Nittel Nacht

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 Nittel Nacht

A. What is Nittel?

Nittel is a gentile Holiday celebrating the birth of Yoshke. On this day there is an extra abundance of impurity and a stronghold of Kelipa. For this reason, the Jews throughout the generations took various customs upon themselves which are followed until this day, in order to diminish the spiritual power of the impurity. The word Nittel is at times spelled with a “Tes”[1] and at times with a “Taf”[2] . The meaning of Nittel with a Tes is “removed”, as on this night there is a lack of Kedusha. The word Nittel with a “Taf” means “Natleh” which means birth in Latin.[3]

 

B. When is Nittel?

Nittel is on the 25th of December. The customs of Nittel apply starting from the night before the 25th, which is on the night of the Eve of the 25th of December.[4]

C. Avoiding learning Torah:[5]

It is the custom of many Jewish communities, dating back several generations, to avoid learning Torah on the night of Nittel.[6] This is likewise the Chabad custom.[7] This applies even in Eretz Yisrael.[8] The Rebbe Rashab was not keen with those students who ignored this custom and continued with their studies as usual.[9] The reason that Torah learning is avoided, is because we do not want to add vitality to the impure spirit that exists on this day.[10] Other reasons are also recorded.[11] It is told of a certain Gadol Beyisrael who learned on this night, and his learning attracted a dog to the home, hence symbolizing the nurture of Kelipa from one’s Torah learning.[12]

D. When is one to avoid learning on Nittel?

The custom to avoid learning begins from the night of the Eve of the 25th of December [as explained above]. One is to avoid learning Torah until midnight.[13] Starting from midnight, one may resume learning Torah, and there are no longer any restrictions applicable.

When is midnight? Midnight in this regard is in accordance to Halachic Zmaniyos hours, and is not exactly at 12:00, when the date changes.

From when is one to stop learning; sunset or nightfall? The custom of many is to avoid learning Torah beginning from sunset of Nittel.[14] Some however write that one may learn until nightfall.[15]

 

Q&A

May one learn Chassidus on Nittel?[16]

One is to avoid learning even Chassidus on the night of Nittel. This applies even when the night of Nittel falls on Shabbos.

 

May one read stories of Tzaddikim on Nittel?[17]

Yes.

 

May an Avel learn Mishnayos to recite after Maariv?[18]

Yes.

 

How should one use his time during Nittel?[19]

The time of Nittel is to be used wisely, and not to be wasted G-d forbid. One is to use his time to perform matters which involve wisdom and sharpen the mind, or to perform Chesed, or matters dealing with the home. The Rebbe suggested the following activities as examples of how one can use his time on the night of Nittel.

1. Play chess.[20] The Rebbe Rashab was accustomed to play chess on this night, or to advise other players in the midst of their game.

2. Sew buttons of his coat right over left.

3. Look at pictures of Rabbeim

 

 

Maaseh Shehaya

Story with the Tzemach Tzedek:

One year, the Rav of Lubavitch entered the study of the Tzemach Tzedek on the night of Nittel and found the Tzemach Tzedek engrossed in learning. The Rav exclaimed in shock “Rebbe, tonight is Nittel”. The Tzemach Tzedek responded “Who asked you to inform me?” Nonetheless, the Rebbe proceeded to close his Sefer and ceased his learning.

 

 

E. May one have marital relations on Nittel Nacht?[21]

Some Poskim[22] rule one is to avoid marital relations on the night of Nittel.[23] This applies even on the night of Mikveh.[24] However, after midnight, one may be lenient on the night of Mikveh.[25] Others[26] however rule that those who are lenient have upon whom to rely[27], while those that are stringent are blessed.

 

 

Q&A on Christianity

Is Christianity considered Avoda Zarah?

Christianity is considered Avoda Zara for a Jew, and carries all Avoda Zara related prohibitions.[28] However, some Poskim[29] rule that for gentiles, Christianity is considered Shituf and is not prohibited due to Avoda Zara.[30] Other Poskim[31] however rule that Christianity is considered like idolatry even for gentiles.

May one say the name Jesus or Yeshu?

From the letter of the law it is permitted to recite the name Jesus or Yeshu.[32] It is likewise permitted to write these names, as we find Gedolei Yisrael who wrote these names in their Sefarim.[33] Nevertheless, despite the letter of the law, the custom of all Jewry dating back many generations is to avoid saying these names and rather the term “Oso Ish” or “Yoshka” or “Yoshke Pandre” is used in its stead. One is not Heaven forefend to break this custom.[34]

May one say the word Christ?[35]

One is not to use this term as it connotes a Messiah and savior, and according to some even a deity, and so is the custom of all Jewry to not say this term.[36]

May one say the name Chris-mass?

