Chanukah Halacha-Chapter 3: The Chanukah candles

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Chapter 3: The Chanukah candles

1. The Mitzvah of lighting Chanukah candles:[1]

[A year after the Chanukah miracle, the Sages instituted to light candles annually in commemoration of the miracle.[2] Lighting Chanukah candles is one of the seven Rabbinical commands.[3]] One must be very careful in the Mitzvah of lighting Chanukah candles. [One who is careful in this Mitzvah, merits having children who are Torah scholars.[4]]

 

The purpose of lighting the Chanukah candles:[5]

In Jewish law, we find several Mitzvos associated with lighting candles, such as lighting Shabbos candles, lighting the Temple Menorah, lighting candles in a Shul, etc. There is however a major difference between the purpose of these lightings and the lighting of the Chanukah candles. By all other Mitzvos of lighting, the purpose is to achieve something as a result of the light, such as we light Shabbos candles for “Oneg and Shalom Bayis.” We light the Menorah in the Temple as a testimony to the world that the Shechina resides on the Jewish people. However, the Chanukah candles are not lit for any external purpose, and contain a purpose in it of themselves, to shine its light to people. Now, although an integral purpose of lighting Chanukah candles is to publicize the miracle, nevertheless, this is not the main purpose behind the lighting, as is seen from the fact that even in cases that the miracle will not be publicized, one must still light the candles. This shows that its main purpose is intrinsically to shine.

2. Who is obligated to light the Chanukah candles:[6]

A. The people obligated:

Every Jew, whether male or female, is obligated in the Mitzvah of Chanukah candles. In a home, this obligation falls specifically upon the homeowner, or head of household, who is obligated to have Chanukah candles lit in their home.[7] This law applies both for men and women, as explained in D. A person who is not a homeowner or head of household, and is rather a dependant of another [such as one’s wife and children] is not obligated to light Chanukah candles [on their own, and rather fulfill their obligation with the candles of the head of the household], as will be explained in C.

A deaf person:[8] A deaf person who is able to speak, is obligated to light Chanukah candles. [One who is both deaf and mute, is considered a Shoteh and is exempt from the Mitzvah.]

A blind person:[9] A blind person is obligated to light Chanukah candles.[10] [Nevertheless, he is to do so without a blessing.[11]] Preferably, he is to have another person, such as his wife or host, light on his behalf.

A person who is insane:[12] One who is insane, is not obligated to light Chanukah candles.

Child: See Halacha D!

One who is in an area without Jews:[13] Every Jew is obligated to light Chanukah candles, even if he is found in an area without other Jews.

 

Q&A

If one is not living in a home [i.e. homeless; camping; traveling; in combat], is he obligated to light Chanukah candles?

Some Poskim[14] rule that the Mitzvah of lighting Chanukah candles is independent of home ownership or living in a physical house. Such a person must light Chanukah candles in his current location with a blessing, although he is to place the Menorah in an area that the candles will not blow out due to wind prior to being lit a half hour. Other Poskim[15] however rule that the obligation is dependent on living in a home, and one is hence not obligated to light Chanukah candles if he is currently not living in a home.

Even according to the stringent opinion, if one is unable to light the candles in an area where it is protected from being extinguished by the wind, then he is to light the candles without a blessing.[16]

Must one who is traveling overnight on a boat, airplane, train, bus, or car light Chanukah candles?[17]

This matter is dependent on the above-mentioned dispute. According to the stringent approach, one who will be in transport throughout the night, from before Plag Hamincha until after daybreak, and will hence be unable to light at home, is to light candles at his current location. The candles must be lit in a way that the flame will not go out prior to the required time of 30 minutes. In areas that candle lighting is prohibited, such as a plane, train or bus, and one is unable to make a stop in order to light the candles, then one is to light an electric Menorah, or filament flashlight [not LCD], without a blessing.[18]

If candles will be lit in the traveler’s home: In the event that one is traveling, and the wife, husband, parents, or children will be lighting the Chanukah candles in his home-See Halacha 4 for the full details of this matter, regarding when one is Yotzei with their lighting! Some Poskim[19] however rule, that irrelevant of that discussion, when one is in transit, such as the cases mentioned above, he is obligated to light candles with a blessing even if candles are being lit in his home.[20]

B. A pauper:[21]

Even one who is supported from charity, is obligated to light Chanukah candles. He must go to the extent of either begging for money or selling his clothes [or getting a job[22]] in order to buy oil for the lighting [of at least one candle per night[23]].[24] 

Precedence-Shabbos candles versus Chanukah candles: One who is unable to afford to purchase both Shabbos candles and Chanukah candles, Shabbos candles receive precedence.[25] He is to purchase only one Shabbos candle for the dining table [to last until after the meal[26]], and if any money remains, he is to use it to purchase Chanukah candles.[27] [This however only refers to the candles of Erev Shabbos, if however one has enough money to either purchase candles for Thursday’s lighting, or save the money to purchase candles for Shabbos, then the Chanukah candles receive precedence.[28] Furthermore, some Poskim[29] rule that possibly in today’s times that we anyways light the Chanukah candles inside the house, the Chanukah candles always receives precedence.[30] Other Poskim[31] however argue that this law that the Shabbos candles receive precedence applies even today. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, that even in today’s times the Shabbos candles receive precedence.[32]]

