Walled, Unwalled, and cities of doubt

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Introduction: The Sages, upon decreeing the annual celebration of Purim, differentiated the celebration dates between walled and un-walled cities. The reason for this is because the Purim story occurred in a time of exile and destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem. Thus, in order to designate special honor to Eretz Yisrael they differentiated between Jerusalem and all other walled cities of the like, that they should celebrate on a different date.

 

Important Note:

The laws regarding when an un-walled city is to read the Megillah, if it is near or within sight of a walled city, are very detailed and complex. It affects the ruling of many neighborhoods in modern Jerusalem and the outskirts of Jerusalem. It is dependent on numerous factors and Halachic debates amongst Poskim. It goes without saying that one cannot deduce a practical ruling in this regard from the laws mentioned below and the matter is to be given to the Gedolei Haposkim of the generation. Nevertheless we have not refrained from delving into this complex matter in order to give the reader vast background knowledge of the topic, Veyagdil Torah Veyadir. Practically every neighborhood in Jerusalem and its outskirts are to verify what the accepted opinion is in the area.

 

A. Walled cities:[2]

All walled cities that existed during the time of Yehoshua Ben Nun[3], celebrate Purim on the 15th of Adar. This applies even if the city no longer contains a wall. This applies to all cities of the world, even in the Diaspora.[4] This applies even if the city does not contain ten Batlanim.[5] However this only applies if the city was first walled and then inhabited, or was inhabited with intent to be walled. If however it was inhabited and only later they decided to make the walls, then they celebrate on the 14th. If one does not know when the city was walled one can assume that it was first walled and then inhabited.[6]

Cities within a close distance to a walled city: :[7] All un-walled towns[8] or cities that are within a mils distance from a walled city that celebrates on the 15th are likewise to celebrate Purim on the 15th. [See Q&A regarding whether we measure from the city walls, or the city houses, and regarding the houses and neighborhoods in Yerushalayim.]

Cities within sight of walled cities:  [9] All un-walled towns[10] or cities which can be seen from a walled city are to celebrate on the 15th.[11] According to some Poskim[12] this applies even if the city is further than a Mil’s distance from the walled city. Others[13] however rule that this only applies if the city is within a Mil’s distance from the walled city. If however it is distanced more than one Mil from the walled city, the inhabitants are required to celebrate on the 14th, even though the city is within view of the walled city.[14] [Practically some Poskim[15] rule that the main opinion follows the former opinion. Others[16] however rule that one is to suspect for both opinions and hence they are to celebrate Purim, with all the Mitzvos, on both days. Others[17] conclude one is to follow the latter opinion and if the city which can be seen from the walled city is not within a Mil’s distance[18] of the walled city, the inhabitants are to read Megillah on the 14th.]

Tachanun on the 14th:[19] Tachanun is omitted in all areas on the 14th.

Al Hanissim on the 14th:[20] Al Hanissim is not said on the 14th in an area which celebrates on the 15th.

Adding in festivities on the 14th:[21] Those that celebrate on the 15th [Jerusalem] are obligated to slightly[22] increase in joy and festivities also on the 14th [during the day].[23]

 

B. Un-walled cities:[24]

All cities which were not walled at the time of Yehoshua Ben Nun celebrate Purim and read the Megillah on the 14th.

Un-walled cities that are within one Mil of a walled city: See above.

Un-walled cities that are within view from a walled city: See above.

 

C. A questionable city:[25] :

A city in which there is doubt as to whether it contained walls at the time of Yehoshua [and hence there is question as to which day they should celebrate Purim] the inhabitants are to celebrate Purim on both the 14th and 15th.[26] They are to read the Megillah on both the night and day of the 14th and 15th [for a total of four readings].[27] However a blessing is only recited over the reading of the Megillah on the 14th and not over the reading on the 15th.[28] They are to rejoice [in having a meal[29]], give presents to the poor[30], [send Mishloach Manos[31], and say Al Hanissim[32]] on both days.[33] This applies equally to both men and woman.[34]

Davening and Kerias Hatorah: The Davening on the 14th follows the order of Purim Davening. However on the 15th one is to follow the weekday order and hence is not to recite Ata Kadosh in Maariv, and by Shacharis one does not remove a Torah scroll for the Amalek reading.[35] Nevertheless some communities have the custom to read from the Torah scroll without a blessing on the 15th.[36]

