Laws relating to Shemoneh Esrei of RH

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Laws relating to Shemoneh Esrei of Rosh Hashanah [applies to night and day]

A. Bowing throughout the Amidah:[1]

Some[2] have the custom to pray Shemoneh Esrei of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur in a bowing[3] position.[4] Those that follow this custom need to straighten their backs towards the beginning and end of each blessing, prior to saying Baruch Ata Hashem, in order so it not appear one is adding in the number of bows that were instituted by the sages.[5] However by the blessing of Avos and Modim they need to straighten their backs a few words prior to the end of the blessing [i.e. a few words prior to Baruch Ata Hashem[6] by the words Melech Ozer[7]] in order to then properly bow when they reach the concluding blessing.[8]

Zachreinu and Mi Chamocha:[9] Some have the custom to bow in Shemoneh Esrei of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur upon reciting the words Zachreinu and Mi Chamocha [and not throughout the entire prayer]. Those that do so need to straighten their backs towards the end of the blessing, at the conclusion of Zachreinu, prior to saying a few words near Baruch Ata, in order so they can return and bow when they say Baruch Ata.[10] However at the end of Mi Chamocha they are not required to straighten their backs until the words Baruch Ata in which one slightly straightens his posture.[11]

 

Today’s custom:[12]

Due to the weakness of the generation it is better to pray in a straight posture but with a crouched heart with concentration, as Hashem does not desire one with a bent posture that is praying without a heart [i.e. emotion and concentration]. [Thus practically today most people are no longer accustomed to pray with a bent posture, and so is the Chabad custom.] 

Arched head:[13] All the above is with regards to an arched back. However one’s head is proper to be slightly bent even when praying during the year and certainly during the High Holidays.

 

B.  May one pray Shemoneh Esrei aloud on Rosh Hashanah?[14]

It is customary to pray Shemoneh Esrei aloud on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.[15] Nevertheless it is better not to pray aloud if one is able to concentrate [even when praying silently].[16] In any event [even one who chooses to pray aloud] he must beware from raising his voice too loud [during the prayer].[17] [Practically the custom today is to pray silently just like the rest of the year.]

 

Summary:

Although it is permitted to pray Shemoneh Esrei aloud on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur in order to increase concentration, nevertheless if one is able to concentrate even when praying silently it is best not to pray aloud, and so is the custom today.

 

Q&A

May one answer Amen to the blessings of one who is praying aloud?[18]

During the rest of the year one is not to answer Amen to the blessings of one who prays Shemoneh Esrei aloud being that he is praying against the rulings of the Sages. However during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur one may answer Amen being that they are not doing a transgression. Nevertheless it is best to distance oneself from the person in order not to hear his blessings.

 

C. The mentioning of Rosh Chodesh in Shemoneh Esrei on Rosh Hashanah?[19]

On Rosh Hashanah one recites “Vatiten Lanu Es Yom Hazikaron Hazeh” and there is no need to mention Rosh Chodesh and say “Vies Rosh Chodesh Hazeh”. The reason for this is because it is included within the words of “Yom Hazikaron”, as also Rosh Chodesh is called Yom Hazikaron.[20] This is found in the verse “Ubeyom Simchaschem Ubimaoadeichem, Ubiroshei Chodsheichem…Vehayu Lachem Lizikaron[21]”. [Regarding the inclusion of the Rosh Chodesh sacrifices in the Musaf prayer-see Halacha 16F.[22]]

 

Reason for why we avoid explicitly mentioning Rosh Chodesh:[23]

  1. Prevent confusion of the dates of the future Holidays: One does not explicitly mention Rosh Chodesh in Shemoneh Esrei on the first day of Rosh Hashanah because the sages did not want to differentiate between the prayers of the 1st day and the 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah. Hence if they would have established to mention Rosh Chodesh on the first day it would also have to be mentioned on the second day.[24] However the mentioning of Rosh Chodesh on the second day of Rosh Hashanah could lead to confusion regarding the dates of the future holidays, as people may think that the second day of Rosh Hashanah is in truth the first of the month, as is always the case with the second day of Rosh Chodesh. This will then cause one to celebrate the future holidays [Yom Kippur; Sukkos] on the wrong date [a day later]. Thus for this reason Rosh Chodesh is not mentioned at all on either day.
  2. Confuse heavenly prosecutor: One does not explicitly mention Rosh Chodesh in Shemoneh Esrei on the first day of Rosh Hashanah because we desire to confuse the Satan [heavenly prosecutor]. We do not want him to know that today is Rosh Chodesh Tishrei (in order so he does not come to prosecute). It is for this reason that we also do not recite the Parsha of Uviroshei Chodsheichem prior to Eizehu Mekoman.[25]

 

D. Yom Teruah versus Zichron Teruah:[26]

When Rosh Hashanah falls on a weekday we say the words Yom Teruah in Kiddush and Shemoneh Esrei. When Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos we recite Zichron Teruah.

