Chapter 1: The Shabbos preparations

This article is an excerpt from our Sefer

 

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Chapter 1: The Shabbos preparations

1. A Mitzvah and obligation upon each person:[1]

Best to personally perform all the Shabbos preparations: Even if one has many servants he is to endeavor to personally prepare [all[2] or as much as possible of] his Shabbos needs.[3] [This applies even if doing all the Shabbos preparations will come in expense of his Torah learning.[4]]

Obligation to personally perform one act of preparation:[5] Even if the person is a very prestige figure and great Torah scholar, of which it is unusual for him to purchase items in the marketplace, or do certain labors in the home, nevertheless he is obligated[6] to endeavor to personally perform at least some of the Shabbos preparations.[7] [Practically although it suffices for him to perform even one act of preparation[8] nevertheless it remains a Mitzvah for him to engage in many acts of preparations, even if this will come in expense of his Torah learning[9]. In such a case that one will only be performing one act of preparation it is best that he involve himself with the preparations of the food that is most enjoyed by him, in order so he also benefit from the Mitzvah of “better to perform a Mitzvah personally then through a messenger”.[10]]

Best to personally prepare the food one enjoys most:[11] It is best that one personally involves himself with the preparations of the food that is most enjoyed by him.[12]

Performing even belittling acts for the sake of Shabbos:[13] One is not to hesitate performing even belittling acts for the sake of honoring Shabbos, as honoring Shabbos is itself one’s reason for honor[14], and so did the greatest of our Sages[15] of which each person is to emulate.

 

Summary-Each person is to personally help prepare for Shabbos:

It is an obligation upon every person to personally perform at least one act of preparation for the honor of Shabbos. The more preparations that one personally performs the greater the Mitzvah, and one is thus to strive to personally prepare all his Shabbos needs, even if he has many servants. When doing only one preparation, it is best that one involves himself with the preparations of the food that he most enjoys.

Going to a hotel or host:

For this reason, not only should the husband and every family member prepare at least one item for the sake of Shabbos but also the wife and mother, even if she is going with her family to a hotel for Shabbos, or as guests to someone’s house, they are all to strive to prepare at least one item for the sake of Shabbos. 

Sparks of Chassidus:[16]

It is written in the name of the Arizal that the sweat which one breaks due to preparing for Shabbos is auspicious for erasing one’s sins, just as are tears. Therefore, one needs to exert much effort in honor of Shabbos.

Begin the preparations in the morning:[18] One is to always wake up early on Erev Shabbos in order to begin working and preparing for the needs of Shabbos in the morning of Erev Shabbos.[19]

 

2. When on Erev Shabbos is one to begin the preparations for Shabbos?[17]

Add in preparations also by Bein Hashmashos:[20] Aside for the preparation done in the morning one is to also add in preparation during twilight.[21] [This refers to prior to sunset, as after sunset it is forbidden for one to do any Melacha.[22]

 

Summary:

It is a Mitzvah to begin preparing the food in the early morning, and then later during Bein Hashmashos.

3. Shopping for Shabbos:

When to go shopping:[23] It is best to purchase foods which require further preparation[24] on Thursday, as opposed to Erev Shabbos.[25] However readymade foods that do not require preparation to be fit to be eaten, such as beverages and various types of delicacies and the like, are better to be purchased on Friday than on Thursday.[26]

If the store will close and one has not yet Davened what is he to do?[27] If one has not yet recited the Shacharis prayer and will be unable to purchase his Shabbos needs after completing his prayer, then he is to first say Shema within its proper time [if applicable] and then purchase his Shabbos needs[28], delaying his prayer until after the purchase. This applies even if it is possible[29] that due to the purchase he will miss praying within Zman Tefila, nevertheless he is to first make his purchase.[30] If however delaying the prayer until after his shopping will cause one to fail to pray with a Minyan, then he is to first pray [see footnote[31]]. [Likewise, if doing the purchase will definitely cause him to fail to pray within Zman Tefila then he is to first pray.[32]]

Verbalizing that the bought produce is for Shabbos:[33] It is proper[34] for one to say on every item of purchase “This is for the honor of Shabbos”.[35] Likewise, on all matters that one does it is good to think that he is doing so for the honor of Shabbos. 

Designating food for Shabbos as one buys it during the week:[36] Living with the verse “Remember Shabbos and sanctify it” if one sees a nice portion of food during the week he is to designate it for Shabbos. If he then finds a nicer portion, he is to eat the previous portion during the week and designate the nicer portion for Shabbos. This was the custom of Shamaiy, and so agreed Hillel that it should be the practical directive for others. However, Hillel himself, as a result of his great trust in G-d would wait [until Friday] to designate food for Shabbos, saying that certainly G-d will grant me the greatest portion [on Friday] in honor of Shabbos.

 

Summary:

When to go shopping for Shabbos: Shopping for Shabbos should be done on Thursday for those foods that require preparation. However ready to eat foods are better to be bought on Friday. One should say upon anything he buys that it is being bought Likaved Shabbos. 

May one shop before prayer on Erev Shabbos:

One is only to first shop and then pray if all the following apply:

1. He will be unable to go shopping afterwards.

2. He says Shema prior to the shopping.

3. It is not definite that he will miss Zman Tefila due to the shopping.

4. He will not questionably miss Zman Tefila and also definitely miss Davening with a Minyan due to the shopping. If he will certainly not miss Zman Tefila but will definitely miss Davening with a Minyan he is first to make his purchases, unless he is needed for the Minyan.[37]

4. The mitzvah of Kavod and Oneg Shabbos:[38]

A Biblical or Rabbinical precept: There are two matters regarding Shabbos that were expounded on by the prophets. These are the Mitzvah to honor Shabbos [i.e. Kavod Shabbos] and Oneg Shabbos.[39] These two Shabbos obligations [to honor and enjoy it] are in truth rooted in a Biblical precept.[40] However, there are opinions[41] which learn that these two above obligations contain no Biblical root and are rather of Rabbinical origin.[42] Nevertheless, even according to the latter opinion one must be very careful to fulfill these two obligations of honor and enjoyment on Shabbos, as Rabbinical precepts are of more severity than even Biblical precepts.[43] [Practically, in the laws of Yom Tov[44] Admur rules plainly like the latter opinion that the Mitzvos of Oneg and Kavod are Rabbinical precepts which have been explained by the prophets.[45]]

The reward: Whoever fulfills the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos his reward is explicitly mentioned in the Prophets[46] that he will merit “basking in pleasure of G-dliness”.[47] Furthermore, the sages[48] state that whoever performs the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos all his sins are forgiven and he is saved from the judgment of Gehenom.[49] 

5. What matters are included within the Mitzvah of Kavod and Oneg Shabbos?

  • Oneg Shabbos: Eating delicacies of food and beverages[50] was defined by the Sages as the requirement of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos[51] and it is the main aspect of Oneg.[52] The following sub-categories are included within this Mitzvah:
    • Eating 3 Shabbos meals with bread, as bread is the main part of a meal.[53]
    • Eating hot foods on Shabbos is included within honoring Shabbos and within Oneg Shabbos.[54]
    • Lighting candles on the table in which one eats.[55]
    • Sleeping on Shabbos is included within Oneg Shabbos.[56]
    • Marital relations on Shabbos is included within the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos.[57]
    • Not to have any thoughts regarding mundane activities, and rather viewing all of one’s needs and worries as already taken care of by G-d, is included within Oneg Shabbos.[58]
  • Kavod Shabbos: Wearing clean [and elegant] clothing was defined by the Sages as the requirement of the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[59] The following sub-categories fall under this Mitzvah:
    • Baking Challahs for Shabbos, as opposed to buying them from a bakery, is included in Kavod Shabbos and Yom Tov.[60] (Likewise, even those which generally are lenient to eat Pas Akum bread are not to do eat it on Shabbos as this too is included in the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. Rather they are to eat from bread baked in their homes.[61])
    • Bathing: Bathing one’s body in hot water is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[62]
    • Removing cobwebs from walls and roofs is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[63]
    • Cutting one’s hair and nails on Erev Shabbos is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[64]
    • Not to eat a meal on Erev Shabbos past the 10th hour, in order to be able to eat the Shabbos meal with an appetite, is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[65]
    • Setting the Shabbos table on Erev Shabbos for the Friday night meal is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[66]
    • Preparing on Erev Shabbos all the matters of one’s house that require preparation for Shabbos so that when one arrives from Shul it is already all arranged.[67]
    • Having a tablecloth cover one’s table throughout the entire day of Shabbos is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[68]
    • Preparing Melaveh Malka after Shabbos is done in honor of Shabbos.[69]
 

Summary:

Is disputed if Kavod and Oneg Shabbos is a Biblical or Rabbinical obligation. Nonetheless according to all one must be very careful in fulfilling the Mitzvah, and one who does so basks in G-dliness in the future, has all his sins forgiven and is saved from the judgment of Gehenim.

Q&A

Why is no blessing said over the fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos?

Various answers have been given towards this question:

· As there is no specific food that one is required to eat in order to enjoy Shabbos.[70]

· It is included in the blessing said over the lighting of candles.[71]

· It is included in the blessing said over Kiddush.[72]

· No blessing is said over the eating of the three Shabbos meals as we never say a blessing over a Mitzvah which is not fulfilled in one timeframe.[73]

Is there a Mitzvah of Simcha applicable on Shabbos?

There is no Mitzvah of Simcha explicitly mentioned regarding Shabbos.[74]

 

Should one do “Iskafya[75]” on Shabbos and refrain from delving into lavish delicacies?[76]

It is clear that both on the Halachic[77] and esoteric[78] aspects of the Torah it is a Mitzvah to embellish in Oneg Shabbos, by eating delicacies and drinking fine beverages, and the concept of sanctifying oneself with that which is permitted does not apply on Shabbos. Nonetheless the above is contingent on that one eats and drinks the delicacies for the right intentions, which is mainly for the sake of fulfilling the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos.[79] One who however does not have such intentions, but rather is simply doing so in order to fulfill his animalistic desires, such eating is no better than eating during the week, of which the concept of “sanctify yourself with the permitted” applies.[80] Such a person is considered not to be honoring Shabbos but to be honoring himself on Shabbos.[81] Hence it has been found that Chassidim in general[82] as well as certain Tzadikim[83] would diminish their amount of embellishment contained within their fulfillment of this Mitzvah. One is certainly to avoid overeating if this will refrain him from spending his time in learning Torah, which is the purpose of Shabbos.[84]  

 

6. How much should one spend in order to enhance Shabbos and what should be part of the Shabbos menu?

The foods eaten to fulfill the mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos vary in accordance to each country’s definition of a luxurious food. Thus, those foods and beverages which are considered delicacies in one’s area are to be eaten on Shabbos.[85]

Meat and wine:[86] Although there is no obligation to specifically eat meat and drink wine on Shabbos, nevertheless since in general most people have greater pleasure in consuming meat and wine over other foods and beverages therefore they are to increase in eating meat and drinking wine in accordance to their affordability.

Fish:[87] Eating fish is included in the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. In the times of the Talmud Oneg Shabbos was fulfilled through eating large fish.[88] Fish should be eaten in every meal[89], unless it is hazardous for his health or he despises eating fish to the point that he does not receive pleasure in eating it but rather pain.[90] It should especially be eaten by the third meal.[91]

At the very least-two cooked dishes:[92] Even one who cannot afford to buy many varieties of foods for Shabbos, nonetheless it is proper to beware to have at least two cooked[93] foods [by each meal]. [This applies for the first two Shabbos meals but not for the third meal, in which case having less than two dishes suffices.[94] If one generally has two cooked dishes for his weekday meal then he is to increase on Shabbos and have three cooked dishes. If one is accustomed to have three cooked dishes during the week, he is to have four on Shabbos.[95]]

Increasing in ones Shabbos expenditure-making many dishes of foods:[96] Besides for the basic Shabbos foods listed above, whoever increases in his expenditure of Shabbos foods [and other Shabbos needs[97]] in accordance to the amount he can afford, is praised.

The Shabbos and Yom Tov expenses are not included in yearly budget:[98] The money spent on behalf of [fulfilling the Mitzvah of Oneg] Shabbos and Yom Tov is not included in the budget decreed on Rosh Hashanah for one’s annual food expenses and other needs.[99]

 

List of the basic foods that are to be eaten during the Shabbos meal:

· Challah

· Meat and wine

· At least two cooked dishes.

· Fish

· Increase in foods as much as one can afford.

Q&A

If one has a dislike for meat and wine must he nevertheless make an effort to eat it on Shabbos?

No.[100]

7. Borrowing money and taking money from charity for the sake of the Shabbos meals:

Borrowing money to enhance Shabbos:[101] If one does not have money for Shabbos expenses he is to borrow money if he has an item which is able to be given as collateral to the lender[102].[103] Nonetheless, although collateral is needed, Chazal say that Hashem will arrange for him to be able to pay the lender back the money which he borrowed. This is consistent with the saying of the Sages that Shabbos and Yom Tov expenses do not come out of one’s Heavenly ordained budget which is annually decreed on Rosh Hashana. If one does not own any collateral then he should not borrow the money in order to enhance Shabbos on the basis relying that G-d will reimburse him, as there is no obligation to spend for Shabbos more than one can afford.

Borrowing money with interest/Ribis:[104] It is permitted to borrow money under terms of Rabbinical interest[105] [Ribis Derabanan] for the purpose of enhancing the Shabbos and Yom Tov meal, as well as any Seudas Mitzvah. This however only applies if one is unable to borrow under a no interest rate.

Using money from a charity fund to enhance Shabbos: If one can afford two basic daily meals for every day of the week it is forbidden[106] to take money from a charity fund for the purpose of having food for the third Shabbos meal, or for the purpose of buying Shabbos delicacies.[107] However if one cannot afford two daily meals for every day of the week and is thus in need of receiving money from the charity fund for these two meals then he is to also be given money for the third Shabbos meal as well as for the Shabbos delicacies such as fish and vegetables.[108] Similarly if one already received money from the community charity fund he may use some of that money for enhancing Shabbos. However, in such a case he must make sure that this will not cause him to need to ask for more money for his daily needs.[109] If one is unable to do so, then if he has some of his own money, he should push himself to use that money for honoring Shabbos to the best of his ability.

Asking for a present from a friend in order to enhance Shabbos:[110] There is no obligation for one to ask to be given money as a gift in order to enhance Shabbos as the Sages have stated “Make your Shabbos like a weekday and do not become needy unto the public”. One must budget himself properly so he is able to enhance Shabbos at least a minute amount. It is better for one to do so then to become needy onto the public [and ask for gifts to be able to enhance Shabbos].[111]

Proper budgeting-What is one to do if he does not have any extra money to enhance Shabbos and cannot borrow or take from the charity fund?[112] Even in a case where one has just enough money for daily meals and lacks money to enhance Shabbos, in which case he cannot receive from charity, nevertheless he is still obligated to budget himself during the week in a way that he will be able to enhance Shabbos a minute amount at the very least.[113] Likewise, it is proper for him to have at least two dishes, as stated above.

 

Summary:

One may only borrow money in order to enhance Shabbos if he owns collateral which can be used to repay the loan. One may even borrow money under terms of Rabbinical interest if he is unable to borrow money on an interest free rate. If one has two meals worth of food for Shabbos, he may not take money from charity to buy extra delicacies for Shabbos or even in order to have food for the third meal. If, however, he does not have two meals of food for Shabbos he may take money from charity for all the Shabbos meals and delicacies. It is better that one budget his money during the week in a way that he will be able to afford the Shabbos foods rather than ask others for money as a gift for Shabbos expenses. 

 

8. Baking Challahs:[114]

It is customary for every household to bake Challahs for Shabbos which are used for Lechem Mishneh and not to buy them at the bakery as is done during the week. This matter of baking one’s own Challah is included in the honoring of Shabbos and Yom Tov. One is not to divert from this custom.[115]

How much is one to bake? One is to bake at least the amount that requires one to remove Challah from the dough.[116]

Pas Akum[117]:[118] (For those who are accustomed to eating Pas Akum throughout the week it is proper for them to refrain from eating it on Shabbos and Yom Tov. Rather they are to eat from the Kosher breads which have been kneaded in their homes, as this is included in the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos and Yom Tov.[119])

 

Summary:

One is to bake Challahs for Shabbos as opposed to buying them from a store.

 

Q&A

Why today are not all women particular to bake Challahs for Shabbos and rather they buy Challahs from the store?

Some Poskim[120] rule that today being that fresh and tasty Challahs are available in all bakeries it is not necessary for every woman to bake Challahs in their home. This especially applies if there is much work needed to be done for Shabbos in the home and it is a short Friday. Other Poskim[121] however argue that even today one may not divert from the custom of baking Challahs in the home.

 

May one bake only a few Challahs and buy the remainder from a bakery even according to the above custom?[122]

Yes. One may use some home baked Challahs and some bakery Challahs even according to the above-mentioned custom.

 

Is one to bake the Challahs specifically on Erev Shabbos?

Yes.[123] It is proper to bake the Challahs specifically on Erev Shabbos.[124] If, however, one is unable to do so, he may also bake them on Thursday or Thursday night.

 

May one bake Challahs for Shabbos at the same time he is baking meat or chicken?[125]

Covered: If the meat or chicken is covered, it is allowed to bake the Challah simultaneously if the oven is clean of any meat or chicken residue. If the bread is covered it may be done in all cases. In both of the above cases, the bread remains Pareve [although in the former case, only if the oven was not Ben Yomo, as explained next].

Uncovered: If the meat and bread are both uncovered, it is forbidden to bake the Challah together with the meat unless 1) one will not eat the bread with dairy [as the bread becomes meaty], and 2) is only baking enough to last that Shabbos, or is forming the Challahs in a special shape that reminds him of its meat status, so he does not come to eat it with dairy. If one transgressed and baked them together without fulfilling the above conditions, then by today’s ovens, seemingly the bread is forbidden just as if it were kneaded with meat.[126] One is to thus contact a Rav.]

 

May one bake Challahs directly after he baked meat or chicken in the oven? Do the Challahs remain Pareve in such a case?[127]

Meat residue in oven:[128] One may not bake bread on a surface that contains meat residue [unless 1) one will not eat the bread with dairy, and 2) is only baking enough to last that day, or is forming the Challahs in a special shape that reminds him of its meat status, so he does not come to eat it with dairy]. If one transgressed and did so, then the bread receives the same law as bread that was kneaded with milk/meat [in which case we rule that the bread is forbidden to be eaten[129]].

How to clean an oven of residue:[130] A meat [or dairy] oven must be cleaned of residue prior to baking bread inside of it, as explained above. The only way a proper cleaning can be accomplished is through performing Libun [even Kal] inside of the oven. [This can be accomplished by turning the oven on to a hot temperature and having it burn out any leftover residue.[131]] It does not suffice to merely clean the oven with a sponge and water, without also turning it on and burning any leftover residue that is inside.[132]

No meat residue in oven:[133] If there is no residue of meat/dairy in the oven, and one preheats the oven to burn any meat/dairy residue that it may contain, then one may bake the Challahs in the oven even if it was previously used to bake meat/dairy.[134] In such a case the Challahs remain Pareve.[135] Some Poskim[136] rule that this applies even if the oven is Ben Yomo of meat/dairy use at the time of the baking.[137] However, other Poskim[138] rule that one may never bake bread in a meat or milk oven which is Ben Yomo and if one did so, then one may not eat the food together with the opposite food but may eat it before or afterwards.[139] Practically, one is to be stringent like this approach if possible and wait 24 hours from meat use prior to baking bread[140], however, in a time of need one may suffice with turning on the oven for 15 minutes and “Koshering” its walls from its Ben Yomo use, and then bake Pareve Challahs in the meat oven.[141]

 

 

Separating Challah:[142]

The greatness of the Mitzvah:[143] The Mitzvah of separating Challah is very great. It corresponds in Gematria to all 613 Mitzvos.[144] In merit of this Mitzvah blessing is found in one’s home and livelihood[145] and women are protected during childbirth.[146] In merit of this Mitzvah we were granted ability to enter Eretz Yisrael.[147]

Charity:[148] Some are accustomed to give charity prior to separating the Challah.

The amount of flour needed to separate with a blessing:[149] One may only separate Challah with a blessing if he has 1,666.6[150] grams of flour.[151] If one has less than this amount but more than 1,250 grams[152] he is to separate Challah without a blessing. If one has even less than this amount of 1,250 grams, then one does not separate Challah at all.

How much dough is one to separate:[153] Lechatchila, the custom is to separate one Kezayis [approximately 28 grams[154]] of dough. If one separated less than this amount it is nevertheless valid.

Saying the blessing? One is to designate an area from the dough that the Challah will be separated from. Then one is to say the blessing of “Lehafrish Challah[155]”. One then separates[156] a Kezayis of dough and says “Hareiy Zu Challah” or “This is Challah”.[157] If one separated the Challah prior to the blessing one may still say the blessing if he [or she] has not yet said “Hareiy Zu Challah”.[158]

Praying for one’s children:[159] It is a great Segula to pray for one’s children upon separating Challah. One is to pray that one’s children be Tzaddikim, and G-d fearing Jews.[160]

What to do with the Challah:[161] The separated piece of Challah is to be wrapped in tinfoil and burnt in the oven [or on the stove].[162] It is to be wrapped well to the point that the dough will not become revealed while being burnt, as Challah is forbidden to be eaten and thus burning it in the oven is similar to cooking a non-kosher food in one’s oven.[163] Due to this reason, one is to never bake any other foods in the oven until the Challah is burnt or removed. Alternatively, rather than burning the Challah, one is to wrap[164] the Challah and discard it in the garbage.[165] Practically, today this is the more preferred custom to follow due to a Kashrus worry that the tinfoil of the Challah may open prior to the Challah becoming fully burnt hence causing a Kashrus issue for the oven.[166] Furthermore, today most garbage is burnt and hence one regardless fulfills the Mitzvah of burning the Challah when discarding it in the trash, and there is thus no need to burn it in one’s Kosher oven.

