Types of garments obligated in Tzitzis

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The types of garments obligated in Tzitzis:

In addition to the requirements discussed in the previous Halachas [i.e. material; size; majority split], for a garment to be obligated in Tzitzis, there is also a set of requirements regarding the intended use of the garment. The following laws will discuss garments of different usage and their Tzitzis exemptions or obligations. The general rule is as follows: The obligation of Tzitzis only applies to garments that are Halachicly defined as “clothing” and that are worn in a way that obligates its corners. Clothing is defined as a garment that is worn over the main body of the person for the purpose of benefiting from the warmth or protection that the clothing provides. If the garment is not a body garment, or is not worn for clothing purposes, it is not obligated in Tzitzis. In addition, even a body garment is only obligated in Tzitzis when worn in a way that positions the corners in a legally obligating method. In addition, even such a garment is only obligated in Tzitzis [according to all opinions] if it is a day garment. In addition, even such a garment is only obligated in Tzitzis if one is considered to “Halachicly” own the garment. In summary, the eligibility for a garment to require Tzitzis is based on the following criteria:

  1. The garments main function is to cover the actual body and not just the head.
  2. The garment is manufactured for clothing purposes.
  3. The garment is worn for clothing purposes.
  4. The four corners of the garment are worn in a way that two corners are in front and two in back
  5. The corners are at the edge of the garment, in contrast to attached corners.
  6. Some say the garment must be worn as clothing as opposed to a mere covering.
  7. Some say the garment must be a day garment.
  8. The garment is made to be worn by live people.
  9. The garment “Halachicly” belongs to the person wearing it. [See Halacha 9]
  10. The garment contains four Halachicly valid corners [See Halacha 11!]

 

A. Head garments – Scarf; Kerchiefs, Shawls: [1]

All clothing that are meant to cover only the head and not the remainder of the body, are not defined as clothing, and are hence exempt from requiring Tzitzis even if it contains [Shiur Tallis[2] and has] four corners.[3] Furthermore, even if the garment is meant to cover majority of the body, in addition to covering the head, nevertheless if the garments main intent is to cover the head, it is exempt from Tzitzis.

Based on this the following garments are exempt from Tzitzis even if they also cover the body when worn:[4]

  1. Head scarf [i.e. Bandana/Tichel]
  2. Keffiyeh [Arab head covering]

 

 Is a shawl or body scarf obligated in Tzitzis?[5]

Shawls or body scarves that are worn by men [as is common in eastern countries] are obligated in Tzitzis if they contain Shiur Tallis[6], as they are made to cover the body, and not the head. Such a garment must have one of its corners rounded. If however they are manufactured only for women [as is common in western countries] it is disputed amongst Poskim[7] as to whether it is obligated in Tzitzis even when worn by men, and is hence to only be worn by men if one of its corners are rounded [and does not contain a prohibition of Beged Isha[8]].

 

Is a neck scarf obligated in Tzitzis?[9]

No.[10] A scarf is not obligated in Tzitzis [and thus does not required a rounded corner] even if it is contains Shiur Tallis.[11]

 

B. Garments manufactured for non-clothing purposes-Handkerchief; Towels; Aprons:[12]

All garments that are meant to be worn for non-clothing purposes, such as [a handkerchief or] the Arab Shid[13], is exempt from requiring Tzitzis. This applies even if the garment is large and meets the minimum size which is obligated in Tzitzis. Furthermore, this applies even if one benefits from wearing the garment, such as on sunny days it protects him from the sun and on rainy days it protects him from the rain.[14]

Based on this, the following garments are exempt from Tzitzis even if they contain Shiur Tallis and four corners, and do not require a corner to be rounded:[15]

  • Towels [See Q&A]
  • Aprons[16]
  • Belts [even if they contain Shiur Tallis]
  • Barbers cape or gown.[17]
  • Purim Costumes
  • X-ray protective vests
  • Bullet proof vest

 

Q&A

Is a towel obligated in Tzitzis? Should it have one of its corners rounded? May one wear it around his waist after a shower?

A towel is not obligated in Tzitzis and hence does not require a rounded corner. This applies even if one is accustomed to wrap the towel around his waist, such as after a shower.[18]

 

Is a four cornered rain garment [trench coat or rain cape, or poncho] obligated in Tzitzis?