 What is the law if on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah one said Yom Teruah or on a regular Rosh Hashanah one said Zichron Teruah?[27] He fulfills his obligation and is not required to go back and repeat the blessing.

 

E. Why do we not mention “Moadim Lesimcha Chagim Uzemanim Lesason” in Shemoneh Esrei?[28]

On Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur we do not mention the phrase of “Moadim Lesimcha Chagim Uzemanim Lesason” as these days were not given to us for purposes of rejoicing and jubilation.[29]

 

F. Why do we not mention “Vehasieinu Es Birkas Moadecha” in Shemoneh Esrei?[30]

On Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur we do not mention the phrase of “Vehasieinu Es Birkas Moadecha” as these words were only said regarding the three holidays [Shalosh Regalim], as the verse states “Shalosh Peamim Bashana..Kevirkas Hashem Elokecha..”.

  

Q&A on Shemoneh Esrei of Rosh Hashanah [applies to night and day]

If one did not recite Vichein Ten Pachdecha and already concluded “Hamelech Hakadosh” must he repeat Shemoneh Esrei?[31]

No. He is to continue with the remainder of Shemoneh Esrei.[32] If he remembered after reciting Hashem’s name in the blessing [Baruch Ata Hashem] he is to conclude the blessing with Hamelech Hakadosh and is not to recite Lamdeini Chukecha.[33] He is then to continue with Ata Vechartanu.[34] In such a case he can choose to say the Nussach of Vechein Ten Pachdecha at the end of Shemoneh Esrei, prior to the second Yehi Ratzon.[35]

 

If one concluded the middle blessing of “Mikadesh Yisrael” incorrectly does he fulfill his obligation?

Stated Mikadeish Yisrael Vihazmanim: If one mistakenly said Mikadeish Yisrael Vehazmanim” instead of Mikadeish Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron” he does not fulfill his obligation and must repeat the blessing.[36]  If he remembered within Kdei Dibbur then he is to only repeat the last words of “Mikadesh Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron”.[37] If he remembered passed Kdei Dibbur then he is to repeat the concluding blessing.[38] If he remembered after beginning Ritzei then he must return to the beginning of that blessing.[39] If he already concluded Shemoneh Esrei then he must repeat the Davening.

Stated Mikadeish Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron:[40] If one mistakenly said “Mikadeish Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron” omitting the words “Melech Al Kol Haaretz”, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.

Mentioning Shabbos:[41] If Rosh Hashanah coincides with Shabbos one must mention Shabbos in the concluding blessing. If he did not mention Shabbos at all in the middle blessing he does not fulfill his obligation [and is to follow the order explained above by Mikadesh Yisrael Vehazmanim]. If he mentioned Shabbos either in the middle of the blessing or in the concluding blessing of “Mikadesh Hashabbos Yisrael…” then he fulfills his obligation. The same law applies regarding if he concluded only with Mikadesh Hashabbos and did not mention Mikadesh Yisrael etc.[42]

 

If one skipped Elokeinu..Meloch in Shemoneh Esrei does he fulfill his obligation?[43]

If after saying Yaleh Veyavo he skipped “Elokeinu” and concluded “Baruch…Mikadesh Yisrael Veyom Hazikaron” he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.

 

If one skipped Ata Vechartanu in Shemoneh Esrei on Rosh Hashanah does he fulfill his obligation?[44]

Yes. As he mentions the day of Rosh Hashanah in the other paragraphs, [i.e. Yaleh Veyavo].

 

If one skipped Yaleh Veyavo in Shemoneh Esrei on Rosh Hashanah does he fulfill his obligation?[45]

Yes. As he already mentioned the day in the other paragraphs.

 

The Laws regarding a Chazan for Rosh Hashanah:

See the section on “Elul”.

