Chapter 18: The Torah reading on a fast day

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Chapter 18: The Torah reading on a fast day

1. Shacharis:

Torah reading:[1] The Torah portion of Vayichal is read during Shacharis of a fast day. This applies even if it falls on a Monday or Thursday. There is no Haftorah read by Shacharis of a fast day, with exception to Tishe Beav.[2]

Keil Erech Apayim: The prayer of Keil Erech Apayim is recited on Mondays and Thursdays prior to taking out the Sefer Torah.[3] Some[4] are accustomed to reciting Keil Erech Apayim prior to Kerias Hatorah on fast days, even if it does not fall on Monday or Thursday. Some[5] are accustomed to reciting it even by Mincha. Practically however, the widespread custom is to only recite the prayer by Shacharis of Mondays and Thursdays prior to opening the Aron, and not on a fast day that falls on a different weekday.[6] It is likewise not recited by Mincha of a fast day even if it falls on Monday or Thursday.[7]    

           

 

Q&A on Kerias Hatorah

May one who is not fasting receive an Aliyah?[8]

No.

 

May one who is not fasting read from the Torah?[9]

No.

 

What is the law if one who is not fasting was accidentally called for an Aliyah?

If the fast is taking place on Mondays or Thursdays then by Shacharis he may receive the Aliyah.[10] By Mincha, and Shacharis of other days of the week, he is to refuse the Aliyah on the basis that he is not fasting. If he is a Torah scholar and fears telling the public that he is not fasting then he may receive the Aliyah. However initially anyone who is not fasting should avoid being in Shul during the Torah reading.[11] 

 

If one accidently ate on a fast day but continued fasting, may he be called up for an Aliya?[12]

Some Poskim[13] rule he may be called up for an Aliya. Other Poskim[14] rule he may not receive an Aliya. If he only ate a small amount, such as less than a Kezayis of food and the minority of a Revius of a drink, then he may receive an Aliya according to all.[15]

 

May the Torah be read by Shacharis and Mincha if not everyone in the Minyan is fasting?[16]

Many Poskim[17] rule that if at least three people in the Minyan are fasting, the Torah may be read. Practically the Chabad custom is like this opinion.[18] However many[19] are accustomed to only read the Torah if there are at least six people fasting.

What is the congregation to do on Shacharis of Mondays and Thursdays if there are not enough fasters at the Minyan?[20] On Shacharis of Mondays and Thursdays, if there are not enough fasters at the Minyan, the congregation should read the weekly Torah portion instead of Vayichal.

What is the law if on a Monday or Thursday the congregation accidently read the weekly portion instead of Vayichal?[21]

They fulfill their obligation.

 

2. Mincha Torah reading:

Torah reading:[22] The Torah portion of Vayichal is read during Mincha. According to Ashkenazi custom, this is followed by the reading of the Haftorah of Dirshu.[23] [The Sephardi custom is not to read a Haftorah for Mincha.[24]]

Yehalelu:[25] After the reading of the Haftorah Yehalelu is recited and the Torah is returned to the Aron. This is then followed by half Kaddish. [However, there were years that the Rebbe began the Kaddish immediately after the Haftorah as is normally done by Mincha of Shabbos.[26] However in most years the Rebbe waited for the Sefer Torah to be returned.[27]

3. Congregation who missed the reading of fast day:[28]

Some Poskim[29] rule that if a congregation missed the reading of Monday then they are to make it up on Tuesday.[30] Majority of Poskim[31], however, argue and rule that one is never to make up a Torah reading on another day, and so is the final ruling. The same applies to the reading of a fast day that it cannot be made up on another day.[32]

4. Read wrong Torah reading on a fast day:

If the wrong Torah portion was read on a fast day, they do not fulfill their obligation and the correct Torah portion needs to be read with all its Aliyos. However, if this occurred on a Monday or Thursday, then some Poskim[33] rule that if the weekly Parsha was read by Shacharis, they fulfill their obligation, and may continue the reading even if they remember prior to calling up all three Aliyos.

