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It states in the Midrashim that one is to say Kaddish on behalf of his father. It is therefore customary to say the last Kaddish [of Davening] on behalf of one’s father and mother for a period of 11 months. A son who says Kaddish for his father fulfills the positive command of Kibbud Av Vaeim, which applies even after death. A son is to therefore be informed immediately upon the passing of a parent in order so he can begin saying Kaddish. It is, however, of even greater benefit [for the soul of the deceased] for a son to lead the prayers as Chazan, than to say Kaddish Yasom, which was instituted for children [below Bar Mitzvah, who cannot yet Daven for the Amud]. The reason why Kaddish is beneficial for the soul is not because it contains a prayer or supplication of pardon on behalf of the deceased, but simply because the son is performing a great Mitzvah by saying Kaddish and sanctifying Hashem’s name in public, and every Mitzvah a son does benefits his father. It is understood from here that the same applies towards any Mitzvah that a son does after the passing of his father, that it brings his father atonement and benefits his soul. Furthermore, learning Torah and performing charity and good deeds is of even greater benefit for the soul than Kaddish Yasom and leading the prayers, as Kaddish Yasom was mainly instituted for children [under Bar Mitzvah], and hence one must place his emphasis mainly on these activities.
The Kavana in saying Kaddish: When saying Kaddish, one is not to intend to say it in order to protect the soul of the deceased, but rather to sanctify Hashem’s name, and the protection will come consequently. Each time he says Kaddish he is to have in mind to fulfill the Mitzvah of honoring his parents.
May an Avel move to an area without a Minyan if he is doing so for reasons of Parnasa?
Yes. One may move for Parnasa purposes even if it will cause him to be unable to say Kaddish and lead the Minyan as Chazan. Nevertheless, he is to hire another person in his place, and if he has a strong level of Bitachon, he should trust that Hashem will provide him with his needs in his current area which contains a Minyan.
Should an Avel continue to work in Shlichus, or teaching Torah, if it will come in the expense of Davening with a Minyan?
Yes. The merit that spreading Torah gives the soul of the deceased is much greater than the Kaddish. If necessary, one is to therefore hire someone to say Kaddish instead of him and continue, and even add, in his spreading Torah.
Children of deceased saying Kaddish: As explained above, the main Mitzvah of Kaddish is upon the son of the deceased. A son says Kaddish on behalf of his mother or father who passed away. [This applies even if the father was a Tzaddik and passed away Al Kiddush Hashem. A son who says Kaddish for his father fulfills the positive command of Kibbud Av Vaeim, as stated above.] A son is to say Kaddish even on behalf of a father who was a Mumar. The custom is for a son to say Kaddish on behalf of his deceased mother even if his father is still alive. The father may not protest against his son saying Kaddish on behalf of his mother.
Other relative saying Kaddish: Kaddish Yasom is to be recited only on behalf of a deceased father or mother alone and not for any other deceased relative. However, some communities are accustomed to reciting Kaddish on behalf of other deceased relatives [even if he has sons saying Kaddish], if there are no other Aveilim present who are saying Kaddish on behalf of a parent. Furthermore, some communities recite Kaddish on behalf of other deceased relatives, even if there are Aveilim present who are saying Kaddish on behalf of a deceased parent. Practically, one is to follow the community custom, if there is a set custom in the community. [Today that the custom is for everyone to say Kaddish together, anyone can say Kaddish on behalf of any deceased person, so long as his parents have passed away or are Mochel, as explained below. If, however, the deceased has a son saying Kaddish for him, other relatives do not recite it. If, however, there are no sons saying Kaddish, then other relatives may recite it. See Q&A regarding which relatives receive precedence in saying Kaddish in such a case.]
Talmid/Student: A main student [Talmud Muvhak] may recite Kaddish after the passing of his Rebbe.
Person with parents saying Kaddish: It is forbidden for one whose parents are alive to recite Kaddish Yasom on behalf of a deceased friend or relative unless the parents are Mochel. [However, he may recite Kaddish Derabanan. Practically, even if the parents are Mochel, he is not to recite Kaddish. If, however, one parent has passed away, he may recite Kaddish if the other parent is Mochel.]
Dinei Kadima-Laws of precedence: In previous times, only one person would say the Kaddish Yasom, and hence laws of precedence for Kaddish was very applicable and necessary to keep the peace and avoid strife amongst mourners, each one desiring to merit the Kaddish in memory of his relative. These laws were dealt with extensively in the Poskim. Today however the widespread custom is for all those who need to say Kaddish to do so simultaneously and hence we avoid any dispute, and have no need to resort to the laws of precedence recorded in the Poskim. Although the laws of precedence regarding Kaddish is no longer relevant, it remains applicable towards which mourner receives precedence for being a Chazan in Shul, and also remains applicable regarding which mourner gets to say the half Kaddish after Kerias Hatorah. See Chapter 25 Halacha 4 for the laws of precedence regarding a Chazan.
How many sons of the deceased are to say Kaddish?
All the sons of the deceased are to say Kaddish and lead all the prayers throughout the entire Shiva and the first 11 months.
Is a son below Bar Mitzvah, or below Chinuch, to say Kaddish on behalf of a deceased parent?
Yes, and on the contrary, the Kaddish was specifically established for Yesomim that are below the age of Mitzvos. [If the child is too young to say it alone, an adult is to help him say it and have him repeat after him.]
Q&A on other relatives saying Kaddish for the deceased
May a daughter of the deceased recite Kaddish Yasom?
Some Poskim rule that there is no place, or purpose, in having a daughter recite Kaddish for her parent and doing so is foolish and a mockery. Other Poskim rule that from the letter of the law, a daughter of the deceased may recite Kaddish by a Minyan of men if the parent did not leave any male children. Nevertheless, practically, this is not to be done. In all cases of doubt, one is to contact the Rav of that community.
Is a grandson to say Kaddish for a grandparent if there are no sons saying Kaddish?
If the deceased did not leave a son to say Kaddish for him, then a grandson, whether the son of his son or the son of his daughter, is to say Kaddish on his behalf. This however is only allowed if the grandson does not have any parents, or his parents are Mochel and allow him to say Kaddish for the grandfather. If, however, his father or mother is Makpid, he may not say it. If both parents are alive, many are accustomed not to say Kaddish even if both parents are Mochel.
If there are no sons of the deceased, which relative receives precedence to recite the Kaddish?
The grandson receives precedence over all other relatives, including even the husband of the deceased. The husband is to recite Kaddish, if his wife did not leave any sons. The son in-law receives precedence over a brother [or father] of the deceased. The father receives precedence over the brothers. In all the above cases, this only applies if his parents are not alive. If one of his parents are alive, he is to ask him/her permission. If both parents are alive, he is not to recite Kaddish.
May one say Kaddish for the passing of an adopted parent?
Yes, an adopted son is to say Kaddish if there are no sons saying Kaddish for him.
May a Ger say Kaddish for his gentile parent?
Yes. However, he is to try to do so inconspicuously.
May one say Kaddish on behalf of two deceased relatives?
Yes. Thus, a grandson may say Kaddish on behalf of his parent and grandparent. This especially applies if otherwise one will need to hire a non-relative to say Kaddish.
Q&A on children who passed away
Is Kaddish recited for a son who passed away below age 20?
Is Kaddish recited for a child who passed away below Bar Mitzvah?
Kaddish can be recited on behalf of a child of any age who passed away r”l, as long as the child was over 30 days old.
Who is to say the Kaddish? It is best for the father of the child to recite Kaddish for his son or daughter if the father’s parents are not alive. If his parents are alive, then he is not to say Kaddish and rather another person is to be hired to do so, unless his parents are Mochel. [Nevertheless, some are accustomed that a father never says Kaddish on behalf of his child. Practically, the son is not to say Kaddish if both of his parents are alive, even if they are Mochel.]
May a father recite Kaddish on behalf of a son or daughter r”l?
If the deceased did not leave a son or grandson to say Kaddish for him then it is best for the father to say Kaddish on his behalf if he does not have any parents, or his parents are Mochel and allow him to say Kaddish for their grandchild. [Nevertheless, some are accustomed that a father never says Kaddish on behalf of his child. Practically, the son is not to say Kaddish if both of his parents are alive, even if they are Mochel.]
|Hiring a person to say Kaddish for the deceased:
The family of a deceased individual who does not have a relative who will be saying Kaddish for him, may hire a person to say the Kaddish throughout the year. This applies even if the deceased has a son, but the son is unable to say Kaddish, such as he lives in an area without a Minyan.
Saying Lilui Nishmas: Each morning, the hired man is to say that all the Kaddeishim of that day are for the soul of Plony Ben Plony.