May one save the Challahs in his freezer until Bedikas Chameitz? No. It is forbidden to own non-Kosher food in one’s home for a long period of time due to fear one may come to eat the food.[167] It may only remain in one’s home for a short period of time, between one to two months.[168]

 

 

The name Challah:

Bread in Hebrew is called Lechem while the separated dough is called Challah. It is customary to call the Shabbos bread Challah in order to serve as a reminder to women to separate Challah from the dough.[169] In previous times, it was common in many communities to refer to the Shabbos bread as “Barchas”. The reason for this is because these Challahs serve as a channel of blessing during the Shabbos meal.[170]

Shape of the Challah’s:

It is customary to form the Challahs for Shabbos as a long straight dough. This is opposed to round or square. The reason for this is because the Challahs represent the letter Vav of the Tetragrammaton.[171] Alternatively the two Challahs in the shape of a Vav represent the twelve showbreads of the Temple, as Vav is Gemtria of six.[172]

Rosh Hashanah:[173] The ancient custom of Ashkenazi Jewry is to bake round Challahs in honor of Rosh Hashanah. This symbolizes the roundness of a crown and corresponds to the coronation of Hashem on Rosh Hashanah. Alternatively, it is done as a symbol of good omen as all round items due to not have a start or finish and hence reflects longevity of life. Likewise, round represents unity. Some[174] write that this applies only on Rosh Hashanah itself, however on Shabbos Shuva one is to return to the accustomed shape of the two Vav’s.

Braid: It is customary to braid the Challas baked for Shabbos as in the past it was common to add meat gravy to the dough and hence the Challah required a sign that would remind one not to eat it with dairy.[175] This custom has remained today as well despite that the Challahs are left Pareve.

Placing the Challah on the table after baking:

Some Poskim[176] record that the custom is to place the Challahs that will be eaten Friday night on the Shabbos table directly after removing them from the oven, and that doing so is included within Kavod Shabbos.[177] This is not the current widespread custom.[178] Nevertheless, it is proper to do so.[179]

                               

9. Food designated for Shabbos:[180]

If one was given food for Shabbos it should not be eaten during the week. This is an act of piety, although from the letter of the law there is no prohibition in the matter.[181]

 

Household preparations for Shabbos

10. Cleaning the house for Shabbos:[182]

One is to clean and tidy all matters of his house so that when he comes home from Shul the house is found clean and organized.[183] [The floors are to be swept and cleaned.[184] When cleaning the house for Shabbos one should mention that he is doing so in honor of Shabbos.[185]]

 

Importance of cleaning the house for Shabbos:[186]

The Sages mentioned[187] that every person is escorted by two angels upon returning from Shul, one good and one evil. If the house is found tidy and prepared for Shabbos the evil angle is forced into blessing the home. If, however, the opposite is found then the good angle ends up giving the opposite of blessing.

Q&A

When on Erev Shabbos is one to tidy the home?

Some Poskim[188] mention that the tidying of the house should be done close to Plag Hamincha, as opposed to the morning or too close to Shabbos.

*10. Removing cobwebs before Shabbos:[189]

It is proper[190] for one to clear his house of [spiders[191] and] cobwebs [i.e. Korei Akavish] before Shabbos, in order so one’s house is clean in honor of Shabbos. [Preferably, this should be done prior to the 5th hour of the day on Erev Shabbos.[192]]

 

The Kabalistic reason for cleaning the cobwebs:[193]

The author of the Reishis Chochma[194] states that the cleaning of the cobwebs from the house on Erev Shabbos contains a Kabalistic secret. The Shlah Hakadosh[195] explains this as follows: One’s home is considered similar to the Sefira of Malchus which is surrounded by thorns, which are the Reshaim and evil Kelipos. In the home, these Kelipos are manifested as the spider webs and they search to cause discord within the family and destroy the Shalom Bayis. One is thus to remove the spiderwebs from his home, in order to remove the idolatry from the land. This especially applies prior to Shabbos, as Shabbos is called Malchus.

Is one to kill the spider?

Although the Arizal[196] was careful never to kill any living creature, and so was likewise the custom of the Rebbe Rashab[197], some[198] Gedolei Yisrael were particular to make an exception to spiders and would actively kill them due to their representation of Kelipa.

May one remove cobwebs on Shabbos?[199]

Some Poskim[200] imply that it is permitted to break cobwebs on Shabbos, and doing so does not involve the Muktzah or destroying prohibition, or any other prohibition. Other Poskim[201], however, rule that cobwebs are considered Muktzah, just like earth and twigs and other waste. Accordingly, they may only be removed on Shabbos with an irregularity/Shinuiy [such as using ones elbow or feet].[202] Alternatively, if they have become repulsive to oneself, or to the guests in the room, then they may be removed even regularly.[203] Other Poskim[204], however, rule that one is to completely avoid breaking or removing cobwebs that are attached to a wall altogether, as perhaps doing so transgresses the “uprooting an item from its place of growth” prohibition, or other prohibition. Practically, one may be lenient in a time of need to move the cobwebs in the method stated above.[205] Nevertheless, in all cases one must beware not to kill the spider in the process.[206]

11. Not to dirty one’s floor by the Shabbos meals:[207]

It is proper[208] to beware at the night and day meal from dirtying one’s floor by throwing food remnants onto it.[209] Rather, one is to throw the remnants onto the tablecloth which is on the table and after the meal one is to shake it [into the garbage] or outside of the house. If, however, one is accustomed to sweep the floor, in a permitted way, after each meal[210], then it is allowed to throw the remnants onto the floor.

12. Sharpening knives on Erev Shabbos:[211]

One is to beware to sharpen the [kitchen] knives every Erev Shabbos, as preparing oneself for eating is included within the honor of Shabbos.[212] In addition, [at times] one needs to sharpen the knives for the sake of Shalom Bayis [marital harmony], such as if the blade has dulled and one is unable to cut with it.[213]

 

Summary:

One should be careful to sharpen the knives on Erev Shabbos. This is done for honor of Shabbos and for purposes of shalom bayis.

 13. Setting the table for Shabbos:[214]

When to set the table:[215] One[216] is to set up the Shabbos table [including its chairs[217]] on Erev Shabbos in preparation for the Friday night meal.[218] [The silverware and china are to be clean and polished for the meal.[219] There is no need, however, to set up one’s bed on Erev Shabbos.[220]]

Placing a tablecloth on the table: It is customary for there to be a tablecloth spread over one’s [dining[221]] table throughout the entire Shabbos. One may not swerve from this custom.[222] There are those who have the custom to spread two tablecloths over the [dining] table [and so is the widespread custom today].[223] [It suffices to use a white tablecloth and a plastic over it in order to fulfill this custom, however some use two white tablecloths as was done in past times prior to the plastic covering being used.[224]]

 

Q&A on setting the table

Who should set up the Shabbos table; the husband or the wife?[225]

Some Poskim[226] rule that the husband is to set up the Shabbos table on Erev Shabbos.[227] Other Poskim[228], however, rule that the wife is to set up the Shabbos table on Erev Shabbos.[229]

One who comes home and sees the table is not yet prepared:[230] Even in families in which the custom is for the wife to set up the table on Erev Shabbos, if upon coming home from Shul the husband sees that the table is not set, extra care must be taken not to voice anger at one’s wife, and one must rather judge her favorably to the point he feels no resentment in his heart.

 

Should one eat specifically on a four-legged table?

The Arizal was very careful to only eat on a four-legged table, to emulate the table of the Tabernacle.[231] This law, however, was omitted by Admur.

Q&A on the tablecloths

Should one cover other tables of the house?[232]

One is to cover all the tables that are within the room that the meal is eaten in. It is likewise proper to cover the tables of the other rooms of the house.[233]

What color tablecloth is one to use?[234]

The age-old custom is to use a white tablecloth to cover the dining table.

When after Shabbos may the tablecloth be removed from the table?

Some[235] write one is not to remove the Shabbos tablecloth until after Havdala.

Covering the tables in Shul:[236]

It is likewise customary to cover the tables in Shul with a white tablecloth.

14. Tasting the foods on Erev Shabbos:[237]

One is to taste the Shabbos foods on Erev Shabbos [to see if they need anything added to them in order to ensure their tastiness[238]]. [Nevertheless, this was not seen to be the custom of the Previous Rebbe.[239]] It is proper to taste each and every dish of food.[240]

15. Bathing on Erev Shabbos:[241]

It is a Mitzvah[242] [upon both men and women[243]] to initially bathe one’s entire body[244] in hot water[245] on Erev Shabbos [and Erev Yom Tov[246]] in honor of Shabbos [and Yom Tov]. If one is unable to do so then he is at the very least to wash his hands, feet[247] and face in hot water.[248]

Washing one’s hair: It is a Mitzvah for one to [shampoo[249],] scrub[250], and wash the hair of his head on every Erev Shabbos.

When on Erev Shabbos should one bathe:[251] It is proper[252] for one to bathe himself as close to Shabbos as possible[253], and then immediately put on his Shabbos cloths.[254] [This however only applies when bathing in one’s home. If however one is bathing in a bathhouse, as is customary when going to Mikveh on Erev Shabbos, then one should visit the Mikveh with plenty of time still left in the day.[255] If one however plans to merely [rinse and then] immerse in the Mikveh, he is to visit the Mikveh as close to Shabbos as possible.[256]]

Miscellaneous laws associated with bathing:

The order in bathing:[257] When bathing one’s entire body one begins with washing his head, as the head is the king of all the other limbs. Regarding the rest of the body one first washes his right side[258] and then his left, [thus honoring the right].[259]

Avoiding scorching water:[260] One who is accustomed to pour very hot water on his skin [should avoid doing so as it] can lead to leprosy.

Drying one’s face: [261] One should dry his face thoroughly after washing them as not drying the face properly can cause his skin to crack or break out with boils. If one did not do so then his cure is to wash his face many times[262] in water that had beets/spinach[263] [cooked[264]] in it.

Drying one’s feet: One who washes his feet and places his socks[265] or shoes on prior to drying them, can bring him to become blind r“l.[266] [Therefore one needs to dry his feet prior to putting on his [socks or] shoes[267] as is the law regarding all matters which endanger a person.] [Nevertheless, the populace, including Rabbis and other G-d fearing Jews, are not accustomed to dry their feet, and nevertheless G-d protects them from danger[268]. Thus, being that this is the custom, and G-d prevents the danger from occurring, one may even do so initially.[269]]

 

Q&A

Does one fulfill the Mitzvah if he bathes in warm water rather than hot water?

It requires further analysis if one fulfills the Mitzvah of bathing if he bathes in warm water.[270] Regarding the definition of hot water versus warm:[271] The Tehila Ledavid[272] learns that all water which is warmer than body temperate [98.6], or its heat is felt in it is considered hot water. So is implied also from other Achronim.[273] However, there is room to learn from Admur[274] that so long as the water is less than Yad Soledes then it is not considered hot.

What is one to do if he will not have time to bath or shower on Erev Shabbos?[275]

In such a case then he should bathe on Thursday, or the closest day possible to Shabbos.

 

Going to Mikveh on Erev Shabbos:[276]

It is a great Mitzvah to immerse in a Mikveh on Erev Shabbos[277], and so is the Chabad custom.[278] Immersing before Shabbos draws down the holiness of Shabbos onto one’s soul. [279] Regarding Erev Yom Tov, even one who is not particular to go to Mikveh on Erev Shabbos is obligated to immerse on Erev Yom Tov.[280]

Preparation for Mikveh-Chatzitza: It is not required to remove a Chatzitza from the body prior to the immersion of a Baal Keri, and so is the custom.[281] [Nevertheless, some Poskim[282] are stringent.] Thus, one does not need to cut his nails, clean them, brush his hair or wash other parts of the body.[283] However, this only applies if it is found on minority of the body, however a Chatziza on majority of the body is invalid even for a Baal Keri.[284] [Furthermore, some[285] write that initially one is to remove from the body all items that one normally removes upon bathing, such as a watch and clothing as will be explained below.] Despite the above, regarding the immersion of Erev Rosh Hashanah and Erev Yom Kippur [which is done also for the purpose of Teshuvah] one is to remove all Chatzitzas from the body. Thus one is to clean his body with hot water, cut his nails, and comb through his head and beard hair prior to immersion, in order to remove any intervals.[286] One is to cut the nails of both his feet and hands on two different days in preparation for this immersion. One is to also brush and floss his teeth.[287] [See footnote if this should apply also to the immersions of the rest of year, and Erev Shabbos and Yom Tov, for those that immerse for purposes of extra holiness, and not just Baal Keri.[288]]

When on Erev Shabbos is one to go to Mikveh? One is to only go to Mikveh after midday[289], or at the very least past the 5th hour of the day.[290] If one cannot immerse at that time then he may immerse anytime in the morning.[291] One is to cut his nails[292] and complete the saying of Shnayim Mikra prior to immersing.[293]

The amount of times one is to immerse:[294] It suffices to immerse one time for purposes of cleansing oneself from emission of seed [Baal Keri]. One is to immerse three times for purposes of Teshuva.[295] There are numerous opinions[296] mentioned in regard to additional immersions.[297]

Taking a shower after Mikveh:[298] It is permitted to shower after Mikveh[299], although some are stringent not to do so.[300] Nevertheless, on Erev Shabbos [and Erev Yom Tov] according to all it is better not to do so, in order so one not completely wash off the Mikveh water from his body, as will be explained next.

Drying oneself after Mikveh:[301] Based on the teachings of the Arizal one should not dry the Mikveh water off his body after immersing.[302] Practically, we are particular to dry ourselves with a towel after immersion and one who desires to follow the directive of the Arizal is to leave some part of his body not dried.[303] It suffices for one to leave his feet wet in order to fulfill this directive.[304]

Going to Mikveh on Shabbos day: See Volume 2 “The laws of Bathing” Halacha 5 Q&A!

Not to bathe too close to Shabbos:[305]

One is to be careful, and warn others against bathing too close to the beginning of Shabbos, as even if one will be able to finish bathing before sunset, he may come to squeeze water from his towel or hair and come to transgress.

16. Getting a haircut?[306]

If one has long hair it is a Mitzvah to cut it [any day prior to Shabbos] in order so one not enter into Shabbos in disgrace. Furthermore, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to cut the hair specifically on Erev Shabbos and not beforehand.[307] If, however, one will not have time to get a haircut on Erev Shabbos[308] then he is to do so on Thursday.[309]

Rosh Chodesh which falls on Erev Shabbos:[310] It is customary not to cut one’s hair on Rosh Chodesh.[311] This applies even when Rosh Chodesh falls on Erev Shabbos.[312] [Thus in such a situation one is to get a haircut on Thursday or Wednesday.]

 

Washing one’s hands after a haircut:[313]

One is to wash his hands [immediately[314]] after cutting his hair.[315]

The danger involved in not washing the hands: [316] If one does not wash his hands after getting a haircut, then he will have inner fear for three days.

How one is to wash: One must use water to clean his hands. It does not suffice to clean his hands in other ways [such as to rub them on something. The reason for this is because an impure spirit resides on one’s hands after these actions are done[317]. Thus, one needs to wash his hands even if he does not plan to pray or learn Torah afterwards.[318]] However one does not need to pour the water on his hands three times as is required when washing upon awakening. [The entire hand is to be washed until one’s wrist, or at least until one’s knuckles.[319] The above washing is only in order to remove impurity, and does not prevent one from studying Torah or praying beforehand. [320]]

 

Q&A

May a woman shave body hair other than the head on Erev Shabbos which is also Rosh Chodesh?

Yes.[321] The warning of Rav Yehuda Hachassid only applies to the hair of the head and not to body hair.

When should one have a haircut on Erev Shabbos?[322]

It is permitted to get a haircut throughout the entire Erev R”H, even past the time of Mincha. This applies even if one is giving a professional haircut and is doing so in exchange for payment, as it is recognizable to all that the haircut is being done in honor of Shabbos.[323]

Midday: [Despite the above ruling] the Arizal would refrain from cutting his hair after midday, and hence would only take a haircut before midday on Erev Shabbos.[324] Based on this some Poskim[325] rule one is to beware to take a haircut prior to midday. Others[326], however, rule that doing so is not required, and so is implied to be the opinion of Admur.[327] Furthermore, some[328] rule one is to try to have a haircut specifically past midday so it be recognizable he is doing so in honor of Yom Tov. Even according to the above stringent opinion, if one did not take a haircut prior to midday he may do so afterwards[329], although there are some that are stringent in such a case not to take a haircut.[330]

May one get a haircut at night?

Some Poskim[331] rule one is to avoid getting a haircut at night until daybreak.[332] Other Poskim[333] however negate this ruling and conclude that one may get a haircut at night.[334] Practically, the widespread custom is to allow haircuts at night.[335]

May a gentile give one a haircut?[336]

Based on Kabala, there are those which avoid receiving a haircut from a gentile.

Must one wash his hands after cutting someone else’s hair?[337]

Yes.[338]

 

 

The Kavanos of a Haircut:[339]

One is to intend upon getting a haircut that he is removing the powers of severity and is fulfilling the Mitzvah of having Peios and the Mitzvah of paying a worker for his job on the same day and the Mitzvah of honoring Yom Tov. One can fulfill a total of fourteen Mitzvos when he gets a haircut.[340]

 

17. Cutting one’s nails:[341]

It is a Mitzvah to cut one’s [hand[342]] nails every[343] Erev Shabbos.[344] [See Q&A]

 

A. Cutting nails during the week, prior to Erev Shabbos?[345]

Although it is a Mitzvah to cut the nails on Erev Shabbos as stated above nevertheless if one does not desire to wait until then, the question arises whether he may cut them during other days of the week. There are two customs recorded in this regard:

First Custom-Only cut on Erev Shabbos and Yom Tov: Some are cautious to avoid cutting their nails on any weekday other than Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov. They thus cut their hand nails only on Friday and their toenails on Thursday.[346] However on other days, they do not cut their nails at all due to reasons known to them [based on Kabala].

Second Custom-Only avoid cutting on Thursday: Some[347] [are accustomed to allow the cutting of nails on other days of the week[348] if he chooses not to wait until Friday[349], although they] are particular to not cut the nails on Thursday.[350] [See Q&A] [Thus beginning from Wednesday night one should not cut his nails.]

 

B. Not to cut the toe and hand nails on same day:[351]

Some[352] are cautious to avoid cutting the hand and toe nails on the same day, due to worry of danger.[353] [However one may cut one during the day and the other that night.[354] Some also allow to cut one of them at night and the other the next day however others rule this is not to be done, and so seems to be the opinion of Admur.[355]]

C. The order of cutting the nails:[356]

Which hand is one to begin with?[357] One first cuts the nails of his left hand and then the right. [358]

Skipping a nail in between each cut: It is proper to initially be careful[359] not to cut the [hand[360]] nails one finger after the other, in the set order of the hand.[361] Rather one is to skip the finger that is adjacent to each finger that is cut, and cut the finger which is adjacent to the skipped finger. Hence one is to begin with his left hand cutting first the index finger closest to the pinky and skipping one finger each time. One then cuts the nails of the right hand beginning with the index finger closest to the thumb, skipping one finger each time. Hence the number order of the cutting beginning from thumb to pinky [thumb is #1 pinky is #5] is for the left hand 4,2,5,3,1. By the right hand it is 2,4,1,3,5.[362]


D. What is one to do with the nails after they are cut?
[363] 

Nails contain a certain impurity which can be lethal for the fetus of a pregnant woman, and cause a miscarriage heaven forfend, if she steps on it. For this reason, it is necessary to discard one’s nails properly to assure that a pregnant woman will not come to step on it.[364] [This applies towards nails of both males and females, and especially is relevant to the nails of a woman who is ritually impure.[365]] There are three different ways of discarding the nails, relative to three types of characteristics.

  • Chassid: A Chassid burns his nails.[366] [The Rebbe Rashab would mix some wood together with the nails before burning it.[367]] [See Q&A]
  • Righteous person: A righteous person buries his nails.[368]
  • Rasha: A Rasha discards his nails on the floor.[369]

Throwing one’s nails in a Beis Hamidrash:[370] It is permitted for one to throw his nails in a Beis Midrash and places of the like in which women are not accustomed to entering.

Nails which have been swept to a different area:[371] The nails are only considered a danger while in the original area that they were thrown in after they were cut. If however they are swept to another area then they are no longer a danger.[372] [Some Poskim[373] rule that only if the nails have been swept to another room, or to the outside, is it considered to have switched areas, and no longer contain danger for a pregnant woman. If however they were moved into another area within the same room then it is questionable whether this suffices to remove the danger.[374] Other Poskim[375], however, rule that so long as the nail has been moved from the exact area in which it fell, it is no longer considered dangerous, even if it remains in the same room. Some Poskim[376] also limit the above allowance of moving the nails only to a case in which one had no prior intent to move it at the time that it was cut. If, however, during the cutting itself one intended to eventually move it to a different area then the nail has ability to damage in the second area as well.]

 

Q&A on discarding nails

What is one to do if a nail dropped and became lost?[377]

He is to sweep the dirt of that area into another room.[378]

May one throw the nails into the sink or toilet rather than burn or bury them?[379]

Yes. Throwing the nails into the sink or toilet is similar to burying them. Nevertheless, one who wishes to follow the practice of a Chassid is to specifically burn them rather then throw them in the toilet.