Cities that are distanced from Eretz Yisrael: All walled cities that are of great distance from Eretz Yisrael are to celebrate Purim only on the 14th, as it is certain that they were not yet inhabited by the time of Yehoshua.[37] Nevertheless in a case of true historical doubt, they are to celebrate on both days, following the laws of a questionable city.[38]

 

Q&A

Are the inhabitants of cities which keep Purim on both the 14th and 15th due to doubt to refrain from Melacha on both days?[39]

Yes. All the cities that are stringent to celebrate and fulfill the Mitzvos of Purim also on the 15th are to refrain from work on both days, the 14th and 15th.

 

D. The city of Shushan:[40]

The city of Shushan [in today’s Iran] celebrates Purim on the 15th.[41] [The exact location of Shushan is unknown.[42]]

 

E. One who is on a boat,   or in the dessert:[43]

One who is on a boat or in a dessert on the 14th is to celebrate Purim and read Megillah on the 14th.[44] This applies even if one is originally from a walled city.[45]

 

List of cities which keep two days due to doubt:[46]

  • Akko
  • Gaza
  • Bagdad[47]
  • Beiriy[48]
  • Beis Shean
  • Damascus.[49]
  • Gush Chalav
  • Haifa[50]
  • Hebron[51]
  • Eiyn Zeiton[52]
  • Lod[53]
  • Prague: Some[54] rule it is not a walled city and hence the inhabitants are to celebrate only on the 14th. Others[55] rule this matter is questionable and they are hence to celebrate on both days.
  • Ramlei
  • Shechem
  • Tiveria[56]
  • Tzefas[57]
  • Yaffo
  • Yericho

 

 

Q&A on within a Mil

How much is a Mils distance? Is it measured in accordance to feet; walking distance; car or train?

The distance of a Mil in length is 960 Meters.[58] In walking distance it is between 18-24 minutes.[59] Some Poskim[60] rule it is measured by meters. Other Poskim[61] rule that this distance is measured in walking distance. Others[62] rule it is measured in distance of common transportation. Thus according to this opinion, all cities or towns that are within 18-24 minutes of travel by car, to a walled city, are to celebrate on the 15th.[63] Practically the final ruling follows the first opinion, that the measurement is based on meters and not traveling distance.[64] This distance of meters is measured from the ground of the walled city and not from the air.[65]

 

From where is the Mils distance measured? Is it measured from the wall of the city or from the outskirts of the city?[66]

Example: If a walled city throughout the decades has expanded past the wall, is the Mil measured from the wall, and hence all houses that are past a Mil from the wall read on the 14th; or is it measured from the last house of the modern city?

Some Poskim[67] rule that the distance is measured from the original wall of the city and not from its outskirts. Thus all the houses that are distanced more than a Mil from the wall are to read on the 14th. Other Poskim[68] rule that all the houses and neighborhoods of the modern city are considered as part of the walled city and hence they celebrate and read the Megillah on the 15th. If however there is a Mil’s distance of empty space between one neighborhood and another, and it is not within view, then that second neighborhood celebrates on the 14th.[69] Other Poskim[70] rule that all the houses and neighborhoods in modern Jerusalem which have a distance of empty space of 141 Ama [67.8 meters] from the closer neighborhood, are to celebrate and read Megillah on the 14th. Others[71] rule that all the neighborhoods that are part of the Jerusalem municipality for all matters are to celebrate on the 15th

 

When are the neighborhoods outside the old city of Jerusalem to celebrate Purim?

Based on the above, some Poskim[72] rule that all the neighborhoods and houses outside the old city of Jerusalem, which are not within a mil’s distance from the original walls, are to celebrate on the 14th. Thus in the neighborhoods near the old city some houses must read Megillah on the 14th and others on the 15th, depending on their distance.[73] Other Poskim[74] rule that all the houses and neighborhoods in modern Jerusalem are to celebrate and read Megillah on the 15th. See the previous Q&A!