Yes, as a rain garment is considered a garment that is manufactured for clothing purposes, as the purpose of clothing is to protect from the sun and rain. Hence, a trench coat or rain cape that has four corners and a majority split, requires having one of its corners rounded, as explained in A.

 

If one decided to wear for clothing purposes a garment that is not manufactured for clothing purposes, is it obligated in Tzitzis?

Perhaps it is obligated in Tzitzis if one’s only intent is to wear it as clothing.[19] Practically, this matter requires further analysis.[20] If however one now designates the garment to be used for clothing purposes on a permanent basis then it becomes obligated in Tzitzis.[21]

 

If one placed Tzitzis on a garment that is not worn for clothing purposes and then changed his mind to wear the garment as clothing, must the Tzitzis be removed and then retied?

Some[22] write that the Tzitzis must be removed and then retied.

 

Are four cornered garments worn for purposes of Kavod/honor obligated in Tzitzis?

Some Poskim[23] rule that clothing worn only for Kavod-respect are exempt from Tzitzis, as they are not considered clothing worn for heat and cold protection. Other Poskim[24] however rule that such garments are considered clothing and are hence obligated in Tzitzis if they fulfill the other conditions. Regarding saying a blessing over a Tallis worn for Kavod-see Chapter 2 Halacha 12 in Q&A!

C. Garments worn for non-clothing purposes – Mending; Tax evasion; Trying on a new Tallis without Tzitzis:

The previous Halacha dealt with garments that are not manufactured for clothing purposes. The following Halacha will deal with garments that are manufactured as clothing, although at the moment one is wearing it for non-clothing purposes, such as to evade taxes, or to show off to a potential buyer, or to try it on in a store.

Vendors showing the size:[25] Those that wear four cornered garments for non-clothing purposes, such as is the practice of clothing vendors that put on the merchandise which they sell in order to show the size to the customers, are allowed to wear these garments without Tzitzis.[26]

Escaping tax:[27] However those that wear four cornered garments for the sake of benefiting from the wearing, are obligated to place Tzitzis on it prior to wearing it. Thus, those vendors that desire to wear four cornered garments in order to avoid paying border tax on the merchandise, may not do so unless the garments contain Tzitzis on its corners.[28]


Q&A on wearing a Tallis not for the sake of the Mitzvah

May one try on a Tallis Gadol/Katan in a store to see if it is the correct size, if it does not have Tzitzis attached to its corners?

Yes.[29]

 

After purchasing a Tallis Gadol/Katan, may one wear it to see how it fits, if it does not have Tzitzis attached to its corners?

Yes.[30]

 

May one wear a Tallis Gadol/Katan if it does not have Tzitzis attached to its corners in order to show others how it is worn?[31]

Yes.[32]

May one say a blessing on a Tallis when wearing it due to side factors, such as to show to others how it is worn, or to try it bon?[33]

No.[34]

 

If one puts on a Tallis Gadol after eating a meal by a host on Shabbos for the sake of carrying it home after Davening, is he to say a blessing upon wearing it?[35]

Seemingly a blessing is to be said if a validating interval was made, as explained in Chapter 2.[36]

 

D. Garments worn with all four corners in front or in back of the body- Aprons; Shirts; Jackets; Capes?[37]

All four cornered garments that are made to be worn in a way that all the four corners are positioned either in front or in back of one’s body, and not in a way that there are two corners in front and two corners in back[38], is exempt from Tzitzis, and so is the custom.[39] [Thus, four cornered aprons[40], shirts[41] and jackets[42] are exempt from Tzitzis.] Nevertheless, every G-d fearing Jew is to be stringent upon himself to round off one corner [as explained in Halacha 11D] in order so it not contain four square corners.[43]

 

Ruling of Admur in Siddur-One must round the corner:

By those clothing which have two corners on the bottom and two corners on the top, near the neck, one must beware to round off the upper corners[44], as has become the more recent custom, and not to leave them square as was customary of previous times. This is to be done in order to exempt the Tallis from Tzitzis according to all.

 

Custom today:[45]

Practically, despite the above ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch and Siddur, the widespread Chabad custom as well as the custom of all Jewry, is not to be careful in this matter.[46]


Summary:

The widespread custom is not to require Tzitzis, or the rounding of a corner, on a four cornered garments worn in the front of one’s body, such as aprons, shirts and jackets that contain four corners. This is despite the ruling that G-d fearing individuals are to do so.