No, and so is the custom. One is rather to use an epithet [i.e. nickname] such as Kratzmacht; Nittel, and the like. Seemingly however the term X-mass is not to be used, as the X is short for Ch***, and is used also by Christians as a formal name of the holiday.[37]

May one wish a merry Chris-mas, or happy holidays, to a gentile acquaintance or neighbor?

Merry chris-mass: As stated above, the term Chris-mas is not to be mentioned, due to the prohibition against mentioning the name of idols.

Other greetings:[38] It is forbidden to enter the home of an idolater on the day of his Holiday and wish him Shalom/peace. If one found the gentile outside of his home, he may greet him with a low voice and melonchaly demeanor. [Some Poskim[39] rule the above prohibition only refers to using the word “Shalom” being that it is the name of Hashem, however, one may greet him using other terms. Practically, if the gentile does not believe in the religious connotations behind the holiday, then there is no prohibition to mention to him “Happy Holidays.”[40] If, however, the gentile believes in the idolatry related content behind Christmas, seemingly, one may only do so in a pressing situation, to avoid enmity.[41] Certainly one should not go out of one’s way to greet him and send him Holiday wishes, such as through social media, unless lack of doing so will cause enmity. In all cases that one meets a gentile acquaintance outside who is a practicing Christian, he is to greet him with a low voice, as stated above.

May one give a present to a gentile in honor of Chris-mas and New Years?

It is forbidden to give presents to an idol worshiper [even if he is an acquaintance] on the day of his Holiday. If however the gentile does not believe in the idol and does not worship it, then it is permitted to do so.[42] Christians, who believe in the deity of a human and worship him, are considered to be practicing idolatry[43], and it is therefore forbidden to give them presents on the day of their Holiday, which includes Xmas and New Years.[44] Nevertheless, some Poskim[45] rule that the above prohibition only applied in previous times when people were much more religiously observant of idolatry, however today the worshippers are no longer expert in idolatry, and it is therefore permitted to do business with them on the day of their holiday [and give them presents, if they are an acquaintance].[46] This especially applies if segregating ourselves from the gentiles on the day of their Holiday will bring enmity and hatred towards us, being we live amongst them and have business relationships with them throughout the year. Nevertheless, a Baal Nefesh is to distance himself from rejoicing with them if he is able to do so inconspicuously, in a way that will not arouse enmity. Thus, practically, if one needs to send gifts to a gentile [acquaintance] on the day of their Holiday, such as New Years[47] [or Xmas], it is permitted to do so. However, if possible, the present should be sent before the Holiday begins, such as the afternoon prior to the Holiday. If this is not possible, then the gift may be sent on the Holiday itself.[48]   

 

_____________________________

[1] Sefer Haminhagim Tirana 14; Kaftor Vaferach 10; Levush 148; Igros Kodesh 13:120; 14:352; Likkutei Sichos 15:545

[2] Machzor Vitri Shechita 80; Terumos Hadeshen 195; Darkei Moshe Yoreh Deah 148; Hayom Yom 17th Teves; Sefer Hasichos 1990 1:192; Reshimos Hayoman p. 313, 365

[3] Likkutei Sichos 15:545

[4] In the secular calendar the date begins at midnight. Nevertheless, the customs of Nittel are guarded on the night of which the 25th will begin at midnight.

[5] See Darkei Chaim Veshalom 828; Nitei Gavriel Nittel

[6] Chasam Sofer 7:31; Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair 155; So was the custom of many Jewish communities including: Rav Yonason Eibashitz, Rav Yaakov Emden that so is custom of all Geonim, Rav Yisrael Salanter, Maharsha, Maharam Schick and others. See Nitei Gavriel Chanukah p. 385

[7] Hayom Yom 17th Teves

[8] So is the custom; However, see Igros Kodesh 13:120

[9] Hayom Yom ibid

[10] Likkutei Sichos 14:554; Igros Kodesh 13:120; 14:351; Reshimos Hayoman p. 365 [printed in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag p. 179]

[11] Other reasons: As in previous times, the night of their festival was a time of danger for Jews to be out in public, and therefore they decreed that Jews should not go to the Beis Hamidrash on this night. [Likkutei Sichos 15:554]

[12] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 825

[13] Hayom Yom 17th Teves; Hisvadyus 5750 2 p. 49; Reshimos Hayoman p. 365, printed in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag p. 179

[14] Nitei Gavriel Luach Dvar Beito

[15] Hiskashrus footnote 14

[16] Reshimos Hayoman p. 365 that the Rebbe Rashab did not learn Chassidus on the night of Nittel, not even in a form of Girsa. [printed in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag p. 179]; Directive of Rebbe to Rav Weinberg who gave a radio class in Tanya; Even when Nittel fell on Shabbos, the Rebbe Rashab did not say the Mamar at night but rather on Shabbos day. [Reshimos Hayoman ibid]

Other opinions: In Reshimos Hayoman p. 313 it states that the learning of Chassidus is not relevant to the custom of avoiding learning on Nittel.