Payment versus favor: It is better for the son to pay a person to say the Kaddish rather than to find someone who will say it for free.
Saying Kaddish for more than one person? There is no issue for one to say Kaddish on behalf of two deceased people. However, some Poskim limit this to not more people than the amount of Kaddeishim that one says per day. For example, if he says 10 Kaddeishim per day, he may not be hired for more than 10 people.
Saying in 12th month: See Halacha 3B!
A son begins to recite Kaddish on behalf of a deceased father [or mother] immediately upon hearing of the news of the passing, even prior to the burial, while in the state of Aninus. [Practically, so is the Chabad custom. The Rebbe said Kaddish while he was an Onen for his mother, Rebbetzin Chana, and while he was an Onen for his wife, Rebbetzin Chaya Mushka. He is to go to Shul and recite Kaddish Yasom and Kaddish Derabanon, although he is not allowed to pray or answer Amen while in a state of Aninus.] A son is to be informed immediately upon the passing of a parent in order so he can begin saying Kaddish.
Ideally, one is to say Kaddish for 12 months, however the custom is to only recite Kaddish for a period of 11 months [from the passing]. The Avel is to stop reciting Kaddish on the last day of the 11th month; for example if the Yahrzeit is the 10th of Shevat then Kaddish is recited until the 9th of Teves, including the 9th of Teves. [This applies even in a leap year. One is to be very careful in this matter. This applies even if the deceased was known to be a great Tzaddik. Nevertheless, even during the 12th month, participating in the Minyan and answering Amen to Kaddish helps elevate and effect the Neshamah of the Niftar.]
One begins reciting Kaddish immediately after receiving knowledge of the passing, and concludes the Kaddish 11 months from the passing, on the last day of the 11th month. For example, if the Yahrzeit is the 10th of Shevat then Kaddish is recited until the 9th of Teves, including the 9th of Teves.
How does one calculate the end of the eleven months for Kaddish-from the time of death or the time of burial?
Some Poskim rule that the eleven months of Kaddish is counted from the day of burial. Other Poskim rule it is counted from the day of the death. Practically, one is to follow the day of death.
How does one calculate the end of the eleven months for Kaddish if one was in a different time zone at the time of death?
In the event that the Avel and the deceased were in different time zones at the time of death, the custom regarding Kaddish is to follow the time zone of the deceased with regards to starting the count of the eleven months.
If one did not begin saying Kaddish after the burial, for how long is Kaddish to be recited?
It is only recited until 11 months from the day of death, even if he only began saying Kaddish on the last day of the 11th month.
Is one who is not a child of the deceased [such as a hired person] to recite Kaddish for 11 or 12 months?
May the Avel recite Kaddish Derabanan in the 12th month?
Some are accustomed to make Lechayim in Shul on the day they finish reciting Kaddish.
C. Shabbos/Yom Tov:
Aveilim say Kaddish even on Shabbos and Yom Tov.
Each year on the day of the Yahrzeit of a father or mother, the son is to recite Kaddish Yasom.
E. If there is no Chiyuvim in Shul:
In the event that there are no Chiyuvim in Shul, a person whom both his father and mother have deceased is to recite Kaddish Yasom on behalf of all the dead of Israel. It is forbidden for one whose [parent or] parents are alive to recite Kaddish Yasom on behalf of a deceased friend or relative unless the parents are Mochel. [However, he may recite Kaddish Derabanan. Practically, even if the parents are Mochel, he is not to recite Kaddish. If, however, one parent has passed away, he may recite Kaddish if the other parent is Mochel. He however is not to recite Kaddish if the living parent is Makpid even if his other parent already passed away.]
4. How many Kaddeishim is the Avel to recite per day?
Just as one is to diminish in unnecessary blessings, so too one is to diminish in unnecessary Kaddeishim. Initially, it was established for a Yasom to recite only the last Kaddish [prior to Aleinu]. Nevertheless, some mourners are accustomed to be particular to recite eight Kaddeishim per day. The Chabad custom is for the Avel to recite 16 Kaddeishim per day [i.e. per 24 hours]. This however is with exception to Shabbos and Yom Tov. There is no need for a Minyan to recite 16 Kaddeishim per day if an Avel is not present. There is no issue with the Avel saying more than 16 Kaddeishim per day. [If one already Davened and said 16 Kaddeishim that day, there is no need for him to say Kaddish if he is by a different Minyan. If the Avel leads all three prayers as Chazan then he has a total of 17 Kaddeishim that he says. If he does not lead the prayers then he is to make up the number of 16 Kaddeishim through joining other Minyanim, or through saying Mishnayos and Kaddish following it.]
The Yasom customarily recites every Kaddish Yasom and Derabanon that is positioned throughout the prayer. However, the main Kaddish that belongs to a Yasom is the last Kaddish said before Aleinu, as stated above. The spread of the Kaddeishim differs according to the Nussach of prayer.
According to the Chabad Nussach, the following Kaddeishim are recited by an Avel by Shacharis:
- Kaddish Derabanan before Hodu.
- Kaddish Yasom after Shir Shel Yom.
- Kaddish Derabanan before Aleinu.
- Kaddish Yasom after Aleinu.
- Kaddish Yasom after Tehillim [explained next].
- Kaddish Derabanan after Mishnayos [explained next].
By Mincha and Maariv the following Kaddeishim are recited by an Avel:
- Kaddish Yasom after Aleinu.
- Kaddish Derabanan after Mishnayos [explained next]
Kaddish after Mishnayos: The Chabad custom is for an Avel [of a parent] to recite Mishnayos after Davening of each prayer [Shacharis, Mincha, and Maariv] during Shiva and throughout the 11 months and on the Yahrzeit, as explained in Chapter 25 Halacha 8. This is then followed by Kaddish Derabanan.
The half Kaddish after Kerias Hatorah? The Chabad custom is for an Avel, and Baal Yahrzeit, to endeavor to recite the half Kaddish after the Torah reading. In a case of dispute, or when Davening in a Shul with a different custom, the Kaddish is to be recited by the Baal Korei. See chapter 25 Halacha 7B for the full details of this subject
Kabalas Shabbos: The Avel is not to recite the half Kaddish or Barchu at the conclusion of Maariv on Friday night, and it is rather to be recited by the Chazan.
Kiddush Levana: The custom is to recite Kaddish Yasom at the conclusion of Kiddush Levana, and so is the Chabad custom.
Tehillim Shabbos Mevarchim:  The Rebbe Rayatz instituted that the entire Tehillim be recited prior to Shacharis on Shabbos Mevarchim. If there is a Chiyuv present [an Avel within 11 months of a parents passing or one who has a Yahrzeit of a parent that day] then Kaddish is to be recited after each Sefer. If a Chiyuv is not present, then Kaddish is not to be recited between each Sefer, although at the conclusion of the entire Tehillim, Kaddish is to be recited by one who does not have any parents.
6. General laws of Kaddish:
It is beyond the scope of this Sefer to go through all the detailed laws of saying Kaddish. One should thoroughly review chapter 55-56 in the Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim, and their relevant commentaries in order to get a full grasp on these laws. A number of common issues however will be discussed here.
One is to be careful to verbalize the words of Kaddish slowly and properly and not swallow the words. One is to say Yisgadal and not Yiskadal; Yisbareich with only a small emphasis on the Beis so it does not sound like Yispareich. Yis-halal with an emphasis on the Hei so it does not sound like Yischalal.
Oseh Hashalom during Aseres Yimei Teshuvah: During the Ten days of Repentance, at the conclusion of Kaddish one says “Oseh Hashalom” in place of “Oseh Shalom”.
B. Placing feet together and facing Mizrach:
The custom is to proximate the feet together while saying Kaddish, just like by Shemoneh Esrei. [Likewise, due to this reason, it is forbidden to walk in front of a person saying Kaddish. This applies until after the words Deamiran Bealma. Likewise, the custom is to face Mizrach while saying Kaddish, just like by Shemoneh Esrei.]
C. Bowing during Kaddish:
It is customary that the Chazan bow five times during Kaddish. He is to bow in the following places: 1) Yisgadal; 2) Yehei Shmei Raba; 3) Yisbareich; 4) Brich Hu; 5) Amen [of Damiran Bealma]. [Other Poskim however rule one is to bow by the concluding words recited prior to the first five Amen’s in Kaddish as well as by two additional areas. Practically, however, the Chabad custom is to bow by the following areas of Kaddish: 1) Shmei Raba; 2) Vikareiv Mishichei; 3) Veimru Amen; 4) While saying Yehei Shmei Raba until the word Yisbarech. One lifts the head momentarily after saying Veimru Amen and then re-bows it by Yihei Shmei Raba, and then lifts it again momentarily after Yisbarech and then re-bows it for; 5) VeYishtabach.. until the word Viyis-halal. One lifts the head momentarily after saying Viyishalal and then re-bows it by 6) Shmei Dekudsha Brich Hu; 7) Veimru Amen. In Kaddish Tiskabel the head is slightly bowed when concluding Veimru Amen of Tiskabel.]