__________________________

[1] 582/5; 113/1-2; Michaber 582/4; Tur 582 that so is the Ashkenazi custom  

 [2] This was the Ashkenazi custom. [Tur; Kaf Hachaim 582/22]

[3] Ideally it is implied that from the word “Keria” that one is to pray with his knees to the floor as did Shlomo and Daniel. However the custom is not to do so and rather we Daven only with an arched back and head. [Bach; M”B 582/13; Kaf Hachaim 582/21]

[4] The reason: As our lives are in judgment on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. It is thus proper to pray in a manner of fear and trepidation. [Levush 582; Kaf Hachaim 582/21]

[5] The reason: As the Sages instituted to bow only by the beginning and end of the blessing of Avos and in the beginning and end of Modim. [ibid] If one desires to bow by the end or beginning of other blessings he is to be taught not to do so, in order so the institution of the Sages not be abolished. As this can lead to people saying that each person can be stringent to bow wherever he desires and there is no institution of the Sages to bow at all. This will lead to people being lenient and not bow even by Avos and Modim. However in the middle of the blessing it is permitted for him to bow, as there is no worry that this will lead to abolishment of the institution of the Sages being that the Sages did not decree at all to bow in the middle of any blessing. [113/1] Thus those that bow throughout the entire prayer of Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur need to straighten their backs in the end and beginning of each blessing in order not to add to the institution of the Sages which only decreed to bow by the beginning of Avos and Hodaah and their end. [113/2]

[6] 113/2

[7] Elya Raba 582/7; Kaf Hachaim 582/23

[8] The reason why even by Avos and Modim they must straighten their backs and cannot remain bowing: The initial bow does not suffice as one is required to bow upon reciting Baruch. Furthermore it is necessary in order so it be evident that he is now bowing due to the obligation, as the first bow was optional. [113/2] This difference, that by a regular blessing one must straighten by Barcuh while by Avos and Hodaah one must straighten a few words before Baruch, is also brought in the Elya Raba 582/7; Kaf Hachaim 582/23

[9] 113/2

[10] The initial bow does not suffice as one is required to bow upon reciting Baruch. Furthermore it is necessary in order so it be evident that he is now bowing due to the obligation, as the first bow was optional. [ibid]

[11] The reason: This is done in order not to add in the institution of the Sages which decreed to bow only by Baruch Ata of Avos and Hodaah. [ibid]

[12] Chayeh Adam 139/1; Kitzur SHU”A 129/2; Kaf Hachaim 582/23

[13] Shlah p. 213; Elya Raba 582/7; M”E 582/11; Kaf Hachaim 582/24

[14] Admur 101/3; Michaber 582/9 “Although throughout the rest of the year one prays in silent, on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur the custom is to pray aloud.”

Other Opinions: Some Poskim however rule that one is not allowed to pray aloud even on Rosh Hashanah. [Mateh Efraim 582/27]

[15] The reason: This is done in order to teach others [the dialect] of the prayer being that people are not accustomed to these prayers. [Admur ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun how this reason is relevant if everyone has a Machzor which they read from.] Alternatively this is done in order to help increase one’s concentration being that these days are days of repentance. [Admur ibid; Levush]

Why we do not suspect for disturbance? We do not suspect that praying aloud on these days will disturb others and cause them to make mistakes in their prayer being that their prayer books and Machzorim are held in their hands. [ibid]

[16] Admur ibid; Shlah 214a; Elya Raba 582/20; Peri Chadash [based on Zohar]; Machazik Bracha 582/8 [“based on Zohar and Arizal certainly one must pray silently on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur that they are days of judgment, (as the Zohar states that one who raises his voice in prayer his prayer is not heard above)”]; Maaseh Rav 203; Chayeh Adam 139/2 [every G-d fearing Jew is to Daven silently]; M”E 582/27 [“Best to protest against those that raise their voice”]; Shaareiy Teshuvah 582/8; Aruch Hashulchan 582/14; M”B 101/11; Kaf Hachaim 582/57; Menachem Tziyon Leil Rishon R”H [“The Tur and Beis Yosef were Ohev Yisrael and hence were Melamed Zechus for the simple folk that did not know to Daven silently on Rosh Hashanah, however in truth it is better to Daven silently. Furthermore the law of a silent prayer is derived from Chana which said her prayer on Rosh Hashanah!”]

Verbalizing the words silently that not even the ear can hear: Some Poskim rule that one is to verbalize the words in such a quiet tone that even his own ears are unable to hear it. [M”E 582/27; Nimukei Orach Chaim 582 based on Tana Dvei Eliyahu 28 [there it states that one who hears his words is testifying false testimony and lacks belief in G-d]; Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid based on Zohar and Arizal] Practically however the Poskim rule that one is to Daven loud enough for his own ears to hear [Admur 101/2; Alef Hamagen 582/42 in name of Poskim], and the above statement of the Zohar will only take place in the times of Moshiach. [See Torah Or Vayigash 45; Likkutei Sichos 35 p. 192]

[17] Admur ibid; Shlah 214a; Elya Raba 582/20

The reason: As anyone who raises his voice very loud [in prayer] is considered from amongst the false prophets being that it says on them “And they called in a loud voice”. [ibid]

[18] Alef Hamagen 582/43

[19] 582/9; Michaber 582/6; Tur; Eiruvin 40a

[20] Although in every prayer on Rosh Chodesh one must explicitly mention Rosh Chodesh in the prayer, nevertheless on the first day of Rosh Hashanah, even though it is always the 1st of the month, no explicit mention of Rosh Chodesh is made as the mentioning of the word Yom Hazikaron includes both Rosh Hashanah and Rosh Chodesh.

