Intervals between blows

Previous: [1]

Speaking in between blows:[2] It is initially forbidden for the blower to speak or make an interval between the blows until the last Tekios of Musaf are heard.[3] [If one is hearing Shofar outside of a Minyan, then he may not speak or make an interval until he hears the 30 blows that are Biblically required.[4]] Nevertheless if he transgressed and spoke, even for many hours, the previous blows are valid and he is to continue from where he was holding. [Furthermore a new blessing is not required to be recited even if one spoke prior to hearing 30 blows.[5]] This applies irrelevant of where he made the interval, whether it was done between sets or individual blows. [However see Q&A regarding speaking between the Shevarim-Teruah.]

Blowing other sounds in between blows:[6] If one blew extra sounds for the sake of the Mitzvah between the blows of a set then those sounds are considered an interval between the Tekiah that precedes it or follows it [and one must thus re-blow from the first Tekiah of that set[7]]. If however one did not blow the extra sound for the sake of the Mitzvah, such as he did so for mere practice, then it is not considered an interval and he may continue from where he left off.[8]

Must one hear all the sounds in one session?[9] One is not [Bedieved[10]] required to hear all the sounds in one session and hence even if he left Shul and spoke for a while [and then heard the remaining blows] he has fulfilled his obligation. [This applies even if one was in the middle of a set, such as he already heard the Tekiah of Tashat, or the Shevarim of Tashat, and left Shul prior to hearing the next blow, nevertheless he may continue with the next blow of that set to validate the set.] This however only applies if one did not hear another improper[11] blow for the sake of the Mitzvah, prior to hearing the next blow of that set. If however one did hear other non-Tekiah blows in between and intended to hear them for the sake of the Mitzvah then that set is invalidated and must be reheard.[12]

 

Summary:

It is initially forbidden to speak or make an interval until one has heard the blows in Musaf [or if one is without a Minyan until he has heard the thirty Biblical sounds.] If one made an interval between sounds the previous sounds nevertheless remains valid, and he may continue from the sound that he is holding by. This applies even if one is in the middle of a particular set, such as after the Shevarim of Tashat but prior to the Tekiah. This however only applies if one did not hear a blow for the sake of the Mitzvah that does not belong in the set that he is holding in, otherwise he must repeat from the beginning of that particular set.

 

Q&A

May two shuls that are adjacent to each other blow Shofar simultaneously?

Some Poskim[13] rule that if each Shul can hear the blows of the other Shul then they are to be particular to blow at separate times.[14] However according to Admur it suffices if they have in mind not to fulfill their obligation with the blows heard from the other Shul as it is then considered like mere animal sounds.[15]

 

What is the law if one had to make an interval between blows due to Oness?

  • Example: One went to the bathroom in middle of the blows and remained there for five to ten minutes. Must he rehear the sounds from the beginning?

 

Some Poskim[16] rule that [according to the ruling of the Ashkenazim[17]] if one made an interval due to Oness and the interval was equal or more than the amount of time it takes him to blow [that set of 9 blows such as Tashat Tashat Tashat[18]], then he must repeat the blowing from the beginning of that set [i.e. the 1st Tashat] just as is the law by Shema[19] and other Mitzvos[20]. This Oness refers to one who made an interval in the reading due to a Halachic prohibition to continue blowing, such as if the reader had to use the bathroom in middle.[21] Others[22] however rule that it is not necessary to repeat from the beginning and one hence fulfills his obligation if he continues from the blow that he left off. It requires further analysis as to the opinion of Admur in this matter regarding Shofar.[23]

 

Q&A on the Blessing

The above Halacha only touched upon the laws regarding the actual blows, meaning if one made an interval between blows are the previous blows still valid. It however did not touch on the question of the blessing, in whether the blessing must be repeated. The Q&A below will discuss the law of the blessing, if the blessings itself is still valid or not.

 

If one left the Shul in middle of the blows must he repeat the blessing when hearing the remaining sounds?[24]

No.

 

What is the law if one spoke during the first Tekiah after the blessing?[25]

If he spoke during the first Tekiah of irrelevant maters then he must repeat the blessing. If however he already heard the first Tekiah then the blessing does not need to be repeated.

 

If one spoke prior to hearing the thirty Biblically required sounds must he repeat the blessing?

No.[26] This applies even if he spoke between the Tekiah and Shevarim of the first set of Tashrat.[27]

 

May one even initially speak between the thirty blows in Meyushav or between the blows during Mivtzaim?[28]

No. This applies even to matters relevant to the prayer. [However matters relevant to the blows may be spoken.]

 

What is the law if one spoke between the Shevarim and Teruah of the set of Tashrat?[29]

One must repeat that particular set starting from the Tekiah. This applies even if one spoke of matters relevant to the blows.