Do the nails of a gentile have the power to injure?

This matter requires further analysis.[380]

 

May one discard his nails in an area of gentiles where Jews are not commonly found?

Some Poskim[381] write it is permitted to do so.[382]

Cutting another item with the nail cutter nullifies the danger:

Some Poskim[383] write that if one cuts another item with the nail cutter after the nails were cut, the danger is no longer applicable.

Placing the nails on one’s clothing:

Some Poskim[384] write that one is to refrain from placing the nails down onto his clothing while cutting them, as this causes evil to befall him. Other Poskim[385], however, write that those which are not careful not to cut the hand and toenails on the same day, likewise do not have to be careful in this matter.

 

E. Washing one’s hands after nail cutting:[386]

One is to wash his hands [immediately[387]] after cutting his nails.[388] [This applies to both one’s hand and toe nails,[389] and applies whether one cut his nails with a nail cutter or with his teeth.[390] It applies even if he only cut one nail.[391]]  

The danger involved in not washing the hands: If one does not wash his hands after cutting his nails, then he will have inner fear for one day.[392] In addition if he is a Torah scholar, he will forget his learning, while if he is a layman, he will lose his mind.[393]

How to wash: One must use water to clean his hands. It does not suffice to clean his hands in other ways [such as to rub them on something. The reason for this is because an impure spirit resides on ones hands after these actions are done.[394] Thus one needs to wash his hands even if he does not plan to pray or learn Torah afterwards.[395]] However, one does not need to pour the water on his hands three times as is required when washing upon awakening.[396] [The entire hand is to be washed until ones wrist, or at least until ones knuckles.[397] The above washing is only in order to remove impurity, and does not prevent one from studying Torah or praying beforehand.[398]]

 

Summary and practical guideline:

It is a Mitzvah to cut one’s fingernails on Erev Shabbos. When cutting during other days of the week one is to avoid cutting the nails on [Wednesday night through] Thursday. One is to avoid cutting the hand and toe nails the same day. One is to begin cutting the nails of his left hand starting with the index finger closest to the pinky. One skips a finger between each nail. On his right hand one first cuts the index finger closest to his thumb and then skips a finger in between each nail. One is to discard the nails properly, such as in the toilet or through burning them. One is to wash his hands after cutting the nails.

 

Q&A

When on Erev Shabbos are the nails to be cut?[399]

The nails are to be cut prior to bathing for Shabbos or going to Mikveh.[400] Regarding when they are to be cut prior to Mikveh/bathing, there are various opinions mentioned: Before Midday, [after midday before Mincha[401]], after Mincha, before Shnayim Mikra, after Shnayim Mikra but before Mikveh.[402] We have not accepted any final ruling. [Practically, many have the custom to cut the nails prior to Shnayim Mikra.]

 

May one cut his nail when Rosh Chodesh falls on Erev Shabbos?

Some Poskim[403] rule it is permitted to cut the nails on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh and so is implied from Admur. Other Poskim[404], however, rule one may not cut the nails. [Practically, one who cuts his nails on every Erev Shabbos may be lenient to do so also on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh.[405] Likewise, one with very long nails may be lenient to cut them.[406]]

May one cut his nails on Erev Shabbos Chol Hamoed, or Erev the last day of Yom Tov?

If one cut his nails on Erev Yom Tov:[407] One who cut his nails on Erev Yom Tov [or in close proximity to Erev Yom Tov to the point there was nothing to cut before Yom Tov[408]] is permitted to cut his nails during Chol Hamoed.[409]

If one did not cut them Erev Yom Tov:[410] Some Poskim[411] rule it is forbidden to cut nails on Erev Shabbos, or Erev Yom Tov of the last days, if he did not cut them on Erev Yom Tov of the first days. Others[412] however rule it is permitted to cut nails on Erev Shabbos [or Erev Yom Tov[413]] if one is accustomed to do so on every Erev Shabbos throughout the year.[414] It is implied from Admur like the former opinion, that it is forbidden to cut them.[415] According to all, it is forbidden to cut the nails on Erev Shabbos if he is not accustomed to always do so.

 

Q&A on cutting nails on Thursday

If one will not have time to cut his nails on Friday may he be lenient to do so on Thursday?[416]

Yes.

If Yom Tov falls on Friday may one cut his nails on Thursday?[417]

Yes. It is a Mitzvah to do so.

May a Chasan and Kallah cut their nails on Thursday if their wedding is taking place that night?

If they did not cut the nails beforehand and will be unable to cut the nails on Thursday night, they may be cut on Thursday.

May a woman get a manicure on Wednesday night/Thursday?

Seemingly this is allowed as it does not involve cutting the nails off completely.

Q&A on cutting nails on same day

May one cut his toenails at night and his hand nails the next day?[418]

Some Poskim rule this is not to be done. Others rule it is allowed.

 

If one did not cut his toenails prior to Erev Shabbos, may he cut them on Erev Shabbos together with his hand nails?[419]

Yes.

May a woman cut her hand and toenails on the same day if it is her day of Mikveh?[420]

Yes.

Q&A on toenails

May one cut his toenails on Thursday?

It is unclear if those which avoid cutting nails on Thursday are only particular regarding the hand nails.[421]

 

Must one skip a nail also when cutting the toenails?[422]

No. This cautiousness is only relevant to the hand nails.

 

Q&A on discarding nails

What is one to do if a nail dropped and became lost?[423]

He is to sweep the dirt of that area into another room.[424]

May one throw the nails into the sink or toilet rather than burn or bury them?[425]

Yes. Throwing the nails into the sink or toilet is similar to burying them. Nevertheless, one who wishes to follow the practice of a Chassid is to specifically burn them rather then throw them in the toilet.

Q&A on washing hands

May one learn Torah while cutting his nails?[426]

Yes.

Must one wash his hands after cutting another person’s nails, such as one’s children?[427]

No. One is only obligated to wash his hands after cutting his own nails.[428]

Must one wash their hands if another person cut his nails? [429]

Yes.

 

Sparks of Kabala-Meaning behind nails:[430]

The nails are rooted in a very high spiritual source. Prior to the sin of eating from the tree of knowledge Adam was completely covered by nails which protected him from evil. The sin then caused the nails to leave and only remain on the tips of the fingers, in which there also resides the impurities of the sin. Due to this the nails must be removed, and doing so brings peace to the world. However, they may not be belittled by throwing them away as they derive from a high source and on them is dependent the fixing of the world. It is also for this reason that they are dangerous for women. This is measure for measure, as the woman caused Adam to lose his sublime revelation contained within the nails, therefore the nails cause her danger.

18. Shabbos clothes:[431]

Every person is obligated to strive based on his affordability, to have elegant clothing for Shabbos.[432] These clothing are to be designated specifically[433] for Shabbos (and are to be nicer than the clothing he wears during the week).[434] [Hence one is to avoid wearing these clothing at all during the week.[435] Furthermore, even on Shabbos itself one is to avoid doing activities that can dirty the clothing. For this reason, one should not hold a child (which can cause one to become dirty) unless he places a covering over his clothes.[436]]

A Shabbos Tallis:[437] One who is able to afford a second Tallis should have a second Tallis specifically designated for wearing on Shabbos.

Not to wear any weekday garments: There are scrupulous men which are meticulous not to wear any weekday clothing on Shabbos.[438] They thus have an entire wardrobe of clothing designated to be worn only on Shabbos.[439] This includes even a belt, pants, undershirt, [under garments, Yarmulke, socks, shoes, Tzitzis, hat].

Wearing a different article of clothing: It is proper for one to wear a piece of clothing or jewelry which is different than the clothing or jewelry worn during the week.[440] This is done in order that one constantly remembers that it is Shabbos and not come to desecrate it. [Hence the custom of Jerusalemites is to wear a Shtreimal which is a completely different type of hat then the hat worn during the week, as it serves as a reminder of Shabbos.[441]]

When on Erev Shabbos should one put on his Shabbos clothes:[442] It is proper[443] that one garb himself in Shabbos clothes immediately after bathing himself for Shabbos. For this reason, it is proper[444] for one to bathe himself as close to Shabbos as possible[445], and then immediately put on his Shabbos cloths.[446] [This however only applies when bathing in one’s home. If however one is bathing in a bathhouse, as is customary when going to Mikveh on Erev Shabbos, then one should visit the Mikveh with plenty of time still left in the day.[447] If one however plans to merely [rinse and then] immerse in the Mikveh, he is to visit the Mikveh as close to Shabbos as possible.[448]]

When after Shabbos may one remove his Shabbos clothing? It is proper to wear at least some of one’s Shabbos clothing until after Havdala on Motzei Shabbos. [Some however have the custom to not remove their Shabbos clothes until after eating Melaveh Malka.[449] Others only remove them prior to going to sleep.[450] It is told of the Rebbe Rashab that he would remove his Shabbos clothes immediately after Shabbos, not wanting at all to wear them during the weekday. However, of the Rebbe Rayatz it is told that his father the Rebbe Rashab told him to follow the custom of Chernobyl to not change his Shabbos clothing on Motzaei Shabbos, and so is the custom of the Rebbe.[451]]

 

Q&A

Should one buy shoes specifically for Shabbos?

Yes[452], although there are Poskim[453] which write that there is no need to do so.[454]

 

Should one make a point of wearing Shabbos clothes if he is spending Shabbos alone, or amongst gentiles?[455]

Yes, as the clothing are not out of respect for the observers but out of personal respect for Shabbos.

 

What is one to do if he does not have any Shabbos clothing to wear?[456]

He should change to freshly laundered weekday clothing. If he does not have any laundered clothing available, then he should launder them on Thursday.

 

Color of Shabbos attire:

There remains a difference of customs regarding the desired color of the Shabbos attire.[457] Many wear all white[458], others black[459] and others wear colored clothing. One is to follow the custom of his community. [460]

 

Wearing a silk garment/Kapata:[461]

The Rebbe stated that married men are to strive to wear a silk Kapata/Frockcoat on Shabbos and Yom Tov. Those who do so are praised.[462]

If one is bathing early for Shabbos when should he put on his Shabbos clothes?[463]

In such a case one is to switch his underclothes, pants and shirt to fresh Shabbos clothes right after bathing even though there is still plenty of time left before Shabbos. However, his upper clothes [such as a jacket, hat etc] he is to only put on right before Shabbos.[464]

When are women to dress in their Shabbos clothes? [465]

Women, just like men, are to dress in their Shabbos clothes immediately after they shower close to Shabbos. They are to be wearing Shabbos clothes before candle lighting.

 

19. Laundry:[466]

It is an institution of Ezra for one to do laundry on Thursday in honor of Shabbos, in order so he have clean white clothing to wear on Shabbos. This is in contrast to one doing laundry on Erev Shabbos, as on Erev Shabbos there is no time to do laundry due to the need for one to deal with the Shabbos preparations.

 

Q&A

May one in today’s times do laundry on Erev Shabbos using a washing machine?

Although today it is possible to wash clothing with much less effort and time then was required back in the times of the Sages, nonetheless one is to still fulfill their decree to not push off the laundry to Friday.[467] Nevertheless, there is no prohibition to do laundry on Friday if one needs. Furthermore, some Poskim[468] rule that today with the use of washing machines there is no restriction at all in doing laundry on Friday rather than Thursday.

May one launder his Shabbos clothes prior to Thursday?

Yes.[469]

20. Preparing the Blech:

  • For the full Halachic background of this section, explanations and sources refer to The Laws of Shabbos Volume 1 “The Laws of Shehiyah”. Below is provided a quick summary of the Halachas explained there.

Eating hot foods on Shabbos: It is a Mitzvah to eat hot food on Shabbos.[470] This is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos and Oneg Shabbos. The following are the laws and regulations relevant to leaving food on a source of heat into Shabbos in order to assure the fulfillment of this Mitzvah of eating hot food.

Why we use a Blech: It is forbidden to leave less than half cooked food on an open flame into Shabbos. This law created the use of a Blech. The blech effectively covers the fire and allows one to leave even less than half cooked foods on the fire into Shabbos. In most cases the foods are in any event fully cooked and a blech is hence not needed. It is customary however to place a blech over the fire even in such a case, as this allows one to be allowed to return foods to the fire on Shabbos in case of need. [See “The Laws of Shabbos Volume 1 The Laws of Chazara” for more information!]

Covering knobs: It is proper to cover the knobs of the stove in addition to covering the fire. Today there are Blechs available that contain a side metal addition which is used to cover the knobs. Alternatively, one can place tinfoil over the knobs.

Electric plates: If one uses an electric plate to keep his food hot over Shabbos then if the electric plate does not have alternate settings of heat, it does not need to be covered even if the food will not be half cooked before Shabbos. If it does have alternate settings of heat then it must be covered for one to be allowed to leave less than half cooked food on it into Shabbos.

Ovens: One may leave food which is at least half cooked in a lit oven into Shabbos. One may not leave less than half cooked foods in an oven unless the inside of the oven is properly covered. [See “The Laws of Shehiyah” Halacha Q&A 3 for details!]  One must beware not to open an oven while it is off if it is temperature based. [See “The Laws of Cooking” Halacha 15]

When to set up the blech: The blech is to be set up together with the food with enough time for the food to heat up if the food were to be cold. Meaning even if the food is currently hot it is to be placed on the Blech with enough time for it to become hot if it were to be cold. In a case of need one may set up the Blech any time before Shabbos even if the food is cold.

If one does not have a blech or electric plate: If one does not have a blech or electric plate for Shabbos he may still leave all his food on an open flame before Shabbos, so long as the food is half cooked by the time Shabbos enters.

21. Reminding one’s household that Shabbos is near:[471]

Slightly[472] prior to sunset, one is to caution his household that they should light the candles and cease from doing any forbidden work. Likewise, if one’s wife baked Challah [as is required due to the custom] then slightly prior to sunset it is [an obligation in Eretz Yisrael[473], and even] in the Diaspora, it is good[474], to ask her if Challah was removed.[475] If one is not at home at this time then he must [call or] send a messenger to remind his household of the above.

How to speak to one’s wife and kids: The above reminders and questions must be said in a soft tone in order so they accept his words.[476]

22. Carrying an object close to the start of Shabbos:[477]

The public area is defined as a Reshus Harabim: It is forbidden for one to carry an object in his hand [or pocket[478]] into a public domain which is defined as a Reshus Harabim very close to the start of Shabbos.[479] This is due to a decree that one may come to forget to rid himself of the object[480] prior to the start of Shabbos, and he will come to transgress the laws of carrying.[481] [Furthermore, this prohibition applies even while one is still in his own house, and thus he may not take hold of an object near the start of Shabbos with intent to exit with that object to a Reshus Harabim.[482]]

The public area is defined as a Karmalis: If the public domain of one’s area is defined as a Karmalis, then there is no prohibition to carry items into it, even in one’s hand, very close to Shabbos [even if there is no Eiruv in the area].[483]

Practically are our public areas defined as Reshus Harabim or as a Karmalis? Today the custom has spread to follow the opinion which considers all public areas as a Karmalis[484], and accordingly there is no longer any prohibition to carry an item very close to Shabbos into the public domain. [see footnote[485]]

 

Summary:

It is forbidden to carry an object into a rishus harabim close to the beginning of Shabbos, as this may lead to one carrying it on Shabbos. This prohibition does not apply to carrying into a Karmalis or to carrying something that is only Rabbinically forbidden to carry on Shabbos. Practically, today being that all areas are considered a Karmalis, there is no longer a prohibition to carry items close to Shabbos into a public area.

 

23. Checking one’s pockets close to Shabbos:[486]

It is a Mitzvah[487] upon every person to check his clothing[488] on Erev Shabbos, in close proximity to the beginning of Shabbos. This is done in order to verify that he is not carrying anything which is forbidden to carry[489] on Shabbos.[490] [This applies even in an area with an Eiruv, in order so one verifies whether or not he is holding a Muktzah object.[491]]

If one forgot to remove the item before Shabbos:[492] If one forgot and did not remove the item from his pockets before Shabbos, then he is to remove it on Shabbos [immediately] upon remembering. [Regarding how to remove the object if it is Muktzah- See Vol. 1 “The Laws of Muktzah.”  Regarding if one noticed that he is carrying the object on Shabbos while in an area without an Eiruv-See Vol. 3 “The Laws of Carrying.”]

May one place items in his pocket on Shabbos itself?[493] It is forbidden to place any object into ones pockets on Shabbos, even at home, if one lives in a community that does not have an Eiruv [see footnote[494]] which allows them to carry.[495] However, in a case of need one may be lenient to place things in his pocket while in his house.[496]

 

Q&A

If on Shabbos one desires to walk past the area of the Eiruv must he check his pockets prior to leaving?[497]

Even in an area that has an Eiruv, if one plans to walk past the Eiruv area then he is to check and remove all the items from his pockets prior to doing so.

24. Accepting Shabbos with joy:[498]

One is to wear elegant clothing and rejoice in the coming of Shabbos like one is going to greet the king, and like one who is greeting a bride and groom. This was the custom of the greatest of our Sages which would garb themselves in elegant clothes and say to each other “Let us go out to greet the Shabbos queen.” They would then proclaim, “Greetings Oh Bride Greetings Oh Bride.” In some places they would leave the Shul and enter the courtyard and then make this proclamation. Others were accustomed to go to the field.

 

Doing Teshuvah on Erev Shabbos:[499]

One should have thoughts of Teshuvah and make an accounting of his soul on every Erev Shabbos.[500]

 

Not to quarrel on Shabbos:[501]

The Kabalists strongly warned against there being any quarreling on Shabbos, especially amongst husband and wife. It is brought[502] that the Satan tries to ignite a quarrel especially near the entrance of Shabbos, hence extra care must be taken at that time.

 

25. Mincha on Erev Shabbos:

A. The prayer:

Saying Hodu:[503] It is a custom established from the Baal Shem Tov to recite psalm 107 prior to the Mincha prayer.[504] Hodu is omitted prior to Mincha Erev Shabbos which is also Yom Tov or Chol Hamoed.[505] [Some communities are accustomed to recite Hodu together with a Minyan.[506] This is not the Chabad custom, and rather every congregant recites Hodu on his own and the Chazan then begins from Ashreiy.[507]]

Saying Patach Eliyahu: After Hodu one recites Patach Eliyahu. [Patach Eliyahu is recited even when Hodu is omitted such as Erev Shabbos Chol Hamoed.[508]]

Erev Rosh Hashanah that coincides with Erev Shabbos:[509] When Erev Yom Tov falls on Erev Shabbos one recites the paragraph of Hodu and Patach Eliyahu prior to Mincha as usual. [One does not recite Hodu or Patach Eliyahu prior to Mincha of Erev Yom Tov if it does not fall on Erev Shabbos.[510]]

Tachanun:[511] It is customary to omit Tachanun by Mincha of Erev Shabbos. [This applies even when Davening Mincha early by Mincha Gedola.[512] Likewise, for this reason one who ate bread after midday does not recite Al Naros before Birchas Hamazon but rather recites Shir Hamaalos.[513]]

Wearing a Tallis: Many communities are accustomed that the Chazan wear a Tallis for Mincha of Erev Shabbos.[514] This is not the Chabad custom. Nevertheless, if not wearing a Tallis will cause strife in the Shul one is to compromise on his custom and wear the Tallis for Mincha. However, one is not to wear a Tallis for Kabalas Shabbos.[515]

 

The greatness of Mincha Erev Shabbos:[516]

According to the teachings of the Arizal the revelation of the holiness of Shabbos begins from the 5th hour of Erev Shabbos. This revelation intensifies with the prayer of Mincha. It is an auspicious time for the elevation of the soul, and for repenting on actions done during the previous week. It is customary to Daven Mincha close to the entrance of Shabbos, after immersing in a Mikveh and wearing Shabbos clothing. One is to Daven Mincha with extra concentration due to its great level.

 

 

Q&A

If the Minyan has begun Ashreiy and one has not yet recited Hodu and Patach Eliyahu what is he to do?[517]

One is to Daven Shemoneh Esrei with the Minyan and recite Hodu and Patach Eliyahu after Mincha.

 

If one’s Shachris prayer continued past midday is he to recite Tachanun?

Some Poskim[518] rule Tachanun is not to be recited.

Is an Avel to be Chazan by Mincha of Erev Shabbos?

An Avel may be Chazan by Mincha of Erev Shabbos and so is the Chabad custom. However, there are communities which are accustomed to not have an Avel Daven as Chazan by Mincha due to its extra holiness.[519]

 

B. Davening Mincha after candle lighting on Erev Shabbos:[520]

A woman who lights Shabbos candles, and thus accepts Shabbos with her lighting, is to Daven Mincha beforehand.[521] [If she did not do so, and has already lit her candles, then she may not daven Mincha afterwards, and is to rather Daven Maariv twice.[522] However, some Poskim[523] are lenient and rule that Bedieved she may still Daven Mincha after lighting candles and accepting Shabbos, especially if she had in mind to do so before the lighting.[524] Practically, initially, if she sees that she will not have time to Daven Mincha before lighting candles, she is to stipulate that she does not plan to accept Shabbos with her lighting.[525] In such a case she may light the candles, and then Daven Mincha, and then accept Shabbos, although the accepting of Shabbos must be done within ten minutes from the lighting.[526] If she did not make this stipulation and already lit candles, she is to daven Maariv twice, although those who nevertheless Daven Mincha have upon whom to rely. If a man is lighting candles, he may always delay accepting Shabbos and daven Mincha after the lighting[527], so long as he [Davens Mincha and] accepts Shabbos within ten minutes from the lighting.[528] However, some are accustomed to Daven Mincha before lighting even regarding men.[529]]

 

Q&A

Davening Mincha after accepting Tosefes Shabbos:[530]

One may Daven Mincha even after accepting Tosefes Shabbos, and so is the widespread custom.[531] However, once one has accepted Itzumo Shel Yom [such as Davening Maariv] he may no longer Daven Mincha.[532]

 

26. Shnayim Mikra:

Shnayim Mikra is to be read on Erev Shabbos past midday. See chapter 3 for the full details of this topic.