Other reasons: The Levush suggests the reason behind the omitting of Rosh Chodesh is in order to avoid the prosecuting angel from knowing the date of the month. Admur in 591/6 [brought next] records this reason of the Levush. The Kaf Hachaim 582/45 writes in the name of the Mateh Yehuda that this is not the main reason as the reason mentioned above [582/9] is taken from the Gemara ibid and there is thus no need to add further reasons to the above. Vetzaruch Iyun as to why Admur felt a necessity to mention these reasons only in 591 and not in 582. However based on the next footnotes [which is based on the wording in Admur in 591/6-see there] this matter is understood, and the question of the Mateh Yehuda on the Levush falls away, as the Levush is addressing a different point than the Gemara. The Levush is addressing why we don’t explicitly mention Rosh Chodesh in the prayer, while the Gemara only addresses how one still fulfills his obligation. Likewise Admur in 582/9 is only addressing how we fulfill the obligation, and not why we don’t explicitly mention it, as this matter is brought later on in 591/6 which is its main section. It is for this reason that Admur does not record any of the reasons brought below in 582/9.

 [21] In some prints of the Shulchan Aruch it states “Venizkartem”. See glosses on new Shulchan Aruch Harav 582 footnote 52.

[22] The above only explains how the mentioning of the day Rosh Chodesh is included in Shemoneh Esrei, similar to the inclusion of Yaleh Veyavo. It however does not explain how the sacrifices of Rosh Chodesh are included within the wording of the Musaf prayer of Rosh Hashanah. This matter is discussed in Halacha 16F!

[23] 591/6; The previous reason brought from Admur 582/9 only explains how we fulfill our obligation of mentioning Rosh Chodesh in the current Nussach that we read. It however does not explain why we avoid explicitly mentioning Rosh Chodesh and rather suffice with it being included in other words. [see previous footnotes] In Admur 591/6 two reasons are recorded as for why this is avoided. [To note that the question here regarding mentioning the Musafim of Rosh Chodesh in the Davening is applicable also according to the Sefaradi custom not to mention the verses of the Karbanos in Musaf, as by Rosh Chodesh even the Sefardim are accustomed to mention the verses.]

Other reasons: The Aruch explains the reason we do not explicitly mention Rosh Chodesh is because the verse states that Rosh Hashanah is the Holiday that the Chodesh is hidden in. Hence one is not to mention Rosh Chodesh explicitly on Rosh Hashanah.[Kaf Hachaim 591/10]

[24] 591/5; The reason for this is because otherwise people would come to belittle the second day of Rosh Hashanah, on the basis that it is the second day of the month and is hence not Rosh Hashanah. It is for this reason that we recite the Karbanos in plural “Musafei” in the Musaf prayer of both days of Rosh Hashanah in order not to differentiate in this matter. [591/5]

 [25] Admur 591/6; Tur; M”A 591/1; Machatzis Hashekel; P”M 591 A”A 1

See Admur 48/2 “It is customary in these provinces to mention the verses of the Karban Musaf of Rosh Chodesh together with the Parshas Hatamid in order to publicize that it is Rosh Chodesh.” Practically however, based on Admur in the Siddur these verses are never mention together with the Tamid even during the remainder of the year.

 Other customs: Some Sefaradi communities are accustomed to recite the verses of Rosh Chodesh before Davening. However if they do so out loud it is proper to protest them. [P”M 591 M”Z 2]

[26] 582/9

[27] Peri Chadash; Mateh Yehuda; Kisei Eliyahu 582/7; Neve Shalom 582/4; P”M 582 M”Z 3; Machatzis Hashekel 582/6;Shalmei Tzibur p.307b; Zechor Leavraham “Reish”; Shaareiy Teshuvah 582/5; Chayeh Adam 139/4; M”E 582/15; M”B 582/19; Kaf Hachaim 582/47

 [28] 582/10; Tur; Levush; Bach

[29] Admur ibid following the explanation in Bach; Thus although the typical festival Amidah prayer of Yom Tov includes the praise of ששון ושמחה [That we rejoice on our Holiday], nevertheless the High Holiday prayers do not include this being these days were not given to us for purposes of rejoicing.