Precedence-Wine for Kiddush/Havdala versus Chanukah candles: If one has Shabbos candles, but is unable to afford to purchase both Chanukah candles and wine for Kiddush, Chanukah candles receive precedence.[33] He is to purchase only one Chanukah candle and use any leftover money towards wine for Kiddush.[34] Likewise, if one has Shabbos candles and wine for Kiddush, but is unable to afford to purchase both Chanukah candles and wine for Havdala, Chanukah candles receive precedence.[35] [If, however, one does not have money to afford both Chanukah candles and bread for the meal, then some Poskim[36] rule that the bread receives precedence.[37] Other Poskim[38] however rule the Chanukah candles receive precedence.[39] If a roommate cannot afford to purchase both wine for Shabbos and Chanukah candles, he/she is to ask the other roommate to acquire him/her some of the oil and wicks as a present, and be included in their lighting. He/she may then use the leftover money to purchase wine for Kiddush.[40]]

 

Shalom Bayis precedes Chanukah candles-The lesson in Divine Service:[41]

The Shabbos candles represent Shalom Bayis, bringing peace into one’s home. The Chanukah candles represent bringing peace to the world. The above law states that if one is unable to enter the energy into both spreading peace in his home and into the world, then his home takes precedence. One is to precede his efforts in making his home a dwelling place for Hashem. This especially to one’s wife, who can at times be a Knegdo [adversary] and needs to be reversed to become an Eizer.

 

C. The obligation in a family-Head of household and other family members:

In a family unit, the obligation to light Chanukah candles falls upon the head of each household.[42] This law applies for both male and female heads of households [i.e. divorcee/widow], as explained next.

Other household members: The additional household members who live and are supported by the head of the house[43], are not obligated to light Chanukah candles [on their own, and rather fulfill their obligation with the candles of the head of the household[44]]. Furthermore, according to some Poskim[45], they are specifically not to light candles, and only the head of the household is to do so.[46] This is the Sephardic custom.[47] This applies to household members of all ages and relation, who are supported by the head of the household, and applies to all nights of Chanukah.[48] However, other Poskim[49] rule that [although from the letter of the law there is no obligation for other household members to light], nevertheless, each and every [male[50]] household member is [obligated] to light individual candles each night [due to an age old honored custom of Mehadrin] and so is the widespread [Ashkenazi] custom.[51] [According to the Ashkenazi practice, each of the additional household members is to light candles with a blessing.[52]]

Where to light: Each household member that is lighting candles is to beware to place the candles in its own area, as opposed to having everyone light together in the same spot.[53] This applies even on the first night.[54]

 

Summary:

Although only the head of the household is obligated to light the Chanukah candles, the old age Ashkenazi custom of Mehadrin is for every male family member to light the candles. The candles of each individual are to be lit in their own designated area. Sefaradi male family members, however, do not light candles in addition to the head of the household.

 

Q&A on additional household members lighting

If the head of the household is not home, or will not lighting candles for whatever reason, are the members of his household obligated to do so?[55]

Yes. If, for whatever reason, the homeowner will not be lighting the candles, then the other family members are obligated to light on their own. This applies even according to the Sefaradi practice. The reason for this is because in truth every mand and woman is obligated to light the Chanukah candles, and it is just that if they are dependents of the ehad of a household, that they fulfill their obligation through him. Thus, if he will not be lighting candles, then they are required to light on their behalf, so they fulfill their obligation.

 

Must the additional household members who light the Menorah have in mind to not to be Yotzei with their father?

Some Poskim[56] learn that they should have in mind not to be Yotzei with the lighting of the leader of the household. However, from other Poskim[57] it is evident that it is not necessary to have this in mind.[58]

 

Must the additional household members who light the Menorah, light their candles prior to their father?[59]

No.

 

Does the Mitzvah of Mehadrin apply to a husband whose wife is lighting or vice versa?

This matter is debated amongst the Poskim.[60]

 

Does the Mitzvah of Mehadrin apply when one is a guest in another’s home?

Some Poskim[61] learn that perhaps the Mitzvah of Mehadrin only applies when he is at home, however when one is a guest in another’s home, then the concept of Mehadrin does not apply, and he should thus not light candles with a blessing. Practically, one is to have in mind to not be Yotzei with the lighting of his household, and he may then light the candles with a blessing.[62]

 

Q&A on Sefaradim

Is it considered a blessing in vain for a Sefaradi dependent [i.e. son] to light candles in addition to head of the household [i.e. father]?

Some Poskim[63] learn that it is a possible blessing in vain for a Sefaradi dependent to light candles in addition to the leader of the household.

 

According to the Sefaradim, is a married couple who is still living by his or her parents to light the candles separately?[64]

He is to light Chanukah candles without a blessing. He and his wife are to join the lighting of the parents, answer Amen and then go right away and light their candles, by their room.

 

If an Ashkenazi is living in the home of a Sefardi, may he light candles in addition to his host?[65]

Yes. The Sefardi landowner may not protest his custom.

 

D. Women and daughters:[66]

Women [who are the heads of their household] are obligated to light Chanukah candles just like men.[67] Thus, a single, divorced or widowed woman, is obligated to light Chanukah candles in her home. Likewise, a woman whose husband is away from home is obligated to light Chanukah candles in her home, and cannot delegate this duty to a male child below Bar Mitzvah.[68] A woman may even be appointed by a man as his Shliach to light the Chanukah candles on his behalf, as explained in Halacha 4 [and brought next]. 