27. Candle Lighting:

G-d willing a full section on the laws of candle lighting will appear in one of our later volumes in our series of Hilchos Shabbos.

________________________________________________

[1] Admur 250:4; Michaber 250:1

[2] Ketzos Hashulchan 70 footnote 14 and so is implied from Admur. In any event the more Shabbos preparations one personally performs the greater the Mitzvah.

[3] As it is better for one to personally fulfill a Mitzvah rather than do so through an emissary. This concept is a general rule which applies by all Mitzvos. [Admur ibid]

[4] Mishneh Berurah 250 in Shaar HaTziyon 9

Other opinions in Admur and other Poskim: Some understand from Admur that one who is able to learn Torah is to do so and have another person do the remaining Shabbos preparations [besides for the one preparation which he must personally perform]. [Ketzos Hashulchan 70 footnote 14; Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos 250 footnote 3] So rules also other Poskim that one who has someone else available to prepare his Shabbos needs for him, is to do have them do so if he plans to spend his time learning. [Kaf Hachaim 251:22; Aruch Hashulchan 251:3]

Defense of the ruling of the Mishneh Berurah in accordance to Admur: It is evident from Kuntrus Achron 2 that the above ruling applies even by a Torah Scholar, as Admur there explains that only by the Amoraim which were Toraso Umnaso did they have to suffice with one act of preparation and not more, being that they had to follow the dictum [Yoreh Deah 246:18] that learning Torah pushes off a Mitzvah which could be fulfilled through others. This wording of Admur implies that today being that the Halachic concept of Toraso Umnaso no longer applies, seemingly the Mitzvah remains upon all to increase in their Shabbos preparations even on expense of their Torah learning. Now, although following the above dictum is not limited to one who is on the level of Toraso Umnaso, and rather all Jews which are learning are to continue learning if the Mitzvah is able to be performed through another, [as explained in Yoreh Deah ibid], nevertheless preparing for Shabbos is considered like a Mitzvah Shebegufo, in which the above dictum does not apply. [Shaareiy Tziyon ibid] This too is possibly hinted in Admur which regarding the above dictum referenced the reader to chapter 240:8, which is not the source of the dictum, as there it is explained that only by a Mitzvah Overes is one to precede the Mitzvah to serving his father, thus implying here too that by this type of Mitzvah of preparing for Shabbos [which is no less than serving ones father] one only gives up its extra preparations if he has to do a Mitzvah Overes, and the idea of Torah learning being defined as a Mitzvah Overes only applies by one who is Toraso Umnaso. Accordingly the footnote of the Ketzos Hashulchan [70:14] which understood the M”B to be contradicting the Kuntrus Achron of Admur, is inaccurate and in truth the explanation of the Mishneh Berurah compliments it. However, based on this, that today even learning is to be pushed off, a question would arise on the ruling of Admur in 250:2 that there is no need to diminish in ones learning sessions or other activities if others are doing the preparations for them. In truth however this question would regardless apply as according to all there is a Mitzvah to personally prepare all or many of one’s needs of Shabbos, as Mitzvah Bo Yoser etc., thus why does Admur in 250:2 not require diminishing other activities even if someone else will be preparing for Shabbos on his behalf. Hence one must conclude that in 250:2 Admur was referring to the letter of the law while in 250:4 he mentions the preferred method of one doing as much as he can personally.

[5] Admur 250 Kuntrus Achron 2

[6] There is an obligation upon every person to do some preparation for the honor of Shabbos, as is evident from the fact that many Tzadikim even though they would learn Torah without stop ((תורתו אומנתו, on Erev Shabbos they would stop to do this mitzvah. [250 Kuntrus Achron 2]

[7] As this is required out of respect and honor for Shabbos [which is an obligation upon all, and thus at least some act of honor in preparing for Shabbos must be done by all]. [Admur ibid]

[8] Meaning that at the very least one is obligated to perform one act to fulfill the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos, which is a Mitzvah that cannot be fulfilled through another person. However, to personally perform more than one act is not an obligation, but nevertheless is a Mitzvah, as said earlier, that it is better to perform a Mitzvah personally than through an emissary. [Kuntrus Achron 2]

[9] This follows that which was explained above that it is better for one to personally perform a Mitzvah then for one to send an emissary to so for him. See footnote there!

[10] Kuntrus Achron 2. There Admur explains that when the Amoraim would salt the fish, which was their greatest delicacy, they fulfilled, in addition to the obligation to assist in preparing for Shabbos, as well the Mitzvah of “Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mebishlucho”

[11] Kuntrus Achron 2.

[12] This is done in order so one also benefit from the Mitzvah of “better to perform a Mitzvah personally than through a messenger” in the item of which the actual Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos is being performed with. [ibid]

[13] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid

[14] Thus, there is no room to say, “How can I belittle my honor with doing such a belittling task”, as in truth by doing so he is really gaining the respect that his honor demands.

[15] The Sages would personally perform tasks which were beneath their dignity. Rav Chisda would chop vegetables very thin; Raba and Rav Yosef would chop wood; Rav Zeira would ignite the bonfire; Rav Nachman would tidy the house. [Shabbos 119a; It requires further analysis why Admur omitted the names of the Sages, in contrast to the Michaber which lists them as written in the Gemara.] This was all done to show their respect for Shabbos, emphasizing the importance it had to them, and that they were in awe of its honor. This is just like a servant who is hosting his master in his home in which case the servant endeavors to show that the master is of importance to him and he awes his honor to go out of his way and do preparations for his arrival. [Admur ibid]

[16] Shaareiy Teshuvah 250, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 70 footnote 14

[17] 250:1

[18] Admur ibid; Michaber 250:1; Rav Chisda Shabbos 117b

[19] This is hinted to in the verse [Exodus 16:5] regarding the gathering of the Man of which it states that the Man was gathered in the morning of each day, and regarding Erev Shabbos the verse states “And it was on the 6th day that they prepared that which was brought”. This implies that they immediately began preparing the Shabbos foods after gathering the Man, which, as said, took place in the morning. Hence today we too begin the Shabbos preparations in the morning. [ibid]

[20] Admur ibid; M”A 250:1; M”B 250:2; Shivlei Haleket 55; Midrash Tanchuma

[21] This is hinted to in the above verse which states “and there will be double of that which they gather each day”. This implies that the preparation should be done twice, once by morning of the 6th day and once towards the 7th day. [ibid]

[22] Toras Shabbos 250:2; Aruch Hashulchan 250:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 250:1

[23] 250:7; Tosefes Shabbos 250:1; M”B 250:2

[24] Meaning they require cooking or grinding etc in order to become edible or in order to be served.

[25] Admur ibid; Tosefes Shabbos 250:1; M”A 575:4

The reason: This is in order to give one enough time to prepare these foods as well as the other Shabbos needs. [ibid; M”A ibid; Tosefes Shabbos ibid]

[26] Admur ibid and Tosefes Shabbos ibid in explanation of M”A 250:1 in name of Arizal Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar 18:1; Shaar Hakavanos Thursday night who states it is better to purchase the foods on Erev Shabbos than on Thursday

The reason: In order so it is more recognizable that one is shopping for Shabbos. [M”B 250:2]

[27] 250:3

[28] He must say the Shema prior to shopping even if there may be time left to say it after shopping, as we suspect that perhaps it’s time will pass prior to him finishing shopping. [ibid]

[29] But not definite, as will be explained.

[30] We do not suspect that one will come to pass the time for Davening [which is the 4th hour of the day], as we do by Shema, as Davening contains one more hour then does the Shema. Now, although there is room to suspect that this time will too pass until the shopping is complete, nevertheless since the Mitzvah of preparing for the Shabbos meals will definitely be not fulfilled if one Davens first, due to the closing of the stores, while it is possible that he still be able to Daven on time if he go to the store first, therefore he is to first go to the store. [ibid]

[31] Admur ibid writes that one is to first purchase his groceries and then pray even if there is doubt that he may not be able to pray within Zman Tefila due to this. Nevertheless “if the congregation is praying, he is not to separate himself from the congregation.” This implies that if one will miss the Minyan due to the shopping he is to first Daven and then shop.

Other Opinions-Mishneh Berurah: The Mishneh Berurah [250 Biur HalachaYashkim”] questions how could the Rabbinical Mitzvah of Davening with a Minyan push off the Mitzvah and obligation to prepare for the Shabbos meal, which is a Biblical command of Oneg Shabbos. Furthermore, even if Oneg Shabbos is only of Rabbinical origin, since one can Daven in private how can we allow Davening with a Minyan to completely nullify the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. He thus concludes that one is to first go shopping, even on expense of missing the Minyan, and then Daven in private.

Opinion of Ketzos Hashulchan: The Ketzos Hashulchan [70 footnote 11] suggests that in truth everyone agrees that Davening with a Minyan alone is not enough to nullify the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos, and one is to thus first go shopping in such a case. When, however, do we say that Davening takes precedence? In a case that in addition to one losing out in praying with a Minyan, there is also possibility that if he shops before Davening, he will miss Zman Tefila, and in such a case that there is possibly two transgressions involved in first going shopping, one is to forgo the shopping and first pray. However, if one knows for certain that he will not miss Zman Tefila then he is to first go shopping, even on expense of missing the Minyan. [This opinion of the Ketzos Hashulchan does not contradict the ruling of Admur or the ruling written above, as whenever one goes shopping in the morning there seemingly is doubt he will lose Davening within Zman Tefila, as there is no prediction of how long the shopping will take.]

Vetzaruch Iyun on the above distinction of the Ketzos Hashulchan, as Admur in 90:17 rules that the Mitzvah of Davening with a Minyan which contains the greatest positive command of sanctifying Hashem’s name in public, pushes off even a negative command of not freeing a slave. [This is in contrast to other Poskim, such as Michaber Yoreh Deah 267:79 who do not view any special advantage in Davening with a Minyan regarding pushing off this negative command, and rather rule that all Rabbinical Mitzvos may push off this command of not freeing a slave.] Thus certainly in our case that a) there is a dispute if Oneg Shabbos is Biblical or Rabbinical, and b) It is possible for one to eat at someone else’s house or borrow food, that Davening with a Minyan would push off shopping, even on expense of Oneg Shabbos.

However perhaps one can differentiate between the Halacha here and in 90:17, as perhaps only in a scenario that there will not be a Minyan at all do we say that making a Minyan overrides even a Biblical command. However, if there will be a Minyan regardless of if one joins this Minyan, then Davening with a Minyan does not override even a Rabbinical command. This distinction can also be proven from the law that one may not delay praying within Zman Tefila even if he needs to use the bathroom, if he can withhold himself for a Shiur Parsa. However, one is to delay praying with a Minyan if he has to use the bathroom even if he can withhold himself for Shiur Parsa. Likewise, the law states that if Zman Tefila is passing he is to begin Davening Shemoneh Esrei before the Minyan even though he will miss Davening with the Minyan due to this.

In any event one can deduce from here that if one is the 10th man for a Minyan he may not leave the Minyan and go shopping even if the store will be closing, and even if he will be able to Daven later, after shopping, within Zman Tefila.

[32] So is implied from Admur and so rules Ketzos Hashulchan 70:5

[33] Admur 250:6; M”A 250:1 in name of Arizal; M”B 250:2

[34] Lit. good

[35] The reason: As by doing so the holiness of Shabbos befalls onto that food. [Machatzis Hashekel, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 70 footnote 13]

[36] Admur 242:10

[37] Based on footnote above.

[38] Admur 242:1

[39] The reason: As stated in the verse in Yeshaya [58:13] “/וקראת לשבת ענג לקדוש ה’ מכובדAnd one calls Shabbos enjoyment, to sanctify the honored G-d”.

[40] The reason: As Shabbos is included within the group of days called “Mikraeiy Kodesh” or “A calling of holiness”, and the Sages have learned that the term “A calling of holiness” is coming to teach that one is to sanctify and honor the Shabbos with clean clothing, and to enjoy the day through pleasurable foods and drinks. [ibid] So rules Sefer Chareidim chapter 4

[41] Tosafos; Mahril

[42] The reason: As they learn that the wording of “A calling of holiness” is coming to teach that one is to sanctify the Shabbos through refraining from doing forbidden labor. [ibid]

[43] From all the above we can deduce the great importance emphasized in fulfilling this Mitzvah which Klal Yisrael is so careful to follow, and in the wording of the Rosh, one of the greatest Rishonei Ashkenaz “The Jewish people are Adukim/fervently attached to the fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos.”

[44] Admur 529:5

[45] The Mishneh Berurah in Biur Halacha [250 “Yashkim”] sides that the eating of bread during the meal is Biblical while other delicacies are Rabbinical.

[46] Yeshaya 58:14

[47] Admur ibid; Tur 242; Levush 242; Shabbos 118a

[48] Shabbos 118a

[49] One of the explanations mentioned behind this seemingly puzzling statement is that Shabbos is a day where we reconnect with Hashem our father and king. On Shabbos the inner love between Hashem and the Jewish people is revealed and hence it has the capability to forgive and erase all of man’s iniquities. Thus, if one respects Shabbos properly, he benefits from this special relationship with Hashem and is told that his sins are forgiven and he will be saved from the judgment of Gihennim. 

[50] Such as meat, fish and wine

[51] Admur 242:1

[52] Admur 288:3

[53] Admur 529:3-4 regarding Yom Tov that this is the definition of Oneg. It requires further analyses why this was not mentioned regarding Shabbos, neither in 242 [which simply defines Oneg as eating delicacies] or in 274 1-4 which discusses the laws of having three meals on Shabbos. There it is mentioned that the obligation of eating bread is hinted to from verses in the Torah and no support for its obligation is brought due to it being considered part of Oneg Shabbos. Furthermore, the reason mentioned for one’s obligation to eat bread is because of the verses discussing the “Mon” eaten in the desert and not because of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun. To note that in 249:10 and 254:8 Admur mentions that eating bread is the main part of the Shabbos meal, although this does not necessarily connect to the idea of Oneg.

[54] Admur 257:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 257:14

[55] Admur 263:1

[56] Admur 281:1

[57] Admur 280:1

[58] Admur 306:21

[59] Admur 242:1; 262:3

[60] Admur 242:12

[61] Admur 242:13; For the innovation of this ruling and as for why it was placed in parentheses-see Chikreiy Halachos 3 p. 30

[62] Admur 260:1

[63] Admur 262:2

[64] Admur 260:1; 529:2 that this is included in the honor of Yom Tov

[65] Admur 529:2 regarding Yom Tov that it is included in the honor of Yom Tov.

[66] Admur 262:1

[67] Admur 262:1

[68] Admur 262:1; Rambam 30:2 mentions that wearing Tzitzis on Erev Shabbos and waiting for the coming of Shabbos is included in honoring Shabbos,

[69] Admur 300:1

[70] Toras Shabbos 263:7

[71] Toras Shabbos 263:7

[72] Keren Ledavid 61

[73] Sdei Chemed Asifas Dinim Brachos 1:16

[74] Admur 529:8; and so is proven from 242:1 that Shabbos does not have a Mitzvah of Simcha. However, the Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:127 writes that the reason that the Mitzvah of Simcha was not written regarding Shabbos is because it is nullified to the Mitzvah of Oneg applicable on Shabbos. However this requires further analysis as by Yom Tov there is also a Mitzvah of Oneg [Rabinically (529:5 as is the second opinion in 242:1), and if the Oneg involves Simcha-Biblically (242:1 KU”A 2)] and nonetheless Admur mentions also the Mitzvah of Simcha by Yom Tov. Thus, omitting the Mitzvah of Simcha by Shabbos seems to imply it does not exist, as writes Admur explicitly in 529:7.

[75] Iskafya is a Chassidic term used to describe self-control from indulgent in pleasures.

[76] For a full analysis on this see Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos Miluim p. 7; Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:3-5

[77] As explained above in the Shulchan Aruch

[78] Tanya chapter 7; Igeres Hakodesh 26; Mamarim Haketzarim of Admur Hazakein [p. 59]; Likkutei Torah Beshalacha 2a “There is no need for Avoda on Shabbos, in the same way as done during the week, which is through plowing and having a broken heart, and Iskafya. Rather Shabbos is a time for Avoda of Taanug on Hashem, and Ishapcha.”

Background: Tanya chapter 7One who eats fatty ox meat and drinks tasty wine…., when done for the sake of fulfilling the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos and Yom Tov, its divine sparks become elevated.” This is in contrast to during the week that one who eats for the sake of fulfilling his desires descends the Divine sparks to impurity. The Mitzvah is likewise stated in Igeres Hakodesh 26However on Shabbos that there is an elevation of the Kelipas Nogah itself together with the external aspects of all worlds, therefore it is a Mitzvah to eat all the delicacies on Shabbos and to increase in meat and wine, even though that during the week one would be considered a gluten for doing so.” This matter of difference between the eating on Shabbos and weekday is discussed in various Mamarim in Torah Oar and Likkutei Torah. [See Torah Oar Chayeh Sara 15b; Torah Oar Beshalach 65b; Siddur 200-203; Sefer Hasichos 5703 p. 142-146] In the Mamarim Haketzarim of Admur Hazakein [p. 59] he writes that in essence Shabbos is meant to be a day without eating or drinking, as it is similar to the world to come, however since it is impossible to receive the G-dly pleasure of Shabbos without a physical vessel for this pleasure, therefore one is obligated to eat on Shabbos in order to receive the spiritual pleasure which is contained within it.

[79] Shlah [Shabbos Neir Mitzvah]; Kesav Sofer 107:16; Kaf Hachaim 529:45; Baal Shem Tov in Keser Shem Tov 395; Sefer Hamamarim Samech Vav p. 154 “Eating on Shabbos is not a physical pleasure but a spiritual pleasure.”; Rebbe in Sichas 1951 Chayeh Sarah 18; See also Elya Raba 293:2; Reishis Chochmah Shaar Hakedusha 15:53; Mateh Efrayim Alef Hamagen 581:3

Background: Kesav Sofer 107:16 writes that one who does not eat for the sake of the Mitzvah then that meal is considered Seudas Reshus and does not contain a Mitzvah. So is also evident from Tanya chapter 7 from the words “for the sake of Oneg Shabbos”; Shlah [Shabbos Neir Mitzvah] writes: Those which eat and drink to their hearts content and due to the great amounts of foods fall into slumber are not considered to be pleasuring Shabbos but to be pleasuring themselves on Shabbos; Keser Shem Tov writes that when eating on Shabbos and Yom Tov one’s intent must be for the Taanug found in the G-dly vitality that is in the food and not the phsycial pleasure and one who atatches to the phsycial pleasure distnaces himself from Hashem; Sefer Hamamarim Samech Vav p. 154 “Eating on Shabbos is not a physical pleasure but a spiritual pleasure.”; Rebbe in Sichas 1951 Chayeh Sarah 18 states that even the scrupulousness of eating on Shabbos needs a measurement, and that measurement is in accordance to the amount one is scrupulous by other Mitzvos, especially Mitzvos that are painful to accomplish. To note from a story of the Baal Shem Tov who showed his students on Shabbos a man with Shabbos clothes and he appeared like an ox due to his over involvement in eating his meat; To note also from Mateh Efrayim Alef Hamagen 581:3 which writes that one may delay eating a Shabbos delicacy in middle of his meal, for the sake of Iskafya, and one who does so is considered that he has fasted the entire day. Reishis Chochmah Shaar Hakedusha 15:53 states: It is proper that one does not satiate himself with coarse foods, and he should not fulfill his desires for good foods even on Shabbos. Elya Raba 293:2 brings in name of Abudarham that one is not to eat too much on Shabbos as this will refrain him from having an appetite for the coming meal. Thus, one is to control his inclination and push away the next food even if he desires it.

[80] So is evident from Ksav Sofer ibid

[81] Shlah ibid

[82] Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos ibid states that this is a tradition amongst Chassidim.

[83] Rav Moshe, the son of the Alter Rebbe would diminish his eating throughout the week including Shabbos and Yom Tov. [Igros Hakodesh Rebbe Rayatz 7 p. 18]; Magid Meisharim end of Bo states that the Magid commanded the Beis Yosef to diminish in eating food even on Shabbos and Yom Tov.

[84] See Shlah ibid

[85] Admur 242:2

[86] Admur 242:2; See Rama Y.D. 341:1 and Shach Y.D. 341:7

[87] Admur 242:7

[88] Admur 242:2; Rav Yehuda in Shabbos 118a

[89] Admur ibid; M”A 242:1 in name of Tikkunei Shabbos; M”B 242:2

[90] Admur ibid; M”A ibid

The reason: In such a case he should not eat fish, as Shabbos was given for pleasure. [ibid]

[91] Siddur. Sefer Chareidim [chapter 33] states it is a mitzvah to eat fish by all the meals, especially by third meal in order to elevate the souls that have been reincarnated into the fish. In the writings of the Arizal it is taught that the souls of the Tzadikim are reincarnated into fish. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 242 footnote 63] In Kuntrus Achron 242:4 Admur mentions an opinion which rules that eating fish on Shabbos is a Biblical command. However, Admur rejects this ruling saying there is no legal basis to say that the Sages instituted specifically fish to be eaten.