Other reasons: The Levush 582/8 explains the reason is because Rosh Hashanah is not called a Moed, as the term Moed derives from the term “Hisvadus” to gather, as the Jews would gather by the Mikdash to bring their Shelamim and Karban Simcha. However on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur there is no individual Karbanos brought and hence there is no gathering taking place. Admur does not record this explanation and it is negated by the Bach. [See Kaf Hachaim 582/51]

[30] 582/10; Tur 582

[31] Peri Chadash brought in: Mamar Mordechai 582/6; Shalmei Tzibur 305; Zechor Leavraham 200; Chayeh Adam 28/17; M”E 582/18; Kitzur SHU”A 129/5; M”B 582/17; Kaf Hachaim 582/29; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582/10

[32] The saying of Vichein Ten Pachdecha is only a custom, therefore if one forgot to recite it he may continue with his prayers. [Peri Chadash ibid]

[33] See regarding Zachreinu: Ruach Chaim 582/2; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 20; Kaf Hachaim 582/31; see Shaareiy Tziyon 188/18

[34] One is not to recite the prayer prior to beginning the next blessing. [See regarding Zacreinu: Elya Raba 582/11; Kaf Hachaim 582/30; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 20; Yabia Omer 1/22; See M”B 114/32]

Other Opinions: Regarding Zachreinu some Poskim rule that if one did not yet begin the next blessing he may say the omitted part after concluding the blessing prior to beginning  the next blessing. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 582; Alef Hamagen 582/25] Some write that this applies likewise for Vechein Ten Pachdecha, that if one remembered prior to beginning the next blessing he may say it then. [Mikraei Kodesh Yamim Noraim 71] Others however rule that even according to the Ashel Avraham ibid he would agree that by Vechein Ten Pachdecha, which is only a custom according to all, one may not say it in-between the blessings, and it was only by Zachreinu of which some Rishonim hold is required even Bedieved, that he is lenient. [Lehoros Nasan 5/36]

[35] Piskeiy Teshuvos 582/10

[36] Machzik Bracha 582/5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 582/6; Shalmei Tzibur p. 308b; Mateh Efraim 582/18; Kaf Hachaim 582/43; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582/11

[37] Admur 487/1

[38] Must he repeat from the beginning of the blessing? Some Poskim rule that he is to start from “Baruch…Mikadesh Yisrael..” and is not required to return to the beginning of the blessing. [M”E ibid; Alef Lamateh 582/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582/11] However see Admur 487/1 and 3 which rules that once one has delayed past Kdei Dibbur he must return to the beginning of the blessing.

[39] See Admur 487/1 that one must return to “the beginning of the blessing”; Some rule that he is only to return to the words Elokeinu..Meloch Al Haolam. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 582/11 footnote 45 in name of Rav SZ”A]

[40] Mateh Efraim 582/19; Chayeh Adam 12/17; Shalmei Tzibur 308/b; Kaf Hachaim 582/29 and 44 [however what he writes there that the M”E rules it is invalid is inaccurate]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582/11

 [41] Admur 487/3

[42] A dispute on this matter is recorded in Admur: Some Poskim rule if one forgot to mention either Shabbos or Yom Tov by the concluding blessing, he does not fulfill his obligation. However others say that it is similar to saying a weekday prayer on Shabbos/Yom Tov, in which case if one said Yaleh Veyavo, then he fulfills his obligation, thus so too here, if one mentioned Shabbos/Yom Tov in the middle of the blessing, then one has fulfilled his obligation even if he does not mention it by the concluding blessing. Admur concludes that it is proper to suspect for the latter opinion and not repeat the blessing, in order not to enter oneself into a doubt of saying a blessing in vain. [ibid]

 [43] Mateh Efraim 582/19

 [44] Admur 487/3 “If one skipped Ata Vechartanu but mentioned the day in Yaleh Veyavo…”; See Mateh Efraim 582/18; Alef Hamagen 582/35

If one did not mention Yom Tov/Rosh Hashanah in Shemoneh Esrei: One does not fulfill his obligation. Thus if he accidently Davened the Tefila of a weekday he must repeat Shemoneh Esrei. This applies even by the Maariv prayer. [Beis Yosef 582 in name of Rabbeinu Yonah; Setimas Haposkim in Shulchan Aruch; Machazik Bracha 582/4; Shaareiy Teshuvah 582/6; Kaf Hachaim 582/42]

 [45] Alef Hamagen 582/35; Binyan Shlomo 17

 

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