Wives: From the letter of the law, a woman can light candles in place of her husband, even when he is present in the house, and have the household fulfill their obligation through her.[69] Nevertheless, it is not proper for a wife to light on behalf of her husband, when her husband is able to light.[70] From the letter of the law, according to the Ashkenazi custom explained in C, a wife is allowed to light candles with a blessing in addition to her husband, just as is done by the other household members.[71] Nevertheless, practically, wives do not light Chanukah candles in addition to her husband [that is home], and she rather fulfills her obligation with her husband’s lighting.[72]

Daughters living at home:[73] Daughters who live in the household in which their father is lighting candles, according to the Ashkenazi custom explained in C, are allowed to light candles with a blessing, in addition to the father of the home.[74] Practically, however, the daughters are not to light Chanukah candles in addition to their father, and are rather to fulfill their obligation with their fathers lighting.[75] [Nonetheless, if a girl insists on lighting, and doing so will add to their education in a positive way, then they may do so.[76]]

 

Summary:

Single woman who are the head of their household, are obligated to light candles just like men. Likewise, a woman whose husband is away from home is obligated to light Chanukah candles in her home. Women who are part of a household, are to have the father of the house light the candles, and be Yotzei with him. There is no difference between Ashkenazi and Sefaradi custom, in this regard.

Q&A

May a wife light candles with a blessing even if her husband is lighting?[77]

If a wife chooses to light candles, she may do so with a blessing, even if her husband is also lighting candles.[78] [However, she must have in mind to not be Yotzei with her husband’s lighting in order to be allowed to light her own candles with a blessing.[79]]

 

If one came home and unexpectedly found that his wife lit the Chanukah candles, is he to light candles with a blessing?

See Halacha 3A in Q&A!

 

What does a wife do if she is not with her husband during a night of Chanukah?

If the husband is away from home, the wife is obligated to light the Chanukah candles at home with a blessing. If the wife is away from home, she is to follow the same law as a male married guest, which is brought in Halacha 4A, and either join in the lighting of her host, or light her own candles.

Children are lighting:[80] If there are sons who are lighting at home, then if they are not yet Bar Mitzvah, she does not fulfill her obligation with their lighting, and is thus to light the candles in addition to them.

 

Are daughters to light Chanukah candles if the father is not home and the mother is lighting in his stead?

Some Poskim[81] rule that in such a case, the daughters should also light candles, although the custom is not to do so.

Must household members [daughter; wife; Sepharadi boys] who are fulfilling the Mitzvah with the father of the house be present at the time of the blessing?

It is preferable for all the household members to be present at the time of the lighting and blessings.[82] If a household member was not present, he/she nevertheless fulfills his/her obligation. The person is not to recite Sheasa Nissim upon seeing the Menorah despite the fact that he/she was not present when the blessing was recited.[83] [Nevertheless, he/she should try to be present by another Menorah lighting for the sake of hearing the blessing of Sheasa Nissim.]

E. Boys below the age of Bar Mitzvah:

*The Halacha below only applies to those of Ashkenazi Jewry. Sephardim are not accustomed to have any additional family member light the candles, other than the father or leader of the home. 

Some Poskim[84] rule, that according to the Ashkenazi custom for every household member to lights the candles, once a child reaches the age of Chinuch[85] he is also required to light. Other Poskim[86] however rule, that even according to the Ashkenazi custom in which all male household members light candles, nevertheless, there’s no obligation to educate a child in a matter of Hidur Mitzvah, and therefore he is not obligated to light. [Practically, according to Chabad custom, male children only begin lighting the Chanukah lights some time before their bar-mitzvah.[87] Nevertheless, in many families of Anash, even very young children are educated to light their own candles.[88] In the words of the Yesod Veshoresh Ha’avoda[89] One is to be very careful to educate his small sons to light their own Chanukah Menorah.”]

If a child is living on his own:[90] A child who has reached the age of Chinuch [and is living on his own[91]] is obligated to light the Chanukah candles. The age of Chinuch is considered the age that the child understands the Mitzvah of lighting Chanukah candles. [This applies even to Sephardim.]

Girls below Bas Mitzvah: See above in D!

  

Summary:

From the letter of the law, children who are below the age of Chinuch, are not required to be educated to light candles. By Ashkenazi children who are above the age of Chinuch, it is disputed as to whether one is required to educate them to light candles. Practically, the custom today is to educate male children of even very young age to light their own Menorah.

Q&A

If a child is becoming Bar Mitzvah on Chanukah, when is he to light his candles, before or after nightfall?

Some Poskim[92] rule he is to light candles after Tzeis Hakochavim, after he is already Bar Mitzvah. Other Poskim[93], however, rule that he may continue to light at the regular time, after sunset.

 

Should children who are being educated to light their own candles light with wax candles or with olive oil?

Certainly, from the letter of the law they may light with wax candles, however it is encouraged for one to educate his child to perform the Mitzvah in the most scrupulous manner, and hence preferably olive oil should be used.[94]

3. Lighting when one is away from home [i.e. Guests; Bochurim; Travelers]:[95]

The following question arise to guests and all those who are away from home:

  1. Is he or she obligated to light candles? Is one Yotzei with their families lighting at home, or with the lighting of their host?
  2. Must he or she join the lighting of the host through contributing money towards the oil?
  3. Is he or she allowed to light candles if they wish to do so, even if they are not obligated?

These points will be discussed in the Halacha below.

General background of ruling in Shulchan Aruch:

The Michaber[96] states as follows: “A guest, which his family is not lighting on his behalf[97] in his home, is required to give a Peruta to the host to join him in the oil of the Chanukah candles, and if he has his own opening, he is obligated to light by his own opening. This applies even if the room is only used for sleeping, as he eats on the table of the host.” The Rama[98] adds “If one desires to be stringent upon himself and light candles [despite the fact that he is exempt] then he may do so with a blessing, and so is the practical custom.”