[92] 242:7; M”A 242:1; Zohar 1:48; M”B 242:2

[93] Lit. Tavshilin. This refers to two cooked foods. [see Peri Megadim 242:1; 527:12] As for the definition of cooked foods in this regard the Peri Megadim [242 A”A 1] refers the reader to chapter 627:3-4 [Admur 11-12] in which the definition of Tavshilin, cooked foods, is discussed regarding the Mitzvah of Eiruv Tavshilin. There cooked foods are defined as follows: Any food which is cooked, fried, baked, pickled and is eaten together with bread is defined as a cooked food. Thus, one may use meat, fish or eggs. A raw food is invalid.   

[94] Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 242

[95] Kaf Hachaim 242:9

[96] Admur 242:3

[97] So is implied from Admur’s wording of Shabbos expenditures and making lots of foods.

[98] Admur 242:3; 529:4; Hilchos Talmud Torah 1:7 [includes tuition]; Beitza 16a

[99] This is consistent with the saying of the Sages that “All of man’s food and expenses is allocated on Rosh Hashanah. It is then decided as to how much income he will make on behalf of providing him food and all his other needs for all the days of that year. This however is with exception to the expenses of Shabbos and Yom Tov of which no budget is allocated for it on Rosh Hashanah and thus if one increases in expenditure of Shabbos and Yom Tov [Hashem] adds [to his budget]. [242:3] If he decreases in his expenditure then Hashem decreases in his budget. [529:4]

[100] As there is no obligation to eat specifically meat or drink wine on Shabbos, and since to this person eating or drinking the above is not enjoyable, he does not have to make an effort to eat or drink it.

[101] Admur 242:3

[102] From which the lender can collect the money from just in case the borrower cannot find the money to pay him back.

[103] Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to only borrow money if he has a business, or other means, in which he can expect an income that he can then use to repay the loan. [Aruch Hashulchan 242:44] According to Admur however this is unnecessary as we have absolute trust that Hashem will pay him back.

Chasidic Explanation: The Rebbe explains that money used for Shabbos is considered similar to Mon which is heavenly bread that derives from G-dliness that is above nature. One thus does not need to have available a proper vessel within nature that can bring him back the money, and rather Hashem compensates him on His own. This is further seen from the fact that the money spent for Shabbos is not included in one’s yearly budget allotted to him on Rosh Hashana. Nonetheless this is only to be done if one owns collateral, as the blessing of G-d must be invested in some form of action. [Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:128]

[104] Admur 242:9

[105] It is forbidden to lend or borrow money from a Jew with interest. However certain forms of interest are Biblical while others are only Rabbinical. It is permitted to pay interest which is only Rabbinical to the lender for the sake of enhancing Shabbos.

[106] Regarding asking for extra delicacies, Admur writes it is forbidden, while regarding asking for a 3rd meal he writes “not to do so”.

[107] Admur 242:4; As in such a case we apply the saying of Chazal: “Make your Shabbos like a weekday and do not become needy unto the public.” [Admur ibid]

[108] The reason: As once a person is in need and thus may receive from charity, he has to be given all that he lacks, including what he lacks for Shabbos. [Admur ibid] Meaning that to originally be eligible for charity one must lack his necessities, however, once is eligible then he is given all that he lacks, even things that are not necessities.

[109] Admur 242:5; As in such a case he has ended up placing the burden of his honoring Shabbos expenses onto the community, which negates the saying of the Sages that one is to have a weekday Shabbos rather than be needy onto the public. [Admur ibid]

[110] 242:6; Michaber Y.D. 255:1; Pesachim 113a

[111] Its implied that nevertheless if one chooses, he may ask others for help, although he is not obligated to do so, and perhaps is even shunned.

[112] 242:6; Michaber 242:1

[113] As he too must fulfill the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. [ibid]

[114] Admur 242:12; Rama 242:1; 529:2 regarding Erev Yom Tov

[115] The reason: The reason behind this custom of baking Challahs on Erev Shabbos is due to the Mitzvah to honor Shabbos. [Admur ibid] The effort exerted in the kneading and baking for the sake of Shabbos, rather than buying it from a store, honors Shabbos. [M”B 242:6] Likewise, having fresh and hot homebaked bread likewise honors Shabbos. [Siddur Yaaveyz; Likutei Mahrich] Likewise it resembles the showbread which was baked on Erev Shabbos. [Siddur Yaavetz; Likutei Mahrich] Likewise, separating Challah rectifies the sin of Adam, that occurred on Erev Shabbos, which was the Challah of the world. [M”A 243:4; M”B 242:6]

[116] See also Shach Yoreh Deah 324:25 that the women are scrupulous to specifically bake enough to separate Shiur Challah on Erev Shabbos.

[117] Gentile baked bread

[118] 242:13

[119] As for why this law was placed in parentheses by Admur, see Chikreiy Halachos 3:30

[120] Oar Letziyon 2:47; Mishnes Yosef 5:63

[121] Mishneh Halachos 15:95

[122] Chelkas Yaakov 1:59

[123] Seder Hayom; Siddur Yaavetz; Machatzis Hashekel 242:10; Likutei Mahrich

[124] As amongst the reasons for baking Challahs for Shabbos is because it resembles the showbread which were baked on Erev Shabbos as well as that it rectifies the sin of Adam which was the Challah of the world.[See Siddur Yaavetz; M”B 242:6]

[125] See “A Semicha Aid for the Laws of Basar Bechalav” Chapter 97

[126] See Shach 108:11 or “A Semicha Aid for Learning the Laws of Taaruvos” chapter 108 Halacha 2I and 3A; Chochmas Adam 62:6; Kreisy 108:12; Kaf Hachaim 108:33; Igros Moshe 1:40; See Darkei Halacha p. 242; Mahrsham 3:208; Minchas Yitzchak 5:20; Kinyan Torah 1:24

Opinions that are lenient: See Peri Chadash 108:10 who argues on the entire ruling of the Shach ibid which prohibits the bread; See the following Poskim who are lenient in certain cases even if the bread was actually kneaded with milk or meat: Kreisy Upleisy 97:1 in name of his grandfather; Daas Eish 12 and Chamudei Daniel brought in Darkei Teshuvah 97:21Hakashrus 10 footnote 33 in name of Rav Moshe Halbershtam; Kreisy Upleisy 97:1 in name of his grandfather.

[127] See Igros Moshe 1:40; Pischeiy Halacha p. 27; 157; Hakashrus 1:40; Kinyan Torah 1:24; Minchas Yitzchak 5:20 or “A Semicha Aid for Learning the Laws of Taaruvos” chapter 108 Halacha 2I and 3A

[128] Michaber 97:1 and 3

[129] Minchas Yaakov 60:1; Kaf Hachaim 97:18; This is referring to the bread baking of previous times in which the oven was often fueled with fat of the tail of an animal, and the bread would then be placed directly on the oven wall for baking. The same would apply today if one placed the pan on top of meat gravy and the like

[130] Michaber 97:2

[131] Kinyan Torah 1:24

[132] Taz 97:4; Peri Chadash 97:4; Chavas Daas 97:9; Aruch Hashulchan 97:12; Kaf Hachaim 97:34]

The reason: As the fat does not clean off well and requires the oven to be lit in order to burn the fat. [Poskim ibid]

[133] See Igros Moshe 1:40; Pischeiy Halacha p. 27; 157; Hakashrus 1:40; Kinyan Torah 1:24; Minchas Yitzchak 5:20 or “A Semicha Aid for Learning the Laws of Taaruvos” chapter 108 Halacha 2I and 3A

[134] Kinyan Torah ibid writes that one is to simply turn the oven on for some time prior to baking the Pareve food and this will verify that any leftover food in the oven has become destroyed.

[135] See Igros Moshe 1:40; Pischeiy Halacha p. 27; 157; Hakashrus 1:40

[136] Igros Moshe 1:40; All Poskim who rule Nat Bar Nat is even initially permitted

[137] The reason: As Challahs are dry and hence do not release vapor. [Igros Moshe ibid] This also follows those Poskim who rule that dry foods do not release a problematic vapor: Toras Chatas 35:6 [See Minchas Yaakov ibid]; Masas Moshe 4:30; P”M O.C. Hanhagos Horaos Issur Viheter Seder Sheiyni 37, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 92:6 that only liquids release vapor; Beis Meir 461; Poskim in Darkei Teshuvah 92:164; Igros Moshe 1:40 unless one sees that it released vapor; See Tzemach Tzedek ibid who brings the P”M but then negates his conclusion as being not substantive; See Admur 451:42 regarding a Chararah who states the pot requires Libun because it touches it most of the time, and does not mention the aspect of Zeiah [brought in Tur and Bach ibid], however seemingly, this is simply because Admur is explaining why it needs Libun, and not simply Hagala due to the vapor; Likewise, see Admur 447:9 who permits

[138] See Pischeiy Halacha p. 27; 157; Hakashrus 1:40; This follows the ruling of those Poskim who rule that Nat Bar Nat is initially forbidden. [See Rama 95:2; Chapter 4 Halacha 1];

Other opinions-Sephardic custom: According to the Sephardic custom, and the Poskim who rule that Nat Bar Nat is initially permitted, the bread remains Pareve even if the oven is Ben Yomo. [See Michaber 95:1]

[139] The reason: As according to most Poskim, even dry foods release vapor. [See Tur 451:15 regarding Charara “And it releases vapor”; Bach 451:13; M”A 451:30; Yad Yehuda 92 Aruch 53; Masas Binyamin 42:58; Chacham Tzvi 20; P”M 451 A.A. 30; Rivash 295; Tzemach Tzedek O.C. 43; Shoel Umeishiv Chamisha 4; Beis Shlomo Y.D. 1:162 and 164; Maharsham; Daas Sofer; Levushei Mordechai; Poskim in Darkei Teshuvah 92:164; Rav Elyashiv in Beis Yitzchak; See Peri Haretz Y.D. 2:14]

[140] It does not initially suffice to Kosher the oven before the 24 hours have passed through turning it on, as most modern oven walls are covered with enamel and require Libun Chamur. [See Admur 494:1 [and 461:1; 451:7 regarding Chametz] that an earthenware oven requires Libun Gamur to be Koshered from meat to milk and our oven interiors are plated with enamel which some Poskim rule have the same status as earthenware [Tuv Taam Vadaas Kama 183] However, if one has a self-cleaning oven, then it suffices for one to perform a self-cleaning cycle to clear it of its Ben Yomo status and bake Pareve bread.

[141] As some Poskim [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:49] rule that even enamel is Kosherable with Libun Kal, unlike earthenware, and here regarding Nat Bar Nat one may be lenient like their opinion.

[142] For a general summary of the order of Hafrashas Challah see Hakashrus 14:18-22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:11; Spice and Spirit Lubavitch cookbook p. 47-50 [The Halachas in Spice and Spirit were edited by Harav Y.K. Marlow OBM]; Hiskashrus 731

[143] See Hagahos Maimanis end of Hilchos Zeraim on Rambam for an overview of the greatness of this Mitzvah.

[144] The words “Zu Hi Mitzvas Hachallah” is Gemtraia of 613. [Hagahos Maimanis ibid]

[145] Shabbos 32b

[146] Mishneh Shabbos 31b

[147] Hagahos Maimanis end of Zeraim; Yalkut Shimoni Shlach 747

[148] Ben Ish Chaiy 2 Lech Lecha 6

[149] See 324:1 in Halacha we are given a very exact measurement for the amount of flour that one needs to separate Challah from. If you have less then this measurement, you don’t have to separate Challah at all. In other words, the Torah only obligated one to separate Challah if he has a certain amount of flour. What is this amount of flour? 43 eggs and 1:5 of an egg worth of volume of flour. Not only does calculating this volume not sound simple, but the measurement itself is unclear as eggs come in many sizes, so which eggs are you to measure with. Because of the various unclarities involved in this measurement, we therefore practically have today two Shiruim of Challah, one of which you separate without a blessing and one that you separate with a blessing. However, in these measurements itself there are various opinions, and we will summarize those opinions and the practical ruling of today.

[150] While in Shiureiy Torah he records the amount with a blessing is 1666.6 grams in Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:11 and Hakashrus 14:7 they record in the name of Grach Naah 1660 grams. In Piskeiy Teshuvos 457:1 he records 1,670 grams. Seemingly this is a typing error. In “Spice and Spirit” they record 1666.6 grams.

[151] Shiureiy Torah Chapter 3:3-4; This follows the ruling of Rav Avraham Chaim Naah the noted Chabad Posek, author of Shiureiy Torah. So is also the custom of the Sefaradim [see Yechaveh Daas 4:55], and is the vintage custom of Jerusalem Jewry.

Other opinions-Chazon Ish: Some [Chazon Ish] are stringent to require there be 2,250 grams of flour to be allowed to separate with a blessing.

The old Ashkenazi custom: The vintage custom of Ashkenazi Jewry was to separate Challah with a blessing from three Kvartin of flour. [This equals approximately 3 Russian liters which is 1213 grams. If one measures three American pounds, then it is 1363 grams. See Koveitz Zalman Shimon p. 77.] Thus, they would separate with a blessing from this amount and higher. The source for this custom is Harav Yaakov Viyal in his Sefer Mahriy Viyal chapter 153. There he writes that the Shiur of Challah is a vessel that holds three Kvarton of flour. The Shach [324:3] brings down this opinion and writes that this is the custom. The Aruch Hashulchan [324:10] writes that this is the custom amongst all Jewry, and one should not question this ruling.

The Chabad custom: The Tzemach Tzedek [Yoreh Deah chapter 323] writes that “It is known that by us the Shiur of Challah is approximately three Liters [1213 grams]”. This is also recorded to be the practical directive given to people who asked Rav Z.S. Dworkin regarding how much flour is needed to separate Challah with a blessing. [Koveitz Zalman Shimon p. 77] The Ketzos Hashulchan however claims that this Teshuvah printed in the Shut of the Tzemach Tzedek is not truly from the Tzedek Tzedek, as is known that many Teshuvos of other Geonim found their way into the Teshuvos of the Tzemach Tzedek. The Ketzos Hashulchan’s final ruling is as stated above that one is not required to separate from this amount at all and only if there is 1250 grams is it good [but not an obligation] to separate without a blessing. Practically the widespread custom amongst Chabad Chassidim follows the ruling of the Ketzos Hashulchan printed above to separate with a blessing from 1666.6 grams. Nevertheless, there are Chabad Rabbanim who rule that one is to separate from three pounds [1363 grams- Koveitz Zalman Shimon p. 77] or 1230 grams [Hiskashrus 731]

[152] Shiureiy Torah ibid writes one is to separate from 1615.3 without a blessing and less is exempt from separation. However, one who is scrupulous separates from even 1,250 grams without a blessing. In however Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:11 they record that one is to separate without a blessing from 1,200 grams according to all opinions. This is the opinion of the Chazon Ish. In Hakashrus 14:7 they record 1,150 grams. In “Spice and Spirit” they record 1,230. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[153] Rama 322:5

[154] Following the ruling of Rav Avraham Chaim Naah. However according to the Chazon Ish one separates 55 grams.

[155] Some have the custom to add “Min Haisa” [see Taz Yoreh Deah 328:1]

[156] As applies by all Mitzvahs that the blessing is said prior to the Mitzvah. [Chochmas Adam Shaareiy Tzedek Mitzvos Hateluyos Baretz 14:32; So writes Hakashrus 14:20; “Spice and Spirit”] However Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:11 records that one is to only say the blessing after completely separating the Challah from the rest of the dough in order so no part of the Challah remains on the dough if one were to separate it after the blessing. See also Rav Akiva Eiger 328:1 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 457:1

[157] Rav Akiva Eiger 328:1 in name of Raavad, in name of Rav Acha Gaon; Beis Yosef 228; Rashba Chulin p. 94; See Admur 457:18 “All the sanctifications of Teruma and Maaser is through speech…One calls it the name Challah”; Admur 527 KU”A 2 based on Tosefta in Teruma chapter 3 “Although Terumah is sanctified with thought alone, if one plans to call it a name the food is not sanctified until one does so”

Bedieved if was not said: If one did not say “Hareiy Zu Challah” but had in mind for it to become Challah, it is valid. [Admur 4578:18 in parentheses “Or even thought about it alone”; Admur in KU”A ibid; Michaber Y.D. 331:46 regarding teruma; Implication of Setimas Haposkim who do not mention the need to say Harei Zu Challah.]

[158] Hakashrus 14:21

[159] Hagahos Maimanis ibid

[160] The acronym of the name Chana stands for Challah; Nida and Hadlakas Neiros. In merit of her fulfilling these three Mitzvos properly she had her prayers answered and had a son Shmuel which was a prophet and leader onto Israel. Thus, each woman should Daven upon separating Challah to have children that are proper and G-d fearing. [ibid]

[161] See Hakashrus 14:22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:11

[162] Yoreh Deah 322:5

[163] If the Challah became revealed in the oven prior to becoming burnt one is to contact a Rav. The answer to this question depends on whether the dough touched the oven floor, walls or oven grates.

[164] Some write the Challah is to be doubly wrapped. This is done for purposes of respect so the Challah not be discarded as regular trash. [See Hakashrus ibid] Others however make no mention of this requirement and as long as it is wrapped once it suffices. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[165] See Minchas Yitzchak 4:13

[166] See Koveitz Mibeiys Leivi 3 p. 22; Avnei Yishpeh 3:72; Hakashrus ibid

[167] Michaber Y.D. 57:20; See Admur 435:4; Kuntrus Achron 446:1; 447:1

[168] Admur 447:1; See Shach 57:47 “21 days is a short time”; Michaber ibid “12 months”

[169] Ashel Avraham [Butchach] 260

[170] Piskeiy Teshuvos 243 footnote 88

[171] Elya Raba 167:2 in name of Shlah. The five fingers on each hand which holds the Challahs represent the two Heis of the Tetragrammaton, and the Challahs form a Yud when held. Hnece the Vav of the shape of the Challah complete the Tetragramottan. [Shem Havayah]. [ibid]

[172] Likutei Mahrich in name of Divrei Chaim

[173] Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 46; 242 footnote 105; Oatzar Minhagei Chabad 129

[174] Brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 583 footnote 46

[175] P”M 242 M”Z 1; See Yoreh Deah 97:1; “A Semicha Aid for the Laws of Basar Bechalav” Chapter 97

[176] Taz Yoreh Deah 178:7; Chasam Sofer in his glosses on 242

[177] This is similar to the showbread which was placed directly on the table after it was baked. [Divrei Yisrael 2 p. 30]

[178] Likueti Mahrich

[179] Piskeiy Teshuvos 242:11

[180] Admur 242:8; Beir Heiytiv 242:1; Sefer Chassidim 866

[181] This can be learned from the law in Rama 494:2 that a pauper may decide to do whichever he wants with the charity money that he receives, even though the donors gave it with a specific intent. [So is implied from Admur’s reference to this chapter].

[182] Admur 262:1

[183] The reason: As coming home to a clean and organized home is included within the honor of Shabbos. [Admur ibid]

[184] Aruch Hashulchan 262:1

[185] Kaf Hachaim 262:19

[186] Mishneh Berurah 262:3

[187] Shabbos 119b

[188] Shaareiy Teshuvah 262:1; Kaf Hachaim 262:20 in name of Bircheiy Yosef

[189] Admur 262:2; M”A 262; Olas Shabbos 250; Shelah Emek Habracha Miseches Shabbos 130b; Totzos Chaim [Kitzur of Reishis Chochma, written by the same author] Letter Tzadik, Hanhagos Baal Teshuvah 11; Or Tzadikim 28; M”B 250:3 and 262:3; Kaf Hachaim 250:10; Divrei Torah [Munkatch] 9:99; Piskeiy Teshuvos 250:9

[190] Lit. good

[191] Shlah Emek Habracha Shabbos 130b

[192] Kaf Hachaim ibid based on Shelah ibid

The reason: As the spider web represents the Kelipos, and starting from the 5th hour of the day on Erev Shabbos shines the ray of Shabbos [Shaar Hakavanos p. 62a, and hence the Kelipos should be removed prior to this time. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[193] Kaf Hachaim ibid; See also Darkei Chaim Veshalom 1080

[194] In Totzos Chaim ibid

[195] In Emek Habracha Miseches Shabbos 130b

[196] Shaar Hamitzvos Noach; Shaar Hagilgulim 38; Torah Leshma 397; See also Kav Hayashar 83 “One should not kill any creature for no reason, even if it can cause one pain, so long as it is not chasing after you”

[197] Reshimos 154:473

[198] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 1080

[199] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 250:9

[200] Implication of Leket Yosher “One time a spiders web was made on the faucet and he [the Terumas Hadeshen] said that it is permitted to break it on Shabbos.” [Nonetheless, it is still possible to interpret the allowance only to a vessel, such as a faucet, and not to a wall. However, the Betzeil Hachachmah 5:18 and Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 23 footnote 34 clearly rule that there is no destroying or Toleish prohibition involved by cobwebs, and hence when this is joined with the opinion of the Leket Yosher that it also does not contain a Muktzah prohibition, then it is allowed in all cases to be removed or broken on Shabbos]; See Admur 328:53 [based on 1st opinion in Michaber 328:48; Rokeaich 70; Kol Bo 31] that one may treat a bleeding wound through wrapping a spiders web around it, thus proving that it is not Muktzah. See, however, Tehila Ledavid 328:79 that for the sake of relieving pain, the Sages permitted the moving of Muktzah. However, from Leket Yosher ibid, it is implied that it is permitted even not for the sake of relieving pain, as well as that no such allowance is recorded in Admur regarding Muktzah, and on the contrary, he explicitly mentions the Muktzah prohibition even in a case of pain. [See Admur 308:56 regarding placing raw cloth materials on a wound and 328:51 regarding eye pain] Thus, one must conclude that according to the Poskim ibid, cobwebs are not Muktzah on Shabbos. On the other hand, perhaps one can establish the case to be referring to cobwebs that were already prepared before Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[201] Mor Uketzia 328; Tehila Ledavid 328:79; Pesach HaDvir 328:11; See Kaf Hachaim 328:270; Orchos Chaim Spinka 328:36

[202] Betzeil Hachachmah 5:18; Regarding the allowance of moving Muktzah with a Shinuiy-See: Admur 308:15; 311:15; 276:9-10; 266:19

[203] SSH”K 23 footnote 34 in name of Rav SZ”A; Beir Moshe 37; In such a case they may be removed even normally, as then they are considered a Graf Shel Reiy. [SSH”K 23 footnote 34 in name of Rav SZ”A]

[204] Yifei Laleiv 328:3 leaves this matter in question as to if its considered a prohibition of removing an item from its place of growth; Kaf Hachaim 328:270; SSH”K 23:9

[205] Betzeil Hachachmah ibid and Rav SZ”A ibid both argue that this prohibition does not at all apply; Piskeiy Teshuvos 250:9

[206] See Admur 316:23; M”A 316:23; M”B 316:48; Biur Halacha “Veafilu”

[207] Admur 262:2

[208] Lit. good. This is in contrast to the ruling of the Magen Avraham 262:1 who rules that it is forbidden to throw remnants on the floor if one does not plan on sweeping the floor immediately after the meal. Admur in Kuntrus Achron 1 proves that there is no prohibition involved and it is a mere matter of scrupulousness.