 

Q&A

If one wears a Tallis Gadol/Katan in a way that all its four corners are on one side, is it exempt from Tzitzis?[47]

No. The above exemption only applies to clothing that are normally worn with all four corners on one side and are manufactured with this intent.    

                 

E. Garments with attached corners-Overalls and suspenders:[48]

Attached corners: A four cornered garment is only obligated in Tzitzis if the corners are found at the natural ends of the garment. If however the corner is not the natural end of the garment, but is attached on to the garment as an additional piece, then it is not obligated in Tzitzis. Thus, if one attached two square cloths to the middle of a garment, hence creating four corners, the garment remains exempt from Tzitzis.[49]

Overalls: Likewise, garments that contain two corners on their bottom side and contain square straps [i.e. suspenders] attached to their top, which are placed over the shoulders [i.e. overalls, or an apron with attached suspenders] is exempt from Tzitzis.[50]

 

F. Wearing versus covering:[51]

Some Poskim[52] rule that the Torah only obligated Tzitzis to be tied to garments that a person wears as clothing, as the verse states “Wear them.” However if they are placed on oneself in a way of covering [as opposed to wearing], such as blankets and pillows, then it is not considered clothing at all. Other Poskim[53] however rule that even garments worn as coverings[54] and not as clothing are obligated in Tzitzis. Practically, such a garment is to have one of its corners rounded [as explained in Halacha 11D] in order to exempt it from Tzitzis according to all.[55]

 

Four cornered bedding; sheets; blankets; pillows:[56]

In addition to the previous dispute mentioned regarding a garment used as a covering, which would relate to four cornered blankets and pillows, there is a second aspect relevant to pillows and blankets, and that is the fact they are only used at night. The following is Admur’s ruling in this regard.

All four cornered bedding accessories, such as pillows and sheets or blankets, are exempt from Tzitzis.[57] However according to the opinion that rules night garments are obligated in Tzitzis when worn during the day, one is obligated to have Tzitzis placed on all four cornered bedding.[58] Nevertheless, the widespread custom is not to tie Tzitzis at all onto such garments, even if the garments are made from wool or linen.[59] Practically, despite the custom, one is to round one corner of a four cornered sheet [blanket[60]] or pillow if it is made of wool [or other Tzitzis obligating material[61]] in order to exempt it from Tzitzis according to all.[62] [According to some Poskim[63] this applies even to the bedding that one sleeps on. Other Poskim[64] however rule that these sheets are exempt according to all. Blanket covers are not required to be rounded even according to the stringent opinion.[65] Comforters and duvets do not need their corners rounded even according to those who are stringent.[66]]

 

Practical Custom:[67]

The custom of the world is not to round the corners of sheets and blankets even if they are made of wool

Chabad custom:[68] The widespread Chabad custom is not to round the corners of four cornered bedding, blankets, sheets and pillows. However some Chassidim were particular in this matter.

 

G. Night garments:[69]

The Mitzvah of Tzitzis does not apply at night, to night garments.[70] The definition of “night garments” is disputed amongst the Poskim:

Definition of night-night garment or nighttime?[71] Some Poskim[72] rule that the above law refers to the actual period of nighttime, and hence the law means to say that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis does not apply to any garment that one wears at night, even if it is a garment that is normally worn during the day.[73] On the other hand, according to this opinion, when wearing a garment during the day, one is obligated to attach Tzitzis to it, even if it is a garment that is normally worn during the night.[74] Other Poskim[75] however rule that the above law refers to a garment that is designated to be worn only at night, and hence the law means to say that such a garment is not obligated in Tzitzis even if one wears it on occasion during the day.[76] On the other hand, according to this opinion, when wearing at night a garment that is designated to be worn only during the day, or to be worn by both night and day, one is obligated to attach Tzitzis to it and say a blessing upon wearing it.[77] Practically, due to the lack of arbitration in the above mentioned dispute, one is to be stringent like both opinions.[78] Thus one is to have Tzitzis on all garments that are designated to be worn during the day, or during the night and day, even if he is wearing them at night. Likewise one is to tie Tzitzis onto all garments that are worn during the day, even if they are garments that are worn only during the night.[79] [However, a garment that is designated to be worn only at night, is exempt from Tzitzis at night according to all. Hence, night-only garments may be worn at night without Tzitzis.[80]]