5. Tishe Beav Torah reading:

A. Shacharis:

Kel Erech Apayim, Vayehi Binsoa, Brich Shmei:[34] Kel Erech Apayim is not recited prior to the Torah reading. [Vayehi Binsoa and Brich Shmei are recited as usual.[35] Some are accustomed not to place the Keser on the Sefer Torah.[36]]

The reading:[37] The Torah is read from the Parsha of [Vaeschanan 4/25] “Ki Solid Banim.” [Three people are called up for the Aliya. The third Aliya is considered the Maftir. Half Kaddish is recited after the third Aliyah, which is then followed by the Haftorah.[38]]

Hagbah: Hagbah is performed after the half Kaddish. The person doing Hagbah may sit on the bench as usual, holding the Sefer Torah.[39]

Haftorah:[40] The Haftorah is read from Yermiah [8:13] “Asuf Asifam.” [Some are accustomed to reciting the Haftorah in the Eicha tune.[41] This is not the Chabad custom.]

Yehalelu: After the completion of the blessings of the Haftorah, Yehalelu is recited and the Sefer Torah is returned to the Ark.

B. Mincha:

Torah reading: The Torah portion of Vayichal is read during Mincha. This is followed by the reading of the Haftorah, just as is done on a regular fast day. [However, the widespread custom amongst many Sephardic communities, is to read the Haftorah of Shuva Yisrael by Mincha of Tishe Beav.[42]]

Yehalelu: [43] After the reading of the Haftorah, Yehalelu is recited and the Torah is returned to the Aron. This is then followed by half Kaddish. [However, there were years that the Rebbe began the Kaddish immediately after the Haftorah, as is normally done by Mincha of Shabbos.[44] However, in most years the Rebbe waited for the Sefer Torah to be returned.[45]

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[1] Michaber 566:1

[2] Rama ibid

[3] Mentioned in: Mateh Moshe 221 [prior to Kerias Hatorah]; Abudarham Seder Shacharis Shel Chol [as part of Monday and Thursday Tachanun]; Kol Bo 13 Middos Utechinos [As continuation of Tachanun]; Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Kerias Sefer Torah 5 [As continuation of Tachanun]; Maharil “Bein Pesach Leshavuos”; Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 683/7, and P”M 683 M”Z 1 [said on Monday and Thursday]; Shaar Hakolel 11/14

The reason: It is said prior to Kerias Hatorah as it asks forgiveness for having transgressed what we are to read in the Torah. [Mateh Moshe ibid] Others write the purpose of this prayer is to serve as a replacement for the long prayer of Vehu Rachum that is recited on Mondays and Thursday’s for those that come late to Shul. It thus has no relevance on days that the long Vehu Rachum is not recited. [Otzer Dinim ibid]

[4] Custom of Maharil and Rebbe Meir Shatz brought in Maharil “Between Pesach and Shavuos” p. 21; Implication of Arizal in Peri Eitz Chaim ibid and Mateh Moshe that it is recited “before Kerias Hatorah”

[5] Abudarham, brought in Likkutei Maharich 3/49

[6] Likkutei Maharich ibid; Otzer Dinim Uminhagim p. 16; Rav Asher Lemel Hakohen; Implication of Abudarham ibid which lists this prayer as part of the Tachanun of Mondays and Thursdays; Implication of Levush, brought in Kaf Hachaim 683/7, and of P”M 683 M”Z 1 that it is only said on a Monday and Thursday. [They state that during Chanukah this prayer is not said on Monday’s and Thursdays, hence clearly implying that it is never said on any other weekday irrelevant of Kerias Hatorah] 

The reason: As the purpose of this prayer is to serve as a replacement for the long prayer of Vehu Rachum that is recited on Mondays and Thursday’s for those that come late to Shul. It thus has no relevance on days that the long Vehu Rachum is not recited. [Otzer Dinim ibid]