[209] The Darkei Moshe [brought in M”A 262:1] explains that the reason for this avoidance of dirtying the floor is due to that it may cause the escorting Shabbos angel to desire to leave the home; Regarding how the stanza of Tzeischem Leshalom does not contradict this, see: Machazik Bracha 262:2; Machatzis Hashekel 262; Mishmeres Shalom 27:8; Kaf Hachaim 262:16; See Shulchan Hatahor 262:3; See Tosefes Shabbos 262 that some omit this stanza due to the above issue that in truth the angels remain the entire Shabbos; See Likkutei Maharich for a different Nussach that avoids this problem; Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:2 footnote 18

[210] If, however, one only sweeps after the day meal, then one is to beware against dirtying the floor by the night meal. [Admur ibid]

[211] Admur 250:5; Rama 250:1; Taz 250:2; Beis Yosef in name of Chayeh Olam; Sefer Hayirah 309; Kol Bo 31

[212] The source: This is further hinted to in the verse [Beshalach] “And prepare Es:that which you brought” and a knife is alluded in the word “Es”, from the wording of “Lesim Ulemizmoros”. Thus, implying in the verse that one is to prepare the knives before Shabbos. [Admur ibid and Poskim ibid]

[213] The source: This is learned from the verse “And you shall know that your tent is in harmony” and the Sages expounded this to be referring to the sharpening of a dull knife for the sake of Shalom Bayis. [Admur ibid]

[214] Admur 262:1

[215] Admur 262:1; Michaber 262:1; Tur 261; Rebbe Yossi Ben Rebbe Yehuda in Shabbos 119b

[216] See Q&A regarding preferably who is to set the table, the husband or the wife.

[217] Aruch Hashulchan 262:1

Analysis: The ruling brought in Shulchan Aruch regarding setting up the beds on Erev Shabbos was referring to the table seats of back then, which were in essence beds which the diners lied on while eating. [Admur 262:1; M”A 261; See Aruch Hashulchan 262:1] There is thus room to learn that today there is no longer a need to set up the chairs being that they do not entail much work as do the setting up of the sitting beds of back then. The Aruch Hashulchan ibid however learns differently.

[218] The reason: This is done out of honor for Shabbos, so that when he returns from Shul, he finds everything already set and organized. [Admur ibid] The Talmud states that upon returning home from Shabbos two angels escort him to his home, and when they find that the table is set up, a good angel blesses him and the bad angel answers Amen.

Having the table set throughout the entire Shabbos: The above statement of Admur follows the ruling of the Michaber ibid. The Rama comments on this ruling of the Michaber that one is to keep his table set throughout the entire Shabbos. He concludes that so is the custom and it is forbidden to swerve from it. Admur ibid learns that the Rama’s comment was not referring to leaving the table set with its dishes and the like, but rather to leave it covered with a table cloth, and on this Admur rules that it must be covered throughout the entire Shabbos and one may not swerve from this custom. [So also learns Kaf Hachaim 262:22]

[219] Aruch Hashulchan 262:1

[220] Admur ibid, based on M”A 262 specifically mentions setting the beds of the dining room, and omits adding the beds of sleeping, despite that the Bach adds as well the beds of sleeping. [See Peri Megadim A”A 262:1] The M”B 262:2 however adds that one should also set the beds of one’s room, and so seems to be the leaning opinion of the Peri Megadim ibid, and so rules Kaf Hachaim 262:18; Aruch Hashulchan 262:1.

[221] Likkutei Maharich; See Q&A regarding other tables of the house.

[222] See previous footnotes

[223] Admur ibid; M”A 262 in name of Rashal and Mateh Moshe

This is besides for the cloth which covers the bread. The reason for this custom is because they want to ensure that the table remains constantly covered throughout the entire Shabbos, and hence even when they need to shake the [upper] tablecloth to remove crumbs from it, the table will still remain covered. [Admur ibid] There is however no Ohel prohibition involved in having only one tablecloth which one shakes and replaces on Shabbos, as is explained in Vol. 2 “The Laws of Ohel”. [Admur in 315 and M”A 262:1 unlike Bach]

[224] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 262 footnote 2

[225] Kaf Hachaim 262:21

[226] Chesed Lealafim 262:2

[227] The reason: As it is a Mitzvah upon the husband to prepare for the meal [Chesed Lealafim ibid]

[228] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeira 17 based on Tikkunim Tikkun 24; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[229] The reason: This is based on Kabala. [ibid]

[230] Kaf Hachaim 583:1

[231] Brought in Magen Avraham 262:1. See Kaf Hachaim 262:1

[232] Biur Halacha 262 “Yisader”, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 13; Elya Raba 262:3; Peri Megadim 262 M”Z 1; Makor Chaim 262; Likkutei Maharich

[233] Aruch Hashulchan 262:2 rules that all the tables of the house are to be covered throughout the entire Shabbos, and it is considered a great shame for the Shabbos if the table becomes uncovered. However, see Kaf Hachaim 262:22 which brings that there is no need to cover the other tables of the house which one is not eating on, as the Divine blessing only rests on the table which one eats on and says Birchas Hamazon.

[234] Drashos Mahariy Even, student of Rashba; See Maharshag 2:82

[235] M”B 262:4 in name of Elya Raba and Aguda

[236] Makor Chaim 271:9

[237] Admur 250:8; Machzor Vitri 191 in name of Yerushalmi; Shivlei Haleket 82; Mateh Moshe 408

Every individual or one person? The purpose of Minhag recorded in the Rishonim is to see if the food is tasty or needs any extra spices. For this purpose, it suffices if a single family member tastes the food. However, the Arizal says based on Kabala, as recorded in the Poskim, that one should taste each and every dish of food, irrelevant of the issue of taste, in order to merit the verse “Toameha Chaim Zachu.” Seemingly, according to this reason everyone should taste the food. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[238] Kaf Hachaim 250:5 in name of Mateh Moshe 308

[239] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:130

[240] Admur ibid; M”A 250:1 in name of Arizal Peri Eitz Chaim 18:3

The reason: in order to merit the verse “Toameha Chaim Zachu” which means that those that taste merit life.

[241] Admur 260:1; Michaber 260:1; Gemara Shabbos 25b

[242] This bathing [even of the face feet and hands] is not an actual obligation, but rather one who fulfills it is rewarded, while one who does not is not punished. [ibid]

[243] Mishneh Berurah 260:2 brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 2

[244] The Michaber, based on the custom of Rav Yehuda Bar Elay in the Gemara ibid, rules that the Mitzvah is to wash only one’s hands feet and face. The Rama extends this Mitzvah to one’s entire body, and so rules Admur here.

Ruling of Yaavetz-Not to enter entire body into hot water: The Yaavetz in his Siddur rules that one is to bathe his hands, feet and face in hot water. One is not however to enter into a bathhouse as doing so can cause difficulty in marital relations which is supposed to be performed on Friday night, as is written in the laws of Derech Eretz. Practically, Admur does not mention this ruling of the Yaavetz, despite him mentioning other matters [i.e. eating garlic] which are to be done to enhance Tashmish, and we thus see he does not suspect for this at all. Therefore, it remains a Mitzvah upon all to bathe their entire body in hot water on Erev Shabbos as rules Admur. Furthermore, even according to the Yaavetz if one’s wife is not pure, he too would agree that one is to bathe his entire body in hot water. Furthermore, even when she is pure it is likely that the Yaavetz was referring to the bathhouses of the past which consisted of an entire lengthy bathing ritual of sauna, steam room and hot tub. Thus, mere showering in hot water was not being referred to, and hence remains a Mitzvah upon all to perform. To note however from Kitzur SH”A 72 which states that the Yaavetz rules one is not to bathe his entire body in hot water without mentioning the idea of a bathhouse, as is the original words of the Yaavetz.

[245] One does not fulfill his obligation with bathing or showering in cold water. It requires further analysis if even warm water is valid. [Biur Halacha “Bechamin”]

[246] Admur 529:2

[247] The M”B 260:4 notes that washing the feet is no longer an obligation, as it was only require to be done in times that people walked barefoot as opposed to today.

[248] Hence in the winter when the days are short and not much time remains for the mother of the home to shower, she can simply wash her hands face and feet in hot water. [M”B 260:2]

[249] Biur Halacha 260 Lachof.

[250] So is implied from Yoreh Deah 199:2 that Chafifah means to scrub.

[251] Admur 262:5

[252] Lit. good.

[253] Lit. near sunset.

[254] This is done in order so one only begins dressing himself in Shabbos clothes in close proximity to Shabbos. The advantage of doing so is that it is now apparent that it is in honor of Shabbos that one is wearing them. [ibid]

[255] As we suspect he may come to take his time and come to transgress Shabbos.

[256] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 23

[257] Admur Kama 2:6, Basra 2:4

[258] In the Mahdurah Basra Admur writes to wash the right hand first. However, in the Mahdurah Kama it implies the entire right side of the body is to be washed first.

[259] The Aruch Hashulchan 260:3 writes that after the head one is to wash the heart, right hand, left hand, right leg, left leg. The same applies regarding the order of applying soap. So, rules also Kaf Hachaim 260:1 based on the teachings of the Arizal.

[260] Admur in Hilchos Shemiras Haguf Vehanefesh 9

[261] Kama 4:20-21

[262] Lit. “Harbeh”

[263] Lit. Tradin. This is also called silka as mentioned in The Laws of Rosh Hashana 583. It is defined as either spinach or beets.

[264] So is implied from Rashi Berachos 39a “Meiy Silka”

[265] To note that there are opinions which hold that there is no need to dry the feet if he is putting on socks, however this is not the ruling of Admur. [Rebbe in Shaar Halacha Uminhag Yorah Deah page 43]

[266] Admur Choshen Mishpat Hilchos Shmiras Haguf Vihanefesh Halacha 9

[267] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:10

[268] Machatzis Hashekel Shulchan Aruch chapter 260. Brought also in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 1.

[269] Based on Teshuvah of Tzemach Tzedek, elaborated on by Rebbe in Shaar Halacha Uminhag Yorah Deah page 42.

[270] Biur Halacha 260 “Bechamin”

[271] See Ketzos Hashulchan 133 footnote 1, and SSH”K chapter 14 footnote 3

[272] 326:3

[273] The Aruch Hashulchan [326:3] writes that although the measurement of hot water is not brought anywhere, it most likely refers to all waters that people call hot. This ruling is also found in the Chacham Tzevi 11 which forbids for women to immerse in water on Shabbos that is called hot, rather it must be cold or slightly warm.

[274] In Halacha 4 [brought above in Halacha 1C] regarding water heated on Shabbos Admur mentions “even if it will not be heated to Yad Soledes”, implying that before Shabbos only water that is heated to Yad Soledes is forbidden. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

[275] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 2

[276] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 1

[277] Background of immersion on Erev Shabbos: Immersing on Erev Shabbos is recorded in Rishonim [Sefer HaManhig “One who immerses in honor of Shabbos and Yom Tov is not to recite a blessing”] and Sifrei Kabalah. [Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos brought in Kaf Hachaim 260:6-7 and M”A 285:1; Reishis Chochmah Shaar Hakedusha 7:119; Shelah Miseches Shabbos; Or Tzaddikim 28; Seder Hayom] and so is brought in Poskim [Birkeiy Yosef 260:3; Kitzur SHU”A 72:12; Aruch Hashulchan 260:1 and 242:41; M”B 551:95; Chayeh Adam in Zichro Toras Moshe 1:2] Immersing before Shabbos is a tradition which was handed down from the Baal Shem Tov. [Sefer Haminhagim p. 50, Vetzaruch Iyun on the reason this is traced to the Baal Shem Tov if so many other previous sources exist for this custom]

[278] Sefer Haminhagim p. 50 [English edition]

[279] Resihsi Chochmah ibid; Aruch Hashulchan 260:1

[280] In order to purify oneself for the holiday. [Mateh Efrayim 625:15]

[281] Eshkol [Tefila 1]; Mamar Mordechai [1790] 1-2, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 88:1; Biur Halacha 88 “Vechen”; Shulchan Melachim in Halacha Lemoshe Dinei Tevilas Ezra 12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 88:8; Leaning opinion of Minchas Chinuch 180:4

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that a Chatzitza invalidates the immersion of a Baal Keri. [Amudei Eish Kuntrus Beis Tefila 12; opinion of Gadol brought in Minchas Chinuch 180:4] The Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid leaves this matter in question. The Ashel Avraham Tinyana [Butchach] 88 implies that initially one should remove a Chatzitza [The statement brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 57 that the Ashel Avraham holds it does not even contain a Midas Chassidus is inaccurate] The Rashba [Yevamos 47] rules that a Chatzitza invalidates the immersion of a Baal Keri. Nevertheless, this only refers to one who needs to immerse Biblically, such as in the times of the Temple. However, for the immersion of Takanas Ezra even the Rashba agrees it is not necessary. [Shulchan Melachim ibid]

[282] See previous footnote “Other Poskim”

[283] Piskeiy Teshuvos 88:8

[284] Biur Halacha 88 “Vechin”; Halacha Lemoshe Dinei Tevilas Ezra 12; as is implied from the Eshkol

[285] Piskeiy Teshuvos 88:8; Vetzaruch Iyun on his source as the simple reading of the Poskim ibid do not imply that a differentiation exists between forms of Chatzitzas.

[286] Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 3; Kaf Hachaim 581:84; This is also required based on the teachings of the Arizal. [Kaf Hachaim 260:4]; M”E 606:8 regarding Erev Yom Kippur

[287] M”E 606:8 regarding Erev Yom Kippur

[288] The above statement of the Poskim that validate the immersion of a man even if he has a Chatzitza refer specifically to one who is immersing do to being a Baal Keri. However, when immersing for Teshuvah purposes, as is done on Erev Yom Kippur, the Poskim ibid write that one is to remove all Chatzitzas. This arouses a question regarding those that are accustomed to immersing daily, irrelevant of being a Baal Keri, due to extra purity. Perhaps they too should be careful with all the laws of Chatzitza. Practically, the custom of Chassidim is to shower prior to Mikveh, although they are not particular to cut the nails and brush the knots out of the hair during this time. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[289] Kanfei Yona 1:95; Mishnes Chassidim Yom Hashishi 7:1; Shlah p. 138a last line in name of Kanfei Yona

[290] Mateh Efrayim 625:14, in name of Shaar Hakavanos and Peri Eitz Chaim; Chayeh Adam 138:5; Kaf Hachaim 581:82

The reason: As from that time and on the radiance of Shabbos begins to shine. [Mateh Efrayim 625:14, in name of Shaar Hakavanos and Peri Eitz Chaim]

[291] Mateh Efrayim 625:14

[292] See Kaf Hachaim 260:1 and Mate Efrayim 625:13; Shlah 138 that the nails are to be cut prior to Mikveh.

[293] M”A 285:1; This was the custom of the Arizal [Brought in Kaf Hachaim 260:7; M”A ibid] and so writes Shalah p. 138 explicitly in Hagah that one is to read Shnayim Mikra prior to immersing.  So rules also Oar Tzadikim 28:18 stating that if one immerses prior to Shnayim Mikra he does not have the ability to receive the holiness of Shabbos.

This is unlike what is written in the Peri Megadim 260 A”A 1 in name of Eliyah Raba [260:4] in name of Shalah that one is to immerse prior to Shnayim Mikra. After researching this seeming contradiction, the following was discovered: The Eliyah Raba [260:4] himself never makes such a claim and rather simply states in name of Shalah that one is to cut his nails prior to Shnayim Mikra, and does not discuss immersion in that regard. Furthermore, in some prints of the Peri Megadim the entire novelty of immersion after Shnayim Mikra was placed in brackets hence lending suspicion as to the accuracy of what in truth the Peri Megadim wrote. Due to all above seemingly there was a misprint in some versions of the Eliyah Raba or the Peri Megadim. This seemingly occurred due to a misreading of the word “Yitol” [take the nails] which was read “Yitvol” [immerse] and hence this caused the change. In any event the ruling of the Shalah is clear as written in his Sefer Shlah Hakadosh, that one is to immerse after Shnayim Mikra! In light of all the above there is no room for the ruling brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:1 or 285:1. [In the new edition of Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:4 they fixed the ruling and wrote as we stated above.]

Other Opinions:  Siddur Yaavetz rules one is to immerse prior to Shnayim Mikra.

[294] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:131

[295] Admur 606:11-12

[296] 2, 4, 5, 13, 14, 39 [Shalah]. The Arizal would immerse 2 times on Erev Shabbos, once to remove the mundane garments of his soul, and the second to attain the holy garments of Shabbos. If one is a Baal Keri then he is to dip three times in total according to the Arizal. [Kaf Hachaim 260:6]

[297] The Rebbe concludes “Who am I to arbitrate between all these opinions”. [ibid]

[298] In Shabbos 14a the Gemara states that one may not shower his head and majority of his body in water after immersing in the Mikveh. It is disputed as to what form of immersion this decree applied to, as brought in Shulchan Aruch 202:75

[299] Sheivet Halevy 7:33; Piskeiy Teshuvos 88:8; Even regarding a Nidda the Rama Yoreh Deah 202:75 rules that only some opinions are stringent and so is the custom. However, others argue on Rama and rule doing so is permitted even by a Nidda. [Gr”a ibid; Darkei Teshuvah 202:332; Lechem Vesimla 122; Birkeiy Yosef 202:75 in name of Rabbeinu Yeshayah 152 and Peri Hadama]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not shower after Mikveh, just as is the custom regarding a Mikveh. [Tiferes Adam 1:28]

[300] Shevet Halevi ibid concludes that it is proper to be stringent; Piskeiy Teshuvos 260:1 in name of Sheivet Halevy that so is the custom of the world to avoid doing so despite it being allowed from the letter of the law. See also Tiferes Adam 1:28which rules one should never shower after Mikveh.

[301] Based on Kaf Hachaim 260:8

[302] As the water is considered holy with the spirit of Shabbos and it is thus proper for the body to absorb it. [ibid] However see Kaf Hachaim 260:8 which writes that this only applies if one did not immerse more than once, otherwise he has already washed away the main Mikveh water. Nevertheless, he concludes that even these second waters of the Mikveh has some holiness and is thus not to be dried.

[303] The holiness of that leftover water from the Mikveh will then subsequently spread to the rest of the body. [Rebbe Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:131]

[304] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:131

[305] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 2

[306] 260:1

[307] In order so it be evident that one is doing so for the honor of Shabbos. [Admur ibid] If one has a valid reason for requiring a haircut during the week then he is not required to wait until Erev Shabbos. [Mahari Tzemach brought in Birkei Yosef 232:3; Kaf Hachaim 232:15]

[308] Due to being involved in the Shabbos preparations. [ibid]

[309] As one is to proximate the haircut as much as possible to Shabbos in order so it be evident that it is being done for the sake of Shabbos. [ibid] There is no custom against cutting the hair on Thursday, as there is with nails, being that hair grows back the same day as it is cut. [Kuntrus Achron 260:1] However the Taz [260:1] rules that hair also begins growing back on the 3rd day as do nails, and one is to thus avoid cutting them on Thursday. The Kaf Hachaim 260:15 argues on this ruling.

[310] Admur 260:1; Kneses Hagedola 260; M”A 260; Beir Heiytiv 260:2

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to cut one’s hair in honor of Shabbos even if Erev Shabbos is Rosh Chodesh, as one who fulfills a Mitzvah will know no harm. [Tehila Ledavid 260:1]

[311] Tzavas Rav Yehudah Hachasid 48 [hair] 49 [nails] brought in: Olas Shabbos 260:1; M”A 260:1 and Admur 260:1 regarding [only] hair; Beir Heiytiv 260:2 [regarding hair and nails]; Kneses Hagedola 260 regarding hair.