Oseh Shalom: After the completion of Kaddish [prior to Sim Shalom] the custom is to take three steps back and then recite Oseh Shalom Bimiromav, just as is done at the conclusion of Shemoneh Esrei. [One is to bow to his sides upon saying it, as is similarly done by Oseh Shalom of Shemoneh Esrei. The Chabad custom is to turn and bow the head first to the right, when saying Oseh Shalom, then to the center when saying Hu, and then to the left while saying Yaaseh Shalom Aleinu, and then to the center when saying Veal Kol Yisrael. One is not to begin saying the words of Oseh Shalom until he completes taking three steps back. Seemingly, one is to move his right foot first and only then his left, just as he first bows to his right.]
How is one to bow during Kaddish?
One simply nods his head downwards, and does not bow his entire body as is done during Shemoneh Esrei.
To which direction is a lefty to bow first, and which foot does he move first by Kaddish?
Seemingly one who is left footed, he is to take three steps back with his left foot first. Likewise, one who is left handed should first bow to his left.
General Q&A on Kaddish
May more than one person say Kaddish if there is exactly a Minyan of ten people present?
It is permitted for many people to say Kaddish together even if there will not remain a Minyan to answer Amen. This allowance applies even if the entire Minyan is reciting Kaddish and not even one person remains to answer Amen. Nevertheless, it is best to have at least two persons, or at the very least one person, remaining who will answer Amen to all the other members of the Minyan saying Kaddish.
When reciting Kaddish together with another person, must one recite Kaddish aloud for the congregation to hear?
Some Poskim rule it is not necessary for one to recite Kaddish out loud if another person is saying the Kaddish loudly. Other Poskim however rule it is necessary for every person saying Kaddish, to say it out loud so the congregation can hear. Practically, one is to be stringent in this matter.
Must one recite every word in unison when more than one person is saying Kaddish together?
It is not required to recite every single word in unison, although one is to be careful as much as possible to be in close proximity to each other. [One who is saying Kaddish fast should slow down for the person saying it slowly.]
How is one to answer Amen to Kaddish if more than one person is saying Kaddish and they are not saying it simultaneously?
If they do not conclude the stanzas in Kaddish simultaneously, and there is an interval of Kdei Dibbur between the two conclusions of the blessing, then one is to answer Amen for each conclusion of the stanza. If, however, they conclude within Kdei Dibbur of each other, then one can choose when to answer Amen, either with the first person concluding, or the second person concluding, and the Amen counts for them all. Some Poskim however rule that if one person can be clearly heard while the second is at a distance and cannot be heard well, then one is to answer only to the person who is closest to him and who he heard clearly.
May Kaddish Derabanan of before Hodu be recited after Baruch Sheamar?
Before Baruch Sheamar: If one did not have a Minyan available at the time that Kaddish Derabanon is recited before Hodu, and a Minyan later became available before Baruch Sheamar, the Kaddish may still be recited. [It is not to be recited between the end of Mizmor Shir Chanukas Habayis, and the phrase of Hashem Melech, but rather afterword’s, before Baruch Sheamar. It is to be recited only after a number of verses have been said aloud after the Minyan has arrived. Initially three verses are to be recited aloud, although Bedieved it suffices to say two verses aloud. Alternatively, someone should repeat the saying of Davar Halameid, and Yehi Ratzon, and then say Kaddish afterwards. Alternatively, someone should say the Drasha of Rebbe Chanania Ben Akashya Omer.]
Past Baruch Sheamar: If one did not have a Minyan available at the time that Kaddish Derabanon is recited before Hodu, and a Minyan later became available sometime during Pesukei Dezimra, then some Poskim rule the Kaddish may be recited, even if both the Minyan and the person reciting it are already past Baruch Sheamar. Other Poskim, however, rule it may not be recited after the Minyan has reached Baruch Sheamar, even if the person reciting on behalf of the Minyan is before Baruch Sheamar. [This applies even if the person saying the Kaddish is a Yasom.]
Minyan is before Baruch Sheamar-but the one saying Kaddish is after Baruch Sheamar: If the Minyan is before Baruch Sheamar, but the individual who desires to say the Kaddish is after Baruch Sheamar, he may not say this Kaddish. [If, however, he is a Yasom within 11 months of the passing of a parent, then he may recite the Kaddish even if he is past Baruch Sheamar.]
If one who generally says Kaddish is still in the midst of Davening [such as due to coming late, or due to Davening in length] and the congregation has reached the saying of Kaddish Yasom or Kaddish Derabanan, the question arises as to whether he may stop to say this Kaddish or not?
A. A Non-Yasom:
One who is not a Yasom [not within 11 months of a parents passing] may not make an interval to recite Kaddish Yasom/Derabanan within Davening starting from Baruch Sheamar until after Shemoneh Esrei.
Pesukei Dezimra: One who is a Yasom [within 11 months of the passing of a parent] may stop to say Kaddish Yasom/Derabanan within Pesukei Dezimra. Some Poskim rule one may stop to do so even in the midst of a paragraph. Other Poskim however rule one may only do so between the paragraphs [Bein Haperakim]. [Practically, it is best to do so only between the paragraphs [Bein Haperakim].]
Birchas Shema: Some Poskim rule that the Kaddish may be recited by the Yasom even in middle of Birchas Shema [during Bein Haperakim]. Other Poskim rule one may not say Kaddish Yasom during Birchas Shema [even Bein Haperakim].
On the day of a Yahrzeit, one follows the same law as a Yasom that is within 11 months of the passing of a parent.
 Rama 376:4; Miseches Kallah 2; Kol Bo; Rivash 115 in name of Tanchuma Noach; Sifri; Bechayeh in name of Miseches Kallah; Beis Yosef in name of Zohar; Or Zarua 2:50; in name of Tana Dvei Eliyahu 17; Menoras Hamaor 1:1; 2:1; See Biur HaGr”a; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:22
The story: Rebbe Akiva once found a corpse gathering wood and he stated his punishment is to collect wood each day for the fire in Gehinnom and be burnt in it but if his son says Kaddish on his behalf, it will protect him. [Sefarim ibid]
The reason: As when the son Davens and sanctifies Hashem in public it redeems his father and mother from Gehinnom. [Rama ibid; Kol Bo]
 So writes Rama ibid [this refers to the Kaddish before Aleinu] although practically, the custom is to recite many other Kaddeishim of Kaddish Yasom and Derabanan, as detailed in Halacha 4.
 Rama ibid at first writes 12 months, although in the conclusion of the Halacha he writes 11 months-see Halacha 3!