No blessing during the night or by night Tzitzis:[81] The above stringency is only regarding the obligation to place Tzitzis on such garments, however regarding the blessing, one is not to say a blessing over Tzitzis unless he is wearing it during the day and it is a garment that is designated to be worn during the day, or during the night and day.[82]

Night Tzitzis that are worn in the morning upon awakening: A night garment that is designated to be worn at night and into the morning, is nevertheless defined as a night garment.[83] Therefore, one may not say a blessing on a Tallis Katan which is designated to be worn only at night [such as when one goes to sleep], even if he occasionally also wears it during the day, and he wakes up daily in the morning wearing it.[84] [For this reason, even those who are accustomed to have a separate Tallis Katan for sleeping, should not on mere occasion[85] wear this Tallis Katan during the day, as it is considered as if he is not wearing Tzitzis according to those opinions who exempt night garments.[86]]

 

H. Tachrichin-The garments of a corpse:[87]

The four cornered garments of a corpse, known as “Tachrichin”, are not obligated in Tzitzis.[88] Nevertheless, if one desires to wear such a garment prior to its use in a burial, Tzitzis must be tied to its corners, although a blessing is not to be recited upon wearing it.[89]


Q&A

Is a four cornered garment that is manufactured specifically for women, obligated in Tzitzis when worn by a man?[90]

This matter is disputed amongst Poskim[91], and is hence to only be worn by men if one of its corners are rounded [and does not contain a prohibition of Beged Isha[92]].

 

If one placed Tzitzis on a four cornered garment that was exempt from Tzitzis, such as Tachrichin, and then changed his mind to designate it for regular use, must the Tzitzis be removed and then retied?

Some[93] write that the Tzitzis must be removed and then retied.

 


[1] Admur 10/20; Michaber 10/10; Mahariy and Orchos Chaim; Beis Yosef in name of Kaftor Uperach, Bahag and Sifri; See Biur Halacha 10/10 “Kivan Sheikara”

Other opinions: Some Poskim argue that if the garment is meant to cover the head and majority of the body then it is obligated in Tzitzis. [Artzos Hachaim, brought in Biur Halacha ibid; See Biur Halacha ibid who defends the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch] 

[2] 10/21; See Shoel Umeishiv Gimel 1/197; Maharsham 3/272

[3] The reason: As the Torah stated “Your clothing, that you garb with” hence coming to exclude all clothing which are not meant to cover the body. [ibid; Beis Yosef]

[4] Admur 10/20 states: Even by a head scarf, that its ends are thrown over the body, nevertheless it is exempt, as its main purpose is to cover the head and not the body. This fits the description of headscarf and Keffiyah.

[5] See Aruch Hashulchan 10/22; Biur Halacha 10/11 “Sudar”

[6] Seemingly, regarding this matter one is to be stringent to consider Shiur Tallis as one Ama by one Ama, as written in Siddur Admur regarding a Katan.

[7] This follows the same dispute mentioned regarding Tachrichin; See Kaf Hachaim 18/6; 19/4; Chemed Moshe in Peri Megadim 18 A”A 3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 10 footnote 79

[8] Many Poskim rule it only applies when done for purposes of resembling the opposite gender, and not when done due to the cold or heat or other reasons. See Shach 182/7; Taz 182/4; Darkei Teshuvah 182/9; Shraga Hameir 7/124 regarding when the prohibition of Beged Isha applies.

[9] Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/11

[10] Most scarves do not contain Shiur Tallis even when opened wide. Furthermore, as explained next, it is exempt from Tzitzis even if it contains Shiur Tallis.