 

[1] 590/12

 

[2] Admur ibid; Michaber 588/2 as rules Rif; Rambam and Michaber 65/1; Halachos Ketanos

Background:

Although it is initially forbidden to speak from the beginning of the first Tekiah of Meyushav until the last Tekiah of Meumad as explained in chapter 592/7, nevertheless if the blower transgressed and spoke he is not required to repeat the blows. This applies even if he spoke between the Tekiah and Teruah or between the Teruah and Tekiah or between individual sets [i.e. between the first Tashrat and second Tashrat] or general sets [i.e. between the set of Tashrat and Tashat]. This applies even if he spoke for many hours. [ibid; See Radbaz 1/39]

 

[3] The reason: See Chapter 4 Halacha 3 for the full details of this matter!

Other Opinions: The Kaf Hachaim 588/15 rules that one may even initially make an interval between sets of Tashrat and Tashat and Tarat, and only within the same set is one to avoid the interval. This is likewise implied from M”A 590/1 and P”M 590 A”A 12. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as besides for the fact that even he rules one may not initially make an interval before Musaf, he is perhaps forfeiting the blessing as if the Tashrat is the incorrect set and one makes an interval then it is an interval between the blessing and the correct set.  

 

[4] See Q&A for the full details of this subject!

 

[5] See Q&A

 

[6] 590/12; Ran; M”A 590/10; See Halacha ? [590/17] for further details regarding one who blew the wrong sound or an extra sound for the sake of the Mitzvah.

Translation:

“Not only is speech not considered an interval between blows, but even if one stopped within a set and blew other sounds these sounds are not considered an interval. For example if after one blew a Tekiah or after one blew a Teruah he began practicing Tekiahs or practicing Teruahs and hence made an interval between the Teruah and Tekiah that precedes it and follows it, nevertheless the set remains valid and he may continue from where he left off. The reason why these extra sounds are not considered an invalidating interval between the Teruah and the Tekiah which precede and follow it is because one did not have intent to fulfill the Mitzvah with these extra sounds and rather did so for mere practice. The Torah was only particular that one refrain from sounding sounds, in middle of a set, that are not Tekiahs if one is doing so for the sake of the Mitzvah, as in such a cases one no longer has a Teruah with a Tekiah preceding it or following it but rather has the sound of a Shofar which is not a Tekiah following it or preceding it. However if the blower did not intend to blow the sound for the sake of the Mitzvah then this sound is not considered a sound at all and is rather similar to the sound of an animal and it is hence not an interval between the Tekiah which precedes or follows the Teruah.” [ibid]  

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that even if one blew extra sounds for the sake of practice, it is considered an interval and one must begin from the first Tekiah of that set. [Tur 590; Michaber 590/8 “If he blew it Kemisaseik”; Elya Raba 590/19; Levush 590; See Kaf Hachaim 590/62-63]

 

[7] As will be explained in 590/17; See Halacha 12!

 

[8] Example: For example, if in the set of Tashat one blew a Teruah instead of a Shevarim, and he intended to do so for the sake of the Mitzvah, then he must restart from the Tekiah of that set as the Teruah is an interval between the Tekiah and Teruah. If however one did not blow the Teruah for the sake of the Mitzvah, such as he decided to practice a Teruah sound prior to sounding the Shevarim, then since this Teruah is invalid due to lack of intent, therefore it does not serve as an interval between the Tekiah and Shevarim and one may hence continue with the Shevarim blow. The same applies if one blew a Tekiah and then decided to practice more Tekiahs prior to blowing the Shevarim or Teruah, the set remains valid and one may continue from where he left off.

 

[9] 590/13

 

[10] However initially one is not to make an interval until he hears at least 30 blows, and if he is in Shul until after the blows of Musaf, as is explained in 592/7 [see Chapter 4 Halacha 3; 590/12], and as explained above.

 

[11] This means a blow that is not meant to come next in that set.

 

[12] This means as follows: If one left Shul prior to the last Tekiah of the second set of Tashrat being sounded then he may continue with hearing that last Tekiah in which case the second set is validated and he is to continue with the remaining set of blows. If however one heard a Shevarim or Teruah prior to hearing the last Tekiah, then if he intended to hear it for the sake of the Mitzvah, he must repeat from the first Tekiah of the second set as this blow is considered an interval between the Shevarim-Teruah and Tekiah that is to follow it. Thus if one left Shul in middle of a set, such as prior to hearing the Tekiah after the Shevarim Teruah of Tashat, and he then reentered Shul and heard a Shevarim for the sake of the Mitzvah, then that entire set of Tashrat is invalidated and he must rehear it.

 

[13] Biur Halacha 590/8 “Kimisasek” in name of Chayeh Adam

 

[14] As if one hears a Teruah from the other Shul prior to hearing the Shevarim of one’s Shul that is to follow after the Tekiah he just heard, then it is considered an interval.