 Hardak 11:1; Derech Pikudecha 33; See Michaber 240:9
 Rama 402:12
 Rama ibid
 Yeish Nochalin Hakdama 2 [father of Shelah]; Lechem Hapanim, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376
 Kitzur SHU”A 26:22; Yosef Ometz p. 331, brought in Pnei Baruch 35 footnote 35; Chaim Bayad 115; Toras Menachem 1988 2:421, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:309; Sefer Sukkas Shalom, brought in Nitei Gavriel 64, see there in length
 Siddur Yaavetz; Pnei Baruch 34:33; See Yeish Nochalin ibid
 Shulchan Hatahor 132; Pela Hayoeitz Chaf
 Igros Kodesh 3:372 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:305]; See Nitei Gavriel 50:2
 Igros Kodesh 19:272 and 291, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:297
 Rama 376:4; Rashal in Yam Shel Shlomo Kiddushin 63
If the passing of the parent has not been Halachically verified: If the passing of a parent has not been Halachically verified to the point that the wife is left an Aguna, then the son is not to say Kaddish, although he may name his son after his late father. [Avodas Hagirshoni, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376]
If one’s parent is a Goses and may have already died: See Chok Yaakov, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376 and Beir Heiytiv 132:5 in name of Maharil if Safek died
Father told him not to say Kaddish: If the father told him not to say Kaddish, then he is not to say it. [Beir Heiytiv 132:5; Pischeiy Teshuvah 344:1 in name of Even Shoham 72; See however Chelkas Yaakov 2:93 who argues; See Pnei Baruch 34:3; Nitei Gavriel 40:10
 Shut Maharil 99; Darkei Moshe 376:9
 See Rama 376:4 in name of Rishonim that this only applies if the father was murdered by gentiles as then the father has an atonement, as opposed to if he simply passed away in bed. [Taz 376:6; Shach 376:15]; See however Gesher Hachaim and Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 59 that implies this only applies regarding the laws of precedence, and not that he can’t recite Kaddish if he desires. So also concludes Nitei Gavriel 40:4
 Rama ibid; Rashal ibid
The reason: As the father transgresses the Mitzvah of Veahavta Lereiacha Kamocha. [Rashal ibid, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 240:14; 376:5]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the son is not allowed to say Kaddish for his mother if his father protests. [Rivash 115, brought in M”A 132:2; Poskim brought in Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 38]
 Rama ibid; See Binyamin Zeev 201
 Rama, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid; Beir Heiytiv 71:4; Chasam Sofer 164; Kiryas Chana 35; Kneses Yechezkal; Pnei Baruch 34:32
 Rama O.C. 132:2; Rama 376:4 regarding Heter to say Kaddish for mother; Iggur; Tashbatz; Maharil 64; Even Shoham 20, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:4; Peri Hasadeh 92; See Teshuvas Harama 118; Beis Lechem Yehuda 376
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is no problem with saying Kaddish Yasom even if one’s parents are alive. [Sdei Chemed 153 in name of Kemach Soles; Mishpitei Uziel 2-3 See Maharil ibid]
 The reason: As there is an Ayin Hara for the parents, as they think that they might die early because of this, and this worry itself can cause them to fall ill. [Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid] Alternatively, this is because people will cause an Ayin Hara, as they will say that one of his parents passed away and therefore he is saying Kaddish. [Peri Hasadeh 92]
 Even Shoham 20, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:4; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 52:7 footnote 10
 Peri Hasadeh 92; Toras Menachem Tziyon 2:381, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296; Nitei Gavriel 2:43 footnote 6 in name of Rebbe; So I received from a number of Morei Horaahs that a child never says Kaddish Yasom in the life of his parents even if they are both alive; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:17; See however Igros Kodesh 19:44 that the Rebbe records the ruling of the Rama that if the parents are Mochel Kaddish may be recited; Hiskashrus 644
 See Rama 176:4 regarding how to distribute Kaddish when there are: 1) Three brothers in Aveilus versus another Avel; 2) An Avel in Shiva versus a Yahrzeit [Rama ibid in name of Maharil]; 3) An Avel in Shloshim versus a Yahrzeit [Rama ibid in name of Maharil]; 4) An Avel in 12 months versus a Yahrzeit. [Rama ibid in name of Maharil]; 5) A non-resident Avel versus a resident. [Rama ibid in name of Igur in name of Maharil]; 6) Avel over a parent versus Avel over other relatives. [Rama ibid; Maharik Shoresh 44]; 7) Avel within 12 months versus Avel within Shloshim. [Rama ibid towards end]
 Divrei Igeres 7, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:6, that so he established in his community; See also Halachos Ketanos 2:47 that at times 3-4 Aveilim say Kaddish together; See Chasam Sofer 159; Siddur Yaavetz; Poskim in Pnei Baruch 34:37 and Nitei Gavriel 47:2
 Igros Kodesh 19:44 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:306]
 Igros Kodesh 3:459 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:305]
 Rama 376:4; Ashel Avraham 132; See Igros Kodesh 18:266 regarding Mishnayos and Kaddish Derabanan; Pnei Baruch 34:22; Nitei Gavriel 40:7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:21
 See Pnei Baruch 34:20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:33
 Sefer Chassidim, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376
 Chavos Yair 222, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:3; Shvus Yaakov 2:93; Beir Heiytiv 132:5 in name of Kneses Yechezkal 14; Teshuvah Meahavah 2:229-10; See also Kiryas Chana 35, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:7; Mahariy Henkin, Hapardes 1963:6; Igros Moshe 8 p. 20; The daughter of the Radatz Chen said Kaddish for him in Shul until 11 months after he passed away
 Chavos Yair ibid; Mateh Ephraim 4:9 Alef Lamateh 9; See Poskim ibid who limited the scenario of allowance; Pnei Baruch ibid
 The Rebbe was once addressed this question regarding a family who lost the father and only had young daughters as orphans, and the Rebbe was asked whether the daughters should say Kaddish. The Rebbe replied that the asker should forward the question to Rabbanei Anash. It is told that the Rabbanim answered that the daughters should recite Kaddish and so was done practically.
 Shut Rama 118, brought in M”A 132:2; Kneses Hagedola 403, brought in Kaf Hachaim 55:28; Beir Heiytiv 132:5; Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; Beis Hillel 376; Teshuvah Meahava 1:17, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:7 [See there for the details of Kadima for a grandson]; Gilyon Maharsha 376; Peri Hasadeh 92; Igros Kodesh 12:196 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296]
 See Teshuvas Harama ibid; Beis Lechem Yehuda 376
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a mother cannot protest the son saying Kaddish for his father’s father. [Teshuvas Shaiy, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid]
 See sources in the Halacha above
 See Pnei Baruch 34:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:30
 Peri Hasadeh 92; See previous Q&A!; See opinions in Nitei Gavriel 49:3
 See Nitei Gavriel 49:10 and so was the Rebbe’s custom
 Mishmeres Shalom Kuf 55; Toras Menachem Tziyon 2:381, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296; See however Zera Emes 2:148 that it is better that the brothers of the deceased recite Kaddish for him; See Pnei Baruch 34:24
 See Shvus Yaakov 2:93; Mateh Ephraim 4:7; Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 47; Igros Kodesh 19:44 and all Poskim in coming Q&A; However see Noda Beyehuda Tinyana 8 who implies there is no advantage over having a father say it; See opinions in Nitei Gavriel 49:3
 Chasam Sofer 164, brought in Nitei Gavriel 49:8
 Zekan Aaron 87; Yechaveh Daas 6; Nitei Gavriel 40:20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:20; See regarding a related issue: Sefer Chassidim 790; Chaim Bayad [Falagi] 33; Darkei Teshuvah 151:29
 Beir Heiytiv 132:5 in name of Kneses Yechezkal 14; Kitzur SHU”A 26:16; Even Yaakov 50; Beir Moshe 4:97; Doveiv Meisharim 2:1; Chelkas Yaakov 3:157; Halef Lecha Shlomo 61; Igros Moshe 244; Igros Kodesh 12:196 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296] regarding a grandson saying on behalf of his father and grandparent; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 40:14 and 50:14; Pnei Baruch 34:27
 Noda Beyehuda Tinyana 8, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:3; Sdei Chemed Aveilus 151, 162, 212; Igros Kodesh 19:44 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:306]
 The reason: As even one below 20 is held accountable in the Heavenly courts. [ibid]
 Michaber 344:4 and Shach 344:3 regarding Kaddish of Tziduk Hadin; Igros Kodesh 19:44 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:306] that the same applies throughout the year; Tzitz Eliezer 7:86-7; Gesher Hachaim 1:118; Pnei Baruch 34:30; See Nitei Gavriel 40:6
Other opinions: Some write that the custom is not to say Kaddish on behalf of a child below 13 years of age. [Sefarim brought in Igros Kodesh ibid] On a related issue, see Rav Akiva Eiger 384 in name of Chidushei Gershoni that if a child who was less than one year of age passed away, one is not to make a Minyan in his house during the Shiva.
 The reason: As although a child is not held responsible for wronging, nevertheless, there are many benefits of Kaddish asides for removing him from Gehinnom. See also Noda Beyehuda ibid that a child is punished for wrongdoing.
