- Question: [Thursday, 12th Sivan, 5783]
On Yom Tov when we got up to the Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis and needed to turn the pages in order to reach the Yom Tov Shemoneh Esrei, I absentmindedly turned to the Musaf Shemoneh Esrei of Yom Tov, and ended up praying the entire thing only noticing my mistake after I was already finished. What am I supposed to do? Can I still Daven the Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis? If yes am I still obligated to Daven the Shemoneh Esrei of Musaf, or is it considered that I already fulfilled my obligation of Musaf? Also, is there any difference in Shabbos and Yom Tov in this matter? Also, it once happened that a friend of mine came to Shul late when the Minyan was already up to Musaf and he purposely davened Musaf with the minyan first. Would the rule in this case be any different?
If one Davened Musaf before Shacharis, then he is to Daven Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis [if it is still before the time of Chatzos] and is not to repeat the Shemoneh Esrei of Musaf, which he already prayed. [Nevertheless, initially it is forbidden for one to precede the prayer of Musaf to that of Shacharis, even if this will cause him to miss Davening Musaf with a Minyan, such as he arrived to Shul when the congregation is Davening Musaf.] This law applies any time that there is a Musaf prayer whether on Shabbos, Yom Tov, Chol Hamoed, or Rosh Chodesh. This applies whether one absentmindedly Davened Musaf instead of Shacharis, or did so on purpose. Nonetheless, in the case that you absentmindedly Davened Musaf instead of Shacharis, then since there is a dispute in the Poskim regarding if you fulfill your obligation of Musaf, therefore you should place close attention to the Chazaras Hashatz of Musaf having in mind to fulfill your obligation with the repetition according to those authorities who require it. Alternatively, and even better, one should be the Chazan for Musaf Chazaras Hashatz and hence fulfill his obligation according to all.
In the event that one Davened Musaf Shemoneh Esrei before Shacharis the question is raised as to whether he has fulfill his obligation of Musaf, as perhaps the sages required these prayers to be recited in their correct order. Furthermore, since the entire concept of the various Shemoneh Esrei prayers correspond to the sacrifices in the temple, perhaps it follows the same bylaws as these sacrifices, and hence just as we rule that if the Musaf offering was brought prior to the morning Tamid then it is invalid, so too, perhaps we should rule regarding prayer that if one prayed Musaf before Shacharis, then his Musaf prayer is invalid. On the other hand, perhaps one who Davens Musaf before Shacharis in truth fulfills his obligation of Shacharis, and hence he should now repeat the prayer of Musaf for Musaf and not of Shacharis. So practically we find an explicit ruling in the Poskim regarding both of the above matters that one who Davens Musaf before Shacharis is Yotzei Musaf, and not Shacharis. You see, despite the above argument of invalidation due to the similar ruling by sacrifices, the Rishonim and Poskim in Shulchan Aruch rule that regarding the prayer of Musaf, the Sages were not so stringent to require one to repeat the prayer being that he Davened it at a time that is fit for the offering of the Musaf, and hence he fulfills his obligation of Musaf and is now required to Daven Shacharis. [Nevertheless, initially it is forbidden for one to precede the prayer of Musaf to that of Shacharis, even if this will cause him to miss Davening Musaf with a Minyan, such as he arrived to Shul when the congregation is Davening Musaf.]
While the above ruling in the Poskim seems to have answered all of our questions, in truth, after a more careful look it is not so simple at all regarding our case. You see, the ruling in the Rishonim and Poskim which validate a Musaf prayer prior to Shacharis was in reference to a case that one purposely preceded Musaf to Shacharis. Meaning, that he intended to Daven Musaf and the question simply is whether after the fact this prayer was valid. However, in the event that one intended on praying Shacharis, and it just happened that he absentmindedly prayed Musaf, then that is a completely different case. Perhaps, you cannot fulfill your obligation of the prayer without the intent of that prayer. Meaning, that it is not enough simply to say the words of Musaf, but you must also intend for it to be your Musaf prayer, and if not then it is invalid just as is the rule regarding sacrifices that one’s thoughts can affect invalidation’s and as we find a similar debate regarding the laws of Birchas Hanehnin. So let us now analyze this case in the Poskim:
The Poskim rule that one who absentmindedly Davened the Shemoneh Esrei of Shabbos Maariv or Shabbos Mincha instead of Shacharis fulfills his obligation of Shacharis, and the same applies vice a versa. This however is with exception to Musaf. One who absentmindedly Davened the prayer of Musaf while intending to Daven Shacharis, does not fulfill his obligation of Shacharis, and the same applies vice versa. The reason for this is because mentioning the afternoon sacrifices in the Shacharis prayer is a lie, and one who lies in middle of his prayer has his prayer invalidated. While this is a clear ruling in the Shulchan Aruch of the Michaber and Admur, what is left unclear is regarding whether or not one fulfills his obligation of Musaf in such a case or if he needs to repeat it again [meaning that he needs to still say Shemoneh Esrei of Shacharis and Musaf]. The Magen Avraham according to most versions writes that he does fulfill his obligation of Musaf even in such a case and hence he is only required to now Daven