The reason: This custom is based on a warning of Rav Yehuda Hachasid which stated that one is not to take a haircut on Rosh Chodesh due to worry of danger. [ibid]

[312] Admur writes that the custom to avoid haircuts even on Rosh Chodesh which falls on Erev Shabbos is only followed in certain communities. Today however this is the common widespread custom, and thus no diversion of the custom has been mentioned above.

[313] Kama 4:18-19

[314] Magen Avraham and Peri Megadim 4:18. Vetzaruch Iyun as Admur omitted this.

[315] Kama 4:19; It requires further analysis why washing after a haircut was not listed in 4:18 together with all the other matters listed there.

[316] Kama 4:19

[317] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11. See also Admur 97:3 and Peri Megadim Ashel Avraham 227:2. However see Kaf Hachaim 4:90 which brings an opinion which holds that not all of the following actions bring an impure spirit. Admur however seems to hold that they all do, being that he rules that only washing with water helps.

[318] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11

[319] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11

[320] See Admur 7:2; 613:4; 92:6; Peri Megadim 227 A.A. 2 explicitly allows saying a blessing before washing hands from impurity; Mahrsham 4:148 brought in Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 2:5 regarding learning while cutting nails.

Background: In 7:2 Admur rules that one who used the bathroom may learn Torah and say blessings unless he touched his Erva or feces. Now in 4:18 Admur explicitly rules that one who uses the bathroom must wash hands. Hence, we clearly see a difference between washing hands from filth and washing form impurity, in which case of the latter it is not an impediment for Torah learning.

The reason: The impurity which comes as a result of the above actions is not the same type of impurity as that which resides when one awakens from sleeping at night, and thus it does not hold the restriction mentioned prior to washing hands in the morning.

[321] Tzavas Rav Yehudah Hachasid ibid: “A person is not to shave his head or beard on Rosh Chodesh”

[322] Admur 251:4; See Chapter 2 for the full details of this subject!

[323] The reason: See Chapter 2 for the full details of this subject!

[324] Custom of the Arizal brought in M”A 251:5

[325] Custom of the Arizal brought in M”A 251:5; Gr”a brought in Aruch Hashulchan 251:3; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 128:15; Mateh Efraim 581:50; Mateh Efraim 625:11 “It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar…”; Alef Lamagen 581:108 “Is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar”; Kaf Hachaim 260:13; 581:80 [proper to be stringent]

[326] So rules also Aruch Hashulchan 251:3; Alef Lamagen 581:108 rules that the above ruling to take a haircut prior to midday is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar and if one did not do so beforehand then he may do so until Mincha Ketana. [Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on the wording “Mincha Ketana” as everyone agrees a haircut may be taken the entire day.

[327] Admur 251:4

Background: The Magen Avraham 251:5 records that the Arizal would not get a haircut past the time of Mincha Gedola [midday], based on Kabalistic reasons. Admur omitted this custom of the Arizal in 251. See Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:130 that the Rebbe concludes regarding the time of cutting nails, which is similar to the time of the cutting of the hair, that he did not receive a directive in how to follow. The Aruch Hashulchan ibid states that the Gra is stringent against allowing haircuts past midday, although this is not the wordly custom.

[328] Based on Aruch Hashulchan 260:6; See also 251:3

[329] Mateh Efraim 625:11 “It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar…”; Alef Lamagen 581:108 rules that the above ruling to take a haircut prior to midday is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar and if one did not do so beforehand then he may do so until Mincha Ketana. [Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol on the wording “Mincha Ketana” as everyone agrees a haircut may be taken the entire day.]

[330] Mateh Efraim ibid based on Arizal that would refrain from cutting his hair after midday.

[331] Moed Lecho Chaiy 6:7

[332] The reason: As nighttime is a time of Gevuros, and hence if we avoid a haircut during Sefira certainly, and even more so, is it to be avoided at night. [ibid]

[333] Pekudas Eliezer 493

[334] The reason: So is the custom, and so was the custom of Rav Cahim Vital to get a haircut on the night of the 49th of Omer, after saying Sefiras Haomer. [ibid]

[335] Pekudei Eliezer ibid

[336] Kaf Hachaim 260:13; Alef Hamagen in Mateh Efraim 581:105

[337] Kaf Hachaim 4:92

[338] As it is common for the barber to touch the persons hair which is full of sweat.

[339] Shaar Hamitzvos brought in Kaf Hachaim 232:15; 581:80

[340] Kaf Hachaim 232:15: 7 negative commands relating to the Peios and beard; One negative command of Bechukoseihem Lo Seliechu; One negative command of Lo Yilbash Gever; One negative command of Lo Savo Alav Hashemesh; One negative command of Lo Salin; One positive command of Beyomo Titen Secharo; If the barber is poor he also fulfills the negative command of Lo Yikra Alecha; One Rabbinical Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos and Yom Tov.

[341] 260:1; Michaber 260:1; Kol Bo 35; Rabbeinu Yonah Hayirah 309; Sefer Chassidim 58

[342] As the hand nails look repulsive when they are long. However, the toenails which are not visible are not considered a Mitzvah to be cut Erev Shabbos. [Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 4] However see Kaf Hachaim 250:17 which states that the Arizal would cut both his hand and toenails in honor of Shabbos.

[343] Admur ibid; Sefer Chassidim ibid

[344] The severity of this Mitzvah: Elya Raba 260:4 records a Midrash which states “There was once a Rabbi who passed away and appeared to his students in a dream with a blemish on his forehead. He told them this is due to his negligence in speaking in middle of the blessing of Meiyn Sheva and Kaddish, and due to him not being careful to cut his nails Erev Shabbos”. This story is also recorded in Sefer Chassidim ibid and is brought [without the conclusion of the nails] in Admur 268:17 and Taz 268:9

[345] 260:2

Although it is a Mitzvah to cut one’s nails specifically on Erev Shabbos, as stated above, the question here is may one cut them on other days if he so chooses.

[346] Being that the hand and toenails are not to be cut the same day, as will be explained, therefore they cut the toenails on Thursday rather than Friday. Thus, this custom seemingly does not hold of the custom to avoid cutting nails on Thursday. [Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos 260] Perhaps however one can say that this custom of avoiding cutting the nails on Thursday only applies to the hand nails being that they are visible. However, the toenails which are not visible, and thus there is no Mitzvah to cut them before Shabbos, then likewise there is no issue if they are cut on Thursday. Practically the M”B 260:6 rules that this is the custom that one is to follow.

[347] Rashal; Mateh Moshe 411; Taz 260:1; M”A 260  

Other opinions: The Aruch Hashulchan [260:6] argues against this custom. Likewise, he writes that all these cautions mentioned by nails are not required by the letter of the law, and one who is not particular in them, has not done any transgression.

[348] It is implied that this opinion is only particular regarding Thursday, however they allow one to cut the nails on Wednesday or another day of the week. See however Peri Megadim 260 M”Z 1 who brings the Elyah Raba who learns that this opinion holds that even before Thursday the nails are not to be cut, as then certainly one will have grown nails by Shabbos. This understanding however requires further analysis as if so then what is the dispute between this opinion and the previous opinion. Accordingly, they both hold the nails are to only be cut on Erev Shabbos. This is besides the fact that this is not the simple implication of Admur, and does not fit in with the explanation of the Machatzis Hashekel [260-brought in the footnotes to follow] behind the stringency.

[349] However according to all if one is able to delay cutting his nails on Friday, it is a Mitzvah to do so in honor of Shabbos, as explained above.

[350] The reason: As the nails begin growing on the 3rd day after being cut and hence if they are cut on Thursday they will begin growing on Shabbos, thus some avoid cutting it on Thursday. [ibid] Now, although there is no prohibition involved if the nails begin growing back on Shabbos, nevertheless it is not respectful that the nails which one ridded himself of in honor of Shabbos begins growing back on Shabbos. [Machatziz Hashekel 260:1; M”B 260:6 in name of Elya Raba] The above applies only to nails however a haircut may be given on Thursday being that hair begins to grow back that same day. [Kuntrus Achron 260:1]

Regarding if also the toenails are not to be cut on Thursday according to this opinion: Perhaps one can say that this custom only applies to the hand nails being that they are visible. However, the toenails which are not visible, and thus there is no Mitzvah to cut them before Shabbos, then likewise there is no issue if they are cut on Thursday. Practically the M”B 260:6 rules that one is to cut the toe nails on Thursday. However, the wording of Admur seems to imply that they avoid cutting all nails on Thursday. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[351] 260:2

[352] The Arizal was not careful to avoid cutting the nails on the same day. Practically the Mateh Efraim rules that one is to be stringent in this matter. [Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 5]

[353] However, women which are preparing for Mikveh may do so being that Hashem guards those which are observing a Mitzvah.

[354] Ashel Avraham Butshatch, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 4.

[355] See Ashel Avraham ibid which suggests at first that the night has no relation to the day in this regard. However later he mentions that the night goes after the next day and not the previous day. So rules also Ashel Avraham Tinyana in 260 that the night goes after the day and one is to beware from cutting on Thursday night as well as on Thursday. So is also implied from Admur 260:2 that does not mention to cut the toenails on Thursday night rather than Thursday. However, see Piskeiy Teshuvos 260 footnote 84 for opinions that rule that the night does not follow the previous day or the following day.

[356] Admur 260:3

[357] See Ateres Zekeinim 241

[358] Although in Admur there seems to be a slight discrepancy [see below] regarding which hand one is to begin with, the Ketzos Hashulchan [73:2] rules to begin with the left hand, and so rules Kalbo [brought in Aruch Hashulchan 260:6], Eliyahu Raba and Peri Megadim based on Rama which mentions the left hand first.

Other OpinionsBegin with right: The Aruch Hashulchan himself [ibid] rules that one is to begin with the right hand and then the left, and so rules Ashel Avraham [Butchatcher] 260, based on the Talmudic ruling that the right is always to be given precedence over the left.

Discrepancy in Admur: Admur began the law of cutting nails with the left hand and then the right, and then concluded with the right and then the left. This is especially puzzling being the Rama concluded also first with the left and then with the right, and hence for what reason did Admur change from the order of the Rama. Some desire to explain that Admur in truth holds there is no preference as to which hand one cuts first. Vetzrauch Iyun.

[359] Admur 260:3 records a difference of opinion regarding this matter: Some are cautious to skip a nail when cutting their nails. [Hamussar; Abudarham; Rama 260:1] Others [Arizal/Tashbatz brought in Taz 260:2 and M”A 260:1] however belittle this custom. Admur concludes: Nevertheless, it is good for one to initially be cautious in this matter. [Admur ibid as rules M”A 260:1]

[360] However, by the toenails there is no need to be careful to skip a nail in between. [Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 7]

[361] The reason: As they believe that doing so brings one towards forgetfulness, causes one to bury his children, and brings one to poverty. [Admur ibid; See Ateres Zekeinim 241]

[362] Admur ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to cut the nails in the following order: 1,3,5, 2,4. [Ateres Zekeinim 241 in name of Abudarham and Chochmei Tzarfat]

[363] Admur 260:4; M”A 260 Hakdama; Kneses Hagedola 241; Ateres Zekeinim 241; M”B 260:6; Nida 17a; Moed Katan 18a

[364] Based on Kabala the nails contain danger towards all people, and are not just limited to pregnant women. [Likkutei Maharich based on Zohar Acharei 39; See also Poskim in next footnote regarding a woman who is ritually impure] It is clear however from Admur and the Poskim/Talmud [which allow discarding it in a Beis Midrash that it is only a danger for pregnant women.

[365] This refers to any woman who is a Nida, until she purifies herself in a Mikveh. [Beis Yosef Y.D. 198 in name of Rokeiach; Yesod Veshoresh Havoda Shaar Hakolel 6 based on Zohar Pinchas 248; Kitzur SHU”A 161:8 “If her husband or other person steps on it is dangerous for them”; See Betzeil Hachochmah 2:35]

[366] The reason: In order so they are destroyed from the face of the earth and there is no longer any possibility for them to become uncovered and cause potential damage to a fetus. One who does so is called a Chassid being that burning part of one’s body, even one’s nails, is damaging for oneself, hence he is called a Chassid as he overrides his own health in order to fully protect his friend. [Machatzis Hashekel 260:1]

[367] Hayom Yom 16 Iyar

[368] This is however of less righteousness then is a Chassid, as it is possible for the nails to resurface.

[369] He is considered a Rasha as he is causing a potential hazard if a pregnant woman were to walk on it.

[370] Admur ibid; Machatzis Hashekel 269; M”B 260:6; Rebbe Yochanan in Moed Katan ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to refrain from throwing nails even in a Beis Midrash, as it is implied from the Zohar that the nails have the power to injure all people and not just pregnant women. [Likkutei Maharich based on Zohar Acharei 39] Likewise nails are considered repulsive. [Nimukei Yosef and Ran on Moed Katan 17a]

[371] Admur ibid; Machatzis Hashekel 269; M”B 260:6; Moed Katan ibid

[372] The Aruch Hashulchan 260:6 notes that if one cut another item with the nail cutter after the nails were cut, the danger is no longer applicable.

[373] Elya Raba 260:4, brought in Peri Megadim 260 A”A Hakdama and M”B 260:6; See Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid “If the nails were swept outside”

[374] See Poskim ibid

[375] Perisha 241, brought in M”B 260:6; Bircheiy Yosef 260:6; Makor Chaim 260; Aruch Hashulchan 260:6

[376] Peri Chadash Y.D. 116, brought in Machatzis Hashekel ibid

[377] Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid; M”B 260:6

[378] As once it has switched rooms, the nail is no longer of danger.

[379] Beir Moshe 6:133-12

[380] On the one hand gentiles do not have impurity of the hands in the morning [] and likewise do not spread Tumas Meis within an Ohel, and do not contract impurity when they touch a corpse. [Rambam Tumas Meis 1:13] Some deduce based on this that their nails are also like the nails of an animal, and hence do not give off impurity. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 260 footnote 94] On the other hand there are Poskim which rule that gentiles to impurify food, which was under the bed they slept in, just like a Jew. [See Darkei Teshuvah 116:39 in name of Chakel Yitzchak 41]

[381] Makor Chaim 260

[382] The reason: Perhaps the reason for this is because the nails do not cause damage to pregnant gentile women. Veztaruch Iyun.

[383] Aruch Hashulchan 260:6; See Nida 17a; Tosefes Shabbos 260:2, Machazikei Bracha 260:5, Kaf Hachaim 260:18 that some are accustomed to cut another item after cutting the nails, however no mention is made that this nullifies the danger.

[384] Ruach Chaim 260:1; Ben Ish Chaiy Lech Lecha 2:14

[385] Kaf Hachaim 260:11

[386] Kama 4:18; Michaber 4:18; Kol Bo 23; Abudarham [end of Sefer] in name of Tashbatz

[387] Magen Avraham and Peri Megadim 4:18. Vetzaruch Iyun as Admur omitted this.

[388] The reason: This is due to that impurity resides upon the hands after cutting the nails. This applies according to all opinions. Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 17 writes the main impurity resides upon cutting nails that have grown past the end of the finger.

[389]  Migdal Oaz [Yaavetz]; Perisha 241; Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11 footnote 27; Supplements p. 82

Washing the feet: Some have the custom of washing the feet after cutting the toenails. [Ashel Avraham Butchach 551] This however is not the widespread practice. [Likkutei Mahrich Seder Erev Shabbos]

[390] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11; Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11; Thus, one is to avoid biting his nails out of habit due to the fact it causes the evil spirit to reside. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 4 footnote 209]

[391] Kaf Hachaim 4:68 in name of Poskim; Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] 8:27; Tehila Ledavid 4:17

[392] Kama 4:19

[393] Mahadurah Kama 4:18; Meaning that he will come to sin, as one does not sin unless a spirit of insanity enters him. [Kaf Hachaim 4:89]

[394] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11. See also Admur 97:3 and Peri Megadim Ashel Avraham 227:2. However see Kaf Hachaim 4:90 which brings an opinion which holds that not all of the following actions bring an impure spirit. Admur however seems to hold that they all do, being that he rules that only washing with water helps.

[395] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11

[396] Admur ibid; Elya Raba 4:12; Soles Belula 4:14; Machazik Bracha 4:6 in name of Makor Chaim [student of Rav Chaim Vital]; Seder Hayom; Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 4:2

Other Opinions: Olas Tamid writes that possibly one is required to pour three times on his hand just like is required upon awakening in the morning. So rules also: Shlah Shaar Haosiyos 9; Lev Chaim 1:63; Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] 7:26; Ruach Chaim 4:3; Chesed Lealafim brought in Kaf Hachaim 4:61. Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 17-wash inconsecutively; Kaf Hachaim 4:61-is holy act.

[397] Ketzos Hashulchan 2:11

[398] See Admur 7:2; 613:4; 92:6; Peri Megadim 227 A.A. 2 explicitly allows saying a blessing before washing hands from impurity; Mahrsham 4:148 brought in Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 2:5 regarding learning while cutting nails.

Background:

In 7:2 Admur rules that one who used the bathroom may learn Torah and say blessings unless he touched his Erva or feces. Now in 4:18 Admur explicitly rules that one who uses the bathroom must wash hands. Hence, we clearly see a difference between washing hands from filth and washing form impurity, in which case of the latter it is not an impediment for Torah learning.

The reason: The impurity which comes as a result of the above actions is not the same type of impurity as that which resides when one awakens from sleeping at night, and thus it does not hold the restriction mentioned prior to washing hands in the morning.

[399] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 130

[400] Kaf Hachaim 260:1 as was the custom of the Arizal; Mateh Efrayim 625:13; Shlah ibid

To note however of the custom of the Rebbe Maharash which would cut the nails after Mikveh. His reasoning was because at this time the nails are softer. [Story heard from Rav Zalmon Shimon Dworkin]

[401] Aruch Hashulchan 260:5-6

[402] The Magen Avraham brings in the name of the Shlah [p. 138] that one should cut the nails on Erev Shabbos prior to saying Shnayim Mikra [which is then followed by Mikveh]. However, in Peri Eitz Chaim it states to cut them after Shnayim Mikra, prior to immersing in the Mikveh. Elsewhere it is brought in the name of the Arizal to cut them prior to midday. This however contradicts that which is brought in Shaar Hakavanos that the Arizal would cut his nails after Mincha.

[403] Tehila Ledavid 260:1; Shaar Hakolel in Nesiv Hachaim 48:3; Shivim Temarim 57 as is the simple implication of the Kneses Hagedola ibid; Beir Heiytiv ibid; M”A and Admur ibid which omit the custom to avoid cutting nails when mentioning the custom to avoid cutting hair on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh; opinions brought in footnotes on the Tzavah ibid; See Minchas Shabbos 72:66; Alef Hamagen 12; Maharam Brisk 2:99; Meishiv Halacha 2:4; Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos-Supplements.

The reason: If Rosh Chodesh falls on Erev Shabbos, the reason some have the custom not to cut their hair, despite the fact that this is usually a Mitzvah to do on Erev Shabbos, is because one is not obligated to cut his hair every Erev Shabbos. However, being it is a Mitzvah to cut the nails on every Erev Shabbos, one is allowed to cut his nails even on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh as one who fulfills a Mitzvah will know no harm.  It thus seems that no such custom exists against cutting the nails on Erev Shabbos Rosh Chodesh and they should therefore be cut in honor of Shabbos. [Shivim Temarim ibid]

Other opinions: The Ketzos Hashulchan 72 footnote 4 leaves the opinion of Admur on this matter in question.

[404] M”B 260:7; Aruch Hashulchan 260:6; Kitzur SHU”A 72:14; Kaf Hachaim 260:12 allows only cutting the nails that stretch past the skin.

[405] Shivim Temarim ibid

[406] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[407] M”A 532:1; Chayeh Adam 109:3; M”B 532:2; Kitzur SH”A 104:12; Chol Hamoed Kehilchasa 4:5; Kaf Hachaim 532:7

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may only remove the nails with a knife and not with scissors. [Elya Raba 532:1]

[408] Aruch Hashulchan 532:2

[409] The reason: The reason for this allowance is because even regarding a haircut there are Poskim who allow it to be done on Chol Hamoed if one cut his hair on Erev Yom Tov. Thus, regarding cutting nails, which is itself disputed whether it is at all forbidden during Chol Hamoed, one may certainly be lenient if he cut his nails on Erev Yom Tov. [M”A 532:1; P”M 532 A”A 1]

[410] See Shaareiy Teshuvah 468:1; Kaf Hachaim 532:5

[411] Shvus Yaakov 1:17, brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 468:1; Koveitz Mibeis Levi 1:47 that so is the custom; Piskeiy Teshuvos 532:1

[412] Nachalas Shiva 2:57, brought in Beir Heiytiv 532; Shulchan Gavoa 532:2; Chol Hamoed Kihilchasa 4:6; Kaf Hachaim 532:5 concludes one who is lenient has upon whom to rely; Aruch Hashulchan 532:2 rules that if one did not cut the nails on Erev Yom Tov due to reasons that were beyond his control, then he may cut it during Chol Hamoed.

[413] Chol Hamoed Kihilchasa 4:6

[414] As it is permitted to cut nails for the sake of a Mitzvah and cutting them on Erev Shabbos in honor of Shabbos is a Mitzvah. [ibid]

[415] So is implied from Admur 468:6 from the fact he forbids cutting the nails on Erev Pesach past Chatzos even though it is Erev Yom Tov. See Shvus Yaakov ibid. It is thus a wonderment that Chol Hamoed Kihilchasa 4:6 rules plainly that it is allowed despite this clear ruling of Admur.