This law contains various points that require clarification:

  1. What is the meaning of “A guest of which his family is not lighting on his behalf”? Who is included in this statement? If a son or daughter is away from home, are they Yotzei with their parents/wife/child’s lighting at home, and thus not obligated to light by their host? If a husband, is away from home, is he Yotzei with his wife’s/son’s lighting at home? [This detail will be discussed in Halacha A in Q&A]
  2. If one is not staying by a host, but alone in a private house, are they still Yotzei with their families lighting? [This detail will be discussed in Halacha A in Q&A!]
  3. If one is Yotzei with his family’s lighting, can he choose to light the candles regardless? [This detail will be discussed in Halacha A!]
  4. If one is not Yotzei with his families lighting, must a guest who eats and sleeps by his host also light candles, or join the hosts lighting with a Peruta?
  5. How does one join the hosts lighting by giving a Peruta, and can one choose to light his own candles rather than join the hosts lighting?

 

A. Relying on one’s family’s lighting-A married guest whose wife is lighting at home [or any traveler whose family is lighting at home[99]]:[100]

Letter of the law: If one is married[101], and is staying as a guest in someone’s house during Chanukah without his wife, then if his wife is lighting candles in his home, [and the guest does not have his own room[102]] then he is not obligated to light candles in the home of his host.[103] If, however, the guest has his own room for sleeping, then [if he follows Ashkenazi custom[104]] he is obligated to light candles [with a blessing[105]].[106] This applies even if one’s meals are supplied by his host.[107] Likewise, if one’s wife is not lighting Chanukah candles in his home, he is obligated to [light his own candles[108] or] join in the expenses of his hosts Menorah lighting, even if he does not have his own room [as will be explained in B]. [Even in a case that the guest is exempt from lighting, the guest is to participate in the lighting of the owner of the house and hear the blessings from the owner, or alternatively, the guest is to light his own candles.[109]]

The custom:[110] In all cases, even when one is exempt from lighting [such as if his wife is lighting at home and he does not have his own room] it is nevertheless permitted for the guest to light himself with a blessing, in addition to his wife lighting at home.[111] [However, in such a case, he must have in mind to not be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting.[112] Nevertheless, it is better for him to hear the blessing from another person rather than say the blessing himself. Alternatively, he should light the candles before his wife lights.[113]] Practically, it is no longer the custom today for [Ashkenazi male] guests to rely on the lighting of their wives [or other family member[114]] and rather they light on their own with a blessing, as explained above.[115]

One who is in an area without Jews:[116] Some Poskim[117] rule that if one is staying in an area without Jews, he is to light the Chanukah candles with a blessing even if he is married and his wife is lighting on his behalf at home.[118] Practically, so is the custom.[119] He is to light the candles with a blessing.[120] [Nevertheless, in such a case he is to have in mind to not fulfill his obligation with his wife’s lighting.[121]]

 

Summary:

Letter of law: One who is staying as a guest in another person’s home during Chanukah, is not obligated to light candles if his wife [or other family member-see Q&A] is lighting on his behalf at home, and he does not have his own room, or if he is supported by his host for room and board.

Custom: One who is staying as a guest in another person’s home during Chanukah, is to light his own set of candles in all cases and not rely on the lighting of his wife or host. However, in the event that his wife is lighting at home, he is to have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his wife’s lighting, or he is to light prior to the time that his wife lights. [Likewise, if he is fully supported by his host for room and board, he is to intend not to fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his host.]

 

Q&A on being Yotzei with one’s family lighting at home

Does only a wife fulfill the obligation of her out of town husband, or does any family member fulfill the obligation of those away from home?

Ø  If one is away as a guest in another’s house for the night, and a family member [i.e. father, mother, sister, brother, son or daughter] is lighting candles in the home, rather than his wife, is he Yotzei?

Any family member who is lighting at home on behalf of the household, whether it’s a wife, son, daughter, father or mother, can [potentially] fulfill the obligation of all family members who are currently out of town, and are staying by a host [and do not have their own room].[122] However, the family member who is lighting at home must explicitly have in mind to fulfill the obligation of those out of town, and those out of town must have in mind to be Yotzei with their lighting.[123] Likewise, the family member who is lighting is to acquire some of the oil to those who are out of town.[124] However, some Poskim[125] rule that a wife can be Motzi her out of town husband even if she did not have in mind to do so upon lighting, while other family member can only be Motzi the out of town family members if they explicitly have in mind to do so. Whatever the case, whenever a family member who is not one’s wife is lighting back at home, one does not fulfill his obligation unless he asks them to have him in mind, and acquires them the oil. Due to this, the custom is for out of town family members to always light their own candles and not rely on the lighting of the family at home.[126]

 

If one is in a different time zone than his wife and family, is he Yotzei with their lighting?[127]

Some Poskim[128] rule he fulfills his obligation even in such a case, [if he is staying as a guest in another’s home and does not have his own room]. Some Poskim[129] however question that perhaps he does not fulfill his obligation with his family, if they are in a different time zone. Hence, in order to avoid the question in such a case, he must acquire some of the oil of his hosts lighting, or have in mind to not be Yotzei with his family at home, and is to light his own candles with a blessing. This applies even if he is a guest in someone’s house and does not have his own room.

 

If one came home and unexpectedly found that his wife lit the Chanukah candles, is he to light candles with a blessing?