 

Q&A on “within sight”

What is the intent of “within view”? Is the walled city to see the un-walled city or vice versa?[75]

The intent is that the un-walled city is seen when one is within the walled city and not vice versa.[76]

Must the ground of the un-walled city be seen or only the houses? Some Poskim[77] rule one must see the ground of the un-walled city and seeing the houses alone does not suffice. Others[78] rule that seeing the houses suffice.

Must the un-walled city be seen from the ground of the walled city or from the houses or roofs?[79] The un-walled city must be seen from the ground of the walled city and not from a building or roof top.

 

If an un-walled city can be seen from the houses of the outskirt of the walled city, but not from the walled city itself, when are they to celebrate Purim?

  • Example: When are towns and cities that can be seen from only certain parts of Jerusalem to celebrate Purim?

 

This matter is dependent on the same dispute mentioned above in regards to whether the Mil is measured from the walls of the city or from the houses. Thus according to some Poskim[80] all cities that can be seen from the external houses of a walled city are to celebrate and read Megillah on the 15th, just as is the law regarding the houses themselves. [If however these cities are further than a Mil from these houses than it is subject to the dispute mentioned in A and hence according to some one is to read on both days.] According to others however they are to celebrate only on the 14th.

 

Why do cities in the Diaspora not celebrate Purim for two days as is done by all the other festivals in the Diaspora?

  1. As Mordechai and Esther never originally instituted that areas in the Diaspora are to keep two days, and hence when the later Sages made their institution of keeping two days they did not want to override the decree of Mordechai.[81]
  2. Being that Purim is a merely Rabbinical holiday, therefore we are not stringent to require the people of the Diaspora to keep an extra day as is required by the Biblical Holidays of Sukkos, Pesach, and Shavuos.[82]

 

 

If a walled city is no longer inhabited by Jews, when is a Jewish visitor to keep Purim?[83]

A Jew which is passing through a walled city from the times of Yehoshua that is no longer inhabited by Jews is to celebrate Purim and read Megillah on the 14th.

 

Is an un-walled city which is within a Mil, or within view, of a walled city to celebrate on the 15th, if the walled city does not contain any Jews?[84]

No. They are to celebrate on the 14th.

 

If an un-walled city is within a Mil’s distance or within view, of a doubtful city,  when are they to celebrate Purim?

Many Poskim[85] rule they are to celebrate Purim only on the 14th. However other Poskim[86] rule they are to celebrate both days as is the law regarding a doubtful city. Those that suspect for this latter opinion celebrate Purim on both days in Bnei Braq due to it being within view of Yaffo.

 

Do secular historical records of a wall dating back thousands of years change the Halachic status of an un-walled city?[87]

No. The secular records do not have Halachic authenticity and hence are not to be taken into account. Nevertheless if the matter is a known fact amongst the inhabitants of the city for many generations then one is to be stringent and celebrate also on the 15th.

 

If one who lives in Jerusalem read the Megillah on the 14th does he fulfill his obligation?[88]

Yes.[89]

 

May one who celebrated Purim on the 14th read Megillah for one who celebrates on the 15th?[90]

One who celebrated Purim on the 14th cannot read the Megillah, and thus fulfill the obligation, for people who celebrate on the 15th.[91]

 

May one who lives in Jerusalem and will celebrate Purim on the 15th read Megillah for one who celebrates on the 14th ?[92]

One who lives in Jerusalem and will thus celebrate Purim on the 15th cannot read the Megillah, and thus fulfill the obligation, for other people who celebrate on the 14th.[93] Nevertheless there is an opinion[94] which rules that if, after the fact, one who celebrates on the 15th read the Megillah for others on the 14th, they have fulfilled their obligation.


 

[1] 688/1-4; Megillah 2a

 

[2] Michaber 688/1

The reason why walled cities celebrate on the 15th: At the time of the miracle, the city of Shushan celebrated the victory a day later than the other cities. The Jews of other cities were victorious on the 13th and celebrated on the 14th. In Shushan however the battle continued into the 14th and hence they only rested and celebrated on the 15th. For this reason at the time that Mordechai and Esther, together with the Anshei Kneses Hagedola, established the holiday of Purim, they split the celebration to two different days; the un-walled cities on the 14th and the walled cities on the 15th. The reason why they differentiated between walled and un-walled cities is because Shushan was a walled city, and hence all cities similar to Shushan celebrate on the 15th. [Beis Yosef; Taz 688/1; M”B 688/1]