[7] Likkutei Maharich ibid

[8] Michaber 566:6; Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 1:20

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that one may receive an Aliyah even if he is not fasting. [Chasam Sofer 157; Aruch Hashulchan 566:11; Minchas Elazar 2:74; See also Maharil Diskin Kuntrus Achron 75]

[9] Michaber 566:6; Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 1:20; Beir Oshek 21; Mishneh Halachos 3:73

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that one may receive an Aliyah even if he is not fasting. [Chasam Sofer 157; Aruch Hashulchan 566:11; Minchas Elazar 2:74]

[10] M”B 566:19

[11] M”B 566:21

[12] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 565:1

[13] Chasam Sofer 157; Aruch Hashulchan 566:11; Minchas Elazar 2:74; See M”B 568:3 in name of Nehar Shalom; Shevet Halevi 8:131

[14] See Michaber 566:6; Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 1:20; Zera Emes 3:62; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 535

[15] Piskeiy Teshuvos 568:1 footnote 3

[16] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 566:4 for a general overview of this topic.

[17] Bach in name of Aguda; Meiri Megillah 2a; Orchos Chaim [Lunil]; Leket Yosher 114 in name of Terumos Hadeshen; Aruch Hashulchan 566:7; Maharsham 2:97; Daas Torah 69; Sdei Chemed 1 Klalei Haposkim 13:7; Sefer Haminhagim [English] p. 26; Piskei Dinim 566; Shut Tzemach Tzedek Shaar Hamiluim 8, brought in Shaar Hakolel 9:17; Igros Kodesh 16:313; Menachem Meishiv Nafshi 1:88; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 1024 footnote 16; See Tzafnas Paneiach 2:31; Minchas Yitzchak 65

Does this apply even if the other seven people in the Minyan ate more than the Shiur? In Sefer Haminhagim ibid and Shut Tzemach Tzedek ibid it states that the above allowance only applies if the other seven people did not eat more than the permitted Shiur of food which is allowed if one is sick and the like. However, in Igros Kodesh ibid, and the Rebbe’s edited edition of Luach Kolel Chabad, this condition was omitted hence implying the condition is not necessary. [Hiskashrus ibid]

[18] Sources in previous footnote

[19] See Michaber 566:3; Admur 119:5; Machazik Bracha brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 566:3 writes 6 or 7; Yeshuos Yaakov 566; Keren Ledavid 145; Kitzur SHU”A 20:8; M”B 566:14; Kaf Hachaim 119:27 and 566:32 in name of many Poskim; Chelkas Yaakov 3:69; Igros Moshe 4:113; Minchas Yitzchak 1:65; Yechave Daas 1:79; Beir Moshe 8:93; Piskeiy Teshuvos 566:4; The Chasam Sofer 157 rules that one may read the Torah even if there is no one fasting in the congregation.

[20] Zera Emes 86; Keren Ledavid 145; Chelkas Yaakov 3:69; Bitzel Hachachma 1:2; Kinyan Torah 119; Piskeiy Teshuvos 566:4

[21] Shaareiy Efraim 8:107; Daas Torah 566

[22] Michaber 566:1

[23] Rama ibid; Michaber 428:8 regarding Tzom Gedalia

[24] See Beis Yosef 575; Yechaveh Daas 5:40; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 546

[25] Siddur Tehilas Hashem; See Shaar Hakolel 29/4; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320

[26] See Hiskashrus 451 p. 14 footnote 47 and 1046 p. 14; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320

