Muktzah Machamas Gufo

Muktzah Machamas Gufo-Items which do not have the status of a vessel:

A. The definition and law: [1]

All the above [categorizations] are with regards to items that have the status of a vessel. However any item that does not have the status of a vessel, and is not food for humans and is not food for an animal, such as for example stones, and money, and [pieces of] wood, and bamboo, and beams, and dirt, and sand, and flour, and dough (of a Jew, however of  a gentile there are those which permit it as will be explained in chapter 310 [Halacha 3]) and a dead body, and animals, anything of the like of these [are forbidden to move].  [Furthermore] even something which is useable to do with it a purpose which is permitted to be done on Shabbos, such as for example stones which are useable for breaking [the shells of] nuts, and pebbles which are useable to cover vessels with, and anything else of the like, since they do not have a status of a vessel, [therefore] it is forbidden to move them even in order to use it [to do something with] and [even in order] to use the space that it under it, with exception to the [permitted] ways [of moving] that is explained [in Halacha 53].[2]

This [type of Muktzah] is called Muktzah Machmas Gufo [“because of itself”].

Is a very large vessel Muktzah?[3] Any item which has a status of a vessel, even if it is very large and heavy, [nevertheless] its status as a vessel is not nullified from it [and is thus permitted to move], irrelevant of its size and irrelevant of its weight. Similarly the same applies to a large stone or a large beam, even if [it takes] ten people to carry it, [nevertheless] if it has the status of a vessel, such as [before Shabbos] one designated it to carry for a certain use, as will be explained [in Halachas 50-53], then it is permitted to move it on Shabbos.

 

Items that are not useable to some people due to it being degrading to them:[4]

Even an item that is fit to be used on Shabbos, [nevertheless] if it is something degrading in the eyes of the rich and it is thus not common for them to use it due to their prosperity, then this item becomes absolutely Muktzah for them and is forbidden for them to move, even if it belongs to paupers.

However the rich people that live in the poor person’s houses are permitted to move it just like the poor people themselves.

If this item belongs to a rich person then it is forbidden to be moved by even all the paupers in world, as once it has become Muktzah for its owner it becomes Muktzah for the entire world.

What is the law of items that are forbidden to be used by their owner? However the above rule only applies by items that are not useable for their owners due to it being degrading in his eyes. However an item which is not useable for its owner because it is forbidden for them [to use], such as wine for a Nazir, then it does not become Muktzah because of this being that it is [still] fit for others [to use] and thus even the Nazir himself is permitted to move it.

 

B. Foods which are defined as MM”G:[5]

The general rule:

Foods that are not fit for humans or animals:[6] Any item that does not have the status of a vessel, and is not food for humans and is not food for an animal…. it is forbidden to move them even in order to use it [to do something with] and [even in order] to use the space that is under it.

What items that are edible to animals may one move?[7] Any item that is edible for the commonly found animals and birds, are permitted to be moved, even if they are not edible for the majority of animals and birds, such as for example sea-squill[8] that is only edible for deer, and mustard that is only edible for doves, are permitted to be moved in an area that deer and doves are commonly found, meaning, that it is an area where it is usual for the common-folk to raise them and they are accustomed [in doing this]. [However] it does not suffice if they are only found by the aristocrats [as will be explained in the next Halacha].

What is the law if the type of animal or bird which eats the food is not found in ones area?[9] An item that is edible only for animals and birds which are not found in ones area, then if one personally owns that type of animal or bird, then he is permitted to move the foods that they eat, however if [one does] not [own these animals or bird], it is forbidden [to be moved].

For this reason it is forbidden to move bones in an area where dogs are not found, such as for instance if one is staying for Shabbos in a field or in an inn[10] where there are no dogs[11]. [This applies] whether the bones were separated from the meat on Shabbos or from before Shabbos, [nevertheless it is still forbidden to move them].

 

Inedibility due to Kashrus reasons:

The status of Non- Kosher foods that are prohibited in benefit: Included in [the above category-Muktzah Machmas Gufo] of Muktzah, are foods which are forbidden to have benefit from[12], [meaning] that one may not feed them even to dogs. [Furthermore this applies] even if the food is only Rabbinically forbidden [in benefit], such as for example Stam Yayin[13] or foods of the like.

[Furthermore] even if the prohibition [of benefiting from the food] is only relevant for that day itself meaning it is only prohibited on Shabbos], such as for example Tevel[14] which can [have its tithes removed] after Shabbos and then be eaten, [and] its only [forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos] because on Shabbos it is Rabbinically forbidden to remove its tithes, as will be explained in chapter 339 [Halacha 7], and [so too] anything of the like of this, is Muktzah Machmas Gufo and is [thus] forbidden to be moved even in order to use it [to do something with] and [even in order] to use the space that it under it.
The status of Non-Kosher foods that are permitted in benefit : However foods which are forbidden to eat but are permitted to benefit from, [meaning] that one may feed it to dogs, [then] if these foods are ready and prepared to be fed to dogs, such as non kosher meats[15] and the like, then it is permitted to move them just like [one may move] any other animal foods [in areas that dogs are found[16]].

However if these foods are not designated for dogs despite their prohibition [in being eaten by a Jew], because their eating prohibition is only on Shabbos, such as for example juices which have flowed out from fruit on their own on Shabbos, which are forbidden to drink only on that day, and so too an egg which was laid on Shabbos which is forbidden to eat it only on that day, and similarly milk which was milked [from the animal] on Shabbos which is forbidden only on that day and so too all cases of the like, [then] even though they are allowed to be fed to dogs nevertheless since they are not designated for this, but rather [are designated] for humans to eat after Shabbos, [therefore] it is forbidden to move them even in order to use it [to do something with] and [even in order] to use the space that is under it.
Foods which are forbidden to be eaten for long periods of times: However foods which are also forbidden to be eaten during the week [but are permitted in benefit], then even if they will eventually after some time become permitted [to even eat], such as for example Chadash[17], [nevertheless] it is permitted to be moved even in Eretz Yisrael[18], as since its time of prohibition [of eating] carries for a long time [therefore] it is designated within this time [of prohibition], to be fed to animals and sold to gentiles.

Wine for a Nazir:[19] An item which is not useable for its owner because it is forbidden for them [to use], such as wine for a Nazir, then it does not become Muktzah because of this being that it is [still] fit for others [to use]. Thus even the Nazir himself is permitted to move it.

Food on Yom Kippur[20]: Is not Muktzah.[21]

 

Examples of inedible foods:

May one move hard bones?[22] Hard bones which are so hard that even a dog cannot eat them, are forbidden to be moved in all places, just like a tree or stone.

The law of date pits[23]: Date pits, in areas that it is common to feed it to animals, one is permitted to move them. However, an important person[24] needs to be strict upon himself not to move them, unless done with an irregularity, such as placing a piece of bread next to them, or [placing next to them] another item that is permitted to be moved, and then move them together.

The reason for this stringency is:[25] because in many places [these pits] are not fed at all to animals. Therefore one should be stringent with [moving] even in those places that feed them [to animals].

How may one eat foods that have on them Muktzah shells and seeds?[26] All [foods that have] shells and seeds

that are not edible for animals, one eats the food and throws away [the waste] with his tongue towards the area behind him. [However] one may not throw them away with his hands [see footnote for other opinions[27]], or [throw them away] with his tongue towards the area in front of him on the Basis that when there will end up being a lot of waste in front of him, and it will be repulsive in his eyes, then it will be permitted for him to remove them from there, as is the law regarding a “bucket of garbage” as will be explained [in Halacha 72].[28]

The reason that one may not throw them in front of him on this Basis is:[29] because one is not allowed to intentionally make a “bucket of garbage” [in a way that he will be allowed to move it when it becomes repulsive to him.]

Grains and flour:[30] Bread which its action that is needed to prepare it to make it useable, which is its baking, began on Shabbos [by a gentile] then it does contain the problem of Muktzah if it was flour or dough during twilight. However if it was grain during twilight and it was grinded and baked on Shabbos then it does not contain a problem of Muktzah and neither of “Nolad” on Yom Tov, as will be explained in chapter 517 [Halacha 3]. [There it says “Grain prior to it being ground is fit to be eaten, to make of it roasted grains or porridge “[31].]

Flour which was baked into bread on Shabbos by a gentile: See Halacha 3J!

 

Leftover bones and peels?[32]

Bones which are fit for dogs and peels of fruits that are fit for animals, such as for example the pods of legumes [which are] the [stalks that] the legumes grow inside of[33], and any other [item] of the like, is permitted to be remove from the table because they are permitted to be moved just like any other animal food

What is the law if the type of animal or bird which eats the food is not found in ones area? See above

Why the above is not prohibited to be moved because of Nolad? Now, even though the bones have been detached from the meat and the peels [detached] from the fruits on Shabbos itself, and they are thus Nolad [a new item which was born on Shabbos], as will be explained in chapter 501 [Halacha 16], [nevertheless] this does not pose a problem being that Nolad is permitted [to be moved] on Shabbos.

The law of the above items on Yom Tov: However on Yom Tov one needs to be stringent by Nolad, and [thus] needs to be careful not to remove these items from ones table, unless done in the way that will be explained [later on in this Halacha].
The law by shells which are inedible even to animals: [However] if the peels are not fit for animals [to eat], such as for example peels of almonds and walnuts and the like, which are forbidden to be moved [on Shabbos] just like wood or stones, are forbidden to be removed from ones table whether with ones hands and whether with an item that one is holding in ones hand, such as [it would be forbidden to] move them with a knife, and the like.[34]

The reason it is forbidden to move shells even with a knife is because: See above Halacha 3B

 

The law of Raw Meat:[35]

Tender meat[36]: [Tender] raw meat, even if completely unsalted, is permitted to be moved being that it is edible for humans [the way they are], as there are people which are coolheaded and chew raw meat, (which does not carry any blood prohibition when doing so

as explained in Yorah Deah Chapter 67[37]).

Tough meat: However tough [raw] meat which is not able to be chewed is forbidden to be moved. Similarly this law as well applies to other similar cases, such as for example cold raw fat [is Muktzah] as even though they are edible for dogs nevertheless [since] they are not designated to [be given to] dogs, but rather to be eaten by humans after Shabbos [when they can be cooked], [therefore] on Shabbos they are not considered fit for anything [and are thus Muktzah].

Spoiled meat: However spoiled meat is permitted to move being that they are edible to dogs and are designated to [be given to] dogs.

The law of raw fish[38]: Salted fish [which is raw, such as herring] is permitted to move [being that they are edible]. However if they are [raw and] unsalted, then it is forbidden [to move them], being that they are inedible for any person and are not designated to be thrown to the dogs, [as one plans to eventually eat them].

Is meat of a gentile that was slaughtered on Shabbos permitted to be moved?[39] A gentiles meat that was slaughtered today [on Shabbos], is permitted to be moved, just as is the law by the meat of a carcass that died on Shabbos, as will be explained in chapter 324 [Halacha 5].

 

The laws of foods that have been set aside from being eaten:[40]

Designated to be sold: Any item that is fit to be eaten on Shabbos is not considered Muktzah, even if it is designated to be sold, such as for instance, dates and almonds and other fruits which are designated to be taken to be sold in another area, one is permitted to eat from them on Shabbos, even if one physically set them aside from being eaten on Shabbos[41], such as wheat which one planted in the ground, it is permitted to eat from it on Shabbos, if it has not yet rooted [into the ground].