 See next Q&A
 Ruling of Rav Yaakov Landa heard from his son, Rav Eli Landa; Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin, as related by Rav Groner; Maaseh of Rav Avraham Tzvi Hakohen, who did not say Kaddish for his 18 month old son who passed away; See Hiskashrus 644:16 and 649 and 682
 Nitei Gavriel 2:43 footnote 6 in name of Rebbe; 49:2
 Rav Poalim 4:7; Chelek Halevi 133; See Shvus Yaakov 2:93; Elya Zuta, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; Mateh Ephraim 4:7; Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 47; Igros Kodesh 19:44 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:306]; However see Igros Kodesh 15:330 that it is best to hire another person to say it rather than the father, although it is unclear from the letter if the person had parents and if the parents were Makpid; See Hiskashrus 644:16 and 649; Nitei Gavriel 40:6; 49:2; See Noda Beyehuda Tinyana 8 who implies there is no advantage over having a father say it; See Nitei Gavriel 49:1
 The reason: As a father is a closer relative than others, and has ability
 Ruling of Rav Yaakov Landa heard from his son, Rav Eli Landa; Rav Zalman Shimon Dworkin, as related by Rav Groner; Maaseh of Rav Avraham Tzvi Hakohen, who did not say Kaddish for his 18 month old son who passed away; See Hiskashrus 644:16 and 649 and 682
 Toras Menachem Tziyon 2:381, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296; Nitei Gavriel 2:43 footnote 6 in name of Rebbe; See Hiskashrus 644
 M”A 132:2; Kaf Hachaim 55:30; Pnei Baruch 34:26; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:30
 Kaf Hachaim ibid
 M”A ibid
 Beir Heiytiv 132:5 in name of Kneses Yechezkal 14; Kitzur SHU”A 26:16; Even Yaakov 50; Beir Moshe 4:97; Doveiv Meisharim 2:1; Chelkas Yaakov 3:157; Pnei Baruch 34:27; Nitei Gavriel 50:14; see Igros Kodesh 12:196 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296] that so is implied from most Poskim although from Zera Emes one is possibly able to imply differently; See also Piskei Teshuvos 132:32 for Poskim who argue
 The reason: As Zichron Echad Oleh Lekan Ulikan. [Poskim ibid]
 Halef Lecha Shlomo 61; Igros Moshe 244
 Admur 71:1 in parentheses [This ruling of Admur is placed in parentheses possibly due to the other opinions mentioned above that argue-Chikrei Halachos 5:50]; Taz 71:2; Misgeres Hashulchan 341; See Lechem Hapanim, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; The following Poskim agree to this ruling only on Shabbos, or if the Chevra Kadisha has taken over the proceedings of the body: P”M 71 M”Z 2; Chochmas Adam 153:1; M”B 71:7 [however see M”B 559:24]
Other rulings of Taz: The Taz in Yoreh Deah 376:4 rules an Onen may not say Kaddish during the weekday and may only do so on Shabbos. The Poskim answer this contradiction by stating it is permitted if the Chevra Kadisha has taken over the proceedings of the body, and is forbidden if they are yet to do so. [Poskim brought next]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule an Onen may say Kaddish on Shabbos but not during the week. [Taz Yoreh Deah 376:4; Lechem Hapanim, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376 in defense of Taz that at least on Shabbos it may be said and that so is the custom] Other Poskim rule an Onen may say Kaddish during the week if the Chevra Kadisha has already taken over the proceedings of the body, although if the Chevra Kadisha has not taken over the proceedings of the body, then he may not say Kaddish during the week. [Beir Heiytiv 71:4; P”M 71 M”Z 2; Chochmas Adam 153:1; M”B 71:7] Other Poskim rule an Onen is not to say Kaddish at all prior to burial, even on Shabbos, and so is the custom, as the purpose of Kaddish is to save the body from Gehinnom and until burial Gehinnom does not begin. [Nekudos Hakesef on Taz ibid; Chidushei Hagershuni 376 on Taz ibid that the custom is unlike the Taz and that according to the Zohar there is no place to say Kaddish prior to burial; Gilyon Maharsha 376 in name of Teshuvas B”ahag 62; See Lechem Hapanim ibid that that the custom is unlike the Shach and for a defense of the Taz]
Regarding saying Kaddish by the funeral, before burial: Many are accustomed to do so-See Birkeiy Yosef 341:12; Shalmei Tzibur 178; Pischeiy Teshuvah 341:12; Shvus Yaakov 8; Kaf Hachaim 71:17; Yabia Omer 6:33; Gesher Hachaim p. 114
 Igros Kodesh 3:199; 4:107 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:294]; Custom of Rebbe brought in Nitei Gavriel 17:1 [p. 113] and Shulchan Menachem p. 265
 Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 21
 Pashut; See Nitei Gavriel 55:19
 Rama 402:12
 Rama 376:4; Maharil Semachos; Levush 133; Beir Heiytiv 132:5 in name of Kneses Yechezkal; See Taz 340:12 and 376:5; Sefer Haminhagim p. 180 [English]; Igros Kodesh 4:106; Sefer Hasichos 1989 1:175 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:290-298] Sichas 9th Shevat 1951; Nitei Gavriel chapter 51
One who knows his father is a Rasha: One who knows his father or mother is a Rasha is obligated to say Kaddish for 12 months. [Chomos Yerushalayim 257, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:3; See Chasam Sofer E.H. 1:69]
One who committed suicide: If the deceased committed suicide it is permitted to say Kaddish for 12 months on his behalf. [Chasam Sofer E.H. 1:69]
One whose father told him to say Kaddish for 12 months: If one’s parent commanded him to say Kaddish for 12 months then he is to do so. [See Beis Yitzchak 2:157; Mishmeres Shalom Tzaddik 26 that so did the son of the Maharshak for his father; Shevet Halevi 2:161 and 165; Igros Kodesh 4:140 regarding Reb Nissan Tloshkin who asked for Kaddish to be recited for 12 months; Poskim in Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 4 and Nitei Gavriel 51:10]
One who does not know the date of his father’s passing: See Pnei Baruch 34:6
If another relative passed away within the 11 months, may he say Kaddish in the 12th month of the parent? See Sefarim in Igros Kodesh 12:197; The Rebbe there concludes it may be recited; See also Gesher Hachaim 30:9-13; Chelkas Yaakov 3:157; Pnei Baruch 34:7
Other customs: Some Poskim rule one is to recite Kaddish for 12 months minus one week. Meaning they stop saying Kaddish on the last week of the 12th month. [Birkeiy Yosef 376 based on Arizal that the Kaddish helps even souls that are not in Gehinnom; See Rav Poalim 3:32; Poskim in Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 4; Various opinions brought in Igros Kodesh 4:106 footnote 1]
 See Q&A!
 The reason: This is done in order not to turn one’s father and mother into Reshaim, as the judgment of a Rasha is 12 months. [Rama ibid] The mere ending of the Kaddish after 11 months has the ability to refine the judgment of the deceased and cause him to be elevated above. [Sefer Hasichos 1989 1:175, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:290]
 Beir Heiytiv 132:5; Shvus Yaakov 2:129; Machatzis Hashekel on M”A 132:2; Chayeh Adam 32:18; Kitzur SHU”A 26:17; Sefer Haminhagim p. 180 [English]; Igros Kodesh 4:106; Sefer Hasichos 1989 1:175 [see there for explanation]; Igros Kodesh Rashab Halacha 80; Vol. 2:904; [See Sichas 9th Shevat 1951 that the Rebbe Rashab once added one day to the Kaddish and he was very distressed]; See Pnei Baruch 34 footnote 3 for other Poskim and opinions
If the last day is Friday: Some Poskim rule that if the last day is Friday one is to say Kaddish also on Shabbos. [See Poskim in Pnei Baruch 34:8; See Shevet Halevi 165 that he is not to say Kaddish]
Other customs: Some are accustomed to end the Kaddish 30 days before the 12th month. [P”M, in end of Noam Megadim, and so was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz, brought in Sefer Hasichos ibid]
 Poskim brought in Nitei Gavriel 51:3
 Sichas 9th Shevat 1951 that the Rebbe Rashab once added one day to the Kaddish and he was very distressed
 Sichas 9th Shevat 1951 that so was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab, and so followed the Rebbe, see there for the explanation; Sefer Hasichos 1989 1:175
 See Sefer Hasichos 1989 p. 182
 See Igros Kodesh 3:199; 4:107 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:292-295]; Gesher Hachaim 30:9-10; Nitei Gavriel 51:4 footnote 6-8; Pnei Baruch 34:9
There is known dispute regarding whether the 12 months of Aveilus is counted from the day of death/burial, and whether the Yahrzeit is the day of death or burial, and whether the 12 months in Gehinnom is counted from the day of death or burial. It is possible to learn that regarding Kaddish there is a similar dispute, as depending on when the 12 months of Gehinnom concludes would depend on when to conclude Kaddish [see Kneses Yechezkal 47]; On the other hand perhaps it depends on the start date of the Kaddish, whether one started the day of burial or the day of death [see Daas Torah 376:6].
 Implication of Shach 402 in Nekudos Hakesef that Mishpat Reshaim of 12 months begins from day of burial [see Kneses Yechezkal 47]; Levush brought in Elya Raba 132:4; Noam Megadim 1; Kitzur SHU”A 26:17; Neharei Afarsimon 97; Biur Halacha 132; See Daas Kedoshim 377; Levushei Mordechai 223
 Implication of Taz 568:4 that Mishpat Reshaim of 12 months begins from day of death; Beir Heiytiv 132:5; Siddur Yaavetz 39 [see Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 6]; Kneses Yechezkal 47; Mateh Ephraim 4:1; Alef Lamateh Kaddish Yasom 3:5
 Igros Kodesh 4:107; Custom of Rebbe Rayatz as brought in Reshimos Hayoman p. 416; However, see Igros Kodesh 3:199 that the Rebbe directed the asker to follow the day of burial and not the day of death! See also Igros Kodesh 13:410 in which the Rebbe implies to follow the day of the burial. Vetzaruch Iyun!
