibid]
 Admur 291:4; 529:2; 249:6 regarding Erev Shabbos; 639:20 regarding Sukkos; Rama 529:1
 See Admur 290:6; M”A 290; 307:1; Sefer Chassidim 266; Shaareiy Teshuvah 290; M”B 290:4
 Implication of Poskim ibid who write it is only forbidden to say “Melacha” and “writing words of Torah.” This follows the rule that the prohibition of Vedaber Davar only applies towards matters that are forbidden to do on Shabbos, and hence since it is permitted to learn or stay awake after Shabbos, therefore there is no prohibition involved in saying it.
Other opinions: Some write it is forbidden to even say “I am going to sleep so I have strength to learn after Shabbos” due to Mimtzo Cheftzecha, as one is revealing that his sleep is in preparation for after Shabbos. [SSH”K 28:72 footnote 168; see also Admur 404:4] Others learn it is forbidden to say this due to it being a belittlement of Shabbos. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 290:4 based on Elya Raba 307:1; P”M 290 M”Z] Practically, this opinion is negated in the wording of the above Poskim.
 Admur 290:6; M”A 290:; 307:1; Sefer Chassidim 266; M”B 290:4
 See Admur 503:1-2 regarding Melacha from Yom Tov to weekday or Shabbos, and 503:3 regarding Hachana from Yom Tov Rishon to Yom Tov Sheiyni Shel Galiyos; Michaber ibid regarding Melacha Admur 503:1-3; Michaber 503:1 regarding Melacha; Rama 667:1 regarding Hachana
 Admur 503:3; 254:10; 494:14; Rama 667:1; M”A 503:1 based on Michaber 416:2; Hagahos Maimanis; Maharil; M”B 503:1; 667:5
 Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5 regarding wine for the 2nd night of Yom Tov; Kaf Hachaim 503:2; Maharshag 1:61; Piskeiy Teshuvos 302:17; 503:1; Nitei Gavriel “Erev Pesach Shechal Beshabbos” in Teshuvah 4
The reason: As in a time of need the Sages did not make their decree. [See Chayeh Adam ibid] This especially applies for the sake of a Mitzvah. [M”B ibid] Alternatively, the entire prohibition of Hachanah is only when the action is being done to save time, while if it is being done to save an item from a loss, Hachana is permitted. [Maharshag ibid]
Opinion of Admur: There exist many different rulings in Admur regarding if one may prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov for the sake of loss prevention. [See Admur 254:10 and M”A 254: 23 that it is forbidden to remove bread from the oven for the next day, and seemingly, this is despite the fact that it will cause a loss to the bread, as explains, and questions the Elya Raba 254:18; In 319:18 regarding saving a food from spoilage Admur only permits preparing to prevent through a gentile. In 321:6 regarding watering vegetables to prevent shriveling, Admur only permits doing so being that it is for the sake of preventing loss and is not noticeable to others that it is for the next day, such as that perhaps he will eat it that day, and he thus does not extend the allowance to soaking three-day meat. However, in 500:20 Admur permits soaking meat of three days in water to prevent its prohibition in cooking being that soaking is less of an effort than washing dishes. This seemingly contradicts the ruling of Admur in 321:6, brought earlier, however, in truth the difference is that in 321:6 it discusses Shabbos when the raw meat cannot be cooked and is hence not edible, while in 500:20 it is discussing Yom Tov, when the meat is edible and hence does not appear to others like a preparation.] The final summary of his opinion seems to be as follows: It is forbidden to prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov even in a time of need, to prevent loss to the item, unless the following conditions are met. 1) One does so through a gentile. Or 2) It does not involve much effort [i.e. soaking] and it is not apparent to others that it is being done for after Shabbos/Yom Tov. No mention is made in Admur regarding if a case that involves a Mitzvah should receive greater leniency than above. Now, although in 503:3 Admur prohibits bringing wine on the first day of Yom Tov for Kiddush of the second day, which implies that no extra leniency is given even for the sake of a Mitzvah, nevertheless, perhaps if its both for the sake of a Mitzvah and a time of need or loss prevention, Admur would be more lenient. Vetzaruch Iyun!