Some Poskim[130] rule he does not fulfill his obligation with his wife’s lighting, and is to hence light candles with a blessing. Practically, he is to light candles without a blessing.[131] If, however, he explicitly had in mind to not be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting [such as he knew beforehand], then he may light with a blessing upon returning home.[132]

 

If a husband is away from home and is unsure if he will return that night, may he have his wife light and make a Tnaiy [stipulation] so he can light with a blessing in the event that he returns home on time?[133]

Yes. The husband can make the following Tnaiy which will allow him to light with a blessing upon returning home: “If I return home, I intend not to fulfill the obligation with my wife. If I do not return home, I intend to fulfill my obligation with my wife.” Nevertheless, there are Poskim[134] who rule even in such a case, one may not light candles with a blessing.

Is a wife who is away from home to light candles by her host, if her husband/host is lighting candles at home?

If she has her own room, then she is not Yotzei with her husband’s lighting at home, as explained above, and is to participate in the lighting of her host [through acquiring some of the oil[135]], or to light her own candles. Even if she does not have her own room, and is thus not obligated to light her own candles, she may be stringent to participate in the lighting of her host [through acquiring some of the oil], or to light her own candles, and have in mind to not be Yotzei with her husband’s lighting.[136]

 

Is a daughter who is away from home, to light candles by their host, if her father/host is lighting candles at home?

She is to participate in the lighting of her host [through acquiring some of the oil[137]], or light her own candles. This applies even if she does not have her own room and is supported by her host for meals.[138]

 

Is a son who is away from home, to light candles by their host, if his father is lighting candles at home?[139]

Based on the Ashkenazi custom, he is to light his own candles in all cases, even if he does not have his own room and is supported by his host for meals on a steady basis, and his parents are lighting for him at home.

Q&A on staying alone

Can one be Yotzei with his wife [or family] lighting at home if one is away from home and is not staying by a host:[140]

One who is away from home and is staying alone, and not by a family or host, is obligated to light candles, even if his wife [or other family member] is lighting for him at home. Accordingly, the following law applies regarding hotels, hospitals and the like:

 

One who is in a Hotel or Guesthouse:[141]

A guest in a hotel, guesthouse, or rental apartment, must light his own candles even if his wife [or other family member] is lighting for him at home. The same applies if a wife is a guest in a hotel, and her husband is lighting candles for her at home. This applies even if he is staying in the hotel, or rental, free of charge. [He is to light in his hotel room, although he also fulfills his obligation if he lights in the dining room, where he eats his meals in the hotel.[142] If, however, the hotel management is lighting candles on behalf of all the guests, and intends to acquire them the oil, then the guests fulfill their obligation with that lighting.]

 

One who is a patient in a Hospital:

A patient in a hospital must light his own candles even if his wife [or other family member] is lighting for him at home. The same applies if a wife is a patient, such as a woman after birth who is in a hospital or after birth center [i.e. Beit Hachlama], and her husband is lighting for her at home. [He/she is to light in his hospital room, although one also fulfills his obligation if he lights in the dining room, where he eats his meals in the hospital.[143] If, however, the hospital management is lighting candles on behalf of all the patients, and intends to acquire them the oil, then the patients fulfill their obligation with that lighting.]

 

One’s hosts are away from home:[144]

One who is staying by a family/host and the family/host is away for the night, thus leaving the guest alone at home, then the guest must light his own candles even if his wife [or other family member] is lighting for him at home.

 

B. Relying on the Host’s lighting-A guest who lives alone or a family who traveled together:[145]

Temporary guests who do not have a family member lighting at home: Any guest who does not have anyone at home lighting on his behalf[146], [such as one who lives alone or a family who is staying as guests in another’s home during Chanukah] is obligated to light their own candles, or contribute towards the lighting of their host, and does not fulfill their obligation with the lighting of the host. This applies even if he does not have his own room by the host. [This is the classical case of Achsanaiy mentioned in the Talmud, which requires him to light candles or contribute a Peruta towards the lighting of the host. However, some Poskim[147] rule that if one is completely supported by his host, and eats and sleeps there[148] then he is not obligated to give a Peruta or light his own candles, as he is automatically included in the lighting of the host.[149] According to some Poskim[150], this applies even if he has his own room. Likewise, it would apply even if he pays the host for his accommodations.[151] Nevertheless, even according to this opinion, it is best to ask the host to acquire him part of the oil, even in such a case.[152] Other Poskim[153] however argue and rule that a temporary guest is not Yotzei with the hosts lighting, even if he is reliant on them for food, unless he explicitly acquires part of the oil and candles. This certainly applies if he has his own room, in which case from the letter of the law he is obligated to light candles even if he is supported by his host for his meals.[154] Practically, one is to be stringent. This is aside for the fact that that it is no longer the custom today for guests to rely on the lighting of their hosts even when fully supported by the host, and rather they light their own candles with a blessing.[155]]

Where to light if the temporary guest is eating and sleeping in two different areas: See Halacha 9C!

A permanent guest:[156] One who eats and sleeps by his host on a steady basis, [such as a relative or non-paying boarder], then he is considered as part of his household and is not obligated to light his own candles, or join his hosts lighting with a Peruta, [even if he has his own room[157]] and his family is not lighting on his behalf at home. If, however, one is only a temporary guest, then he must either light his own candles, or contribute a Peruta to the lighting of the host, as stated above. [Likewise, if one is a paying permanent guest, such as a boarder, then according to some Poskim[158], he is not considered part of the household and must contribute to the lighting of the host, or light his own candles. However, according to other Poskim[159], he is always included in the lighting of the host, if he relies on them for food, as stated above.] Practically, the custom today is for all Ashkenazi male guests not to rely on the lighting of their host, even when one is a long-term resident of that household, and rather they light their own candles with a blessing.[160] [In such a case, he is to intend not to fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his host.[161]]

 

Summary:

One who is staying as a guest in another person’s home during Chanukah, and his wife [or other family member] is not lighting on his behalf at home, then he/she is obligated to light candles, or contribute a Peruta to the lighting of the host. This applies even if the guest does not have his own room, and is supported by his host for room and board during their stay. However, one who is a [non-paying] boarder, or other form of permanent guest, is not obligated to light his own candles. Nonetheless, the custom is for Ashkenazi male guests not to rely on the lighting of their host, even when one is a long-term resident of that household, and rather they light their own candles with a blessing. In such a case, he is to intend not to fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his host.