Other examples: Similarly eggs that were placed under the chickens in order to develop them into chicks, are permitted to be moved.

As well dates that were picked before they were fully ripe, and were gathered into a basket, in which they ripen on their own, are allowed to be eaten [on Shabbos even] before they have fully ripened.
The law by fruits that are drying out: Similarly all types of fruits that were set aside to dry out, one is allowed to eat from them [even] before they have dried out, with exception to figs and raisins [of a Jew[42]] which are forbidden to be eaten from or moved once one has set them aside [to be dried] until after they are completely dry.

The reason for why figs and raisins are Muktzah during the drying process is: because they give off bad odor in the interim [until they are dried], and are thus inedible [starting] from after they have begun drying[43] until they are fully dried. They are therefore forbidden on Shabbos because of Muktzah.

It goes without saying that if they are not fit at all [to be eaten by any person, that they are Muktzah] as they are worse than any other Muktzah [i.e. item set aside to not be used on Shabbos], as they are like stones and dirt, and even if one prepared them before Shabbos [to be eaten on Shabbos] it does not help them.

However [not only in the above case is it Muktzah but] even if [the raisins and figs] are edible and inedible, [meaning] that there are people that eat them [at this stage] and others that do not eat them [yet at this stage], nevertheless they are forbidden because of Muktzah, as since one physically set them aside[44] [from being eaten]  they do not leave this status of being set aside [i.e. inedibility] until they are completely ready [to be eaten by all].
They are not similar to other items which one physically sets aside[45], which are allowed [to be eaten], being that even though one has physically set them aside one has not removed his mind from them completely. This is opposed to raisins and figs which one left to dry, that since one knows that they will give off bad odor, he has [therefore] removed his mind from them completely until they have completely dried out, and become processed well enough that they are fit [to be eaten] by everyone.

Now even though that now on Shabbos one has changed his mind [and decided to] eat them [the way they are], [nevertheless] they are not considered ready [to be eaten] through this [intention], since they were set aside from his mind from the beginning of Shabbos, as was explained that any item that has been set aside from one’s mind by Bein Hashmashos has become set side [Muktzah] for the entire Shabbos.

Raisins and dates which became fully dried before Shabbos unknown to the owner:[46] Raisins and dates which were Muktzah because they were not fit [to be eaten yet] and when Bein Hashmashos began they had already become dry and are [now] fit to eat, then even if the owner did not know at all during this time that they had dried, and then afterwards it became known to them that during Bein Hashmashos they had been dried already, then they are allowed to be eaten.

The reason for this is: because [even] initially when [the owner] set them aside and removed his mind from them, he only set them aside until they become dry, and [thus now that] they have dried [before Shabbos] they have become prepared [to be eaten] while it is still daytime [and are thus not Muktzah on Shabbos].

-Designating before Shabbos raisins and figs that are still in the drying process:[47]

Edible to some people: Raisins and figs which [in their drying process] have [already] dried out a bit, to the point that they are edible and inedible, meaning that there are people that eat it [at this stage] while there are others that do not eat them, then if one designated them to be eaten from before Shabbos, one is allowed to eat from them on Shabbos. As since he has revealed his mind that they are fit for him [to eat], they have left their Muktzah status.

[However] if [he did] not [designate them to be eaten from before Shabbos] it is forbidden [to eat or move on Shabbos], as since he did not reveal his mind [that he wants them yet], they remain in their Muktzah status, as they were originally Muktzah when they were not [dry enough to be] fit for any person.

Inedible to all[48]: However if one designated to eat, raisins and figs which are not fit at all [to be eaten by people], then this designation does not help at all [to remove its Muktzah status], as it’s like one designating a stone to be eaten.

The law of a gentiles raisins and figs that are in the process of being dried out:[49] The above [law regarding half edible[50] dates and raisins] was only referring to the dry dates and raisins of a Jew, however the dry dates and raisins of a gentile are allowed, [to be eaten and moved by a Jew], if they are edible [for some] and inedible [for others], as there is no setting aside status by a gentile, since everything is prepared [to be used] by him, as a gentile does not set anything aside and always has in mind on everything, and thus [a Jew may eat it, as] once something is ready [enough to be eaten] for one person it is considered ready for all people[51].
The laws of the fruits of a gentile that have been picked on Shabbos[52]: The above [cases in which it is allowed to move and eat the fruits] only refer to [fruits] that have been removed from the tree [from before Shabbos], however if it was attached [to the tree on Shabbos] and then [later] got removed on Shabbos, then even if it belongs to a gentile which removed it for himself, and [furthermore] even if the gentile had intention from before Shabbos to pick these fruits on Shabbos, such as in a case that one heard the gentile say on Erev Shabbos that “tomorrow I will pick these fruits”, and even [furthermore, even] if the fruits were fully ripe, in which case they are considered prepared [to be eaten] even when they are still attached [to the tree] as will be explained in Chapter 318 [Halacha 6], nevertheless [despite all the above] they are forbidden to be eaten and moved.

The reason for this is: because of a decree of fruits that have fallen off [from a tree on Shabbos], as will be explained in chapters 322[53] and 325 [Halacha 8].
The laws of animals or birds which were trapped by a gentile on Shabbos[54]: An [animal or bird] which had not been trapped from before Shabbos and was then trapped by a gentile on Shabbos, then even if he had intention [from before Shabbos] to trap it on Shabbos, his intention does not help at all, being that [successfully trapping an animal] is not [only] dependent on him, and it is thus forbidden on Shabbos due to it being set aside[55]. As since it was not in any persons possession [from before Shabbos], it is [therefore] not considered to be prepared [to be used, and is thus Muktzah].

 

C. Items which are defined as MM”G and how they can be designated to become a vessel and lose their Muktzah status:

Designating a non-vessel to be used as a cover:[56]

An item which does not have the status of a vessel which one made into a lid of a vessel receives the status of a vessel through doing so, and one is thus permitted to move it just like any other vessel. [However, if one never used the vessel yet as a cover, then this status only applies] if one altered it and did an action to it and prepared it for this [new job] in a way that the alteration shows that it is [now] designated for this [new job]. [Now, when an alteration was done it receives the status of a vessel] even if one has never yet used this item as a cover.

Is the above alteration needed if one already begun using the item as a vessel? [However] if one had used this item as a cover before Shabbos, even if this had only been done once, then it receives a status of a vessel, and is permitted to move it on Shabbos even if he has not done to it any act of alteration.

However this only applies by an item that is regularly made into a lid, such as for example pieces of boards and the like. However an item that is not common for it to be made into a lid, then even if one had used this item many times as a lid during the week, such as for example one who used a stone to cover the opening of a barrel many times, then it is [nevertheless] forbidden to move it on Shabbos, as will be explained.

 

May one move the lid of a pit/sewage? [57]

All the above is referring to [when making an item into the] lid of vessels. However [an item made into a] lid for the ground, such as for example a lid of a Bor pit or a Dus pit[58], even if he altered it and did an action to it, and also used it [already] many times during the week, [nevertheless] it is forbidden to be moved, unless it has a handle with which one holds on to when one removes it from the pit, as [only this] shows that it has been made to be moved and that it has the status of a vessel.
What is the law of vessels that are attached to the ground? The lids of vessels which have been buried completely into the ground have the same laws as the lids of the ground [I.e. lids of pits], as the [Sages] decreed on these [lids of buried vessels] because of the [ground lids].

However a vessel which is not completely buried into the ground, even though it is attached to the ground, such as for example the ovens of the old days which were like a pot and had their bottoms attached to the ground with clay, these lids do not need a handle [to be allowed to be moved]. However our ovens [today] which are built on the ground[59], their covers have the same law as the cover of a Dus pit which needs a handle [to be allowed to move].

 

Bricks: [60]

Designated for leaning and sitting on: Bricks that have remained after a building has been finished, are permitted to be moved, as they are now no longer designated to be used for building, but rather to lean and sit on them, and therefore they have the status of a vessel.

Designated for building: However if one organized the bricks one on top of the other, then he has revealed his intention that he has designated them for building with, and they are thus forbidden to be moved as they do not have the status of  a vessel upon them.

 

The law of palm branches:[61]

There are some palm branches that people designate for sitting on while others are designated to be burned [as fuel for a fire], just like other [branches of] wood.

Designated for fire wood: [Thus] if one cut them off the palm tree for burning, then they are Muktzah like all other wood, and are forbidden to be moved as they do not have the status of a vessel, being that they are designated to be burned.

If one later decides to designate the branches for sitting: However if one afterwards changed his mind and decided that they should be designated and specified for sitting on until they will need to be cleared [from the area], then this thought [to use them for sitting] over-rides the original thought [which was to use them for burning], if he changed his mind and decided this before Shabbos. Thus they receive the status of a vessel, and are permitted to move them on Shabbos, to organize them to be sat on.

[This applies] even if at the time that he changed his mind during the week, to use them for sitting, he did not have in mind explicitly [to] also [use them for sitting] on Shabbos, and rather had changed his mind with regards to using them to sit on during the week.

If one only thought about sitting on them only for that Shabbos: [Furthermore] even if he did not change his mind to designate and specify them for sitting, but rather just thought about them before Shabbos to use them to sit on only the next day, [which is] on Shabbos, while after Shabbos he plans to use them for burning, then [nevertheless] it is permitted to move and organize them to be sat upon on this Shabbos.

If one did not think about sitting on them on Shabbos but did sit on them before Shabbos[62]: Even if one did not think about them at all to be used for sitting, but it happened to occur that he sat on them for a little bit [of time] from before Shabbos, then it is permitted to organize them and sit on them [on Shabbos].

As well he may [even] move them in order to use their space or for their own benefit [such as to save from damage] just as [is the law] by vessels that are designated for permitted use.

The reason for this leniency is[63]: because since it is common for palm branches to also be designated for sitting, therefore since he had sat on them, they have [automatically through this] become designated for sitting upon, and have thus received the status of a vessel [which is designated for permitted use].

 

Designating other pieces of woods, and bricks waiting to be used for building with, to sit on:[64]

However by other pieces of wood, as well as a pile of stones [designated for building with[65]], even if one has sat on them many times during the week, and has also thought about them to be designated for sitting upon also on the [future] Shabbosim, until the time comes that he will need to clear them from there [in order to use them for building], then [nevertheless] they do not receive the status of a vessel through this.

The reason for this is: because it is not common for other pieces of wood and stones to be designated for sitting on, being that it is not as comfortable to sit on them as it is [to sit] on palm branches. Therefore they do not become designated for sitting on through one sitting on them, or through thinking [to use them to sit upon], alone, so long as one has not designated them to be used for this purpose permanently.

If one did a great action to designate them for sitting: [However] if one did a great action to prepare them for sitting, meaning that he organized them before Shabbos so they be ready to be sat on the next day, [then it is permitted to move them in order to sit on them on Shabbos], as such a great action helps to give them the status of a vessel, even though they are not commonly designated for sitting on. However if one [merely] polished them before Shabbos in order to sit upon on them the next day, then this is considered a minor action and does not help at all [to give them the status of a vessel].

May one sit on the items the way they are even if no action was done to them? All the above [methods] is only regarding making it permissible to move the wood and stones on Shabbos in order to organize them to be sat upon. However [if one wants] to [just] sit on them the way they are found, without touching them to be organized, then it is permitted in all cases, even if one never had sat on them beforehand, and had no thoughts at all about [using them for sitting] and did not do to them any action from before Shabbos, as all Muktzah are only prohibited to be moved.