 See M”B ibid “With much time left in the day as then it is not apparent to others that it is being done for the sake of the next day”; See also Admur 321:7 “being that they are fit today to be eaten by any person and it is thus not at all evident that one is [doing an action that entails] effort on Shabbos for the [need of a] weekday being that he may eat these [vegetables] today.”
 Admur 503:3; M”A 667:3; Chayeh Adam 99:1; 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2
 Admur 503:3; M”A 667:3; Maharial Hilchos Tefilas Yom Tov
 Admur 503:3; Elya Raba 503:1; Drashos Maharil Hilchos Yom Tov p. 180; Minhagei Maharash 394
 M”B 667:5; Admur 302:10 regarding Shabbos
 See Admur 299:17-18
 Kneses Hagedola 494; Or Tzadikim 27:11; Siddur Rav Shabsi; Makor Chaim 494
 Kaf Hachaim 494:13
 Shevet Hakehasi 1:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos 302:17 footnote 146; 503:1; Nitei Gavriel Yom Tov 26:9; and in “Erev Pesach Shechal Beshabbos” in Teshuvah 4 [Based on ruling of Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5; Kaf Hachaim 503:2; Maharshag 1:61]
 The reason: As in a time of need, for the sake of a Mitzvah, one may prepare on the first day on behalf of the second day if the action does not involve a Melacha [Chayeh Adam 153:6; M”B 667:5-although stipulates to do with much time left in day; Kaf Hachaim 503:2] and this case is considered a time of need and prevention of loss, as if he would have to wait until Tzeis Hakochavim to defrost the food, he would begin the meal very late, and his kids may fall asleep, and Simchas Yom Tov will be nullified. [Nitei Gavriel ibid] Alternatively, the entire prohibition of Hachanah is only when the action is being done to save time, while if it is being done to save an item from a loss, Hachana is permitted. [Maharshag ibid]
 SSH”K 10:10
 The reason: As it is forbidden to prepare for the next day of Yom Tov even if it will cause one to need to delay his meal later on.
 Opinion of Admur: There exist many different rulings in Admur regarding if one may prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov for the sake of loss prevention. [See Admur 254:10 and M”A 254: 23 that it is forbidden to remove bread from the oven for the next day, and seemingly, this is despite the fact that it will cause a loss to the bread, as explains, and questions the Elya Raba 254:18; In 319:18 regarding saving a food from spoilage Admur only permits preparing to prevent through a gentile. In 321:6 regarding watering vegetables to prevent shriveling, Admur only permits doing so being that it is for the sake of preventing loss and is not noticeable to others that it is for the next day, such as that perhaps he will eat it that day, and he thus does not extend the allowance to soaking three-day meat. However, in 500:20 Admur permits soaking meat of three days in water to prevent its prohibition in cooking being that soaking is less of an effort than washing dishes. This seemingly contradicts the ruling of Admur in 321:6, brought earlier, however, in truth the difference is that in 321:6 it discusses Shabbos when the raw meat cannot be cooked and is hence not edible, while in 500:20 it is discussing Yom Tov, when the meat is edible and hence does not appear to others like a preparation.] The final summary of his opinion seems to be as follows: It is forbidden to prepare for after Shabbos/Yom Tov even in a time of need, to prevent loss to the item, unless the following conditions are met. 1) One does so through a gentile. Or 2) It does not involve much effort [i.e. soaking] and it is not apparent to others that it is being done for after Shabbos/Yom Tov. No mention is made in Admur regarding if a case that involves a Mitzvah should receive greater leniency than above. Now, although in 503:3 Admur prohibits bringing wine on the first day of Yom Tov for Kiddush of the second day, which implies that no extra leniency is given even for the sake of a Mitzvah, nevertheless, perhaps if its both for the sake of a Mitzvah and a time of need or loss prevention, Admur would be more lenient. Vetzaruch Iyun! All in all, if we view the concept of delaying the meal for many hours in wait for the food to defrost as equivalent to a loss, then Admur would permit defrosting it on the first day of Yom Tov with much time left in the day on the basis that one is not really doing any action other than removing it from the freezer. It is hence similar to the law regarding three-day meat.