Background: In the year 1988 by Taanis Esther the Rebbe began reciting Kaddish prior to the Sefer Torah entering the Heichal. However in 1989, by all the fast days [17th Tammuz, Tzom Gedalia and 10th of Teves] the Rebbe waited until the Sefer Torah was inside the Aron prior to beginning Kaddish. [Hiskashrus 1046 based on the videos of those years]. To also note that in many years that the Rebbe Davenend for the Amud the Rebbe waited until after Yehalelu, and the entrance of the Sefer Torah, to the Aron to begin Kaddish, even on Shabbos by Mincha! [Hiskashrus ibid; See also Hiskashrus 1056 that this was because of a greater interval that would be caused between the end of the Kaddish and Shemoneh Esrei, and is hence not to be followed in other Shul’s] Response of Rabbi Groner: “About the kaddish, being that we do not say kaddish soon after krias hatorah, and we always say kaddish before saying the shemoneh esrei, the question is how can we say kaddish and it should apply to both situations. Shaar Hakollel says therefore to start saying the kaddish as the sefer Torah is being returned to the Aron kodesh and complete the kaddish only after the sefer Torah was put in the Aron kodesh, this way it is considered to apply to both. The Rebbe thought that it should maybe be said only after it is in the Aron kodesh. The Rebbe himself would start that Kaddish as it is being carried to the Aron kodesh. One time he waited till it was in the Aron kodesh, but that was because the Rebbe said maftir and soon after he finished they started carrying the sefer torah, the Rebbe would not walk in front of the Torah only following, when he came to the Amud they had the Sefer Torah already in the Aron kodesh.

[27] See background above.

[28] See Kaf Hachaim 135:8

[29] Ateres Zekeinim 135, brought in P”M 135 A”A 4 and many of the Poskim in next footnote

[30] The reason: In order to not go three days without the Torah reading. [P”M ibid]

[31] Masas Moshe 2:1; Maharikash; Emes Leyaakov 1; Elya Raba 135:2; Birkeiy Yosef 135:2; Aruch Hashulchan 135:7; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[32] Aruch Hashulchan 135:7

[33] Shaareiy Efraim 8:107; Daas Torah 566; See Shut Rivad 1 that if they remember prior to finishing all three Aliyos then they are to switch back to Vayichal

[34] Rama 559:4

[35] Divrei Malkiel 6:9; Nitei Gavriel 60:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Brich Shmei is not to be recited by Shacharis and is rather to be recited only by Mincha. [Mishmeres Shalom 40:6]

[36] Nitei Gavriel 60:3

[37] Michaber 559:4

[38][38] Shaareiy Efraim 8:99; Implication of Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 559:40; Piskeiy Teshuvos 559:6; Nitei Gavriel 60:18; Hiskashurs 889 that so was custom of Rebbe in 1988; See Hiskashrus 836, 847, 856, 960 for a discussion in why we first say Kaddish and then the Haftorah; See Birur Halacha 559 which brings 34 Poskim which rule this way.

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule the Kaddish is to be said after the Haftorah. [Rav Akiva Eiger 559:4; Melamed Lehoil 113; Riy Migash 89; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 585]

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: It is implied from Admur in 282:12 and 18 that Kaddish is not to be recited between the third Aliyah [Maftir] and the reading of the Haftorah.

[39] Nitei Gavriel 60:19; See Drisha Yoreh Deah 384:2

[40] Michaber 559:4

[41] M”B 559:18

[42] See Beis Yosef 575; Yechaveh Daas 5:40; Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 546 and 585-586

[43] Siddur Tehilas Hashem; See Shaar Hakolel 29:4; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320

[44] See Hiskashrus 451 p. 14 footnote 47 and 1046 p. 14; Glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 320

Background:

In the year 1988 by Taanis Esther the Rebbe began reciting Kaddish prior to the Sefer Torah entering the Heichal. However in 1989, by all the fast days [17th Tammuz, Tzom Gedalia and 10th of Teves] the Rebbe waited until the Sefer Torah was inside the Aron prior to beginning Kaddish. [Hiskashrus 1046 based on the videos of those years]. To also note that in many years that the Rebbe Davened for the Amud the Rebbe waited until after Yehalelu, and the entrance of the Sefer Torah, to the Aron to begin Kaddish, even on Shabbos by Mincha! [Hiskashrus ibid; See also Hiskashrus 1056 that this was because of a greater interval that would be caused between the end of the Kaddish and Shemoneh Esrei, and this is hence not to be followed in other Shul’s in which such a long interval will not transpire.]

[45] See background above.

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