[Furthermore], even if through sitting on them one causes them to shake under him, [nevertheless] this is not [Halachicly] considered moving it, as it is moving it in an irregular way [which is permitted to be done to all Muktzah].

When a great action has been done, for what may the items be moved for? To move the items not for a sitting purpose but rather to use their space or for another usage, is forbidden in all cases, as the action of organizing the [items before Shabbos] only helps to be allowed to move them for the purpose of sitting upon, as it was for this purpose that they were organized for.

 

Designating wood and stone to cover a barrel and the like:[66]

It is forbidden to move chopped wood or a stone to cover the opening of a barrel or to close a door or to use them to knock in the faucet [of a barrel so that] the hole in the barrel be closed, even if one has already used them for this purpose many times during the week and has also thought from before Shabbos about using them for this on Shabbos, [nevertheless] this does not help at all unless one designated them for this purpose forever. As when they are designated for this purpose forever they receive the status of a vessel through this.

However when designated to be used for this purpose for this Shabbos alone, then this does not acquire them the status of the vessel, unless one did to them any act of alteration which show on them that they are prepared and designated for this purpose, in which case it is permitted to move them for the purpose of using them for the use that they had been prepared for, however not for other purposes.[67]

Designating wood and stone for a common designated use:[68]

The above only applies to [using the wood and stone to] cover the opening of a barrel and to close a door and to knock in a faucet and uses of the like, of which it is not usual for wood and stone to be designated for this.

However if one thought about them to use them the next day [on Shabbos] for a purpose which they are regularly designated to be used for, such as for example one thought about using a stone to crack nuts with the next day [on Shabbos], then even if one only designated them for this use for only this Shabbos, [nevertheless] it is permitted to move them for even any need, being that they are fit to be designated for this use forever, and it is common to do so, therefore it suffices to do a light preparation to designate it for this. Meaning that [even] thinking [about using it] for this Shabbos alone [designates it for this purpose], or [alternatively] if he has already used it for this purpose before Shabbos even only once, then it is considered designated for this [purpose] even though he did not think about using it for this specific Shabbos.

 

Using a vine as a rope to help draw water with:[69]

A [detached] vine which has its head split like a fork and is [thus] fit to [use to] hang a bucket on and to [thus use to] draw [water] with [such as to place it down a well to draw water, using the vine as a rope to place it down and bring it back up], then even if one thought about this from before Shabbos to use the [vine] to [help] draw [water] with on Shabbos, then [nevertheless] it is forbidden to use it to draw with, unless the vine was tied to the bucket from before Shabbos.

The reason for this is: due to a decree that perhaps the vine will be too long for him, and one will cut it, being that it is soft and easy to be cut, and will thus end up [transgressing the prohibition of] fixing a vessel on Shabbos.

 

Designating branches to be used as a fan: [70]

Branches which have been cut off from a tree from before Shabbos in order to be used as a fan on ones table to flee the flies away, is permitted to fan with on Shabbos and to move it just like all other vessel, as since one designated it for this he has made it into a complete vessel.

Designating it as a consequence for children: The same law applies if one designated [the branches to be used] to threaten children to be hit with it [that it is permitted to be moved on Shabbos], as long as one designated it for this purpose from before Shabbos.
May one remove a reed from ones broom?  However it is forbidden to remove a reed[71] from a broom which is used to clean the house, being that through removing it he is fixing it for the use that he wishes to use it for, which is for hitting the children with, and [the law is that] any item that one fixes to be used for any use is included in the prohibition of fixing vessels, as is explained in chapter 340 [Halacha 17]. [Furthermore] even through a gentile it is forbidden to remove it, meaning [to even have him] detach it and remove it out from under the binding area[72] of the broom, and it goes without saying that it is forbidden to [ask a gentile to] break the reed off from the broom, as by breaking it there is an additional prohibition [being transgressed which is] breaking a vessel, as will be explained in chapter 337 [Halacha 3]. However when one removes out an entire reed [from the broom] there is no [prohibition involved] of destroying a vessel, as this is similar to a vessel assembled by placing many pieces together, which does not contain [the prohibition of] destroying [a vessel] when taking it apart, unless the [attached pieces] were inserted [in their sockets] strongly and professionally, as will be explained in chapter 313 [Halacha 19 and 21]. [However one nevertheless transgresses the prohibition of Tikkun Keli.]

 

Designating combed flax and spun wool as a bandage:[73]

Combed flax and spun wool that are [common to be] placed on a wound, even if one did not think about designating them for his wound, but rather happened by chance to place it on his wound from before Shabbos, and then immediately removed it, [nevertheless] it is permitted to be moved on Shabbos to place on his wound or for another use, being that these materials are common to be designated for a wound, and therefore have become designated for this use by merely placing them on [his wound], and have thus  received the status of a vessel.
It goes without saying that if one thought about them from before Shabbos, that they be designated to be used to place on wounds, even though one has never actually placed them on a wound, [that they may be moved]. Furthermore even if one did not think about them that they be designated and prepared for wounds, but rather just thought from before Shabbos to place them on [his wound] the next day, on Shabbos alone, while after Shabbos he plans to throw them out [then even so they may be moved on Shabbos].

It [also] goes without saying that if one did an action to them from before Shabbos to prepare them [to be used for wounds], such as for example he dyed them with oil and bound them with a cord [then they may be moved on Shabbos].
Why is the above not prohibited due to that it is forbidden to place medicine on Shabbos? There is no transgression involved in placing this on top of a wound on Shabbos, regarding [the prohibition of] healing [on Shabbos] which was decreed against due to that one may come to grind herbs, as will be explained in chapter 328 [Halacha 1], as these [materials] do not heal, and they are only placed on [wounds] in order to prevent ones clothing from irritating the wound.

Designating combed flax and spun wool as a toupee:[74]

Similarly combed flax and spun wool which bald people place on their heads so that they appear like they have hair, then even if one did not think about these materials that they be designated for this purpose, but rather by chance placed them on his head once during the week, then it is permitted to move on Shabbos to place on one’s head, or for another purpose.

It goes without saying that if one thought about them from before Shabbos, that they be designated to be used [as a toupee], even though one has never actually placed them on his head [that they may be moved]. Furthermore even if one did not think about them that they be designated and prepared for this purpose, but rather just thought from before Shabbos to place them on his head the next day, on Shabbos alone, while after Shabbos he plans to remove them from [his head] and make himself another one [then even so they may be moved on Shabbos].

It [also] goes without saying that if one did an action to them from before Shabbos to prepare them [to be used as a toupee], such as for example he dyed them to make them look nice and bound them with a cord [then they may be moved on Shabbos].
May one walk with a toupee into a public domain? [However] all this is referring to [being allowed to] place [the material] on his head in his house. However to go out with them into a public domain there are opinions that forbid it, unless one did an action to them [such as] he colored them or bound them.  Otherwise he may not go out with them [into a public domain] unless he placed it on his head one time before Shabbos.

The reason for the above restriction: Thought and designation only help to allow one to move them and not to [be allowed to] bring them outside, as since one did not place it on his head from before Shabbos, and there is no action that shows that it had been prepared for this use, it therefore seems like he is simply [wearing them on his head outside] in order to find a way to carry them outside [and not because he really views it as a toupee]. 

This is opposed to [the law by] flax and wool which are on a wound [which are allowed to be worn outside], as the wound shows that one really needs it and it thus does not appear like he is wearing them just in order to be able to carry them outside, even if one did not place them on [the wound] from before Shabbos.

 

Items which do not have a status of a vessel but received designation and are set aside to be sold:[75]

Items which are not actually a vessel, but were given the status of a vessel being that they are useable for certain uses on Shabbos, such as for example shears of wool which are useable to be lean and sit on, and the like, then if one placed them in the storage to be sold, then one has nullified the status of a vessel which was upon it, and it is thus forbidden to move them, even if he is not particular at all against using them, unless one goes back and designates them for a permanent use.

 

May one move skins?[76]

Hides whether they were tanned[77] [and] whether they were not tanned are permitted to be moved being that they are fit to be used to lie and sit on, and [they thus] have the status of a vessel upon them. This applies whether they belong to a regular person or to a professional which tans them and [then] sells them, as even [a professional] is not particular to [not] lie and sit on them [as] he is not worried that perhaps through doing so their value will diminish.
Moist skins: However the above permission granted in moving non-tanned hides is only referring to hides which have already dried out. However if they are [still] moist, then [since] they are not [yet] fit to lean and sit on unless this is a last resort, [being that] it is not common [to sit on wet skins], therefore they do not have the status of a vessel [even though they are able to be sat on] and are thus not permitted to be moved.

Other opinions: [However] there is an opinion which permits [moving] even moist [hides] of a Gasah[78] animal but they prohibit [the hide] of a Dakah[79] animal even when they have been dried out, being that they are not fit to be used to lean or sit on due to their small size.

The Final Ruling: The main [Halachic] opinion is like the first opinion, as I have written in chapter 334 [Halacha 22] and chapter 499 [Halacha 8].

 

Are boards Muktzah?[80]

The boards of an ordinary person are allowed to be moved, [although] of a professional are forbidden [to be moved], as [professionals] are particular with them to not use them for any other use in order so that they not get ruined. [They are thus] Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis. [However] if he thought about the boards before Shabbos to [use them to] place bread on them for guests on Shabbos, or [he thought about using them] for another use, then it is permitted to be moved.

 

Designating earth to be used on Shabbos:[81] 

One may bring into his home before Shabbos a box full of earth and then pour it onto his floor in his house[82], and then use this dirt for all his needs on Shabbos, such as to use it to cover saliva or feces and the like.

The designation must be recognizable: [However this is only allowed if] one designated a corner [for the earth to be placed], as then the matter is recognizable that [the earth] is prepared and designated for this purpose [of covering filth]. However if one poured [the earth] in middle of one’s house for it to be stepped on[83], then it is nullified to the dirt of the floor, and is thus Muktzah and forbidden to be moved.

For this reason fruits which are insulated within sand[84] are permitted to be moved from there on Shabbos, as that dirt is not Muktzah being that it had been previously prepared for this purpose, and was designated a vessel or corner of the house.

The earth must be loose: [However this is] only [allowed] if the dirt used is so loose that when removing dirt from it, it will not create a ditch within the dirt [being that the loose earth falls into the area that dirt was removed from, thus filling it up and preventing a ditch from being formed. However if the dirt is not loose enough that it will fall into the ditch then it is forbidden], as will be explained in chapter 498 [Halacha 29]

 

May one play ball on Shabbos?[85]

It is forbidden to play with a ball on Shabbos or Yom Tov because it is forbidden to be moved, being that it does not have the status of a vessel.

Other Opinions: [However] there are opinions which permit to move it and play with it in a private[86] domain.

The final ruling:  It is an old custom to be lenient and they were not protested in doing so being that they have upon whom to rely.

 

May one move silkworm cocoons?[87]

It is forbidden for one to carry under ones arm[88] the egg[89] of the silkworm[90], being that they are forbidden to be moved as they are not fit for any use [in their current state], as well as that one’s [body] heat causes them to them to be born[91].

 

Are Shatnez clothing Muktzah?[92]

First Opinion: There are opinions that forbid one to move Shatnez clothing of a Jew even if one needs to do so in order to use it [for a permitted purpose] or in order to use its space.