[416] Aruch Hashulchan 260:6

[417] Aruch Hashulchan 260:6

[418] Ashel Avraham Butchatch, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 4 suggests at first that the night has no relation to the day in this regard. However later he mentions that the night goes after the next day and not the previous day. So rules also Ashel Avraham Tinyana in 260 that the night goes after the day and one is to beware from cutting on Thursday night as well as on Thursday. So is also implied from Admur 260:2 that does not mention to cut the toenails on Thursday night rather than Thursday. However, see Piskeiy Teshuvos 260 footnote 84 for opinions that rule that the night does not follow the previous day or the following day.

[419] Mateh Efraim 625:14-Alef Lamateh 21

[420] Ketzos Hashulchan

[421] Perhaps one can say that this custom only applies to the hand nails being that they are visible. However, the toe nails which are not visible, and thus there is no Mitzvah to cut them before Shabbos, then likewise there is no issue if they are cut on Thursday. Practically the M”B 260:6 rules that one is to cut the toe nails on Thursday. However, the wording of Admur seems to imply that they avoid cutting all nails on Thursday. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[422] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 7

[423] M”B 260:6

[424] As once it has switched rooms, the nail is no longer of danger.

[425] Beir Moshe 6:133-12

[426] Mahrsham 4:148 brought in Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 2:5

[427] Ashel Avraham Buchacher Mahdurah Tinyana 4:18

[428] So is also implied from Admur 4:18 “Cutting his nails” and not plainly “cutting nails”.

[429] Ashel Avraham Buchacher Mahdurah Tinyana 4:18

[430] Shalah Hakadosh p. 138 in name of Tolas Yaakov

[431] Admur 262:3

[432] As one is obligated to honor Shabbos through clean clothing as was explained in chapter 242. [Admur ibid]

[433] Lit. One is to switch his clothing for Shabbos to nicer clothing.

[434] This is learned from the words of the prophets “And you shall honor Him from doing your ways”. The Sages expounded this verse to mean that one shall honor Him by designating different clothing for Shabbos in contrast to clothing worn during the week. The reason why the Sages specifically learned that one is to honor Shabbos through nicer clothing is because one’s clothing is also referred to as one’s honor, as clothing dignify a person as seen from the fact that when one arrives to an unknown community in elegant clothing, then he receives respect from the community. [ibid]

Why the above law was placed in parentheses: As for the reason that Admur places the ruling of “nicer clothing” in parentheses- See Aruch Hashulchan 262:3 which explains that only on Yom Kippur is there an obligation to wear nicer clothing than that of the week, however on Shabbos one merely has to wear a fresh pair of even weekday style clothing.

Yom Tov clothing: One’sYom Tov clothing is be more elegant than his Shabbos clothing. [Admur 529:7]

[435] So is implied from Admur and so explains Minchas Shabbos 72:71, based on M”A 262:2, that one is not to wear any of these clothing during the week. See Kitzur Halachos Miluim p. 57

[436] Sefer Chassidim brought in Bier Heiytiv 262:4; Mishneh Berurah 262:6.

[437] Admur 262:3; M”A 262:2; M”B 262:5

[438] To note that the wording of the Magen Avraham 262:2 is in opposite order “One should not wear during the week any of the clothes which he wore on Shabbos”.

[439] So is implied from Admur and so explains Minchas Shabbos 72:71, based on M”A 262:2, that one is not to wear any of these clothing during the week.

[440] Seemingly the novelty in this ruling in contrast to the ruling brought above is that not only should one’s clothing be more elegant [such as a nicer white shirt], but one of those article of clothing should be of completely different style, such as a frockcoat or Shtreimal.

[441] Ketzos Hashulchan 115 footnote 47

[442] 262:5

[443] Lit. good

[444] Lit. good

[445] Lit. near sunset.

[446] This is done in order so one only begins dressing himself in Shabbos clothes in close proximity to Shabbos. The advantage of doing so is that it is now apparent that it is in honor of Shabbos that one is wearing them. [ibid]

[447] As we suspect he may come to take his time and come to transgress Shabbos.

[448] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 23

[449] So rules Kaf Hachaim 262:28 as the extra soul does not depart until after Melaveh Malka. [300:106]

[450] Brought in Leket Yosher that so was the custom of his teacher the Terumas Hadeshen.

[451] See Kitzur Halachos Miluim p. 56

[452] Kaf Hachaim 262:25

[453] Rav Poalim 4:13

[454] The Kaf Hachaim [ibid] however explains that even Rav Poalim holds this way only from the letter of the law, however as an act of piety he too agrees that one should have shoes designated to be worn only on Shabbos.

[455] Chayeh Adam 5 brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 20

[456] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 24

[457] The Kaf Hachaim 262:24 and 26 brings that the color of clothing which one wears on Shabbos in this world one will as well wear in the next world. He then goes on to suggest based on this that one is to only wear white clothing.

[458] This is based on the writings of the Arizal which says that one is to wear 4 white garments. [Beir Heiytiv 262:4] The Kaf Hachaim [262:24] strongly writes that one is to only wear white clothing on Shabbos and not other colors. He brings a story from his teacher which once had the soul of a deceased Sage reveal himself to him and tell him that he was being punished in the next world for wearing black clothing on Shabbos.

Some Poskim however discourage wearing white if it appears as an act of extra haughtiness. [Peri Megadim A”A 262] The Kaf Hachaim [ibid:26] however rules that even when there is appearance of haughtiness, such as no one else wears white clothing in that community, one may nevertheless do so, as on this is dependent his wardrobe of the world to come.

[459] Peri Megadim A”A 262; brought in Biur Halacha

[460] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:240

[461] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 5:29; Hisvadyus Purim 1955

[462] The concept of wearing a silk Kapata on Shabbos and Yom Tov is brought in Mamarim of the Rebbe Rashab [1902 p. 231; 1911 p. 328; 1912 Vol. 2 p. 872]. There it is explained that the reason we wear silk on Shabbos is because Shabbos receives from the world of Beriya and since silk comes from an animal which corresponds to the world of Beriya it is therefore proper to wear silk on Shabbos. Now although wool also grows on an animal, nevertheless wool is considered the level of Tzomeiach Shebichaiy, however silk is Chaiy Shebichaiy. [Toras Menachem 13 p. 309]

Wearing a coat over one’s silk Kapata: It is worthy to note the Rebbe’s custom of wearing a coat in public over his silk Kapata, whenever it was worn, even in the summer. Some write this is because it is improper for gentiles to view one wearing silk. [See “Hashabbos Bekabala Ubichassidus” p. 235]

Wearing a mixed material Kapata of wool and silk: Some quote the Rebbe to have spoken against wearing a mixed material Kapata of wool and silk. Practically a source is needed to verify this claim.

[463] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 24

[464] Vetzaruch Iyun as the implication from Admur is that placing on one’s Shabbos clothes immediately after bathing is of more importance then wearing them close to Shabbos.

[465] M”B 262:11; Kaf Hachaim 262:31

[466] 242:11

[467] So rules Mishneh Halachos, brought in back of Piskeiy Teshuvos Shabbos, and so rules Rav SZ”A [SSH”K 42 footnote 13] on the basis that today we are accustomed to wash clothing for many days’ worth. However, earlier on in the footnote a suggestion is given that the decree perhaps no longer applies today. It seems from Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 22 that he too learns that the decree of the Sages is applicable at all times.

[468] SSH”K 44 footnote 13; Oar Letziyon 2:16; Yechaveh Daas 7:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos [new edition] 242:10

[469] Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 42 footnote 13.

[470] See Admur 257:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 257:14

[471] Admur 260:5

[472] However, one is not to hurry and remind his family while there is still much time left during the day, as they will not adhere to the reminder, as they will assure themselves that there is still plenty of time remaining. [ibid]

[473] Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 10, as in Eretz Yisrael one may not eat bread if one did not separate Challah from it before Shabbos. Thus, it is an obligation. However in the Diaspora being that one may still eat bread even if one did not separate Challah from it before Shabbos, as will be explained in the coming footnotes, it therefore is not an obligation to ask one’s wife if she separated Challah but is merely a good thing to do.

[474] But not an obligation.

[475] As Challah may not be removed on Shabbos. (Now although in the Diaspora from the letter of the law one may eat un-tithed bread so long as he leaves over some bread which he will remove the Challah from later on, [and thus the above reminder should not be needed in the Diaspora], nevertheless initially the custom is to remove Challah before eating the bread due to suspicion that one may come to forget to remove later on, and in retrospect it happened that he ate Tevel.) [Admur ibid] The M”B [260:13] however concludes that today the custom is no longer to ask if the Challah was removed.

Asking if the food was tithed in Eretz Yisrael: From the letter of the law in Eretz Yisrael it is also necessary for one to ask his wife if she removed the tithes from the other produce needed for Shabbos. [Admur ibid] Nevertheless today being that the Kashrus organizations deal with these separations, this question is irrelevant. [Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 9]

Asking on Eiruv Chatzeiros: Likewise, it was required back then to ask if Eiruv Chatzeirus has been done, however being that today this Eiruv is done once a year on Erev Pesach, there is no longer any need to ask. [Admur ibid]

[476] The Magen Avraham 260:2 writes that one is to speak softly being it is forbidden to enter too much fear into one’s household. This itself is due to that if they fear the father too much they may come to lead him to transgress eating a forbidden food, or that they themselves will transgress Shabbos due to fear of not serving him his needs promptly.

[477] Admur 252:17-18

[478] Mishneh Berurah 252:52; as is also evident from Admur 252:18 regarding a pin stuck in one’s clothes that it was only allowed to walk with it outside on Erev Shabbos because it is only a Rabbinical prohibition to carry it on Shabbos.

Accordingly, it requires further analysis why Admur wrote that it is specifically forbidden to carry an item in one’s hand and does not also write in one’s clothes, as we wrote above. Now, although the Michaber himself wrote “hand” that is because he is dealing with a case of a needle, of which when on one’s clothes is allowed. [See Biur Halacha 252 “Beyado”] However Admur mentions generally “an item” and thus why does he use the words “in one’s hands” at all, if in truth the same law would apply if the object is on one’s clothes.

[479] This prohibition however only applies to items which carrying them on Shabbos is Biblically forbidden. However, it is permitted to carry close to Shabbos an item which on Shabbos itself is only Rabinically forbidden to carry, such as a needle pinned to one’s clothes. As although it is Rabbinically forbidden to carry this item on Shabbos itself, the Sages did not decree against doing so near Shabbos due to worry that he may forget and carry it, as this would be a decree made to protect a matter which is itself a decree, of which the Sages do not make. [Admur ibid]

[480] Such as to hide the object if it is of value. [ibid]

For this reason, this prohibition does not apply to Tefillin which one is wearing in a Reshus Harabim close to Shabbos being that one must always be conscious of Tefillin when they are on him and he will certainly remember to remove them prior to the start of Shabbos. [252:19] However if one is not wearing the Tefillin and is merely carrying them, then the above decree applies to it as well. [Mishneh Berurah 252:54 in name of M”A]

[481] Either by carrying the object into a private domain, or by carrying it four Amos within the Reshus Harabim.

This transgression however is only Biblically applicable if, after Shabbos began, one remembered that he was holding the object and despite this continued to carry it [such as he forgot that Shabbos began]. If however one did not become aware of the object after Shabbos began then he does not transgress a Biblical command by carrying it, as the Torah only forbade doing a Melacha which one is aware of its occurrence, which means that the person intends knowingly to do that Melacha, and it is only that if in such a case he did not remember that it was already Shabbos, or that this Melacha is forbidden that he would be liable to bring a sin offering. [ibid]

[482] So is implied from Admur which mentions that “he may come to carry it from a private domain into a public domain” hence clearly implying that the person is currently standing in a private domain, and it is nevertheless still forbidden. So rules also Peri Megadim 252 A”A 26, based on the wording of the Michaber.

[483] As carrying in a Karmalis is itself only a Rabbinical prohibition, and the Sages do not make a decree upon a decree. [ibid]

[484] As they hold that a true Reshus Harabim is no longer in existence today. [Admur ibid] 

[485] Vetzaruch Iyun if according to Admur there is any need for one to be stringent, if he so chooses, to suspect for the opinion which rules that even today there is a Reshus Harabims. On the one hand if there were no need to be stringent at all, then why did Admur mention the entire lengthy discussion in this matter rather than simply stating that today the prohibition does not apply. On the other hand, the Ketzos Hashulchan [73] completely omits this entire discussion, seemingly learning that there is no longer any need to suspect for this at all today.

Opinion of Mishneh Berurah: The M”B [252:52] concludes that according to many Poskim one is to be stringent.

Requires Analysis: To note from 266:15 that Admur states that one who carried a wallet into Shabbos was negligent that he took it with him. This is not understood in light of the above ruling of Admur that today we hold all areas has the status of a Karmalis, and thus what negligence is there. [Glosses of Tzemach Tzedek on Admur, printed in Shulchan Aruch 2 p. 836].

[486] Admur 252:20

[487] Tzaruch Iyun on this Lashon, which is the Lashon of the Michaber, as opposed to the wording of the Gemara and Rambam which is “obligated”. See glosses of Tzemach Tzedek printed in Shulchan Aruch 2 p. 836 which asks this question. See also Biur Halacha 252 “Mitzvah” which explains this wording. To note that in the Kuntrus Achron [252:14] Admur explains that in truth this is not a Rabbinical decree, but rather is an obligation which comes as a result of the prohibition of carrying into a Karmalis, as it is very possible that one already has an item in his pocket, as is commonly done during the week.

[488] This refers to his pockets and all other areas of which one commonly uses to place items into. [Mishneh Berurah 252:55]

[489] Whether it being an item which is forbidden to carry in a Karmalis, or whether it being a Muktzah item which is always forbidden to carry [as explains M”A]. Now, although as said before the Sages did not make a decree as a precaution against carrying into a Karmalis, being that this is a decree upon a decree, nevertheless since one always accustomed during the week to place things in his pocket, and this is something which can be easily verified, it therefore is not even considered a Rabbinical decree but rather a true doubt. [Kuntrus Achron 252:14]

[490] This applies even according to the custom today to consider all public areas as a Karmalis. [Admur ibid]

[491] Kuntrus Achron 252:14 in name of Magen Avraham.

[492] Admur 303:23

[493] Admur 303:23

This matter is disputed there, and the following is Admur’s final ruling which states to be stringent unless it is a case of need.

[494] In parentheses Admur adds that this prohibition applies even in an area which has an Eiruv, and thus accordingly it would be always forbidden to place items in one’s pockets, in any community in the world, even while in one’s home. Practically though since even by a community which does not have an Eiruv it is disputed whether it is allowed or not, and Admur himself placed this ruling in parentheses, which represents his own personal doubt in whether it is even correct according to the stringent opinion, one may therefore be lenient. So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 115 footnote 44, and so is the worldly custom. Nevertheless, one who desires to be stringent even in a city with an Eiruv, basing himself on the strict wording of Admur that one is to follow the stringent opinion, seemingly may do so.

[495] This is due to worry that one may come to forget about the item if he places it in his pocket, and will then come to carry it. [ibid]

[496] As there are opinions which hold that there was never a prohibition made against placing items in one’s pockets while in one’s home.

[497] Mishneh Berurah 252:56

[498] Admur 262:4

[499] Mishneh Berurah brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 73 footnote 25

[500] As it is improper to accept the Shabbos queen when dirty with the filth of sin.

[501] Mishneh Berurah 262:9

[502] Shabbos 113; Aruch Hashulchan 262:5

[503] Siddur; This custom is brought in Maor Eiynayim Beshalach in name of the Baal Shem Tov

[504] This psalm is said as a thanks to G-d that our body and soul have not been injured during the work of the week. [Shaar Hakolel, brought also in Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 267 footnote 10 for other reasons mentioned.]

[505] As it is belittling of Yom Tov to recite a thanks to Hashem for removing us from the mundane activity of the week to Shabbos when Yom Tov is likewise not a time of mundane activity. [Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 2]

[506] So is the custom of Polisher Chassidim. [Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 1] Shaar Hakolel writes it is to be said with a Minyan in order to thank Hashem in a public forum.

[507] Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 1

[508] Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 3

[509] Shaar Hakolel 17:2; Shevach Hamoadim p. 14; Oatzer Minhagei Chabad p. 55

Other Opinions: Some are accustomed not to recite Hodu before Mincha of Erev Rosh Hashanah even if it coincides with Erev Shabbos. [Darkei Chaim Veshalom 704; See Shulchan Hatahor 262:12]

[510] Alef Hamagen 581:135; Oatzer Minhagei Chabad p. 57

Other Opinions: Some are accustomed not to recite Hodu before Mincha of Erev Rosh Hashanah even if it does not coincide with Erev Shabbos. [Mateh Efarim 581:57]

[511] 267:1

[512] Peri Megadim 267 M”Z 1

[513] M”B 267:1

[514] Piskeiy Teshuvos 267:1

[515] Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1:57

[516] Kaf Hachaim 267:2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 267:1

[517] Ketzos Hashulchan 77 footnote 1

[518] Az Nidbaru 11:1

[519] Likutei Mahrich, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 267:1

[520] Admur 263:7; M”A 263:19 in name of Masas Binyamon; Elya Raba 263:17; Machatzis Hashekel ibid, P”M 263 A”A 19; Mishneh Berurah 263:43; Ketzos Hashulchan 74:5; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:41; Kitzur Dinei Hadlakas Neiros 2:15

[521] The reason: As once a woman lights candles, she accepts Shabbos with that lighting, and one cannot Daven Mincha of Friday when they have just accepted that it is no longer Friday, but Shabbos. [Machatzis Hashekel on M”A ibid, based on Michaber 263:15; P”M 263 A”A 19; Mishneh Berurah 263:43;] If however one did not light candles, and did not accept the essence of Shabbos, then even if he accepted Tosefes Shabbos, he may still Daven Mincha. The reason for this is because when a woman lights candles, she accepts the essence of Shabbos [Itzumo Shel Yom], as opposed to Tosefes Shabbos. [Ketzos Hashulchan 76 footnote 1; See Admur Seder Hachnasas Shabbos who allows Davening Mincha even after sunset; Mishmeres Shalom 26:23; See Admur 393:2 regarding the difference between accepting Tosefes Shabbos and Itzumo Shel Yom]

[522] Machatzis Hashekel 263 ibid as rules Michaber 263:15 regarding one who said Barchu; M”B 263:43; Kaf Hachaim 263:65; Ketzos Hashulchan 74:5

[523] Ashel Avraham Butchach 263 says to make Tnaiy regarding Mincha alone [and may accept Shabbos]; Orchos Chaim 261:1; 263:12; Lev Chaim 3:57; Eretz Tzevi 1:60 [permits even without Tnaiy]; Minchas Yitzchak 9:20 [permits without Tnaiy as rules Eretz Tzevi]; See Divrei Yatziv 1:121; Beir Moshe 1:15; Az Nidbaru 2:2; Rivivos Efraim 4:69; Piskeiy Teshuvos 253:41 concludes that those who are lenient have upon whom to rely

[524] The reason: As the ruling of the M”A ibid was only regarding Lechtachila and not Bedieved. [Eretz Tzevi ibid; Minchas Yitzchak ibid] Likewise, perhaps, lighting candles is not considered as if one is accepting Itzumo Shel Yom, but rather Tosefes Shabbos. [So rules Chasam Sofer 65] Some suggest that perhaps the acceptance of Shabbos opposes Mincha only when done with the public, such as when answering Borchu and the like, and not by a private acceptance.

[525] Ashel Avraham Butchach 263 says to make Tnaiy regarding Mincha alone [and may accept Shabbos]; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 9; Kaf Hachaim 263:35; Beir Moshe 1:15; 8:64; Even Yisrael 8:21; Minchas Shlomo 2:35; SSH”K 43 footnote 128; Kinyan Torah 2; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 4:62; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:41; Admur ibid permits making a stipulation in a time of need

Other opinions: Some Poskim imply that she is not to make a stipulation, but is rather to Daven Maariv twice. [See M”B ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263 footnote 387]

[526] See Admur 263:6, 7, 11 that she must accept Shabbos immediately after the lighting and Kuntrus Achron 263:2 that this is within much less than 14 minutes; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 17 that this is within 10 minutes; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32 writes ten minutes.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary to accept Shabbos immediately after candle lighting, after the time of Plag Hamincha. [Rav Akiva Eiger 263; M”B 263:20; Biur Halacha 263:4 “Mibiod Yom”; Eretz Tzevi 113]

[527] See Tehila Ledavid 263:8; See Admur 263:7 that a man does not accept Itzumo Shel Yom with his lighting; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:41; There were times that the Rebbe lit Chanukah candles, and then Shabbos candles and only then Davened Mincha with the Minyan. [Hiskashrus 908 footnote 77]

[528] See Poskim in previous footnotes

[529] Mishmeres Shalom Kudinov 26:23; See Tehila Ledavid ibid

[530] Implication of Admur Seder Hachnasas Shabbos who allows Davening Mincha even after sunset; P”M 263 A”A 28 that if he did not say Barchu, he may still Daven Mincha; Tehila Ledavid 263:8; Mishmeres Shalom 26:23; Eretz Tzevi 1:60; Minchas Yitzchak 9:20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:41; See Admur 393:2 regarding the difference between accepting Tosefes Shabbos and Itzumo Shel Yom

Other opinions: Some write one is to be particular to Daven Mincha before accepting Tosefes Shabbos. [SSH”K 46:5]

[531] The reason: As accepting Tosefes Shabbos is only regarding the Mitzvah of Melacha and not regarding

[532] Admur 263:23; Michaber 263:15; Mordechai 296; Hagahos Maimanis 5 Reish

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