[11] Shoel Umeishiv Gimel 1/197; Maharsham 3/272

The reason: As although the scarf covers the body and not the head, nevertheless it is worn folded and with all four corners in front. [ibid; see Admur 10/22] Furthermore, some Poskim rule that just as a head garment is exempt from Tzitzis, so too a neck garment, or any garment meant for only a specific limb, is exempt from Tzitzis. [See Aruch Hashulchan 10/22; Maharsham ibid; Beis Yosef]

[12] 10/21; Michaber 10/11 based on Beis Yosef

[13] This was a garment that was draped over one’s neck and used as a handkerchief or as a bag to carry money. [ibid] 

[14] Admur ibid; Beis Yosef 10; M”A 10/13; Biur Halacha 10/11 “Sudar”

The reason: As nevertheless, the main intent of the person wearing this garment [the Arab Shid] is not to benefit from wearing it but rather to use it to hold coins, and to wipe sweat, and is therefore not defined as a clothing at all. [Admur ibid; M”A 10/13; See also 19/3]

[15] Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/12

[16] As they are worn simply to refrain one from getting dirty, this is in addition to the fact that all four corners lye in front, as explained in Halacha D!

[17] This refers to the garment that barbers customarily place over the person receiving a haircut. It is exempt from Tzitzis being it is not manufactured for clothing purposes, but to prevent hair from getting on the person. See Hisorerus Teshuvah 1/10; Ikvei Sofer; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 82; To note, when using the cape of the barber, according to all being it is not obligated in Tzitzis, as it is like a borrowed garment, and hence the novelty here is that even if one owns the cape it is exempt from Tzitzis.

[18] The reason: As its main intent is to dry the body from water, and hence is exempt even when worn also for the sake of clothing, as stated in Admur above regarding the Arab Shid.

[19] As in such a case it is similar to Tachrichin of which there is a dispute if it is obligated in Tzitzis when worn by a live person. [See 19/2; Halacha H regarding Tachrichin]

[20] As perhaps it still falls under the exemption of the Arab Sheiks that may be worn even for clothing.

[21] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 19/1

[22] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 19/1; So also rules regarding a night garment that was turned to a day garment: Neos Desha 62; Kaf Hachaim 18/3; P”M 18 M”Z 1 leaves this matter in question

[23] Beis Yosef end of 10; Regarding why our Tallis today is obligated in Tzitzis according to this opinion, see Elya Raba 10/15; Eretz Tzevi 1/1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/10-1 footnote 59

[24] Darkie Moshe ibid

[25] 19/3; M”A 19/2; M”B 19/5

[26] The reason: The reason for this is because they have no intent to benefit from the wearing of these clothing and rather only wear it for the purpose of showing customers the size of the garment. [Admur ibid; See also 10/21] See however the wording of the M”A ibid which does not mention “the size of the garment”. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 19 footnote 15 for an explanation in this matter.

[27] Admur ibid; M”A ibid “Possibly forbidden”; See Yoreh Deah 301 regarding this law by Shatnez

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is room to question whether it is truly prohibited in the above case. [M”A ibid writes “Possibly forbidden”; M”B ibid; Chayeh Adam 11/2] Others rule it is definitely exempt from Tzitzis and hence may be worn to escape the border tax. [Elya Raba 19/1; Radbaz 1/305; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 19/5; Toras Chaim Sofer 19/3]

[28] The reason: As he benefits from this wearing, and is intending to wear it for the purpose of benefiting from it in order to exempt himself from the tax on the basis of it being the clothing that he is wearing, which is not taxable. [ibid] Seemingly this means to say that although he may be very hot under all those pairs of clothing, and he is not benefiting from the heat transpired due to the clothing, nevertheless he certainly does benefit from the fact that he will not have to pay tax. Now, although the vendors also benefit by showing the customers the size of the clothing, nevertheless in that case there is no intent to wear it at all, while here the vendor intends to wear it for the sake of the tax exemption.

May a blessing be recited? From the wording of Admur it is implied that a blessing is even to be said on such wearing, as Admur makes no mention of doubt in his ruling. However, according to the M”A ibid and other Poskim seemingly a blessing may not be recited.

[29] The reason: This is allowed due to two reasons: a) One does not own the garment, and it is hence exempt from Tzitzis. B) One has no intent to benefit from wearing it, as stated in 19/3.

[30] The reason: As one has no intent to benefit from wearing it, as stated in 19/3.

[31] See Od Yosef Chaiy Bereishis 2

[32] The reason: This is allowed as one has no intent to benefit from wearing it, as stated in 19/3.

[33] Od Yosef Chaiy Bereishis 2

[34] The reason: As one has no intent to benefit from wearing it, as stated in 19/3.