Their reason is: because [the cloth] is not fit for any use, not to wear and not to place under him, if it is not made of hard material as is explained in Yorah Deah chapter 301 [Halacha 1-2][93].

Second Opinion: [However] there are opinions which permit to move it if one is doing so in order to use it [for a permitted purpose] or in order to use its space.

Their reasoning is: because it nevertheless has the status of a vessel, although is considered designated for a prohibited use[94].

The final ruling:  The main [Halachic] opinion is like the first opinion.

The reason behind the final ruling is: because the status of a vessel only helps [to allow to move an object that is designated for a prohibited use] if the item is only prohibited to be used [for its designated use] on Shabbos alone, while during the week using it [for its designated use] is permitted, [as in such a case] even if on Shabbos [the item] is not fit for any use at all, it is [nevertheless] permitted to be moved being that it has the status of a vessel due to it being fit to use [for its designated use]  during the week.

For example a lamp which is [designated to be] lit with kerosene [and is thus not used for any other purpose due to its repulsiveness and thus] on Shabbos is not fit to be used for anything, is [nevertheless still] permitted to be moved being that it has the status of a vessel, as explained above [that since it is useable during the week it has the status of a vessel].

However if [an item] is also during the week not fit to be used, such as a clothing of Shatnez which is forbidden to be worn also during the week, then it does not have the status of a vessel and clothing at all.

[Now] even though that [these Shatnez clothing] can be used for other purposes, such as to cover vessels with it or to use it to hover  over ones head [as an umbrella, or for a tent], and uses of this nature for which the clothing are not designated to be used for, and were not made for this purpose, [nevertheless] they do not receive the status of a vessel unless they were designated for this [purpose], just like is the law by all pebbles and stones that are fit to be used to cover vessels and nevertheless do not have the status of a vessel because of this, unless they were designated for this, as was explained above.

[As well] it does not help at all for the clothing that they have the form and design of a clothing, being that it is forbidden to wear it. It is thus just like food that is forbidden to eat on Shabbos which does not help for it to be permitted to move just because it has the form of food, [and if this is the law by food then certainly this is the law by a vessel as] the status of a food is more lenient then that of the status of a vessel[95].

 

The law of a Kamia[96]:[97]

A Kamia that has not been verified [to work], even though one may not go out with it [into a public domain] because we suspect that perhaps it does not work at all and thus does not have the status of an ornament, which thus means that it [also] does not have the status of a vessel at all, being that it is not fit to do anything with even during the week, whether it is made from [a charm] written [on parchment] or from roots of herbs[98], nevertheless it is permitted to move it. As the [Sages] only suspected for [that the Kamia would not work] regarding the prohibition of carrying into a public area, and not regarding the Muktzah prohibition.  [However] if it is permitted to wear the Kamia on oneself inside ones house and courtyard, it was already explained in chapter 303 [Halacha 23].

 

The law of bundles of straw and wood:[99]

Bundles of straw and bundles of wood that are soft, if they were [specifically] ordered [in order to be used] as animal fodder, they are permitted to be moved even if they are very large.

However [when no specification has been made] they are assumed to be designated [to be used] for fire [as fuel], and are thus forbidden to be moved.

[However] in places that unspecified straw is not designated to be used for fire, but rather [is designated to be used] as animal fodder, or [is designated to be used] to lie on, then it is permitted to be moved.

 

Straw:[100]

Straw which is Muktzah being that it is usually designated to be used as fuel, then if it is resting on ones bed [and was] not [placed there with intention to use it] to lie on it, and on Shabbos one wants[101] to lie on it, then he is allowed to [lie on it and] move it with his body in order for it to become fluffy[102] and soft and pleasant to lie on.
The status of the straw if one placed a pillow on the straw before Shabbos: If one placed on it from before Shabbos a pillow or sheet, then it is considered as if he laid on [the straw] from before Shabbos and it is thus [considered] prepared to sit or lie on, and from now it has the status of a vessel on it and is permitted to be moved with ones hand.

If one thought about sitting on it from before Shabbos: Similarly if one thought about it from before Shabbos to sit or lie on it, as was explained in chapter 308 [Halacha 50-53] with an item that is common to be designated for sitting or lying on [it is not Muktzah].

If designated as fodder: If one designated [the straw] as animal fodder from before Shabbos then one is allowed to move it in all situations.
The law in areas that that the straw is normally used for animal food or to lie on: All the above is only referring to places where straw is usually designated to be used as fuel, however in places that it is usually designated as animal fodder or to lie on, then one is allowed to move it in any circumstance, as was explained there [in Halacha 63].   

 

Are Mochin insulators Muktzah?[103]

Mochin[104] that were used to insulate a pot from before Shabbos, in a coincidental way, [meaning] that one did not designate [these Mochin] to be used for this purpose, then it is forbidden to move the Mochin on Shabbos, being that they are Muktzah. As [unless there is change of designation] they are considered designated to be used to make sheets and not to insulate pots in them or to do other uses that are permitted on Shabbos, and thus [they are Muktzah as] they are not considered vessels at all.

However if one designated them to use for insulation, meaning that he resolved in his mind to always use them for the purpose of insulating, then it is permitted to move them. As since this material is fit to be used as insulation, and he designated them for this, they are thus considered a vessel being that they are [now readily] useable for the purpose that they have been designated for.

Are shears of wool Muktzah? [105]

If one insulated [his pot] in shears of wool, then even if one did not designate them for this purpose, it is permitted to move them, being that shears of wool do not hold that much importance, and thus when one insulates with them for the first time they are considered to be designated [from now on] for insulation [unless explicitly designated for something else].

However those shears that have been placed in storage to be sold as merchandise (and he is thus careful to not use them for any other purpose, then) if it happened that he insulated with them, then it is forbidden to move them on Shabbos, unless they have been designated to be always used for this purpose.

 

Is ash Muktzah?[106]

Ash is only permitted to be moved if it was made into ash from before Shabbos, however if it turned to ash on Shabbos, then it is forbidden because it is Nolad, as will be explained in chapter 498 [Halacha 24].[107]

If one mixed ash which was made on Shabbos with ash that was made beforehand, then it is nullified in majority if it had never yet been recognizable on its own, as is explained there.[108]

 

May one remove a shirt from a Muktzah hanger? [109]

A shirt which was laundered and was placed on a [hanger made of a] stick from before Shabbos, in order to hang it there in order to dry [and has dried prior to Shabbos[110]], one is permitted to remove [the shirt] off the stick [on Shabbos].

May one remove the hanger? However to remove the stick from within it is forbidden, because it is not a vessel, unless one [previously] designated the stick for this use, in which case it receives the status of a vessel through this designation.

 

May one move an item that has a stone inserted into it? [111]

A basket with a stone insert: A basket which had a hole in it which was sealed up with a stone from before Shabbos, (then if the stone was strongly inserted [into the hole][112]), then it is permitted to move the basket. The basket has not become a base for a forbidden [Muktzah] item, as (when) the stone (is strongly inserted, it) too becomes [the status of] a vessel, being that the [stone] has become like part of the [baskets] wall.

A bucket to draw water with: Similarly a hollow pumpkin [shell] in which one hangs a stone from in order to weigh it down so one can use it to draw water[113], then if the stone is well attached to it from before Shabbos, in a way that it does not fall from [the shell] when one draws water with it, then it is permitted to draw with it. As even the stone has become permitted to be moved, as it has become like the pumpkin [shell] itself, to which it is nullified to. [However] if [the stone is] not [well attached] it is forbidden to draw with it, unless one has designated the stone for this purpose forever, as explained above in chapter 308 [Halacha 53].

 

Is rainwater considered Muktzah?[114]

It is permitted to place a bucket on Shabbos under a drainage system of rainwater, and if it fills up one may then spill it out and return the bucket back to its place. However this is only if the drainage water is at the very least fit for washing with. However if it is not fit for anything then it is Muktzah and is forbidden to be moved. In such a case it is forbidden to place a bucket under it being that one nullifies it from its non-Muktzah state.

If the water is repulsive: If one transgressed and placed the bucket there then it is permitted to carry the bucket with its repulsive water in order to remove it from that area, if this is an area where one commonly settles himself in.

The Reason: This is because the bucket of water is considered like a bucket of feces which was permitted to be moved to be taken to the garbage, out of human respect, if it is in an area that one is settled in as is written in chapter 308 [Halacha ]. Nevertheless it is forbidden to initially place the bucket there on the reliance that in the end one will remove it from there and spill it, thus not nullifying the vessel from its non-Muktzah state. This is because the allowance of moving a bucket of feces was only given after the fact. However initially it is forbidden to make a bucket of feces unless it is a case of loss as explained in chapter 308 [75-76].

 

Are grass and plants Muktzah?[115]

Grass that is still attached to the ground, is Muktzah, hence if one desires to make use of grass, he must beware not to move it with his hands [but rather with his body]. The same applies for all produce which is attached to the ground, that even when allowed to be made of use of it on Shabbos, nevertheless they may not be moved with one’s hands. [See Chapter 336 regarding when one may make use of ground products attached to the ground.]

 

Are the plants entered in Shul in honor of Shavuos considered Muktzah?[116]

If one designated the plants before Yom Tov for this purpose then they are not Muktzah may be even initially spread over the Shul on Yom Tov.

 

D. What is the status of an item that was turned into a vessel on Shabbos by a gentile? [117]

Something that was Nolad [first created] on Shabbos, such as for example a gentile which made a new vessel on Shabbos on his own accord[118], then it is permitted to move it and use it in the ways explained in chapter 252 [Halacha 11-12] and in chapter 311 [Halacha 3], even though one did not have in mind before Shabbos to move it on Shabbos.

However on Yom Tov one needs to be stringent against moving a new object [made on Yom Tov] as will be explained in chapter 495 [Halacha 13].

 

E. Moving Animals

May one move animals and birds on Shabbos? [119]

It is forbidden to move a domestic animal, a wild animal or birds because they are not fit for any use on Shabbos while they are alive. Even a bird which can be used to entertain crying baby is forbidden to be moved.

 

May one physically help the animal move:[120]

All domestic animals, wild animals and birds may be physically encouraged to move while they are in a private domain. Meaning one may grab their neck and their side and help them and move their legs so they walk. [This is allowed] as long as one does not lift them up in a way that their feet leave the ground, being that they are Muktzah  and are [thus] forbidden to be moved.

The reason that this is allowed: Now, even though by all Muktzah [items] just like it is forbidden to move it entirely so too it is forbidden to move only part of it [and thus here too this encouragement should be forbidden], nevertheless [the Sages] permitted one to help them walk in a case that the animals need this to be done [for their own benefit], in order to prevent suffering to the animal.

If the animal does not need help in moving: However if the [animals] have no need [to be helped] it is forbidden to even help them move.

May one help a chicken move? A chicken is forbidden to be helped to move even if it needs [help], being that it lifts itself up when being helped and it thus ends up that he was moving it entirely, and [in such a case] the [Sages] did not permit [helping it move] even in order to prevent an animal from suffering. 

However it is permitted to push the chicken from its back with ones hands in order so it enter [back] into its coop if it ran away from it.

 

May one help animals walk in a Public domain? [121]

All the above [permission granted] was to [be allowed] to help it move in a private domain. However in a public domain, it is forbidden to help move any domestic animal, wild animal, and bird [in the way described in the previous Halacha, that one holds its neck etc. However to push from behind, see end of this Halacha].