 

[3] The reason why walled cities follow the time of Yehoshua: In truth it should have been established that every city which contains walls, as did Shushan, at the time of Achashveirosh, celebrates Purim on the 15th. However being that Eretz Yisrael was destroyed at that time and many cities did not contain walls, such an institution would result in that Eretz Yisrael would be held in lower esteem regarding Purim than walled cities of the Diaspora. Hence in order to include the walled cities of Eretz Yisrael in the celebration of the 15th they established that the walled cities follow the time of Yehoshua and not of Achashveirosh. The one exception to this rule was Shushan itself, as although it was not walled at the time of Yehoshua nevertheless they celebrate on the 15th, as they are the reason behind this Takana. [M”B 688/1] As result of this institution, Eretz Yisrael has a place of commemoration within the miracle. [Rambam Megillah 1/5; Kaf Hachaim 688/1] The reason why the Takana was not established based on the walls that existed in the times of Moshe is because Yehoshua was the main conqueror of Eretz Yisrael. [Birkeiy Yosef 688/2; Kaf Hachaim 688/1]

 

[4] Michaber ibid based on Rambam; Tur. However see Ran that there are opinions that rule that in the Diaspora even walled cities are to read on the 14th. Practically we do not rule this way. [Beis Yosef on Tur]

 

[5] Batlanim refer to people that do not do Melacha [i.e. work] and are free to deal with community matters. [ibid] The Beis Yosef however explains this to mean that there are ten people that go to Shul daily in the morning and evening for prayers. Hence even though there are opinions that rule if a walled city does not have ten work Batlanim they are to read on the 14th, nevertheless the custom is to read on the 15th being that they have ten people who go to Shul daily in the morning and evening. [Beis Yosef brought in Kaf Hachaim 688/3; M”B 688/3]

If the city does not even have ten people that pray: Many Rishonim [Ramban; Rashba; Meiri; Ritva] rule that if the city does not have ten Batlanim they are to read on the 14th. The Yad Efraim concludes that one is to suspect for their words and read the Megillah also on the 14th. [M”B 688/2; See Kaf Hachaim ibid that even the Michaber ibid agrees with this and he simply learns that all cities have ten Batlanim that go to Minyan.]

 

[6] As most settlements that have walls are built with prior intent to make the walls at the time of the building. [M”B 688/4]

 

[7] 688/2

Other Opinions: Some Rishonim [Rokeiach; Rambam; Tur] rule that if the walled city cannot be seen from this city, then this city only follow the 15th if they are within “Ibura Shel Ir” of the walled city, and it does not suffice to be within a mil’s distance of the city. [Ibura Shel Ir refers to the outskirts of the city, within 70 Amos of the last house. See 398/6] Most Rishonim [Rashi; Rabbeinu Chananel; Meiri; Rabbeinu Yerucham] however rule that even if the walled city cannot be seen, they are to read on the 15th, if they are within a Mil’s distance. The Shulchan Aruch rules like this latter opinion as explained in M”A 688/3. [Shaar Hatziyon 688/5 and 7]

 

[8] P”M 688 A.A. 3; M”B 688/5; Kaf Hachaim 688/8

 

[9] 688/2

 

[10] P”M 688 A.A. 3; M”B 688/5; Kaf Hachaim 688/8

 

[11] Michaber ibid

 

[12] M”A 688/3 in explanation of wording of Michaber as opposed to Tur, as rules Rashi; Rabbeinu Chananel; Meiri; Rabbeinu Yerucham; Maggid Mishneh. [Shaar Hatziyon 688/5 brought in M”B 688/6] So also concludes in opinion of Michaber: Mate Yehuda; Shulchan Gavoa 688/9; Mamar Mordechai 688/3 [see Kaf Hachaim 688/9]

 

[13] Taz 688/3; Rokeiach; Rambam; Tur; [Shaareiy Tziyon 688/5 brought in M”B 688/6] Elya Raba; Ran; Peri Chadash in opinion of Michaber; Birkeiy Yosef 688/6 brought in Kaf Hachaim 688/9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/4

 

[14] According to this opinion the practical ramifications between a city that overviews a walled city and a city that is within one Mil of the city is as follows: By a city that does not overview the walled city, this opinion holds that it must be within Ibura Shel Ir, and being within a Mil’s distance does not suffice. Alternatively this opinion holds that they are both valid if they are within a Mil’s distance, although the form of measurement differs. If the city overviews the walled city then we measure the Mil in the air, while if the city does not overview the walled city then we measure the Mil on the ground, including all the mounds, within the measurement. [Shaar Hatziyon 688/7; Taz 688/3] 

 

[15] Shaar Hatziyon 688/7 as most Rishonim rule like the first opinion and as explains the M”A 688/3.