 

[15] Piskeiy Teshuvos 588 footnote 2; See Admur 590/12 brought above

 

[16] M”A 588/2; Elya Raba 588/1; Mateh Efraim 588/4-5; Erech Hashulchan 588/1; 65/3; 590/8; Mateh Yehuda, Kaf Hachaim 588/14 and 590/70 in interpretation of the Rama’s opinion; Besi David 410 in name of Rosh in name of Raaven

 

[17] Rama 65/1 and Admur 65/1 regarding Shema that if an interval of Oness was made one must repeat from the beginning.

 

[18] M”E ibid; Kaf Hachaim 588/15; This is opposed to 30 blows.

 

[19] See Admur 65/1

 

[20] See M”A 422/9 regarding Halel

 

[21] M”E ibid; Admur 65/1 regarding the law by Shema; Thus if they were fighting and missed some of the blows they do not have to repeat from the first set of that grouping. [M”E ibid]

 

[22] Halachos Ketanos 2/206 brought in Kaf Hachaim 588/14 for the reason that this law only applies by Shema and the like which requires Kavana, Thus even according to the Rama which is stringent by Shema would be lenient by Shofar.

 

[23] Admur in 588 and 590/12 completely omits any mention of this M”A [as does the Rama]. This is despite the fact that he rules like the Rama in 65/1 regarding Shema and certainly the same should have applied regarding Shofar. This omission seems to imply that he does not hold like the M”A and rather accepts some difference between the two. To note that in 65/1 Admur rules that only an Oness that hinders one from Halachicly being able to say Shema is considered an Oness. Shofar however is a Mitzvah and it is permitted to perform a Mitzvah even in a bathroom [see Halachos Ketanos 2/57; Ikarei Daat 5/15; Mateh Efraim 588/5; Biur Halacha 588/2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 76/2; Tov Ayin 18/37 based on Zohar brought in Darkei Teshuvah 19/22; The Sefer “Awaking like a Jew” chapter 7 Halacha 15A!] Thus according to Admur there is no status of Oness by a Mitzvah like Shofar and one hence always fulfills his obligation.

 

[24] Birchas Avraham 172; Kneses Hagedola 592/9; Elya Raba 592/5; Kaf Hachaim 592/10

 

[25] Piskeiy Teshuvos 592/4

 

[26] M”A 592/4; 590/12; Elya Raba 592/5; Erech Hashulchan 592/6; Peri Megadim 590 A”A 12; Chayeh Adam 141/9; M”B 592/13; See Kaf Hachaim 592/10

The reason: As it is all considered a single Mitzvah. [see 592/7]

The ruling of Admur: Admur in 592/7 completely omits this ruling of the M”A 592/2 regarding one who spoke between the Tekios of Meyushav even though he brings the other information the M”A mentions there. Likewise Admur in 590/18 completely omits the reasoning of the M”A 590/12 which also explains that ideally one may speak between the Tekios of Meyushav as is seen from the Takana to blow during Musaf. This is despite that Admur in 590/18 brings all the other information found in that M”A. Likewise in 590/18 Admur adds the following words to the ruling of the M”A “in order so it not be a blessing in vain” which implies that if one makes an interval between the 30 blows then it invalidates the blessing! Thus from all the above it seems that according to Admur if one spoke of irrelevant matters between the 30 Biblical blows the blessing is invalidated! Seemingly the reason for this is because we are not sure which sound is the correct sound of the Teruah, and hence we don’t know which set is the correct set. Hence if one speaks between sets perhaps he has spoken between the blessing and the Mitzvah in which case the blessing must be repeated. For this reason Admur writes “in order so it is not considered a blessing in vain”. In any event even according to this explanation in Admur he would not hold that one must repeat the blessing as perhaps he has already blown the correct set and performed the Mitzvah. Likewise even if one spoke after the first Tekiah the blessing is not to be repeated as perhaps he has already begun the Mitzvah. Vetzaruch Iyun!

 

[27] Birchas Avraham 97

 

[28] Admur 590/12 and 592/7 “Initially it is forbidden to talk from the beginning of Tekios Meyushav until after Tekios Meumad” as is explained in 592/7

The reason: In addition to the fact that one may not initially speak until after the sounds blown in Musaf [if one is with a Minyan as explained in  Chapter 4 Halacha 3 that this is because of the blessing which we desire to carry from the Meyushav to the Meumad], if one has not yet heard the thirty Biblical sounds, it is forbidden to make an interval as doing so can make the blessing into a blessing in vain. [so is implied from Admur the end of 590/19 as explained in the previous footnotes.]

Other Opinions: The Kaf Hachaim 588/15 rules that one may even initially make an interval between sets of Tashrat and Tashat and Tarat, and only within the same set is one to avoid the interval. This is likewise implied from M”A 590/1 and P”M 590 A”A 12. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol as besides for the fact that even he rules one may not initially make an interval before Musaf, he is perhaps forfeiting the blessing as if the Tashrat is the incorrect set and one makes an interval then it is an interval between the blessing and the correct set.  

 

[29] Peri Megadim 592 A”A 4; M”E 592/6; M”B 592/13; Kaf Hachaim 592/21

 

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