The reason for this is: due to a decree [that if this was to be allowed then] one may come to lift it up and carry it and will thus become liable for [transgressing the prohibition of] carrying 4 cubits within a public domain.

The reason it is forbidden to carry an animal in a public domain, while a human is permitted: The [Sages] only said that a live item is considered to carry itself[122] [even when being carried by someone else, and thus one does not transgress the prohibition of carrying it] with regards to humans [being carried], however not by domestic animal, wild animal, and birds.

May one help animals walk in a Karmalis? A Karmalis has the same law as a public domain regarding this matter.

May one push the animal from behind? To push the animal from behind if it had run away is permitted even in a public domain.

 

Trapping insects and the like which only cause pain:

See “The Laws of Trapping and Killing Animals” for the details on this subject.

 

May one move non-Muktzah vessels for the need of animals?[123]

[Although it is forbidden to move an animal or bird,] nevertheless it is permitted to place a basket upside down in front of hens in order so they go up and down it, as a [non-Muktzah] vessel may be moved even for the need of an item that may not be moved on Shabbos.

Why is this not forbidden due to “Nullifying a vessel from its non-Muktzah status“, which is forbidden to do on Shabbos? Now even though that while the hens are on the basket it is forbidden to move the basket due to the hens that are on it[124], nevertheless this is not considered that one is even temporarily nullifying a vessel from its allowed use [in which case it would be forbidden to do so], as one has the ability to chase away the hens from the basket immediately upon then going up or down on it or that they not be able to stand on it for even a second[125], and once they have descended from [the basket] it is permitted to move it.

 

If an animal was intentionally on a vessel by Bein Hashmashos: [126]

[However] if the hens were on this basket throughout the entire Bein Hashmashos then it is forbidden to move it throughout the entire day [i.e. Shabbos] even after the chicks have descended from it, as once something is designated to be a base for something prohibited [I.e. Muktzah] by Bein Hashmashos, then it becomes Muktzah for the entire day [Shabbos].

 

May one pet his dog?

Seemingly this may not be done as one moves its hairs by doing so, and moving even part of an animal is forbidden unless done to prevent the animal pain. Perhaps however one can claim that hair is not considered a real substance as is a limb. Vetzrauch Iyun.


May one push a dog with a leash in an area without an Eiruv?[127]

No.[128] Even if the area has an Eiruv it is forbidden.[129]

 

Summary of Muktzah Machmas Gufo (MM”G):

A. MM”G by inanimate items:

Any item which does not have the legal status of a Keli/vessel [see C and E below] is considered MM”G and thus may not be moved with ones hands for any purpose on Shabbos. This applies even if one has found a use for this object, and even if one wants to use its space. However an item which does have the legal status of a vessel is not Muktzah even if the vessel is very large and can only be moved with many people lifting it simultaneously.[130]

An item which for the poor is considered a vessel while for the rich is waste[131]: An item which is not used by wealthy people due to it being degrading in their eyes, and they rather throw it to waste, then for a rich person it is Muktzah while for a poor person it is not. Thus if a poor person owns a degrading object which he makes use of, it is Muktzah for all the wealthy, although wealthy people which are members of the poor man’s household may move it. If a wealthy person owns the degrading object then it becomes Muktzah for everyone, even for the poor, as we follow the status given by the owner[132].

 

B. MM”G by Foods:

The following foods are defined as MM”G and may thus not be moved for any purpose:

  • Any food which is inedible to both humans and animals[133].
  • Regarding foods which are inedible to humans but edible to animals: If the food is meant to be eventually eaten by humans, or is not meant to be eventually eaten by humans but there are no animals which eat this food commonly found in ones area [see footnote[134]] and one does not own such an animal, then the food is MM”G. If there are animals commonly found which would eat this food, or one owns such an animal, and one has not designated the food to be eventually eaten by humans, then the item is not Muktzah. If a certain animal is only commonly found amongst the wealthy, it is not considered commonly found.[135]
  • Any food which is forbidden on Shabbos[136] for all Jews[137] to eat and receive benefit from whether Biblically or Rabbinically.[138]
  • Any food which is forbidden to be eaten but permitted in benefit, then if it is not meant to be given to animals, such as that in a short time[139] it will become permitted to be eaten, or is meant to be eaten by animals but there are no animals common in ones area[140], is considered MM”G.

Foods which are edible but set aside from one’s mind: All edible foods which are set aside from being used for anything, whether because one plans to sell them, or because he wants the food to further develop or ripen, or because he wants to dry the food, then it is nevertheless not Muktzah. This however is with exception to figs and grapes of a Jew which are set aside to dry, of which they are considered Muktzah until they become dry enough to be edible for all people, prior to Bein Hashmashos of Shabbos. [141] However figs and grapes of a gentile which were put to dry, once they have become fit to be eaten by even some people, then they are not Muktzah for a Jew.[142] If a Jew designated his figs or grapes before Shabbos to be eaten, then if they are already edible to some people, they are no longer Muktzah on Shabbos. However if they are not fit for anyone yet to eat then they nevertheless remain Muktzah.[143]

Fruits picked by a gentile[144]: All fruits which were picked from their tree or vegetables which were picked from the ground, on Shabbos by a gentile are considered MM”G.

Wild animals which were trapped by a gentile[145]: Are always Muktzah even after being slaughtered for a sick person.

 

C. What Makes An Item Receive The Status Of A Vessel:

Any item mentioned above that is Muktzah Machmas Gufo because it doesn’t have the status of a vessel may receive the status of a vessel- before Shabbos- in one of the following ways (thus allowing it to be moved on Shabbos):

  1. Any item which one designates in his mind to permanently use for a certain permitted purpose may be moved like a Keli Shemilachto L’heter.[146]
  2. A non-vessel designated for a use for a limited amount of time or was used already before Shabbos for a certain purpose, may be moved on Shabbos like any vessel, if it is common to designate/use it for the purpose the person wants.[147]
  3. If it’s not common to designate it for this purpose then if a person does an action with the object which shows that it is designated for a purpose, it may be moved on Shabbos for that purpose alone and not for anything else.[148]

Items which are not an actual vessel but have a designated use:[149] Then if they are set aside to be sold have the status of MM”G. 

An item which was made into a vessel by a gentile on Shabbos[150]: Is not Muktzah. However on Yom Tov it is considered Muktzah.

 

D. Animals:

Animals and birds are considered MM”G and may thus not be moved for any purpose in their normal way.[151] Likewise if an animal was intentionally placed on a non-Muktzah item for Bein Hashmashos of the entrance of Shabbos then that item becomes a Basis and is Muktzah for the entire Shabbos.[152] However it is permitted to move a non-Muktzah item for the sake of an animal.[153]

Helping an animal walk[154]: All animals and birds which are in need, despite being Muktzah, may be assisted to move by pushing them from behind, as the sages permitted this form of Muktzah in order to prevent the animal pain. However one may never lift the animal in a way that its feet are lifted up even when trying to assist it. In a private domain one may further assist a needy animal or bird by grabbing their neck and their side and help them move their legs so they walk. It is forbidden to use this method of assistance in a public area or Karmalis due to fear that one may come to carry the animal. It is however allowed to assist it from behind even in a public area. A chicken may not be assisted by its neck etc even if it is in a private area, although one may assist it from behind. It is never allowed to assist move an animal or bird which is not in need of it. 

 

E. Examples of items that are MM”G:

-Examples of items that were not pre-designated before Shabbos which are defined as MM”G:

  • Stones
  • money
  • wood
  • twigs
  • beams
  • reeds
  • dirt
  • sand

(All the above examples were taken from 308/8)

  • Mochin which refers to pieces of soft material such as cotton and strings [made] of soft wool of an animal, and

    scrapes of worn out clothing.[155]

  • Shares of wool.[156]
  • a dead person
  • All animals[157]
  • feathers which are not fit to be used to lie on (there is a difference between feathers that are made to sleep on in

    pillows and those that aren’t)

  • cover of a pit that doesn’t have a handle (308/37)
  • an egg that has a chick inside (309/10);
  • Shatnez[158]: Clothing that are Shatnez are MM”G.
  • Non-usable wick (308/33).
  • Silkworm cocoons.[159]
  • Hides of an animal which are wet are MM”G being that they are not fit for any use.[160]
  • All grass, plants and any produce which are attached to the ground.[161]

-Examples of raw foods which are inedible in their raw state and are thus defined as MM”G and may not be moved for any purpose:

  • Flour [162]
  • dough
  • potatoes
  • dry legumes,
  • beans,
  • Rice[163]
  • Pasta[164]
  • Raw meat: Tough raw meat [such as meat of animals[165]] is MM”G however tender raw meat [such as poultry[166]] is not Muktzah as it is fit to be eaten by some people.[167] [However today that people no longer eat even tender raw meat all raw meats are Muktzah.[168] See Q&A regarding what one is to do in case his freezer has lost power on Shabbos].
  • Raw fish: Raw unsalted fish is MM”G. However salted fish, such as herring is not Muktzah being that it is edible.[169]
  • Raw cold fat of an animal
  • Spoiled meat: In areas where there are no animals found to which to give the meat to, then the meat is MM”G.[170]

(All the above examples were taken from 308/8; SS”K-20/28; Ketzos Hashulchan 111/3)

-Examples of foods that are forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos and are defined as MM”G:

  • Tevel[171]
  • Stam yeinum[172]
  • Date pits which are not commonly fed to animals in ones area.[173]
  • Milk that was milked on Shabbos.[174]
  • An egg that was laid on Shabbos
  • Juices that flowed on Shabbos from fruits[175] [that are designated to be juiced, with exception of olives and grapes that even when not designated to be juiced their liquids are forbidden[176]].

    (Taken from 308/9)

  • Chameitz on Pesach
  • Arla-forbidden fruits,
  • Kilayim of a vineyard
  • Teruma
  • Terumas maaser
  • Chalah that was separated for Hafrashas chalah,
  • Dough or bread that one hasn’t taken chalah from
  • Fruits that could have fallen off a tree on Shabbos
  • Meat cooked with milk

 

More miscellaneous examples:

  • Bones which are too hard for even dogs to eat.[177]
  • Shells of walnuts and almonds, as well as all shells which are not fit for even animals to eat [178]
  • Bones, peels, and shells which are fit for animals to eat but one doesn’t own these animals and they are not found in his vicinity.[179]
  • Shells of sunflower seeds [Garinim]:[180] If they are roasted and salted then they are not Muktzah, as there are people which suck on the shells. However they do become Muktzah after they have already been sucked and spat out. If they are not salted then they are Muktzah once their seeds are removed.
  • Peels of citric fruits:[181] Are Muktzah unless animals are found in ones area. However orange [and Esrog] peels are not Muktzah as they are fit to be eaten by humans. [Others[182] however wonder at this ruling and rule that citric peels are likewise Muktzah as they are not edible in their raw state.]
  • Peanut shells: [183] Are Muktzah unless animals are found in ones vicinity.
  • Apricot pits:[184] Are Muktzah unless designated to be used for children games before Shabbos.However possibly for children themselves they are not Muktzah even when removed on Shabbos.
  • Raisins and dates that have been put out to dry and until then are inedible due to their smell (310/2)
  • ·oil left over from Shabbos candles
  • medicines[185]/vitamins that one can’t take on Shabbos

(From 28-38 is taken from SS”K-20/25-36),

 