 Implication of Admur ibid, as explained in previous footnote! M”B ibid who qualifies his allowance to only if it is done with much time left in the day
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 302 footnote 146 who permits doing so on the same basis as removing from the freezer.
 Admur 299:17-18
Other Opinions: The Elya Raba rules it does not suffice on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov to simply say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lekodesh. Rather one must say the entire blessing of Hamavdil without Sheim Umalchus. [Brought in Kaf Hachaim 299:58]
 See 299:17-18
 Admur 491:4; 599:1; Michaber 599:1
 Mateh Efraim 599:7; See also Kaf Hachaim 599:3
 His reasoning is because doing so would require the person to repeat Hashem’s name in the blessing of Vatiten Lanu.
 Sheivet Halevy 9:23
 Admur 473:6; 491:4; 599:1 [regarding R”H]
 “When [the night of the Seder] falls on Motzei Shabbos one needs to say Havdala after Kiddush, and if he has a candle he is to say a blessing over it after the blessing of “Kiddush”, but prior to the blessing of Havdala. After Havdala, one is to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu” [Admur 473:6]
 Admur 473:6
 The reason: The reason for this is because the entire purpose of smelling Besamim on Motzei Shabbos is to comfort the soul which is saddened due to the leave of the extra soul it received on Shabbos. On Yom Tov, however, there is no need for Besamim as the pleasure of Yom Tov and its joy calms and soothes the soul [from its loss]. [Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun on some of the wording there [not recorded here]]
 Admur 491:4
 Some suggest this is due to that separating the candles from each other afterwards is similar to extinguishing. [see Admur 502:7; Kitzur Halachos 298 footnote 4]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 298 footnote 59 for a discussion amongst Poskim in how one is allowed to say the blessing of Haeish over the candle lit in honor of Yom Tov. Simply speaking however, it is allowed being that Shabbos and Yom Tov candles are lit for the use of their light on the table as well as for Shalom Bayis.
Benefiting from light prior to Havdala: It is disputed ion Poskim as to whether one may benefit from light prior to reciting Meoreiy Haeish within Havdala. Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to do so. [opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 693; 298 Orchos Chaim; Perech Shushan 3:2; Beis Yehuda 107; Mahrkash; Birkeiy Yosef 693:1; Erech Hashulchan 693:2; Yifei Laleiv 2:2] Other Poskim rule it is permitted. [second opinion in Kol Bo 41; Beis Yosef 298; implication of Rama ibid; Levush ibid; Kneses Hagedola; Chabad custom by night of Purim]. However, according to all, one may read from a Siddur prior to Havdala, as the Nussach is well versed in one’s mouth and there is hence not a lot of benefit involved. [Birkeiy Yosef 599:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 599:1; M”B 5991; Kaf Hachaim 599:6]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 76 [English]
 Admur 473:8
 The reason: Although the custom is to stand for Havdala on every Motzei Shabbos out of respect for the king whom we are escorting [296:15; See “The Laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdala Halacha 4] nevertheless by Havdala of Motzei Shabbos which is Yom To, since one is saying the Havdala within Kiddush, it is said in a sitting position just like Kiddush. See 271:19 [ibid]
 Sefer Haminhagim [Hebrew] p. 39; English p. 55; Haggadah of Rebbe p. 8;
 Admur 472:9
The middle Nussach of Havdala: The middle Nussach of Havdala on Motzei Shabbos which falls on Yom Tov contains seven sets of “Havdalos” [separations] that Hashem made. The normal Nussach of Havdalah on Motzei Shabbos and Motzei Yom Tov only contains four Havdalos. The following is the Nussach read by Yaknahaz versus the regular Nussach. The words in Itallics are the stanzas that are added to the Yaknahaz Nussach versus the regular Nussach:
ברוך אתה ה’, אליקינו מלך העולם המבדיל בין קדש לחול, בין אור לחשך, בין ישראל לעמים, בין יום השביעי לששת ימי המעשה. בין קדשת שבת לקדשת יום טוב הבדלת, ואת יום השביעי מששת ימי המעשת קדשת, הבדלת וקדשת את עמך ישראל בקדושתך ברוך אתה ה’ המבדיל בין קדש לקדש.