[35] See Admur 19/3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 8 footnote 248; 19 footnote 18; Shevet Halevi 10/2

[36] As he has intent to benefit from either a) the way it looks, or b) that he can carry it home without transgressing the carrying laws on the basis that it is considered his clothing, and is hence exactly similar to the tax case mentioned above in Admur. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 19 footnote 18

[37] 10/22; Siddur; Rama 10/12; Darkei Moshe 10/6; Rokeiach in name of Midrash

[38] Such as the clothing found in these provinces of Germany and Spain which have two corners on bottom and two corners on top, near the neck. [ibid]

[39] The reason: This is because the main Mitzvah of Tzitzis is to have two sets of Tzitzis by ones front and two sets of Tzitzis by ones back [see 8/10]. Thus, by these garments which have all the four corners in the front and it is not possible to wear them a different way, one can say that the Torah did not obligate it to have Tzitzis placed on it at all, and therefore the custom is to be lenient. [Admur ibid]

The law if it is possible to wear the Tzitzis with two corners on each side: The Darkei Moshe and Admur ibid emphasize that the garment is exempt if “it is not possible to wear them a different way”. It is discussed amongst Poskim whether the garment is obligated in Tzitzis if it is possible to wear it with two corners on each side, despite this not being the norm. See Shoel Umeishiv Gimel 197; Nachalas Binyamin 9; Maharsham 3/272

[40] In truth, aprons are exempt for an additional reason, as they are worn to protect from getting dirty, and hence even a G-d fearing Jew does not need to be stringent to round the corner of an apron.

[41] A shirt is exempt from Tzitzis as it does not have two corners on its back and front. Now, although a G-d fearing Jew is to round one of the corners, as rules Admur ibid and in the Siddur. Practically the custom today is to be lenient, as brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/4

[42] To note that most jackets, whether suit jackets or winter jackets, have rounded corners and hence are exempt from Tzitzis irrelevant of this Halacha, and hence the ruling that a G-d fearing Jew is required to be stringent is not relevant.

[43] Admur ibid; M”A 10/13; M”B 10/36

[44] It seems from here that Admur is saying one is to round off two corners, and not just one as stated in 10/22. So writes also Beis Yosef 10 that some elders would round off two corners.

[45] See Hiskashrus 461/17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/14

[46] Some suggest the reason for this is because the folded corners of the collar are not viewed as Halachicly obligating corners, being that they are not the natural end of the garment. [See Admur 10/23 brought in next Halacha; Chazon Ish 3/37 and Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 91]

[47] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 10 footnote 63; See wording of Admur ibid “and it is not possible to wear them a different way”

[48] 10/23; M”A 10/13

[49] The reason: Certainly such corners are exempt from Tzitzis as these are not the corners referred to in the Torah. [ibid]

[50] The reason: As the upper side does not have corners other than the corners formed by the suspenders, and these two corners are not defined as real corners being that these two corners of his back are not aligned with the two corners of his front side, and therefore are not considered corners at all, as they are not on the ends of the garment. This is similar to sewing corners unto the middle of a garment, which is not considered a corner as explained above [ibid]

[51] 18/5; M”A 18/3

[52] Ravayah 1 and 152; Mordechai; Darkei Moishe 18/2

[53] Tosafus Menachos 41a; Hagahos Maimanis 3/7; Yireim; brought in Admur ibid and M”A ibid under those opinions that hold blankets are obligated to have Tzitzis.

[54] This includes blankets and sheets, and according to some Poskim includes also the bedding that is placed on the bed, over which the person sleeps. [Aruch “Kar”; M”B 18/8; See Siddur Rav Raskin Miluim 7] However many Poskim argue on this and state that the bottom sheets are exempt even according to Tosafus. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 18; Chesed Lealafim 18/2; Chazon Ish 3/36; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/13 footnote 88]

[55] Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; M”A ibid

Difference between Shulchan Aruch and Siddur: In the Shulchan Aruch it is implied that Admur extends this ruling even to sheets that the person sleeps on top of, as rules Tosafus ibid. However in the Siddur Admur only mentions this ruling regarding blankets which cover the person from on top. [See  Siddur Rav Raskin Miluim 7]

[56] 18/5

[57] First opinion in Admur ibid; Michaber 18/2; Rosh Tzitzis

The reason: As these garments are considered night garments, and night garments are exempt from Tzitzis [according to some opinions]. Now, although one occasionally sleeps with his bedding also during the day, nevertheless since their main purpose is for night use, therefore it is considered a night garment and is exempt from Tzitzis. [Admur ibid; This only applies according to those that rule night garments are exempt from Tzitzis even during the day, as explained next.]