F. Examples of items that are not MM”G and thus may be moved:

  • Chadash grains.[186]
  • The five grains are not Muktzah.[187]
  • Non-kosher meat, such as meat of a Niveila[188] or Treifa [in areas that dogs are found[189]] [190]
  • Salted raw fish, such as herring.[191]
  • Spoiled meat in an area that there are animals to be found to which one can feed the meat to.[192]
  • Sea-squill in areas that deer is found is not Muktzah.[193]
  • Inedible mustard in areas that doves are found.[194]
  • Small boards of wood not on sale that are used for different vessels.
  • Hides of an animal which are dry, even if aren’t tanned, are not Muktzah being that they are fit to lie on.[195]
  • Peels, such as pods of beans, which are fit to be eaten by animals, and these animals are found in ones area are not Muktzah on Shabbos, however are Muktzah on Yom Tov due to Nolad if they were peeled on Yom Tov. [196]
  • Bones which are fit to be eaten by a dog and there is a dog to be found in ones area is not Muktzah on Shabbos however on Yom Tov is considered Nolad if its meat was removed on Yom Tov.[197]
  • Wine of a Nazir is not Muktzah being that it is fit for others to eat.[198]
  • Peels which are fit for humans to eat like orange [and Esrog] peels (but not grapefruit peels) (SS”K-20)
  • Date pits which are common to feed to animals in ones area are not Muktzah. However a person of importance should not move them unless using an irregularity, such as placing a permitted item on them.[199]
  • Food on Yom Kippur.[200]
  • A ball[201]: It is disputed whether or not a ball is considered a vessel and thus whether or not it is MM”G. The custom is to be lenient.
  • A Kamia.[202]
  • Ash which was made from before Shabbos.[203]
  • Wooden boards which belong to a non- professional.[204]
  • A necklace which has a coin attached to it.[205]
  • Is rainwater Muktzah? Rain water is not considered Muktzah [even on Yom Tov[206]] so long as they are at least fit for one to bathe in[207]. If however the water has become dirty [as is common with the water which comes through ones roof drain which is very dirty] then it is considered Muktzah.[208]

 

G. Examples of MM”G items that have received the status of a vessel before Shabbos and are thus no longer Muktzah:

Branches: [209]  A branch cut off before Shabbos to use to discipline children or to brush away insects is not Muktzah.

Palm Branches: [210] Palm branches which have been sat on before Shabbos, or that have been designated in one’s mind to be used for sitting, even if this designation was only for that Shabbos, they lose their Muktzah status. This form of designation is valid being that it is common to sit on palm branches.

Stones: A stone which has been strongly inserted into a basket or tied to a bucket as part of its structure, or has been lightly inserted but is designated for this use forever, is no longer Muktzah and the basket or bucket thus does not become a Basis.[211] Similarly a stone which was used once before Shabbos for a common use, such as to break a nut, or was though about being used for a common use for even that Shabbos alone, is no longer Muktzah. However for an uncommon use, such as to cover the opening of a barrel, or to sit on a stone, it only loses its Muktzah status when designated to be used forever for that use, or one does a great action which shows that it is designated for that use[212].[213]

Bricks:[214] Bricks which remain after the completion of a building and have not been stack piled are no longer Muktzah as they are considered designated for sitting on. [However today being that it is customary for construction companies to reuse the leftover bricks this allowance no longer applies, and the bricks thus remain MM”G.[215]]

Lids of vessels:[216] If it is common to designate a certain item as a lid for a vessel, then if it was used once before Shabbos as a lid, or one did an action to it which shows that it is designated as a lid, then it is no longer Muktzah. If it is not common to be used as a lid, then it only loses its Muktzah status when designated to be used as a lid permanently, or one did an alteration to the item which shows it is designated for this use.

Lid of a pit:[217] Only loses its status of Muktzah if a handle is fixed onto it and thus shows to all that it is a lid.

Wood:[218] When designated for sitting on it only loses its Muktzah status if it is designated for this use permanently, or a great action is done to it which shows that it is designated for sitting[219].

 Mochin:[220] Which were designated in one’s mind to be permanently used for insulation are no longer Muktzah.

Shares of wool:[221] Shares of wool which have been used for insulation are not Muktzah even if they have not been designated for that purpose.

Straw[222]: Straw which is generally used in ones area to lie on or use as animal fodder is not Muktzah. Furthermore, even if usually designated for fuel, if one now designated it for fodder, or thought about designating it for sitting on, then it is no longer Muktzah.

Earth[223]: Earth which has been set aside in a corner to be designated for use for covering saliva or feces is not Muktzah. However this only applies if the earth is so loose that when removing dirt from it, it will not create a ditch within the dirt.

Bandage made of spun wool: [224] Combed flax or spun wool which was placed on one’s wound prior to Shabbos, or was thought about being used for a wound for over that Shabbos[225], or had some action done to it which prepared it as a bandage, such as he dyed it with oil, then the material is no longer Muktzah and may be moved for any purpose.

Toupee made of spun wool:[226] Combed flax or spun wool which was placed on one’s head as a toupee prior to Shabbos, or was thought about being used as a toupee for over that Shabbos[227], or had some action done to it which prepared it for a toupee, such as he dyed it, then the material is no longer Muktzah and may be moved for any purpose. It however may not be worn outside in a public area [that does not have an Eiruv] unless it was dyed and the like, or was worn one time before Shabbos.

A forked vine used for a well:[228] If tied to the bucket from before Shabbos is no longer Muktzah. However if not then it remains Muktzah even if one designated it in ones thought to be used for this purpose[229].

A stick used as a hanger:[230] A stick which was designated to be used as a hanger only loses its Muktzah status when designated for this use for permanent basis.

Plants which are entered into Shul on Shavuos:[231] Are not considered Muktzah as they have been pre-designated before Yom Tov.

 

Q&A

If a certain inedible food is edible for a commonly found animal, but due to lack of an Eiruv one is not able to feed the animal that food on Shabbos, does the food become Muktzah?[232]

No the food is not Muktzah, as since the food is edible for the animal it retains its food status.

 

Are non-edibles due to lack of being cooked considered MM”G when belonging to a non-Jew?

In 325/6 the Alter Rebbe brings a difference of opinion if raw items belonging to a non-Jew are Muktzah Machmas Gufo. He concludes that one should be stringent unless it is a pressing circumstance or for the need of a mitzvah, such as a Bris.

 

Are raw foods Muktzah on Yom Tov?

Any food that may be prepared on Yom Tov is not Muktzah.[233]

This would as well apply to frozen items on Shabbos or Yom Tov which although not edible in their frozen state can become edible through melting it and would therefore not be Muktzah. 

 

Is a raw egg Muktzah?

Raw eggs are not Muktzah.[234] If however they have a chick inside then they are Muktzah.[235]

 

Is food with a Hechsher that one does not rely upon considered Muktzah?[236]

No as they are fit to be eaten by those which do rely on this Hechsher. Furthermore even if they do not at all contain a Hechsher they are not Muktzah as they are fit to be given to a gentile.

 

Is Gebrocks/Matzah Shruya, Muktzah for one who is stringent not to eat it?[237]

No as it is fit to be eaten by others which are not stringent.[238]

 

Is Kitniyos Muktzah for Ashkenazim on Pesach?

Some Poskim[239] rule that it is not Muktzah. Others[240] rule that it is Muktzah.

 

May one move an aquarium or bird cage on Shabbos?

Some opinions[241] say that both the fish, birds, aquarium and cage are not Muktzah being that they all serve for a decorative purpose which is considered a permitted work.

Some opinions[242] say that although the actual fish and birds are themselves Muktzah and may not be lifted or moved, nevertheless it is permitted to move the aquarium and cage together with the fish and birds inside them[243].

Other opinions[244] rule that both the fish, birds, cage, aquarium are Muktzah as the Sages did not differentiate in their Muktzah decree against animals.

Moving to prevent pain for the birds or fish[245]: According to all opinions it is permitted to move even the fish or bird itself in order to prevent it from having pain, such as it is in the sun.

 

Are flowers that are on the table Muktzah?[246]

No.[247]

 

Is a frozen food which can only be eaten when it defrosts considered Muktzah?[248]

No. However this only refers to a food which is edible in its defrosted state without requiring cooking.

 

If ones freezer has lost electricity, may the raw meat be moved to another freezer?[249]

In a case of great loss one may be lenient to move the frozen meats and fish into another freezer.[250]

 

Are foods which are in the midst of the pickling process considered Muktzah?[251]

No as they are nevertheless still fit to be eaten in times of need.

 

Are raw foods which one began cooking right before Shabbos in a permitted way[252] considered Muktzah until they are ready?

They are not considered Muktzah even when still raw and on the fire.[253] [However it is forbidden to mix the pot or remove and return it due to the cooking prohibition-see the laws of Chazara and Cooking]

 

May one play with play dough on Shabbos?[254]

No. It is forbidden even for children to play with play dough and the like due to the smearing prohibition. It is thus Muktzah.

 

May one play ball on Shabbos?

Although it is ruled in Shulchan Aruch that one may play ball on Shabbos, nevertheless it is forbidden to do so on a steady basis as part of one’s Shabbos schedule, as doing so is a great belittlement of Shabbos, and is what caused a great city[255] to be destroyed.[256]

A ball which is inflatable with air: Some Poskim[257] rule that all inflatable balls are forbidden to be played with on Shabbos, due to a decree that one may come to inflate it with air upon noticing that it needs this to be done, and he will thus transgress the fixing prohibition. According to other Poskim[258] however it is even initially permitted to inflate a ball with air on Shabbos, and thus it remains permitted to play with such balls. [Furthermore perhaps today even according to the stringent opinion it would be permitted, as it is not common to inflate a ball with air but rather to purchase new ones.]

Playing on a dirt floor:[259] It is forbidden to play ball on a dirt floor due to a decree that one may come to smoothen holes in the ground and thus come to transgress the building prohibition.

Playing in an area without an Eiruv:[260]  It is forbidden to play ball in an area without an Eiruv.

 

May one play ping pong on Shabbos?

Some opinions[261] rule that it is allowed, as the custom is to allow playing with a ball on Shabbos and not consider it Muktzah.

Others[262] rule that it is forbidden to play ping pong on Shabbos according to all opinions as it is belittling of Shabbos.

 

May one remove the drain cover of one’s floor on Shabbos?[263]

If the cover has a handle, or indentation which forms a handle area then it is permitted to be removed [if it is common for one to do so]. If there is no handle at all then it is forbidden and is Muktzah.

 

Is the sand of a playground Muktzah?[264]

No.[265] Nevertheless children who are above the age of Chinuch may not add water to the sand.


[1] 308/8

[2] This is explained in C below regarding designating a non-vessel object for a use before Shabbos.

[3] 308/11

[4] 308/89

[5] 308/9

[6] 308/8

[7] 308/64

[8] Sea squill is a [9] 308/65

[10] Seemingly this refers to an inn found on the road, as was common back in the day, however not to hotels as we know of today which are found in the city for vacation.

[11] As seemingly it is not common for dogs to be found in a rural area. Rather they gather in areas that are habituated.

[12] Vetzaruch Iyun as in 308/10 it is listed as a separate category. As well in the Ketzos Hashulchan the laws of inedible foods and Muktzah Machmas Gufo are each given a separate chapter.

[13] Stam Yayin is any wine of a gentile which one does not know if the gentile used it as libation for idols. Such wine is only Rabbinically prohibited. To note however from Yoreh Deah chapter 123 that there are opinions today that permit stam yayin in benefit, and thus seemingly according to those opinions the wine is not Muktzah, if designated for animals.