[17] Directive of Rebbe to Rav Weinberg who gave a radio class in Tanya.

[18] Hiskashrus

[19] Hisvadyus 5750 Vol. 2 p. 50 [Sichas Vayeishev, Chanukah 5750]

[20] This is done as a) It adds sharpness to the mind, which allows one to learn Torah with greater understanding in the future. [See Kesubos 61b in Rashi “Demitlala”] B) It sanctifies Hashem’s name and the praise of the Jewish people by showing the gentiles that the Jews are also wise even in this wisdom. C) Some play this game for business, and it hence is no different than any other business. [Rebbe ibid]

[21] See Nitei Gavriel Chanukah p. 410; Beir Moshe 4:69; Piskeiy Teshuvos 240:10; Shulchan Menachem 6:242; Taharah Kehalacha 21

[22] Taharas Yisrael 197:2-3; Karban Nisanel; Yimtza Chaim 73:9; See Nitei Gavriel Chanukah p. 410; Beir Moshe 4:69

[23] The reason: As many Poshei Yisrael were born from mothers who conceived on this night. [See Nitei Gavriel ibid] Alternatively, this is because marital relations requires purity of mind, and the thinking of Nittel, even negatively, can affect the born child, and due to this worry they forbade marital relations on this night. [Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 4:132; Shulchan Menachem 6:242; Igros Kodesh 4:424]

[24] Taharas Yisrael 197:2-3; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 825; See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 4:132; Beir Moshe ibid that so was custom of students of Baal Shem Tov

[25] Darkei Chaim Veshalom ibid; Shiureiy Shevet Halevi 197:2; Taharah Kehalacha 21:9; See Shulchan Menachem ibid;

On a regular night: The Munkatcher rules one is to avoid marital relations even after midnight. [See letter of Rebbe ibid] So is also implied from Taharas Yisrael ibid, and other Poskim. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[26] Beir Moshe 4:69; Chasam Sofer Koveitz Hateshuvos 31 protested the custom of closing the Mikvas on this night

[27] As there is no source in Poskim to prohibit it. [ibid]

[28] Rambam Machalos Assuros 11:7; Avoda Zara 9:4; Pirush Hamishnayos Avoda Zara 1:3; Teshuvas Harambam 448; Rama Y.D. 148:12 [in uncensored editions] lists Xmas and New Years as Holidays of idolatry; Likkutei Sichos 37 p. 198; Rebbe in handwritten editing remarks to a letter “Christianity is Avoda Zara, is in contrast to the seven Nohadite laws, as opposed to Islam. However, the Christians of today are simply “Maaseh Avoseihem Beyadeihem”.

The reason: As they believe that Yoshka is one of the three parts of Hashem and they worship him. [In truth however, there are different sects of Christianity with different belief systems. See Haemuna Vehadeios of Rasag 2:7 that there are four groups of Christians and not all are idol worshipers; See here https://www.thoughtco.com/faith-groups-that-reject-trinity-doctrine-700367]

[29] Rama O.C. 156:1 [Omitted in Admur 156]; Darkei Moshe O.C. 156; Y.D. 151; Shach Y.D 151:7; Tosafus Sanhedrin 63b and Bechoros 2b; Ran Sanhedrin 63b, end of first Perek in Avoda Zara; Meiri Bava Kama 113b; Rabbeinu Yerucham Nesiv 17:5; Beir Hagoleh C. M. 425 Shin; Aruch Hashulchan 156:4; Reb Yeshaya Berlin, brought in Mishnas Chachomim Yesodei Hatorah Lav Alef and Pischeiy Teshuvah 147:2; See Sefer Hamamarim Rebbe Maharash 5637 “Mi Kamocha”; Melukat 1 p. 323 Mamar Mayim Rabim 5717; Melukat 3 Nissan p. 128 Mamar “Beyom Ashtei Asar” 5731; Toras Menachem 5743 3 p. 1386; See Pischeiy Teshuvah Y.D. 157:2 that so is clearly implied from Rama ibid; See Sdei Chemed Peas Hasadeh Kelalim 3:6

[30] The reason: The definition of Nohadite idolatry according to this opinion: According to this opinion, the form of idolatry prohibited for Nohadites is the belief that Hashem has completely left the earth, and plays no role in it. That it has been left completely to the authority of a deity to whom they pray and worship. In other words, they believe in G-d’s existence, but simply call him “Eloka Dielokaya/The G-d of G-d’s/.” This is prohibited for even a gentile to believe, and he must believe that G-d has direct influence on the world. It goes without saying that denial of G-d’s existence at all, and believe in a foreign deity, is defined as idolatry. However, Shituf, which is permitted for a gentile according to this opinion, believes Hashem interacts with the world, although has given authority to other deities or powers to also have some control in the world, and He is thus not the sole ruler. While Jews are prohibited from believing this due to idolatry, gentiles are not. [See Sefer Hamamarim Melukat 1:323, Mamar Mayim Rabim 5717 Melukat 3 ibid footnote 20]