Q&A

If one lives on their own and is visiting his parents for Chanukah, is he/she obligated to light their own candles?

All children, and children in-laws, who do not live with their parents or parent’s in-law, and are visiting for Chanukah, are obligated to light their own candles, or join the parent in the lighting through acquiring some of the oil. According to Ashkenazi custom, all male children or son in-laws, are to light their own candles with a blessing rather than join the lighting of their parents.

 

Is a household member who purchases his own food [meals] included in the lighting of the leader of the house?[162]

No. One who eats their own food is not considered part of the household that he lives in. Accordingly, he must either light his own candles, or join the lighting of the household through acquiring part of the oil. However, some Poskim[163] rule that in such a case it is not valid to join the lighting of the household through acquiring part of their oil, and the only option is for the person to light their own candle. [See E in Q&A! Thus, a border or permanent guest who purchases their own food, is to light their own candles. This applies whether for a male or female.]

 

If one is eating at one host and sleeping by another where is he to light candles?

He is to light in the area that he is eating.[164] However, some Poskim[165] rule that if the two areas of eating and sleeping are a distance from each other then he should light in the area that he will be sleeping. 

 

C. Bochurim/Bochurot-Yeshiva students, Seminary girls and soldiers in the army:

Lives in a dormitory:[166]  Bochurim [single Yeshiva students, as well as Bochurot, single girls] who are in Yeshiva [or seminary] do not fulfill their obligation with the lighting of their parents or Rosh Yeshiva, and are thus required to light candles with a blessing from the letter of the law, and not merely due to the Ashkenazi custom of Mehadrin.[167] [However, some Poskim[168] rule that students of a Yeshiva and seminary do fulfill their obligation with the lighting of their parents or Rosh Yeshiva, and are thus not obligated to light candles from the letter of the law. Thus, according to this opinion, and according to the ruling of the Sefaradim that only one candle is lit per household, the students are specifically not to light candles, and if they choose to do so, are not to recite a blessing.[169] However, for Ashkenazim, even if we were to accept the notion that they fulfill their obligation with the lighting of their parents or Rosh Yeshiva, they would still light candles with a blessing [having in mind not to fulfill their obligation with their parents or Rosh Yeshiva’s lighting[170]] as is their custom of Mehadrin.[171]]

Boards in a home:[172] If a male or female student [Bochur or Bachura] boards in a home and relies on them for all his/her meals, then if they pay for their accommodations, then according to some Poskim[173], he/she is not considered part of the household and must contribute to the lighting of the host, or light his own candles. However, according to other Poskim[174], he/she is always included in the lighting of the host, if he relies on them for food, as stated above. If, however, their accommodations are free, he/she is not obligated to light candles or join the Baal Habayis in his lighting by acquiring part of his oil. Either way, according to the Ashkenazi custom of Mehadrin, all men light candles even when they are exempt. [However according to the Sefaradi custom of Mehadrin they are not to light in such a case.[175]]

Soldiers in IDF bases: Soldiers in the army follow the same dispute regarding Yeshiva Bochurim, and seminary students, regarding if they fulfill their obligation with their parents. Nonetheless, according to all, the entire soldier population who live on base fulfill their obligation with a single set of candles that are lit [in the dining room] by an army representative on their behalf, and from the letter of the law do not have to light their own candles.[176] However, according to the Ashkenazi custom of Mehadrin, all men light candles even when they are exempt.

Where are Yeshiva students and seminary girls to light candles? See Halacha 9!

D. One who lives on his own, but relies on his parents, or a family, for his meals: [177]

On a steady basis: If one lives on his own, but relies on his parents [or other household] for his meals [i.e. eats by them], then if he does so on a steady basis, he is considered a dependent of his parents [or of that household].[178] However, since he lives on his own, he must nevertheless light candles in the area that he lives.[179] [Some Poskim[180] say without a blessing, and other Poskim[181] say with a blessing.] Other Poskim[182] however rule that in today’s times that we light inside the house, there is no need to light by his home, and he thus fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his parents [or by the household that he eats]. Nonetheless, the custom is for Ashkenazi male guests not to rely on the lighting of their household and to always light separately with a blessing, as explained in A and B.[183]

On a non-steady basis-A guest:[184] If one lives on his own, and is eating by his parents or other family during Chanukah [i.e. as a guest], then if he does not rely on his parents [or host] for his meal on a steady basis, he is considered an independent and does not fulfill his obligation with the lighting of his parents [or host]. Furthermore, it does not even help for him to join the lighting of his parents or host through acquiring part of the oil, and he rather must light candles on his own [with a blessing[185]], in the area he sleeps.[186]

E. Joining the head of the household in his lighting:[187]

Purchasing his oil and wicks:[188] In all cases that a guest is required to light candles, an alternative to the guest lighting his own candles, is for the guest to give a Perutah[189] worth of money to the host, to acquire a portion of the oil [and wicks[190]] which the host will use. [The guest is to tell the host that he is giving him the Peruta in order to acquire some of the oil and wicks for this night, or for all eight nights. The host is to reply that he is acquiring to him some of the oil, in exchange for this Peruta.[191]] Nonetheless, in all cases that the guest is obligated to light, it is better for the guest to light himself rather than acquire some of the oil from the host.[192] Practically, it is no longer the custom today for [Ashkenazi male] guests to join the lighting of their hosts and rather they light their own candles with a blessing, as explained above in Halacha A and B.