Shacharis, and so rules the Mishneh Berurah. However, other Poskim rule that in such a case he does not fulfill his obligation even of Musaf being that he did not have intention to Daven Musaf, and he must hence repeat both prayers. Further confusion on how to rule is sowed in the fact that there are different versions of the Magen Avraham, and it is not even clear if that’s what he really meant to say. In addition, these Poskim who rule that one fulfills his obligation of Musaf rule in what seems to be a contradiction, that if he remembered in after saying Mikadesh Hashabbos that he should repeat the middle blessing for Shacharis, hence implying that his middle blessing of Musaf was already a blessing in vain. Strangest of all, the Alter Rebbe in his Shulchan Aruch completely avoids this entire discussion of the status of the Musaf prayer in such a case, and while he omits the ruling of the Magen Avraham which validates the prayer, he does not explicitly write that the prayer is invalid, and hence leaves the reader unsure of what to do. This anomaly is mentioned by the Tehila Ledavid, and by the Ketzos Hashulchan who writes that from the omission of Admur of the M”A it is implied that in his opinion one does not fulfill his Musaf obligation, although he concludes like the ruling of the Magen Avraham to validate the prayer of Musaf in such a case due to Safek Brachos Lihakel although suggesting to have in mind to be Yotzei with the Chazaras Hashatz of Musaf. Accordingly, so we have also written above, in order not to sway from the ruling of these great Achronim who had great understanding in Admur and nonetheless were not convinced 100% that Admur is of the opinion that he is not Yotzei Musaf. However, in my humble opinion it seems close to 100% from the wording of Admur that he holds that one is not Yotzei Musaf, as he has lied in his prayer, on the one hand telling G-d that he is praying Shacharis, and then in the end praying Musaf, and hence just as this lie invalidates his Shacharis prayer, so too it should invalidate his Musaf prayer, and so proves in great length Rav Nachum Golomb in his article on the subject that many Achronim do not even learn the M”A to say what he is acclaimed to have said, and that Admur is one of them. Vetzaurch Iyun!
Bottom line, since this matter is under confusion and under debate in the Poskim, we cannot direct the person to repeat the prayer of Musaf, as one can never Daven Musaf as a Nedava, and hence we would need to apply the rule of Safek Brachos Lihakel, and so was the ruling of the Shoel Umeishiv in a similar case. Hence, while there is a clear difference between the case that one intentionally Davened Musaf before Shacharis in which it is clear that he fulfills Musaf, versus a case when it was done absentmindedly in which case it is under confusion and debate as to whether he fulfills Musaf, nonetheless, practically the same ruling applies that he fulfills his prayer of Musaf and is only to say the prayer of Shacharis. Nonetheless, in the case that you absentmindedly Davened Musaf instead of Shacharis, since there is a dispute in the Poskim regarding if you fulfill your obligation of Musaf, therefore one should place close attention to the Chazaras Hashatz of Musaf having in mind to fulfill your obligation with the repetition according to those authorities who require it.
Sources: See Ketzos Hashulchan 78:4; Beis Aaron Veyisrael 128 p. 94 article of Rav Golomb in great length; See regarding that one is Yotzei Musaf if he purposely preceded Musaf to Shacharis: Admur 286:3; Rama 286:1; Rashba Brachos 26; Kesher Gudal 24; Siddur Beis Oveid 1; Kaf Hachaim 423:14 in name of Poskim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 286:4 See regarding the initial prohibition to precede Musaf to Shacharis: Implication of Admur 286:3; M”B 286:5; Kaf Hachaim 286:12; Maharshag 1:22; Peri Yitzchak 1:1; Beis Yitzchak 17:2; Ben Porat Yosef 3:3; Igros Moshe 4:68; Minchas Yitzchak 6:36; Shraga Hameir 4:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 286:4; Likkut Dinei Rosh Chodesh 9 footnote 11; See regarding that if the Musaf sacrifice was offered before the morning sacrifice, that it is invalid: Zevachim 89a; Menachos 49a; See regarding that one is not Yotzei Shacharis if he by mistake Davened Musaf instead to Shacharis: Admur 268:11; Michaber 268:6; Ketzos Hashulchan 78:4 footnote 15 Poskim who rule that one is Yotzei Musaf even if he absentmindedly Davened it with intent to Daven Shacharis: M”A 268:8; Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Tehila Ledavid 268:8; Shoel Umeishiv Shetisa 22; M”B 268:17; Ketzos Hashulchan 78:4 [due to Safek Brachos Lihakel]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 268:9; See Admur 268:4 Poskim who rule that one is not Yotzei Musaf if he absentmindedly Davened it with intent to Daven Shacharis and hence he must repeat Shacharis and Musaf: Kesher Gudal 24; Siddur Beis Oveid 1; Beis Menucha; Shalmei Tzibur p. 229 in name of Rashbash; Emek Hamelech 11; Shnos Chaim 13:8; Kaf Hachaim 423:14; Tosefes Shabbos 268:9 negates ruling of M”A as being not Muchrach; P”M 268 A”A 8-9 leaves in Tzaruch Iyun based on 209:1 that Kavana is Miakeiv; Minchas Shabbos in name of Poskim; Ketzos Hashulchan 78 footnote 16 that so is the implied opinion of Admur who omitted the ruling of the M”A ibid; Or Letziyon 2:19-3; Poskim who rule that due to the Safek one is to have in mind by the Musaf repetition to fulfill his obligation: Shalmei Chagiga; Ketzos Hashulchan 78:4 and footnote 17; Or Letziyon 2:19-3; See regarding what to do if remember the middle: M”A 268:9; P”M 268 A”A 9; Machatzis Hashekel ibid; Tehila Ledavid 268:8; M”B 268:17; Ketzos Hashulchan 78:4 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 268:9