Background of this Nussach: From the letter of the law, one is allowed to recite the regular Havdala of Motzei Shabbos/Yom Tov, which contains 4 stanzas of Havdalos, and simply switch the words of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes Yimei Hamaaseh” to the words “Bein Kedushas Shabbos Lekedushas Yom Tov Hivdalta” and then conclude Baruch Ata Hashem…”. The reason for the switch is because one needs to conclude the middle blessing of Havdala with a matter that is similar to the words of the concluding blessings, and hence, since we now conclude Bein Kodesh Lekodesh we therefore switch the ending stanza of the Nussach to one that pertains to it. However, in the later generations [mentioned in Ran], the custom became to recite a total of seven stanzas of Havdalos, adding the stanza of “Bein Yom Hashevi Lesheishes..” [4th Havdala] and “Bein Kedushas Shabbos…Yimei Hamaaseh Kidashta” [5th Havdala, as it all counts as one Havdala] and “Hivdalta Vekidashta..” [6th and 7th Havdala as it refers to the Kohanim and Levi’im being separated from the rest of Klal Yisrael]. The reason for this is because the Sages stated that one may never say less than three Havdalas within the Havdala of Motzei Shabbos and Yom Tov, and one who desires to add more, may add up to seven Havdalos corresponding to the seven heavens. [This does not include the Havdala of “Bein Yom Hashevi..” which is said at the end to serve as “Meiyin Chasima”.] Now, on Motzei Shabbos which is Yom Tov, due to the obligations of the day of Yom Tov, it became accustomed to recite 7 Havdalos in order so one says at least one time seven Havdalos. [Admur ibid]
 Admur 473:6 in parentheses
 The reason: The reason for this is because [this order is disputed between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel and] by doing so one followed Beis Shamai over Beis Hillel, and anyone who follows Beis Shamai over Beis Hillel does not fulfill his obligation. [ibid]
 Admur 296:11
 A dispute in this matter is brought in Admur. Some Poskim rule [Geonim; 1st opinion in Michaber] that since one is allowed to say Kiddush over the bread, and Havdala is secondary to Kiddush on this night, he may likewise say Havdala over the bread. Other Poskim [Rosh; 2nd opinion of Michaber] however rule in such a situation it is better to say Kiddush over Chamer Medina than to say it over bread. Practically, the custom in these countries is like the former opinion. [ibid] So is the ruling of Rama in our current wording of the Shulchan Aruch, however some prints have written the Rama rules like the latter opinion. [See Kaf Hachaim 296:28]
Other opinions: Michaber, based on Klalei Haposkim, rules like the latter opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 296:27]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 473:1; Shevach Hamoadim-Kadesh
 Har Tzevi 1:154; Mikraeiy Kodesh Pesach 2:38; Hagadah Moadim UzmanimBased on Shaareiy Teshuvah 167:11
 Shevet Halevi 3:69; Igros Moshe 4:21; 101; Rivivos Ephraim 1:182
 The reason: Some Poskim explain that on Sukkos and Pesach, since the Shehechiyanu by Kiddush includes the Mitzvos of that day [Sukkah, Matzah], therefore even women may answer Amen to be Yotzei, as the Shehchiyanu that they said by candle lighting was only on behalf of the holiday. [Shevet Halevi ibid] Other Poskim rule that one should leave the women to follow their custom to answer Amen and that doing so is not considered an interval, as since it is not an interval for the person saying the blessing, so too it is not considered an interval for those being Yotzei with him. [Igros Moshe ibid; Rivivos Ephraim 1:182]
 SSH”K 62:16
 M”A 296:4 in name of Shlah
 Rav SZ”A in Maor Hashabbos 2:28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296:4
 See “The laws and Customs of Motzei Shabbos” Havdala Halacha 3 in Q&A; Kaf Hachaim 296:44; Piskeiy Teshuvos 296 footnote 34
 As it is forbidden for him to eat until he says Havdala. [Based on M”B 299:16]
 Har Tzevi 1:166