 

[16] Kaf Hachaim 688/9

 

[17] Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/4

 

[18] Nevertheless in this regard the Mil’s distance is measured in the air, as opposed to over the ground. [Taz 688/3; Beis Yosef]

 

[19] See 696/3 that fasting and eulogies are forbidden on both days.

 

[20] Piskeiy Teshuvos 693/4

 

[21] See Rama 695/2; Hiskashrus 1025 footnote 78

 

[22] So writes Rama ibid

 

[23] As the verse states “on these two days” hence one must rejoice on both the 14th and 15th. [Darkei Moshe 695/4]

 

[24] 688/3

 

[25] 688/4

 

[26] This applies even if the city does not currently have a wall but there is doubt whether it was walled in the times of Yehoshua. However the Peri Chadash rules that in such a case they are to celebrate on the 14th and a doubt only applies to a city that is currently walled. Practically the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch is like the former opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 688/20]

 

[27] Michaber ibid

 

[28] Michaber ibid;

Why is a blessing said on the first day if it is a doubt? As the first day is the main day of Purim for such a city being that on this day majority of the world celebrates Purim. [ibid] Meaning that since according to the Yerushalmi even a Ben Kerach Bedieved fulfills his obligation of Megillah on the 14th therefore there is no doubt and a blessing may be recited. [M”B 688/11; Kaf Hachaim 688/26 in name of Gr”a] However on the second day a blessing may not be said as the blessings are only Rabbinical and it is hence a Rabbinical doubt in which we rule leniently. [M”B ibid] The Bach however asks why the 15th is any different than the second day of Yom Tov in the Diaspora which is also questionable and nevertheless the blessings are said on that day. Thus one should say a blessing prior to Megillah reading on both days. The M”A 688/6 answers that only by those Mitzvos which the Sages instituted a blessing even in a case of doubt, such as by the second day of Yom Tov in the Diaspora, may a blessing be recited. However without a specific Rabbinical institution a blessing may not be said even by Biblical doubts. [Kaf Hachaim 688/24]

 

[29] Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 695/7; as if one is to send Mishloach Manos and Matanos Laevyonim on both days certainly one must fulfill the Seuda which is the purpose of these Mitzvos. [ibid]

 

[30] M”A 688/5 brought in M”B 688/10; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 17

 

[31] Peri Megadim M”Z 695/5; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 17; Kaf Hachaim 695/23 and 54 that so was custom of Arizal [Shaar Hakavanos Purim 1]; See Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 695/7 that one may be lenient on the 15th to give Mishloach Manos without a Shliach. Likewise one can fulfill this at a meal by simply giving another person a glass of wine and some food. [ibid]

Other opinions: The Peri Chadash rules they only need to send Mishloach Manos on the 14th. The Biur Halacha [695 “Oa Shel”] brings both opinions. Practically the custom is to send on both days. [Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid.]

 

[32] Peri Megadim 693 M”Z 3; M”B 693/6; Har Tzevi 2/128; and so concludes Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/6; See Minchas Yitzchak 8/54

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that one does not say Al Hanissim on the 15th, and that so was the custom of the Arizal, due to worry of it being an interval in prayer and Birchas Hamazon. [Kaf Hachaim 688/23; 693/16; Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 14; Sefer Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukichinsky; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos Purim 1] However see Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 693/1 that explains it was only during Chazaras Hashatz that the Arizal did not want to say Al Hanissim, however by the private Shemoneh Esrei one can assume that he said it. At the very least one cannot say he did not say it being that certainly the Arizal did not pray the private Shemoneh Esrei aloud. [ibid]

 

[33] M”A 688/5; M”B 688/10; Kaf Hachaim 688/22

 