The reason: As Admur 71:1 rules to begin saying Kaddish the day of death and according to some Poskim [see Daas Torah ibid] the dispute is dependent on this matter.
 Igros Kodesh 13:410, brought in Shulchan Menachem 5:295
 See Taz 568:4; Shach 402 in Nekudos Hakesef; P”M 132 A”A 2; M”A 132:2 in name of Ran; Beir Heiytiv 132:2; Rav Akiva Eiger 376 and Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; Gesher Hachaim 30:9-5; Sefer Haminhagim p. 180 [English]; See Pnei Baruch 34:4-5
 See Pnei Baruch 34:11
 See Shevet Halevi 165 that if the son hired him then he may not say it in the 12th month; Gesher Hachaim 30:9-4 that so is custom of some; See Pnei Baruch ibid; Nitei Gavriel 50:15; The Rebbe recited Kaddish for only 11 months for the Rebbe Rayatz and the Rebbetzin; See Sichas 9th Shevat 1951 and Sefer Hasichos 1989 of 21 Teves that the Rebbe stopped saying Kaddish after 11 months and explained why. The Rebbe was not a son or daughter!; Rav Y.L. Groner in a written correspondence that the Rebbe told people to say Kaddish for his brother and for the Rashag only for 11 months; Rav Y.S. Ginsberg that so is the custom;
 Gesher Hachaim 30:9-4; Meishiv Devarim 213; Nitei Gavriel 50:19
 Nitei Gavriel 50:15; See sources in previous footnote that so is the custom and so was the Rebbe’s custom
 Rav Poalim 4:32; Gesher Hachaim 30:9-10; Shevet Halevi 165; See Even Shoham 20, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:4; See Pnei Baruch 34:10
 Maharshag 52; Even Yaakov 49; See Pnei Baruch ibid
 Nitei Gavriel 52:4 in name of Rav Poalim 3:62 [I did not find this in the source mentioned in Rav Poalim]
 Rama 376:4; Riy Mekurbil; Taz 376:4; Birkeiy Yosef 376 based on Arizal; Beis Lechem Yehuda 376 in name of Lechem Hapanim; Mateh Ephraim 4:2 and Alef Lamateh there
Other customs: Some are accustomed not to say Kaddish on Chanukah or Purim. This is a bad custom. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid]
 The reason: As although the Kaddish only helps remove the father from Gehinnom once he enters it, which does not apply on Shabbos, nevertheless Kaddish has also other benefits for the soul of the father, as brought in Kisvei Arizal. [Lechem Hapanim, brought in Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; Alef Lamateh ibid; Sichas 9th Shevat 1951]
 Rama 376:4
Other customs: [In the past] the Sephardim were not accustomed to reciting Kaddish on the day of the Yahrzeit of a parent. [Rashal, brought in Gilyon Maharsha 376:4; See Sichas 9th Shevat 1951] The saying of Kaddish on a Yahrzeit has no source in the Talmud. [Chinuch Beis Yosef 83, brought in Gilyon Maharsha 376:4] They do, however, recite it on the Shabbos before the Yahrzeit, as brought in Halacha 3B. Practically, today the custom amongst many Sephardim is to recite Kaddish from the Shabbos before the Yahrzeit until after the Yahrzeit.
 Rama O.C. 132:2; Iggur; Tashbatz; Maharil 64; Even Shoham 20, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:4; See Teshuvas Harama ibid; Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; Mateh Ephraim Shaar 4:3
May it be said even by an Avel within the 12th month of the passing of his second parent? See Alef Hamagen ibid and Leket Yosher p. 99 that it may be said even in the 12th month; See Pnei Baruch 34:18
 The reason: As there is an Ayin Hara for the parents, as they think that they might die early because of this, and this worry itself can cause them to fall ill. [Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid]
 Even Shoham 20, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 376:4; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel 52:7 footnote 10
 Peri Hasadeh 92; Toras Menachem Tziyon 2:381, printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:296; Nitei Gavriel 2:43 footnote 6 in name of Rebbe; So I received from a number of Morei Horaahs that a child never says Kaddish Yasom in the life of his parents even if they are both alive; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:17; See however Igros Kodesh 19:44; that the Rebbe records the ruling of the Rama that if the parents are Mochel Kaddish may be recited; Hiskashrus 644
 Implication of Rama ibid and Rama Y.D. 376:4; Nitei Gavriel 43:4
 See Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 2 chapter 44 in length
 Kneses Hagedola, brought in Beir Heiytiv 55:1, Gilyon Maharsha 376:4
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is proper to increase in Mizmorim in order to increase in Kaddeishim. [Dvar Shmuel183, brought in Gilyon Maharsha 376:4]
 Rama 376:4
 Birkeiy Yosef 376 that so is the custom of some parents to command their children to say 8 Kaddeishim for them per day, as the Zohar 62a states that a Kaddish helps for 1.5 hours, and they thus save their parent for 12 hours, however Rav Chaim Vital explains the Zohar figuratively.
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 180 [English; From the will of the Rebbe Rashab, and that so he did]; Igros Kodesh 14:188; 17:270; Toras Menachem 27:477 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:298-301];This was a directive of the Rebbe Rayatz and was written in the will of Rebbe Rashab [brought in Igros Kodesh 14:188; This was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab, brought in Igros Kodesh Rashab [Halacha] 80 and Igros Kodesh Rashab 2:904; This was the will of Rebbe Maharash, brought in Igros Kodesh Maharash p. 104; See Kovetz Or Yisrael 23:198
The reason: This is done because each Kaddish saves the parent from Gehinnom for 1.5 hours, and hence to save the parent for the full day one needs to say 16 Kaddeishim. [Igros Kodesh 14:188; 17:270; Toras Menachem ibid] Now, although Rav Chaim Vital explained the Zohar figuratively, nevertheless the other Mifarshei Hazohar agree with the simple explanation. [Igros Kodesh 14:188]
 Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Igros Kodesh 14:188; Toras Menachem 27:477 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:298-301]; See however Igros Kodesh 17:270 that implies it is said even on Shabbos
The reason: As on Shabbos there is no Gehinnom, and there is thus no need to recite 16 Kaddeishim to cover all 24 hours of Shabbos. [Toras Menachem ibid]
Rosh Chodesh: Seemingly, even on Rosh Chodesh 16 Kaddeishim are to be recited [see Rebbe Rashab ibid], although the widespread custom is not to be particular to do so.
 Igros Kodesh 14:188
 Toras Menachem 27:477
 Igros Kodesh Rayatz 12:394
The Kaddeishim: Maariv: 1) Half Kaddish before Barchu; 2) Whole Kaddish after Shemoneh Esrei; 3) ) Kaddish Yasom after Aleinu; 4) Kaddish Derabanan after Mishnayos; Shacharis: 5) Kaddish Derabanan before Hodu; 6) Half Kaddish after Yishtabach; 7) Half Kaddish after Tachanun; 8) Whole Kaddish after Uva Letziyon; 9) Kaddish Yasom after Shir Shel Yom; 10) Kaddish Derabanan before Aleinu; 11) Kaddish Yasom after Aleinu; 12) Kaddish Yasom after Tehillim; 13) Kaddish Derabanan after Mishnayos; Mincha: 14) Half Kaddish before Shemoneh Esrei; 15) Whole Kaddish after Tachanun; 16) Kaddish Yasom after Aleinu; 17) Kaddish Derabanan after Mishnayos
 Throughout Maariv/Shacharis/Mincha an Avel who does not lead the prayers recites 10 Kaddeishim. [see next] He is thus to make up an additional 6 Kaddeishim.
 Birkeiy Yosef 376 based on a story recorded in Vayakhel Moshe; Zechor Leavraham; Misgeres Hashulchan 221:5
 The reason: As there is no greater protection for the soul of the deceased than the saying of Tehillim and a Kaddish following it. [ibid]
 Igros Kodesh 11:33 [published in Shulchan Menachem 5:301]; Sefer Haminhagim p. 36; Glosses of Rebbe to Sefer Hamamarim 1949 p. 74 and 1950 p. 6; See Nitei Gavriel chapter 46
 The reason: The Talmud states that the world exists in merit of the Mishnayos recited after learning, and it is thus obvious that saying this Kaddish is not included in the prohibition to increase in Kaddeishim, and so is the worldly custom to recite Kaddish after learning. [Igros Kodesh ibid]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 180 [English]; Igros Kodesh 2:324 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 5:303]; Igros Kodesh Rashab Halacha 80; See Nitei Gavriel 44:24
 Siddur Admur; See our Sefer on Rosh Chodesh
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 59 [English]; Igros Kodesh 10:304 [printed in end of Kovetz Michtavim in Tehillim Oholei Yosef Yitzchak] based on a directive of the Rebbe Rayatz
 See Nitei Gavriel chapter 41
 Beis Lechem Yehuda 376; See the following Sefarim for other areas of pronunciation: Admur 56:3; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda; Pela Hayoeitz; Nitei Gavriel 42:1-20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:1 and 5
 Siddur Admur; M”E 582:1 and 22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582:9; not found in earlier sources.