Acquiring as present:[193] Alternatively to the guest purchasing the oil from his host, the host may give him part of the oil as a present, through doing a form of acquisition with the guest. [Nonetheless, it is better to acquire the oil and wicks with one’s money than receive it as a present.[194]]

Adding extra oil on behalf of guest:[195] In a case that the guest acquired some of the oil from the host in order to fulfill his obligation, as stated above, the host must add a slight[196] amount of extra oil in his candle on behalf of his guest.[197] [If the host is accustomed to fill the bulbs until the top with oil, he is to explicitly state that he is placing some of the oil, which surpasses the half hour minimum, on the behalf of the guest, otherwise the joining of the guest is invalid.[198]]

Being present during the lighting: Whenever the guest is fulfilling his obligation through acquiring some of the oil of the host, he must be present while the host lights and recites the blessings over the candles.[199]

 

Q&A

If the guest was not present at the time of the lighting does he fulfill his obligation?

Yes.[200] However some Poskim[201] rule he has not fulfilled the blessing of Sheasa Nissim or Shehechiyanu on the first night, and he must thus say that blessing upon seeing candles. Other Poskim[202] however rule he has fulfilled his obligation with the emissary. Practically one is not to repeat the blessings.[203]

If many people are staying together[204] in the same area [i.e. hotel guests; rental apartment], may one person be appointed to light on behalf of all the residents?

Some Poskim[205] rule that the ability to monetarily join the lighting of a household, is only valid when one is a guest of that household, and relies on them for his meal. However, if he purchases food for his own meals then he is not defined as a guest and cannot join the lighting of the household, and must rather light candles on his own. Accordingly, if all members of a house are equal owners [such as roommates], and have their own food, then they all have to light their own candles. Other Poskim[206] however rule that the ability to join another’s lighting applies in all cases that one is living in the same home, even if one supplies his own food and is not considered the other person’s guest. [Practically, both men and women are to light their own candles and not join the lighting of a roommate, although those who are lenient have upon whom to rely.]

Is a household member who purchases his own food [meals] included in the lighting of the leader of the house?[207]

No. One who eats their own food is not considered part of the household that he lives in. [Accordingly, he must light his own candles, and whether he can join the lighting of the household through acquiring part of the oil is dependent on the dispute mentioned above.]

General summary of guests lighting

A. letter of law:

A guest is required to light candles with a blessing, or contribute towards the hosts lighting, in any of the following cases:

1. One is not staying in another person’s home [i.e. he is in a hotel, summer home, or  rental]. in such a case, he must light Chanukah candles with a blessing in the home that he is currently living in, even if his family is lighting in his original home.

2. One is a temporary guest in another person’s home, but has his own room.

3. One is a temporary guest in another person’s home, and does not have his own room, but does not have anyone lighting on his behalf at home, and does not rely on his host for his meals.

The only scenario in which a temporary guest is not required to light candles is if all the following conditions are fulfilled:

1. One’s wife [or parents, or children] is lighting on his behalf in his home.

2. One is staying in another person’s home.

3. One does not have his own room.

*If one is a permanent guest of his host and is supported by him for meals without payment, he is considered part of his household, and fulfills his obligation with their lighting, without any conditions attached.

 

B. Custom:

Even in the scenario that one is exempt from lighting, one may choose to light candles with a blessing if he has in mind to not fulfill his obligation with his wife’s [or families] lighting at home. Practically, so is the Ashkenazi custom of men.

4. Appointing an emissary to light the candles on one’s behalf:[208]

One may appoint an emissary to light the Chanukah candles on his behalf. One may even appoint a person who has already lit the candles and fulfilled his obligation, so long as he is present during the lighting, as explained next.[209] Thus, a woman may appoint a man to light on her behalf, even if the man has already lit.[210] [Nevertheless, Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mebeshlucho, and hence if one is able to light the candles himself, he is to do in all cases, rather than have another light on his behalf.[211]]

Being present during the lighting of the emissary: One must be present during the lighting of his emissary, and hear the blessings recited from him.[212] One fulfills his obligation even if he did not answer Amen to the blessing.[213] If one will not be present during the lighting of the emissary, then the emissary may not recite a blessing.[214] [If one was not present during the lighting, then although he has fulfilled the Mitzvah of lighting the candles[215], some Poskim[216] rule he has not fulfilled the blessing of Sheasa Nissim or Shehechiyanu on the first night, and he must thus say that (those) blessing(s) upon seeing Chanukah candles. Other Poskim[217] however rule he has fulfilled his obligation with the emissary. Practically, one is not to repeat the blessings.[218] Initially, however, if there is no person present, at the time of the emissaries lighting, who plans to fulfill his obligation with the current lighting, then one may not have the emissary light at all.[219]]

Appointing a woman:[220] A man may appoint a woman as an emissary to light the Chanukah candles on his behalf, and fulfill his obligation through hearing her say the blessing.[221] This applies whether or not the woman is one’s wife, and applies even if the woman has already lit her own candles and fulfilled the Mitzvah.[222] A woman may thus light candles on behalf of her household, as explained in Halacha 2D. Nevertheless, it is not proper for a wife to light on behalf of her husband, when her husband is able to light.[223]

Appointing a child as an emissary:[224] One may not appoint a child to light the candles on his/her behalf [even if he has reached the age of Chinuch[225]], and if he does so the lighting is invalid, even if the adult placed the candles there [and even if he did so under adult supervision[226]].[227] Some Poskim[228] however rule it is permitted to appoint a child who has reached the age of Chinuch to light the candles on one’s behalf.  Practically, even a child who has reached the age of Chinuch is invalid.[229]

Appointing a Cheresh or Shoteh:[230] One may not appoint a Cheresh or Shoteh to light the candles on his/her behalf, and if he does so the lighting is invalid, even if the adult placed the candles there.