[58] So rules Hagahos Maimanis 3/7 and Yireim; brought in Admur ibid and M”A 18/3

The reason: As one sleeps with them in the morning [and in the morning these garments are obligated in Tzitzis in their opinion]. [Admur ibid] However see Siddur that Admur writes one is to round one of the corners because at times he sleeps with the bedding during the day. [so writes also Kaf Hachaim 18/17; See Elya Raba 18/2 that even according to the Rambam sleeping with garment into the morning is only an extension of the night wearing and is not obligated in Tzitzis even according to him; See Siddur Rav Raskin Miluim 7]

[59] Admur ibid; M”A ibid

The reason: The reason for this is because there are opinions that say that the Torah only obligated Tzitzis to be tied to garments that a person wears as clothing, as the verse states “Wear them.” However if they are placed on oneself in a way of covering [as opposed to wearing], such as blankets and pillows, then it is not considered clothing at all. [Admur ibid; M”A 18/3] Thus blankets are exempt from Tzitzis even according to the Rambam.

[60] Siddur Admur

[61] Implication of Siddur Admur which does not mention specifically wool. [Piskei Hasiddur 40]; Artzos Hachaim 18/15

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch and Other Poskim: The M”A and Admur ibid only mention wool bedding regarding this stringency of rounding a corner. Based on this, many Poskim rule that there is no need even for a G-d fearing Jew to round sheets that are made of other material. [P”M 18 A”A 3; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 17; M”B 18/8; See Kaf Hachaim 18/17]

[62] Admur ibid; Siddur Admur; M”A ibid; P”M 18 A”A 3; Chesed Lealafim 18/5; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 17; M”B 18/8; Kaf Hachaim 18/17

[63] M”B ibid, based on Tosafus ibid, and so is implied from Admur 18/5, although from Siddur it is implied that it is not necessary, as brought next

Difference between Shulchan Aruch and Siddur: In the Shulchan Aruch it is implied that Admur extends this ruling even to sheets that the person sleeps on top of, as rules Tosafus ibid. However in the Siddur Admur only mentions this ruling regarding blankets which cover the person from on top. [See Siddur Rav Raskin Miluim 7]

[64] Ashel Avraham Butchach 18; Chesed Lealafim 18/2; Chazon Ish 3/36; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/13 footnote 88

[65] Hisorerus Teshuvah 1/9

[66] Ashel Avraham 18

The reason: As the puffiness causes their corners to be rounded.

[67] Mor Uketzia of Yaavetz 18; Aruch Hashulchan 18/8; Ashel Avraham Butchach 18; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1/9; Chazon Ish 3/36; Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/13

[68] See Hiskashrus 461/17; Siddur Rav Raskin Miluim 7

[69] Admur 18/1-4

[70] 18/1; brought also in 8/27; Michaber 18/1; Menachos 43

The reason: As the verse states “Ureisem Oso” “That you shall see it” thus coming to exclude night garments. [Admur ibid; Menachos ibid]

At night near light: Some Poskim write that a four cornered garment is obligated in Tzitzis at night if it is in an area near a candle, and hence can be seen. [Pardes of Rashi Tzitzis 36; Hagahos Chasam Sofer 18; See Har Tzevi 1/12]

[71] 18/2; Michaber 18/1; See also 19/2 regarding Tachrichin

[72] Rambam 3/8; first opinion in Admur and Michaber ibid

[73] The reason: As in their opinion the verse is only excluding garments that cannot be seen while they are worn. [Admur ibid]

[74] The reason: As these garments are visible while they are worn and are hence included in the obligation of Ureisem Oso. [Admur ibid]

[75] Rosh Hilchos Tzitzis; 2nd opinion in Admur and Michaber ibid

[76] The reason: As initially the garment was only made to be worn at a time that it cannot be seen. [Admur ibid]

[77] The reason: As these garments were made to be worn at a time that they are visible. [Admur ibid]

[78] Admur ibid and 19/2; Darkei Moshe; Olas Tamid 18/2

[79] Why does the wearing of such Tzitzis not constitute Baal Tosif according to those that exempt it from Tzitzis? As whenever one fulfills a Mitzvah due to doubt it is not considered Baal Tosif. See Siddur Admur “Doing so does not involve the prohibition of Baal Tosif being that there are opinions that state one is obligated to wear Tzitzis on a day garment even if it is worn at night.”