[34] Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/6

 

[35] Kaf Hachaim 688/25 in name of Kesones Yosef 31; Ikarei Daat 36/29; Peas Hashulchan 3/15

 

[36] Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 14

 

[37] M”A 688/4 in name of Levush; M”B 688/9; Kaf Hachaim 688/21

 

[38] There are some cities outside of Eretz Yisrael which are questionable if they contained walls at the times of Yehoshua. [Shlah brought in M”A 688/4] The M”B ibid that even by such cities one may be lenient to only celebrate on the 14th. [Shaar Hatziyon 688/9] However the Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 14 rules that in Bagdad they celebrate both days due to doubt, and so was accustomed Rav Chaim Vital in Bagdad. Hence we see that we do not automatically rule leniently in a city outside of Eretz Yisrael. See also Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 141/22 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/8. 

 

[39] Beis Oved 696/6; Yad Efraim brought in Kaf Hachaim 696/15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 696/3

 

[40] 688/2

 

[41] Although Shushan was not a walled city in the times of Yehoshua Ben Nun, nevertheless since this is the city that the celebration on the 15th occurred in therefore they celebrate on the 15th. [Michaber ibid; see M”B 688/1 and 7]

 

[42] Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukitchinsky

 

[43] Rama 688/5

 

[44] As this is the time that majority of Jews celebrate Purim and read the Megillah. [Rama ibid in name of Kol Bo]

 

[45] M”B 688/13

 

[46] See Peas Hashulchan 3/15; Eretz Yisrael of Rav Tukitchinsky; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/7

Other Opinions: Some Poskim write that all the cities in Eretz Yisrael celebrate on the 14th and 15th due to doubt, with exception to Yerushalayim which celebrates only on the 15th. [Divrei Yosef 2 brought in Kaf Hachaim 688/17]

 

[47] Ben Ish Chaiy Tetzaveh 14

 

[48] Kaf Hachaim 688/19

 

[49] Shaar Hakavanos Purim 1 brought in Kaf Hachaim 688/23

 

[50] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 5/96; Luach Eretz Yisrael; See Shay Kohen 2/489; See Gemara Megillah 5b; M”B 699/9 that it is questionable whether the sea is considered a wall for the city.

 

[51] Birkeiy Yosef 688/4; Chaim Shaul 2/94; Tevuos Haaretz; Kaf Hachaim 688/17

Other Opinions: The Radbaz 681 rules that Hebron was not walled in the times of Yehoshua Ben Nun and they are hence to only read on the 14th.

 

[52] Kaf Hachaim 688/19

 

[53] Minchas Yitzchak 8/61; Yabia Omer 7/60 based on Gemara that states Lud was a walled city in times of Yehoshua.

 

[54] Teshuvah Meahava 210

 

[55] Chayeh Adam 155/8

 

[56] Gemara Megillah 5b; M”A 688/4; M”B 688/9. The Gemara ibid questions whether a sea is considered like a wall.

 

[57] Kaf Hachaim 688/19

 

[58] Shiur of Rav A”C Naah; A Mil contains 2000 Amos and an Ama contain 48 centimeters [Shiureiy Torah p. 249] for a total of 960 meters.

Shiur Chazon Ish: According to the Chazon Ish a Mil is 1180 meters.

 

[59] Admur 459/10 records two opinions; See Ir Hakodesh Vehamikdash Vol. 3 27/10-2

 

[60] Ir Hakodesh Vehamikdash Vol. 3 27/9-2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/3

 

[61] Kaf Hachaim 688/10 in opinion of Yad Shaul

 

[62] Kaf Hachaim 688/10 in opinion of Makor Chaim; Rav Poalim 3/24 and others.

 

[63] The Kaf Hachaim ibid concludes that those cities that can be seen from a walled city and are within 18-24 minutes traveling distance by car are to celebrate on the 15th.

 

[64] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

 

[65] Taz 688/3; Ir Hakodesh Vehamikdash Vol. 3 27/9-2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/3; However see there that regarding cities that are within view from the walled city the meters are measured from the air.