[14] Tevel is any food which did not have its tithes removed from it. Such food is forbidden in benefit.

[15] Lit. Neveilas and Treifus. This refers to two different types of invalidations which can prohibit meat from being allowed to be eaten, and thus deem them non-Kosher. A Niveila is an invalidation that occurred in the slaughtering, while a Treifa is an invalidation which occurred in the animal before the slaughtering and had jeopardized the health of the animal.

[16] So is implied from 308/9 from the mentioning of dogs in the explanation of why it is not Muktzah. However Tzaruch Iyun as in truth even if no dogs are found it should not be Muktzah as one can sell them to gentiles, as was similarly mentioned regarding Chadash.

Perhaps one can answer that only by Chadash does it help that it is on the market for gentiles, as being that it will eventually become permitted it retains the status of food merchandise which is not Muktzah, as will be explained below. However when the food is forbidden to be eaten forever by a Jew, as is the case by Niveila, then even when it is up for the food market it remains Muktzah, as since it is not edible for any Jew at any time it is considered like non-food merchandise which is MMC”K. Therefore only if there are animals available is the meat considered not to be Muktzah.

[17] Chadash are all grains of the 5 grains which had rooted into the ground after the previous Pesach, and are forbidden to be eaten until the next Pesach comes.

[18] In the land of Israel the laws of Chadash are more strict.

[19] 308/89

[20] 611/8-9

[21] See 611 that it is permitted from the letter of the law to prepare food for after the fast, as well as to feed it to children and touch it, thus proving that it is not Muktzah.   

Q. Why is the food on Yom Kippur not considered Muktzah being that it has no use, similar to all inedible foods which have a status of Muktzah, and like is the law of chameitz on Yom Tov of Pesach, that the reason why we do not allow it to be burnt if found on Yom Tov is because it has status of Muktzah?

A. By Pesach the chameitz is forbidden in pleasure forever, thus it literally has no use. Furthermore chameitz is forbidden to everyone, even children. However on Yom Kippur a) there is no prohibition from getting pleasure from the food thus the food still has a use (like to be sold), b) It is only forbidden for that day, and thus will once again have an edible use. C) Is permitted to be eaten by under Mitzvah age, and thus has an edible use on Yom Kippur itself.

Q. Nevertheless why shouldn’t the food be still be considered Muktzah Machmas Issur?

A. Perhaps only an item which is a general Issur for all can be considered MM”I, however if it remains permitted for some (like children) then it’s not Muktzah. As well perhaps only items which can lead to desecrate the Melachas of Shabbos have a status of Muktzah Machmas Issur, and not items that can lead to transgress other prohibitions irrelevant to Melacha.

[22] 308/65

[23] 308/66

[24] Seemingly this refers to one who is looked upon as being extra meticulous in the commands, such as a Rabbis and the like. Vetzaruch Iyun

[25] 308/66

[26] 308/67

[27] In the Ketzos Hashulchan (111/18) he explains the source for this ruling from the Talmud while also explaining a possible understanding from the Talmud in accordance to which removing with one’s hand would be permitted.

In SSH”K (20/26) they permit one to take the item out with ones hands seemingly relying on this alternative understanding in the Talmud.

[28] However when one throws them behind him, since he does not see them, they will not become repulsive to him, and there is thus no basis for him to be allowed to eventually move them.

[29] 308/67

[30] 325/6

[31] Note: The Alter Rebbe motions to look in 517/3 for the reason. There the Alter Rebbe explains that since the kernels can be roasted and eaten, they are not Muktzah. Applying this reasoning for Shabbos is puzzling, for on dusk of Shabbos eve roasting the grains is prohibited. Therefore, how can this reason apply to making kernels not Muktzah on Shabbos? In the M”A 325/2 there is an additional reason mentioned, that since they are fit to chew they are not Muktzah. This reasoning could as well apply to Shabbos. It is still a wonderment however, why the Alter Rebbe omitted this reason especially being that only with it can we apply the rule to Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun

[32] 308/60

[33] Legumes, just like grains grow in stalks called pods. These pods before the legumes in them have ripened are edible after cooking. On today’s market this is synonymous to string-beans, or green beans. However once the legumes within the pods have already ripened then the pods become dried out and are no longer edible. It is to this type of pod that the above Halacha is referring to.

[34] However in SSH”K (22/36) based on M”B 308/115 he permits it saying, that using a utensil is considered a Shinui.

[35] 308/68

[36] The Alter Rebbe rules, following the opinion of the M”A, that any meat which is not soft enough to chew raw is considered MM”G. This as well is the opinion of the M”B (308/125) and is ruled likewise in the sefer SS”K (23/20). However, the opinion of the TA”Z (308/20) and GR”A is that all meat is considered edible even if raw and is also fit for dogs to eat thereby avoiding it being Muktzah. For a more extensive understanding of this debate see the TA”Z there. Practically speaking, with regards to what is considered not chewable raw meat the M”B says all raw meats of animals are not chewable, while of pigeon and duck is chewable.

[37] There it is explained that only blood that has come out from the meat, such as when cooking, is forbidden to be eaten. However blood that has never yet separated from where it is absorbed is not forbidden. Nevertheless one still needs to wash the meat for exterior blood, as explained in Yorah Deah Chapter 69 see there.

[38] 308/69

[39] 308/70

[40][40] 310/2

[41] Lit. “pushed them away with his hands from eating on Shabbos”

[42] See next Halacha

[43] Lit. “From after they have stayed there a little”

[44] Lit. “pushed them away with his hands”

[45] Lit. “pushes away with his hands”

[46] 310/8

[47] 310/9

[48] 310/9

[49] 310/3

[50] Meaning edible to some people while not edible to others.

[51] Tzaruch Iyun on the meaning of this, as if literally taken, then it’s not understood why when the raisins owned by a Jew in a way that it is edible to some, do we say that it is Muktzah. Perhaps however the idea is that by a Jew so long as it is not ready for all, the Jew sets it aside from his mind, while by a gentile so long as it is edible for some his mind is on it, in which case we say since it is ready for the gentile therefore it is ready for all.

[52] 310/3

[53] Halacha 3 of the Shulchan Aruch of the Michaber. This chapter of the Alter Rebbe is not in print.

The Mishneh Berurah [322/8] explains that the reason why fruits which have fallen, or even questionably have fallen from their tree on Shabbos is Muktzah is because a) The sages forbade them from being eaten lest one come to actually pick the fruits from the tree. B) Since they were attached to the ground before Shabbos one has removed his mind from them and they are thus Muktzah.

[54] 310/3

[55] Now, even though all animals are Muktzah on Shabbos, whether trapped or not, as already explained in chapter 308 Halacha 78,  nevertheless here the novelty is that if it was not in one’s mind from before Shabbos then it remains Muktzah even a) on Yom Tov when slaughtering an animal is permitted, and animals thus are not considered Muktzah [as is explained in chapter 497] and b) even if on Shabbos the animal was slaughtered [such as for a sick person] or died and now became fit for dogs to eat, it remains Muktzah, even though in general it is now no longer Muktzah.

[56] 308/36

[57] 308/37

[58] A dus pit is a pit that has a wall surrounding it, while a Bor pit does not have anything surrounding it, and is rather just a hole in the ground. [See Baba Basra 64a and Rashi there] In Chapter 587/1 the Alter Rebbe explains that a Dus is any building which majority of its space is underground level. However if only minority of it is under ground level, then it has the same law as a house.

[59] Seemingly the Tanur of the Alter Rebbes times were built just like a Dos pit, that one first digs a certain depth into the ground, and then builds walls to surround it and uses that inside space as an oven. Thus since the inside of the oven also contains underground space, it is considered a dus. However the ovens of the old days were built completely separately with a clay or metal bottom, and only then were they attached to the ground.

[60] 308/48

[61] 308/50

[62] 308/51

[63] 308/51

[64] 308/52

[65] Rashi Tractate Shabbos 125b

[66] 308/53

[67] In Chapter 309 Halacha 3 it is explained that when a stone is attached strongly to become part of a vessel, then it is permitted to be moved [for any purpose], even if it has not been designated for this use forever.

[68] 308/53

[69] 308/54

[70] 308/55

[71] Lit. a branch

[72] Meaning out from the area where all the reeds have been fixed into.

[73] 308/56

[74] 308/57

[75] 308/3

[76] 308/58

[77] Tanning is the leather making process. Prior to tanning the skin is not durable and is susceptible to decompose. The tanning process uses different chemicals and materials to strengthen the skin so that it becomes impossible to ever decompose.

[78] This refers to large animals with tough meat and skin, such as a cow and an ox.

[79] This refers to smaller animals, such as a sheep and a goat.

[80] 308/59

[81] 308/77

[82] Back in the day earth was commonly used to cover filth that was on ones dirt floor, as most floors regardless were not tiled and were themselves made of earth.

[83] As was common to be done back then when the floors were dirt floors.

[84] Vetzaruch Iyun as sand is a material which adds heat which is forbidden to insulate with, as explained in chapter 257, and it was never explained there that raw fruits may be insulated with material that adds heat.

[85] 308/83

[86] In other printings it says “Public domain”, however this version makes no sense as it is forbidden to carry in a public domain. Thus the Rebbe says [in Igeres Hakodesh 3 page 27-28] that the correct version is “private domain”. To note that the Ketzos Hashulchan 110 footnote 16 explains: On Shabbos they allow to play ball in a private domain, and on Yom Tov even in a public domain.

[87] 308/84

[88] According to Rashi the term “Atzilav” refers to ones armpit, while according to Tosafus it refers to ones elbow.  [See Nidah 30b]

Vetzaruch Iyun as it was explained above in Halacha 3 that one may move Muktzah in an irregular fashion.

[89] Lit. the seed, or egg. However seemingly it is referring to the cocoon of the silk worm, which looks similar to a seed and egg.

[90] The silkworm is a larva [caterpillar] which produces silk, and is the main source of silk textiles which are manufactured. As the larva develops it produces a silk cocoon in which it hibernates in. This cocoon is made of a wrapped up string of about 1000-3000 feet.

[91] Tzaruch Iyun what this latter part is adding to the prohibition.

[92] 308/85

[93] There it is explained that it is forbidden to sit on Shatnez made of soft material, and only when it’s made of hard material is it permitted. According to this it ends up that even according to this opinion by hard material Shatnez they would agree that it is not Muktzah being that one can use it to sit on

[94] As it is prohibited to wear it.

[95] Seemingly this means that food has more lenient laws in Muktzah then do vessels, as is seen from the fact that food may be moved even for no need at all, as opposed to vessels. Thus if by food we are stringent in this case, then certainly by vessels.

[96] A Kamiah is an item which is said to carry with it super natural powers of healing and the like. Such items can be a potion written on parchment, or an herb and the like for which are prescribed supernatural powers. The question here is can such parchment be moved on Shabbos, or do we consider it worthless.

[97] 308/71

[98] Rashi Tractate Shabbos 61a

[99] 308/63

[100] 311/15

[101] Lit. comes

[102] Lit. to float

[103] 259/1

[104] Mochin is a general term for pieces of soft material such as cotton and strings [made] of soft wool of an animal, and the scrapes of worn out clothing. It does not refer to a full item made of soft cloth.