Other opinions: Some write that according to the Kabalists one is not to change the dialect in Kaddish and is rather to always say Oseh Shalom as is said during the year. The change is only made by the end of Shemoneh Esrei. [Kaf Hachaim 56:38; Alef Hamagen 582:37]
Custom of Sephardim: The Sephardim are accustomed to only recite Oseh Hashalom in Kaddish Tiskabel that follows Shemoneh Esrei. They do not recite it by other Kaddeishim. [Moed Lekol Chaiy 13:69; Piskeiy Teshuvos 582:9; See Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 26]
 There is no written source for this in Poskim, neither the Rishonim or Achronim, and so writes the Chavos Yair 55 “There is no source for requiring Kaddish to be said with approximated feet” nevertheless so is the custom of all Israel dating back many generations, as testified by the Kav Yashar 50 regarding Amen Yehei Shmei Raba “I have received from an elder Chassid that when one recites Amen Yehei Shmei Raba he needs to approximate his feet just like by Shemoneh Esrei.” See Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:1 footnote 7; Nitei Gavriel 41:2
 The reason: As we are accustomed to treat Kaddish similar to Shemoneh Esrei in many matters, including in this. See Admur 56:8 that we take the steps back by Sim Shalom similar to Shemoneh Esrei.
 Birkeiy Yosef 55:9 in name of Mahariy Malko 135; Kesher Gudal 8:5; Siddur Beis Oved 50; Shaareiy Teshuvah 56:1; Chesed Lealafim 55:12; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayechi 10; Kaf Hachaim 55:9
Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule there is no need to be careful in this matter as Kaddish is not similar to Shemoneh Esrei in this aspect. [Shulchan Hatahor 55]
 Ben Ish Chaiy ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid
 Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
 Admur 56:8; Michaber 56:4; Orchos Chaim 8; Kol Bo 7; Geonim; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:9; Nitei Gavriel 41:7
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to bow at all by Kaddish in order not to add to the amount of bows the Sages required to be done during Shemoneh Esrei. [Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 56; Biur Hagr”a 56:10; Rav SZ”A in Halichos Shlomo 9 footnote 34]
 Yad Aaron; Shalmei Tzibur p. 84b; Chesed Lealafim 56:8; Od Yosef Chaiy Vayechi 6; Kaf Hachaim Falagi 13:12; Kaf Hachaim 56:35
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 16 [English]; See Tur in name of Rishonim for other customs of bows;
 Admur 56:8; Michaber 56:5; Terumos Hadeshen 13; This applies by all Kaddeishim: Radbaz 1:139; Mamar Mordechai 56:2; Kaf Hachaim Falagi 13:20; Yifei Lalev 56:11; Ketzos Hashulchan 16:7; Yabia Omer 5:9; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:10; Nitei Gavriel 41:8
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is only to take three steps back by Kaddish Tiskabel, and not by any other Kaddish. [Terumos Hadeshen ibid; Mateh Yehuda 56:2; Shalmei Tzibur p. 84b; Kesher Gudal 8:20; Chesed Lealafim 55:15; Od Yosef Chaiy Vayechi 6; Shulchan Hatahor 56:6; Kaf Hachaim 56:36]
 Implication of Admur 56:8 that it follows the same customs as Oseh Shalom of Shemoneh Esrei, which includes the bows to the right and left as ruled in Admur and Michaber 123:1; Ateres Zekeinim 123 in name of Mordechai records these bowings for Kaddish; Sefer Haminhagim p. 16 [English] and custom of Rebbe; Beis Baruch on Chayeh Adam 30:5; Rivivos Ephraim 1:113; Nitei Gavriel 41:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid
Other opinions regarding moving head: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary to bow the head like after Shemoneh Esrei when taking three steps back by Kaddish. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 16 footnote 17 that the order of bowing applies only by Kaddish Tiskabel; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Practically, however, our custom is to do so by all Kaddeishim.]
 Sefer Haminhagim p. 16 [English]
Source regarding bowing first to right: Sefer Haminhagim p. 16 [English] that we bow first to the right, unlike by Shemoneh Esrei and so was the custom of the Rebbe [See Admur 123:1 for the opposite order regarding after Shemoneh Esrei, that one first turns to the left, which is to the right of the Shechina which is opposite him; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 56:10 footnote 122 that although Kaddish is similar to Shemoneh Esrei in terms of many of its customs, nevertheless, perhaps it is not considered like actual Shemoneh Esrei in this regard that we view the Shechina as opposite him to his left, and hence we first turn to the right.]
Other opinions who hold to bow first to the left: Some Poskim rule that one is to move the head first to the left and only then to the right, just as we rule by Shemoneh Esrei. [Possible implication from Admur ibid who writes “Like Shemoneh Esrei” thus implying to bow first to left just like by Shemoneh Esrei; Ateres Zekeinim 123 based on Mordechai that we first turn to left also by Kaddish; Beis Baruch on Chayeh Adam 30:5; Rivivos Ephraim 1:113; Nitei Gavriel 41:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] To note, however, that the Mordechai refers specifically to Kaddish Tiskabel.
Defense of Chabad custom: In defense of the Chabad custom, perhaps we can suggest that ideally we should always torn to the right, as is the Halacha in all matters of precedence [Maharil in name of Orchos Chaim, brought in Beis Yosef 123, based on Yuma 55b that all turns should be done to the right] and it is only regarding Shemoneh Esrei where the Halacha is that we are standing before the Shechina, that we change this rule and bow first to the left. However, by Kaddish, there is no such Halacha that makes it considered as if we are standing before the Shechina, and hence we cannot swerve from the general custom of always turning first to the right.
The custom of the Rebbe: The custom of the Rebbe, as witnessed by Chassidim, was to bow to the right upon saying the word Oseh, to the left by saying the word Shalom, and to the middle when saying the words Bimromav. [Maaseh Melech p. 22] Regarding whether Chassidim should practice the Rebbe’s public customs: See Toras Menachem 10 5714 14th Kisleiv p. 196-197; 5748 1:243-245; 2 p. 57 and 72; Igros Kodesh 20:39; Hiskashrus 496 p. 10-15; 526 p. 17:20; 549 p. 17-18; 553 p. 18-19; 602 p. 15; 707 p. 17; However, seemingly in this case that we have an explicit directive from Sefer Haminhagim, which was edited by the Rebbe [as testified by Rabbi Groner], one is to follow the directives the Rebbe wrote for Chassidim and not his personal public custom. [See Al Minhagim Umekoroseihem of Rav Tuvia Bloy p. 26-32]
 Admur 123:1 and M”A 123:2 regarding Shemoneh Esrei and there is no reason to differentiate between Shemoneh Esrei and Kaddish in this regard, as concludes Admur 56:8 “As is done by Shemoneh Esrei”; Beis Yosef 56 in name of Terumas Hadeshen 13 regarding Shemoneh Esrei; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 121 that seemingly this is the novelty of the words in Admur ibid “As done by Shemoneh Esrei”
 This corresponds to our custom to bow first to the right by Kaddish, and the same would apply regarding moving the foot, as explained in the previous footnotes. I, however, have not found anything explicit in the Poskim or Sefarim on this matter,
 See Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Aruch Hashulchan 56:6; Elya Raba 123:1 in name of Perisha; M”B 123:1; Kaf Hachaim 123:3
 See Tzemach Tzedek Orach Chaim 4:6 and 5:8 regarding Netilas Yadayim, and based on Admur 183:7 that a lefty is to hold the Kos Shel Bracha in his left hand; 651:14 that a lefty is to hold the Lulav in his left hand; See Rav Ginsberg in Haaros Ubiurim 783 p. 74; Sefer Dinei Iter p. 43-46 and p. 141 [that an Iter should bow like everyone else, however looking at his reasons and sources, his ruling is not concrete.]
 Pesach Dvir 125b and Bnei Yehuda 3 and 22; Rav Poalim 2:14 and Ben Ish Chaiy Vayechi 16 in name of Rav Eliyahu Mani and Poskim ibid; Mishnas Sachir 1:11 in name of Poskim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 55:31
The reason: As the angels which hear the Kaddish answer Amen. [ibid]
 Mishnas Sachir 1:11 and Minchas Yitzchak 4:30 write one is to have at least two people remaining [based on Machatzis Hashekel 6 that one is to have two people answering Amen for a blessing; See also Shach C.M. 382 4]; Ben Ish Chaiy and Rav Poalim ibid write that there should be at least one person remaining who answers Amen, although he justifies even if no one remains to answer Amen.