[80] Regarding if wearing such a garment at night together with Tzitzis constitutes Baal Tosif-see Chapter 1 Halacha 10A in Q&A!

[81] Admur ibid and 19/2; Rama ibid

[82] The reason: As Safek Brachos Lihakel, and hence one must suspect for both opinions. [ibid]

[83] Implication of Admur 18/5 and M”A 18/3 regarding blankets which are worn into the morning, and at times by day, that it is a dispute if they are required to have Tzitzis, hence implying that according to all they are defined as a Kesus Layla! Hence, when one wears it by day he cannot say a blessing, as according to the opinion that a Kesus Layla is exempt from Tzitzis, this garment is not obligated to have Tzitzis.

[84] The reason: As such a garment is defined as a night garment which according to some opinions is exempt from Tzitzis even when worn during the day. [Admur ibid]

Is this garment obligated in Tzitzis according to the Rambam when worn into the morning? Admur ibid rules that according to the Rambam the Tallis is obligated in Tzitzis upon awakening with it in the morning. However in the Siddur Admur rules that covers and blankets are to be rounded only because they are worn at times by day, and does not mention the fact that one awakens with them. This implies that even according to the Rambam, awakening with the garment in the morning does not make it obligated in Tzitzis, and so rules Elya Raba 18/2 that even according to the Rambam sleeping with garment into the morning is only an extension of the night wearing and is not obligated in Tzitzis even according to him. [See Siddur Rav Raskin Miluim 7]

[85] If however he wears it also during the day on a regular basis then it is considered a night and day garment which is obligated in Tzitzis during the day according to all.

[86] Furthermore, if one did not remove this Tallis in the morning and then re-wear it, perhaps even according to the Rambam it is exempt from Tzitzis, and hence one is not wearing Tzitzis according to any opinion. [See Elya Raba ibid; implication from Siddur ibid, brought in previous footnotes]

[87] 19/2; Michaber 19/2

[88] The reason: As a corpse is not obligated in Mitzvos.

[89] Admur ibid; M”A 19/2; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 19/7

The reason: It is disputed as to whether such a Tallis is obligated in Tzitzis. According to those opinions who rule that nighttime garments are exempt from Tzitzis even during the day, here too those garments that are designated as Tachrichin are exempt from Tzitzis even if one wears them prior to the burial, as its main intent is to use at a time that one is exempt from Tzitzis. However according to those that rule that rule that nighttime garments are obligated in Tzitzis when worn during the day, here too even garments that are designated as Tachrichin are obligated in Tzitzis if one wears them prior to the burial. Now, being that the final ruling has not been clarified in this matter, therefore if one desires to wear it he is to tie Tzitzis to the corners, although is not to recite a blessing upon wearing it. [ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Tachrichin are exempt from Tzitzis according to all opinions even when worn prior to burial. [Michaber 19/2 as explained in M”A 19/2] The reason for this is because the garment is not made for the wearing of a live person. [M”A ibid]

[90] Kaf Hachaim 18/6; 19/4

[91] This follows the same dispute mentioned above regarding Tachrichin; See Chemed Moshe in Peri Megadim 18 A”A 3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 10 footnote 79

[92] Many Poskim rule it only applies when done for purposes of resembling the opposite gender, and not when done due to the cold or heat or other reasons. See Shach 182/7; Taz 182/4; Darkei Teshuvah 182/9; Shraga Hameir 7/124 regarding when the prohibition of Beged Isha applies.

[93] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 19/1; So also rules regarding a night garment that was turned to a day garment: Neos Desha 62; Kaf Hachaim 18/3; P”M 18 M”Z 1 leaves this matter in question

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1 Comment

  1. philip

    Hi, so based on what you wrote, if i am going to wear my woolen tallis katan in israeli hot summer it could be argued that i am doing so for some side reason (make the mizva) but certainly not for wearing purposes. And not be obligated to wear the tallis or say a bracha on it?
    Looking forward for your answer.
    Philip

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