[105] 259/1

[106] 310/19

[107] There it is explained that even though Nolad is permitted on Shabbos, nevertheless by such a great form of Nolad, all agree that it is forbidden.

[108] There it is explained that if the wood burnt over the ash of the previous day, then since the new ash has never become yet recognizable, then it is nullified in majority.

[109] 308/48

[110] To the point that it is not Tofeich Al Menas Lehatfiach. As otherwise the shirt itself is Muktzah. [M”B 308/62]

[111] 309/3

[112] Magen Avraham. Vetzaruch Iyun as this is not written in the Gemara. [Admur]

[113] Seemingly this is referring to using the shell to draw water from a well. A stone is needed to weigh the shell into the water, as otherwise the shell will simply float on top of the water.

[114] 338/9

[115] 312/9; 336/4

[116] 494/14

[117] 308/23

[118] Meaning the Jew did not ask him to do it for him.

[119] 308/78

[120] 308/79

[121] 308/80

[122] This rule means that one carries his own weight and thus is not to be viewed within the prohibition of carrying when being carried, as the prohibition was only said by carrying items that cannot carry their own weight.

[123] 308/78

[124] Seemingly this refers to moving the basket without restriction, as it is forbidden to move it together with the chick if one does not need to use the space under the basket, as explained in Halacha 61-62 that one must shake of the chick before carrying it. However if one does need to use the space, then it would be permitted to move the basket even together with the chick.

[125] Tzaruch Iyun on the meaning behind these words “or that they not be able to stand on it for even a second”

[126] 308/78

[127] Beir Moshe 6/95

[128] Due to the carrying prohibition which not all are familiar with.

[129] Due to the Muktzah prohibition which not all are familiar with.

[130] Chapter 308 Halacha 8

[131] 308/89

[132] This rule however only applies by objects which are unusable to the owner due to their being degrading in his eyes. However if it is unusable due to it being forbidden for him to use, such as he made a vow against using it, then nevertheless it remains not Muktzah for all, including the owner. [308/89]

[133] 308/8

[134] Regarding if street animals and birds are taken into account for commonly found animals, or only animals which are raised in homes are taken into account, see Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/22 which brings a dispute on this matter amongst today’s Poskim. To note that from the wording of Admur 308/64 that “such as for example sea-squill[134] that is only edible for deer, and mustard that is only edible for doves, are permitted to be moved in an area that deer and doves are commonly found, meaning, that it is an area where it is usual for the common-folk to raise them and they are accustomed [in doing this]” it is implied that street animals are not taken into account, and only home raised animals are included in the definition of commonly found.

According to all if an animal is not commonly found on the streets then it is only considered commonly found if it is raised by the common folk of one’s area. If it is only raised by wealthy people it is not considered commonly found. [308/64]

To note that the Mishneh Berurah 308/119 writes that it is commonly found if it is raised by majority of people. However the Minchas Yitzchak [7/16] rules that the M”B himself did not mean this literally and simply sated majority in order to contrast it being raised only by the wealthy.

[135] 308/64

[136] Meaning even if after Shabbos it will become permitted, such as is the case by Tevel after it is tithed, nevertheless on Shabbos it is Muktzah.

[137] As opposed to food which is forbidden for one Jew and permitted to another, such as wine for a Nazir, which is not Muktzah. [308/89]

[138] 308/9

[139] However if it will only become permitted for one to eat after much time, such as Chadash grains, then it is not Muktzah as it is commonly sold for fodder and to gentiles.

[140] 308/65

[141] 310/2

[142] 310/3

[143] 310/9

[144] 310/3

[145] 310/3

[146] 308/53; Ketzos Hashulchan 110/5

[147] 308/50,51,53- in the end

[148] 308/52-53

What is considered an action which shows a use for the object? In 308/52 it says regarding setting aside stones for sitting, that they need a great action to show their use. It is not enough to rub them rather one must set them up. In 308/53 however, it says, that any Tikun or action is enough for a non-Keli. Possibly one can say the concept of a great action would only apply to stones as their use will not be noticeable without a great action

[149] 308/3; 259/1

[150] 308/23

[151] 308/78

[152] 308/78

[153] 308/78

[154] 308/79-80

[155] 259/1

[156] 259/1

[157] 308/78

[158] 308/85

[159] 308/84

[160] 308/58

[161] 312/9; 336/4

[162] Chapter 308 Halacha 8

[163] Az Nidbaru 9/24

[164] Az Nidbaru 9/24 as it is not common to eat them raw.

[165] M”B

[166] M”B

[167] 308/68

[168] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/25

[169] 308/69

[170] 308/68

[171] Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/33 which lists Tevel as not Muktzah since it can be given to a gentile, as Admur explicitly rules it is Muktzah. So rules also SSH”K 20/31 which he cites as his source, that it is Muktzah. Seemingly he misunderstood SSH”K 22/54 to be referring to Tevel of a Jew, when in truth it refers to Tevel of a gentile, in which case Admur would also agree that it is not Muktzah

[172] 308/9

[173] 308/66

[174] 308/9

[175] 308/9

[176]320/3-5

[177] 308/65

[178] 308/60

[179] 308/60

[180] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/23

[181] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/23

[182] So seems Pashut from Admur and so rules a noted Posek brought in appendix of Piskeiy Teshuvos.

[183] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/23

[184] SSH”K 16/10

[185] So rules Minchas Shabbos 88/16. See there regarding if one was sick before Shabbos and thus knew that medicine would be needed on Shabbos if even healthy people may move it for themselves.

[186] 308/9

[187] 325/6; 333/1; 336/17; 517/3.

 In 325/6 the Alter Rebbe says that actual kernels are not Muktzah as opposed to when they have been ground to flour in which case they are Muktzah.

[188] Even if it died on Shabbos [324/5, see above Halacha 3L]

[189] So is implied from 308/9 from the mentioning of dogs in the explanation of why it is not Muktzah. However Tzaruch Iyun as in truth even if no dogs are found it should not be Muktzah as one can sell them to gentiles, as was similarly mentioned regarding Chadash.

[190] 308/9

[191] 308/69

[192] 308/68

[193] 308/64

[194] 308/64

[195] 308/58

[196] 308/60

[197] 308/60

[198] 308/89

[199] 308/66

[200] 611/8-9

[201] 308/83

[202] 308/71

[203] 310/19

[204] 308/59

[205] M”B 303/74

[206] So is implied from M”B 338/30 from fact he says it is not Nolad. However Tzaruch Iyun from Admur which here specifically mentions “on Shabbos” regarding the scenario. Although one can say that this is coming to contrast before Shabbos.

[207] Vetzaruch Iyun as for what is collected rainwater used for in today’s time? Should it thus be considered Muktzah?

[208] 338/9 from that it is permitted to place a vessel under rainwater and if fit for use then it is not Muktzah; Mishneh Berura 338/30 explains that rainwater is not Muktzah or Nolad; Beir Moshe 3/20 explains in length that rainwater is not Muktzah

However the Peri Megadim Introduction to Hilchos Yom Tov 29 rules that rain is considered Muktzah due to Nolad.

[209] 308/55

[210] 308/50

[211] 309/3

[212] In which case it may be used for that use only and may not be moved for any other use.

[213] 308/53

[214] 308/48

[215] Sheivet Haleivi 5/40

[216] 308/36

[217] 308/37

[218] 308/52

[219] In which case it may be used for that use only and may not be moved for any other use.

[220] Chapter 259 Halacha 1; Mochin is a general term for pieces of soft material such as cotton and strings [made] of soft wool of an animal, and the scrapes of worn out clothing

[221] 259/1

[222] 308/63; 311/15

[223] 308/77

[224] 308/56

[225] Even if one did not actually yet use it before Shabbos, and even if one did not designate it to be forever used as a bandage but rather simply for that Shabbos alone. It thus goes without saying that if one designated it to be forever used as a bandage that it is no longer Muktzah.

[226] 308/57

[227] Even if one did not actually yet use it before Shabbos, and even if one did not designate it to be forever used as a toupee but rather simply for that Shabbos alone. It thus goes without saying that if one designated it to be forever used as a toupee that it is no longer Muktzah.

[228] 308/54

[229] Due to decree that if one were to attach it on Shabbos he may come to cut it in order to adjust it and thus transgress the prohibition of fixing a vessel.

[230] 308/48 as explained in 308/53

[231] 494/14

[232] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/23

[233] based on 517/3

[234] 310/2; 328/43

[235] 309/10

[236] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/33

[237] Minchas Yitzchak 1/33; Dovev Meisharim 1/49

[238] It is thus similar to wine of a Nazir which is not Muktzah

[239] Tzitz Hakodesh 1/35

So is apparent from all the early and late Achronim mentioned in Minchas Yitzchak 7/33 which do not mention it as being Muktzah.

[240] Minchas Yitzchak 7/33

[241] Minchas Shabbos 88/10; Az Nidbaru 8/36

[242]Ketzos Hashulchan 121/4

[243] The reason for this is because the cage and aquarium are placed in one’s home for decorative purposes, it thus serves a permitted purpose on Shabbos and is thereby not Muktzah.

[244] Betzeil Hachachmah 5/33

[245] Betzeil Hachachma ibid; SSH”K 27/28

[246] As rules Admur in 494/14 regarding the trees and plants brought in to the Shul for Shavuos

[247] As they have been designated for a use from before Shabbos.

[248] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 147

[249] 308/25

[250] Based on Sheivet Haleivi 3/29 which rules that in case of great loss one can be lenient to rely on the opinion of the Beis Meir that Muktzah is always permitted to be moved in a case of great loss, as according to the Taz all raw meat is anyways not considered Muktzah due to it being fit for dogs to eat.

[251] Piskeiy Teshuvos 310/2

[252] Such as the flame is covered or contains raw meat which will not get done until the next day. See The Laws of Shehiyah

[253] Piskeiy Teshuvos 310/5 as one’s mind was not set aside from the food and he has the ability to make it ready. It is thus not similar to dried figs and raisins which may not get done on Shabbos [see 310/2]

[254] SSH”K 16/13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 314/6

[255] The city of Tur Shimon was destroyed, according to one opinion, for the sin of playing ball on Shabbos, which according to the lenient opinion means due to the sin of using their Shabbos for ball playing instead of learning Torah. [Ketzos Hashulchan 110 footnote 16]

[256] Ketzos Hashulchan 110 footnote 16; Taz 518/2 writes in name of Rashal that it is a wonderment that playing ball is allowed on Yom Tov when in truth it is a game of children and not meant for adults. Thus he rules that it is an evil custom for adults to spend their time playing ball, and “if I had the power I would nullify it”.

The Ketzos Hashulchan explains how even during the week ball playing is to be avoided, as it is a mere women’s game being that they are not obligated in learning Torah, as well as that some of the games are taken from the gentiles. 

[257]Ketzos Hashulchan 110 footnote 16

[258] Yesod Yeshurun 4 page 270; Betzeil Hachachmah 4/92; Beir Moshe 2/20

[259] Ketzos Hashulchan Ibid in name of Mishneh Berurah 308/158.

[260] Mishneh Berurah 308/158

[261] SSH”K 16/6

[262] Beir Moshe 2/27; Ketzos Hashulchan 110 footnote 16 that it was only allowed to play ball on Shabbos occasionally and not on a steady basis as doing so is a belittling of Shabbos.

[263] Piskeiy Teshuvos 308/13; SSH”K 23 footnote 28

[264] SSH”K 16/4

[265] As the sand is designated for playing with.

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