 Rav Poalim 2:14 and Ben Ish Chaiy Vayechi 16 in name of Pesach Dvir 125 and Rav Eliyahu Mani that so is custom of Beis Keil community of Jerusalem, that only the Chazan recites the Kaddish aloud, while the other Chiyuvim do so quietly in order not to confuse his concentration; Kaf Hachaim 55:31-32
 Binyan Tziyon 122, brought in Rav Poalim ibid; Betzeil Hachochmah 5:135 in name of Sefer Hamachkim; Mishnas Sachir 1:11 based on Radbaz 3:446 and 474 that the greater the sound of Kaddish the better; Piskeiy Teshuvos 132:22
 Ben Ish Chaiy Vayechi 16; Rav Poalim ibid
 Ashel Avraham Tinyana 132; Nitei Gavriel 51:12
 Halachos Ketanos 2:48; Beir Heiytiv 55:1; Kesher Gudal 9:27; Shalmei Tzibur p. 87; Beis Oveid 8; Pischeiy Teshuvah Y.D. 376:6; M”B 55:4; Kaf Hachaim 56:8; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 55:6
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to answer after the last person who concluded and it counts also for the first person. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 124:6] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid who writes that the Shaareiy Teshuvah 56:3 and Birkeiy Yosef 56:1 argue on the above and rule that one is to only answer Amen to the first person concluding. This is incorrect as the Birkeiy Yosef and Shaareiy Teshuvah were not discussing the above case but rather a case in which you have many different Minyanim taking place in the same room and you are unable to answer Amen for every Minyans Kaddish. The Kesher Gudal [author of Birkeiy Yosef] brings both Halachos, one in 9:27 and one in 9:28, thus proving they do not contradict each other but are rather speaking of two different cases. Likewise, the Kaf Hachaim 56:7-8 records the two rulings in two separate Halachos and referring to two different cases, thus proving it is not a dispute or contradiction.
 Shulchan Hatahor 132:4; Mishneh Sachir 11
 Kesher Gudal 7:35 that Lechatchilah they are to wait before Baruch Sheamar; Chesed Lealafim 55:3; Kaf Hachaim 55:5; See M”A 51:3 in name of Kneses Hagedola that some are accustomed to recite Kaddish before Baruch Sheamar, in contrast to saying it before Hodu. [However, see Ketzos Hashulchan 18 footnote 5 that this follows the Nussach of Ashkenaz to say Baruch Sheamar before Hodu]
 See Chesed Lealafim 55:3; Kaf Hachaim 55:5; Yalkut Yosef 48:12
 Chesed Lealafim 55:3; Kaf Hachaim 55:5; See Admur 54:4 “A few Pesukim” and that Kaddish may never be said unless it was preceded by verses [he, however, does not make clear if a Minyan must be present when the verses are said, as writes Ketzos Hashulchan 16 footnote 6. Likewise, regarding Kaddish Derabanan of before Hodu, he explicitly writes in parentheses that it suffices to say the prayer of Yehi Ratzon, even though no Pesukim are recited, seemingly because Pesukim are only necessary after learning and not after a Tefila]; M”A 69:4; 234:1 “When one learns in Shul and they then call a tenth man for the Kaddish, it is improper for them to say Kaddish right away and they as they need ten by the actual learning”; Elya Raba 55:3 [suspects for opinion of M”A initially] and 581:13; Chayeh Adam 30:7; M”B 55:2 [concludes that Achronim rule like M”A ibid]; Kaf Hachaim 55:41Ketzos Hashulchan 16:2 footnote 6
Does it suffice to recite verses or must one recite a Drasha or Torah Shebaal Peh? Vetzaruch Iyun if in this case saying three verses suffice, as in general the custom is to only say Kaddish Derabanan after learning a matter of Torah Shebaal Peh, or a Drasha on a Pasuk, and not just on verses. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 16:2] Nonetheless, in truth in such a case that they learned Torah Shebaal Peh, and it’s just that they did not have a Minyan at the time, it suffices to repeat a few verses, and the repetition of Torah Shebaal Peh, or a Drasha, is not necessary when the Minyan arrives. [See Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; Chesed Lealafim ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid]
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary to have ten people by the recital of the verses so long as there are ten people by the Kaddish, and thus there is no need to repeat anything aloud when the tenth man arrives. [Taz 55:3, brought in M”B ibid]
 Chesed Lealafim 55:3 and Kaf Hachaim 55:5 write 2-3 verses; Ketzos Hashulchan ibid writes three verses; Piskeiy Teshuvos 55:3 footnote 17 in name of Beis David 30; See Admur ibid who writes a few verses
 See Admur ibid in parentheses that after Eizehu Mikoman it suffices to say Yehi Ratzon
 Chesed Lealafim 55:3; Kaf Hachaim 55:5
 Kesher Gudal 7:35
 Pnei Yehoshua 1:5; Beir Heiytiv 53:3; Siddur Beis Oved 13; Taharas Mayim 5:20; Implication of Shaar Hakavanos Derush Hakaddish; Shaareiy Teshuvah 51:3; Rav Poalim 2:14; Kaf Hachaim 53:13
 The reason: As the Kaddish is said on the Torah learning said before the Kaddish, and if there were not ten people present at the time, then it is not to be said. [Pnei Yehoshua ibid, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid] Alternatively, as once the Minyan has begun Baruch Sheamar, they have lost the opportunity to say this Kaddish, as this Kaddish needs to be said specifically before Baruch Sheamar for its spiritual effect to be utilized. [Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid and Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Shaar Hakavanos]
 See Piskeiy Teshuvos 51 footnote 71; Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 44 footnote 10; Hiskashrus 591:19
 Igros Kodesh 7:139 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 1:214]
 The reason: As this is not his personal obligation, but rather the obligation of the congregation. [Rebbe ibid]
 See Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 10; Rav Poalim O.C. 2:14; Alef Lamateh Dinei Kaddish Yasom 4:8 “So write Achronim and so is custom”; Yehuda Yaaleh 4; Sheilas Shalom 43; Maharshag 1:48; See Yabia Omer 7:10; Pnei Baruch 34:19See Kesher Gudal 7:35 that one may say the Kaddish before Hodu even after Baruch Sheamar
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not recite Kaddish Yasom in the midst of Davening, past Baruch Sheamar, as Kaddish Yasom is only a custom and not a Halacha. [Levushei Mordechai 1:112; 2:36; Kaf Hachaim 53:13 that a Yasom may not stop to say Kaddish during Pesukei Dezimra as only the last Kaddish said before Aleiniu [Kaddish Derabanan] is obligatory.]
 Pashut! See all Poskim listed below that the allowance is only for an Avel
 Rav Poalim O.C. 2:14; Alef Lamateh Dinei Kaddish Yasom 4:8 “So write Achronim and so is custom”; Yehuda Yaaleh 4; Sheilas Shalom 43; Maharshag 1:48; See Yabia Omer 7:10; Pnei Baruch 34:19; See Kesher Gudal 7:35 that one may say the Kaddish before Hodu even after Baruch Sheamar
Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not recite Kaddish Yasom in the midst of Davening, past Baruch Sheamar, as Kaddish Yasom is only a custom and not a Halacha. [Levushei Mordechai 1:112; 2:36; Kaf Hachaim 53:13 that a Yasom may not stop to say Kaddish during Pesukei Dezimra as only the last Kaddish said before Aleiniu [Kaddish Derabanan].
 The reason: As it is permitted to make an interval during Pesukei Dezimra for the sake of answering for honor, and certainly in this case one may do so in which he is answering for his parent and fulfilling a Biblical command of Kibbud Av. [Rav Poalim ibid; Maharshag ibid; Yabia Omer ibid]
 Alef Lamateh Dinei Kaddish Yasom 4:8 writes one may say it between paragraphs, or between topics within a single paragraph.
 Rav Poalim ibid
 Sheilas Shalom 43; Implication of Rav Poalim ibid that it may be said in Bein Haperakim of Shema, as it has the same law as Bein Haperakim of Pesukei Dezimra regarding answering for Kavod.
 Alef Lamateh ibid strongly argues on the opinion of Sheilas Shalom ibid and says one is not to be lenient to recite it during Birchas Shema; The following Poskim prohibit even during Pesukei Dezimra: Levushei Mordechai 1:112; 2:36; Kaf Hachaim 53:13 that a Yasom may not stop to say Kaddish during Pesukei Dezimra as only the last Kaddish said before Aleiniu [after Shir Shel Yom]
 Alef Lamateh ibid