 

[66] Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/2

 

[67] Ir Hakodesh Vehamikdash 3/27 of Rav Tukichinsky; Rav Shmuel Salant; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 12

 

[68] Kaf Hachaim 688/10 based on Bach; and so brings Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2/347 in name of the Toras Chesed; Griz Mintzberg; Rav Shmuel Rosenthal; and so ruled Rav Yosef Chaim Zonenfeld and Rav Diskim. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 688 footnote 15]

 

[69] Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/2

 

[70] Chazon Ish 151 and 153/2; Tzitz Kodesh 1/92; Mikrei Kodesh 23; Bnei Tziyon 2/11; Minchas Yitzchak 8/62; Shevet Halevy 6/93; Yabia Omer 6/58; Or Letziyon 1/45; Kinyan Torah 4/87; Az Nidbaru 5/41

 

[71] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2/347 in name of Chazon Ish; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 688 footnote 17

 

[72] Ir Hakodesh Vehamikdash 3/27 of Rav Tukichinsky and so ruled Rav Shmuel Salant. Nevertheless he concludes that those that desire to suspect for the other opinions are to read also on the 15th without a blessing. In the Shul Eitz Chaim of Rav Tukitchinski the custom until today is to read with a blessing on the 14th and on the 15th without a blessing.

 

[73] This does not pose a prohibition of Lo Sisgodedu [ibid]

 

[74] Kaf Hachaim 688/10 based on Bach; and so brings Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2/347 in name of the Toras Chesed; Griz Mintzberg; Rav Shmuel Rosenthal; and so ruled Rav Yosef Chaim Zonenfeld and Rav Diskim. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 688 footnote 15]

 

[75] Ir Hakodesh Vihamikdash Vol. 3 27/11-1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/1

 

[76] So is proven from the wording in the Gemara and Poskim “Venirim Imahem” and not Veroim Osam. So is also explicitly written in the Meiri; Ran and others. [ibid]

 

[77] Ir Hakodesh Vihamikdash Vol. 3 27/11-1; Minchas Yitzchak 8/62; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/1

 

[78] Kinyan Torah 4/87

 

[79] Ir Hakodesh Vihamikdash Vol. 3 27/11-2; Minchas Yitzchak 8/62; Piskeiy Teshuvos 688/1

 

[80] Kaf Hachaim 688/10

 

[81] Kaf Hachaim 688/15 in name of Olas Shabbos 688/1

 

[82] Abudarham brought in Taamei Haminhagim 864

 

[83] Beis Oved 7; Kaf Hachaim 688/12

Other Opinions: The Chida in Birkeiy Yosef learns from the Ramban that the visitor is to celebrate on the 15th. We do not rule like this opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 688/12-13]

 

[84] Beis Oved 8; Kaf Hachaim 688/13

Other Opinions: The Chida in Birkeiy Yosef learns from the Ramban that the visitor is to celebrate on the 15th. We do not rule like this opinion. [Kaf Hachaim 688/13]

 

[85] Maasas Moshe 3; Birkeiy Yosef 688/9; Beis Oved 688/5; Kaf Hachaim 688/11; Biur Halacha 688 “Oa Shesmechum Lahem”

 

[86] Peas Hashulchan 3/15; Chazon Ish 153/3

 

[87] Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 141/22 in name of Besamim Rosh 349

 

[88] M”B 688/11; Kaf Hachaim 688/26 in name of Gr”a; Peri Megadim 688 M.Z. 2

 

[89] According to the Yerushalmi a Ben Kerach Bedieved fulfills his obligation of Megillah on the 14th. [ibid]

 

[90] M”B 588/8; Kaf Hachaim 688/14

 

[91] So rules Peri Chadash 688/1; The reason for this is because one must be obligated in the Mitzvah in order to fulfill the Mitzvah for others. [M”B ibid; See Shaar Hatziyon 688/8 that the Yerushalmi leaves this matter in question]

 

[92] M”B 588/8; Kaf Hachaim 688/14

 

[93] So rules Peri Chadash 688/1; The reason for this is because one must be obligated in the Mitzvah in order to fulfill the Mitzvah for others. [M”B ibid; See Shaar Hatziyon 688/8 that the Yerushalmi leaves this matter in question]

 

[94] Peri Megadim 688 M.Z. 2; based on Yerushalmi that holds Bedieved a Ben Kerach fulfills his obligation on the 14th, and so is implied from Biur Hagr”a.

 

 

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