[31] Noda Beyehuda Tinyana Y.D. 148 [Says that Shituf is Avoda Zara even for gentiles, and the Rama and Ran never intended to say that Shituf is permitted for them, and thus the common statement of people that based on the Rama there is no Issur of Shituf for gentiles, is incorrect; However, see Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid that in truth one must say the Rama holds Shituf is permitted for gentiles, as the Rama Y.D. 151:1 permits selling them items, as explains Shach 151:7]; Mahara Sasson; Vishev Hakohen  38; Meil Tzedaka 22; Shaar Efraim 24; P”M 156; Y.D. 65 S”D end of chapter that is nevertheless Rabbinically prohibited; Binyan Tziyon 1:16; Mishnas Chachomim Yesodei Hatorah Lav Alef; Pischeiy Teshuvah Y.D. 147:2 [concludes that Shituf is forbidden also for gentiles]; Rebbe in handwritten editing remarks to a letter “Christianity is Avoda Zara, is in contrast to the seven Nohadite laws, as opposed to Islam. However, the Christians of today are simply “Maaseh Avoseihem Beyadeihem”.

[32] The reason: As it is permitted to recite names of people who do not connote a deity and were later turned into a deity. [Yireim brought in Hagahos Maimanis Avodas Kochavim 5/3; Chavos Yair Teshuvah 1 Hasaga 11-12; Biur Hagr”a 147/3; Teshuvos Rav Ezriel Hildsheimer 180; See Mishneh Halachos 9/169]

[33] See Biur Hagr”a ibid; This name is mentioned in various places in the Gemara and Rambam; See Sanhedrin 43; 67; 105; 107; Avoda Zara 27; Yerushalmi Brachos 5/1; However see Teshuvos Rav Ezriel Hildsheimer 180 that no proof can be brought from here that these names may be recited as there is no prohibition to write the names, and rather the prohibition is simply to say them.

[34] Teshuvos Rav Ezriel Hildsheimer 180; See Mishneh Halachos 9/169

[35] Teshuvos Rav Ezriel Hildsheimer 180; See Mishneh Halachos 9/169

[36] Although we find Sefarim that write this term as well, nevertheless one cannot learn from them that it is permitted to say the names, as writing is more lenient than saying, as well as that it is permitted to write the names for learning purposes. [ibid]

[37] See here http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Xmass

[38] Michaber 148:9; Gittin 62b

[39] Bedek Habayis 148 in name of Orchos Chaim Ovada Zara 21 in name of Maharam, brought in Shach 148:7 and Nekudos Hakesef on Taz 148:6; [The Shach however leaves this matter in question]; See also Taz 148:6 in name of Semak 133 regarding the prohibition to repeat Shalom that it only applies to the word Shalom; Practically, see Birkeiy Yosef 148 in name of Maharikash regarding repeating Shalom that the custom is to repeat a blessing that does not have the name Shalom and seemingly the same would apply here that one may enter the home of a gentile and greet him with other words, or that he may greet him outside in a normal tone if he does not say the word Shalom. [To note however that although the Shach ibid records this ruling of the Bedek Habayis regarding this Halacha discussing greetings on the day of the Holiday, in truth it was said regarding repeating the word Shalom, and perhaps it is limited to that case, and not to the case under our discussion which prohibits entering the home on the day of his holiday and greeting him.] Vetzaruch Iyun.

[40] See Michaber 148:5 and Avoda Zara 65a regarding presents and the same would apply here; This is in addition to the Heter brought in Rama in next footnote

[41] See Rama 149:12 and Terumos Hadeshen 195 regarding presents and the same would apply here

[42] Michaber 148:5; Avoda Zara 65a

[43] Rambam Machalos Assuros 11/7; Avoda Zara 9/4; Pirush Hamishnayos Avoda Zara 1/3; Rama 148/12 [in uncensored editions] lists Xmas and New Years as Holidays of idolatry. Rebbe in handwritten editing remarks to a letter “Christianity is Avoda Zara, is in contrast to the seven Nohadite laws, as opposed to Islam. However, the Christians of today are simply “Maaseh Avoseihem Beyadeihem”.

[44] Rama 149:12 [in uncensored editions]; Terumos Hadeshen 195

[45] Opinion in Michaber 148/12; Tur in name of Rashbam; Tosafus

[46] Michaber ibid

[47] Rama 149/12 [in uncensored editions]; Darkei Moshe Haaruch 148/5; Terumos Hadeshen 195

[48] Rama 149/12; Terumos Hadeshen 195

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