May one light the first candle and have another light the rest?[231] [In a time of need[232]] one may have one person recite the blessings and light the first candle and have others light the remaining candles.[233] [However, initially, one is to light all the candles himself and not delegate the lighting of other candles to other people.[234] For this reason, one is not to delegate his child to light one of the Chanukah candles, even if one desires to educate him in the Mitzvah. One may however have the child light the Shamash, which is also a slight Mitzvah.[235]] Regarding if one may have one person say the blessings and another lights the candles-see Halacha 4 in Q&A!

 

Summary:

One may appoint another man or women above Bar/Bas Mitzvah to light the Chanukah candles on one’s behalf, even if the person has already lit the candles and fulfilled his obligation, so long as he is present during the lighting. Nonetheless, it is best for one to personally light the candles in all cases.

Q&A

If one’s father is a Cheresh or Shoteh, who is to light the Chanukah candles?

One must have a different household member light the candles on behalf of the family.

Who is to recite the blessings when another person is lighting the candles on one’s behalf?[236]

Ø  Example: An ill person who cannot move from his bed asked someone to light the candles for him in his room. Who should say the blessings; the ill person or the person lighting?

If the person for whom the candles is being lit, knows how to recite the blessings, then he is to recite it, and not have the emissary say it. If, however, one does not know how to recite the blessing, then the emissary is to recite it.

What is the Nussach of the blessing when reciting the blessing on behalf of another?

Some Poskim[237] say that an emissary who is lighting candles on behalf of another, in their presence, is to recite “Al Hadlakas Ner Chanukah”. The custom however is to recite the regular Nussach as is recited by one who is fulfilling the Mitzvah.[238] 

When an emissary lights on behalf of another person on the first night, is he to also say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?[239]

Yes [if the person who the candles were lit on his behalf does not know how to recite the blessing].

May a gentile light on one’s behalf?[240]

No.[241] A gentile is an invalid Shliach to light on one’s behalf and if one does so he does not fulfill his obligation. Thus, an elderly man who has a gentile caretaker may not have in light the candles on his behalf and may only assist the Jew in doing the lighting.

5. When to light the Chanukah candles:[242]

A. The initial time:                                               

The end of sunset:[243] The candles are to initially[244] be lit at the end of sunset.[245] It is not to be lit prior to sunset, nor after the conclusion of sunset.[246] Some Poskim[247] however rule that today since anyways the lighting is done inside the house, there is no obligation to be careful to light on time [and rather one is to light the candles when one’s family is all present[248]].[249] Practically, it is proper to be careful in this matter, even in today’s times that the custom is to light indoors.[250]

When is the end of sunset?[251] The end of sunset refers to nightfall/Tzeis Hakochavim.[252] Accordingly, the candles should be lit right after nightfall [after Maariv[253]].[254] [Other Poskim[255] however rule the candles are to be lit prior to nightfall, at the beginning of Bein Hashmashos, which is right after sunset.[256] Practically, those who Daven Maariv immediately after nightfall[257] should follow this view and light the candles before nightfall.[258] The Chabad custom is to light [after sunset[259]] between Mincha and Maariv.[260] See Q&A for the exact time of lighting according to Chabad Minhag. Those who light after sunset are to place enough oil to last 30 minutes after nightfall.[261]]

B. Bedieved-Until what time may one light:

Being careful to light at least within a half hour after nightfall:[262] If one forgot or delayed and did not light the candles after sunset [by nightfall], then he is to light the candles within a half hour after nightfall.[263] The candles are to remain lit for at least 30 minutes, even when lighting after nightfall.[264] [Some Poskim[265] rule that in today’s times that people work after nightfall, one who did not light candles by the correct time, may even initially do so until the time that stores close, and is not limited to the first half hour of the night. Other Poskim[266] however, negate this ruling.]

When lighting after nightfall, should one first Daven Maariv or first light? If one did not light before nightfall, he should first Daven Maariv and then light the candles.[267] Those who light after nightfall, and Daven Maariv beforehand, should prepare the candles before Maariv, in order so they can light immediately upon returning from Shul.[268] [If, however, there is no Minyan available at this time, or one is unable to go to Shul at this time for whatever reason, then he should precede the candle lighting, and Daven Maariv later with a Minyan. The same applies if one has a set Minyan of Maariv that he Davens by later on at night, that he should precede the candle lighting.[269] The candles that are customarily lit in Shul, are to be lit before Maariv, even in the event that the time of Maariv has already arrived, and they were not yet lit.[270]]

If it is already a half hour past nightfall:[271] If one did not light within half an hour from nightfall, he may still light [with a blessing[272]] throughout the night, [until daybreak[273]].[274] Nevertheless, one may only light with a blessing if ones family is still awake and will be present by the lighting.[275] If they are all sleeping one is to light the candles without a blessing.[276] In such a case, it is best to wake them up in order to be allowed to say the blessing.[277] It suffices to wake up even one family member in order to be able to light the candles with a blessing.[278] [The need for people to still be awake, however, only applies from when people are no longer found outside on the streets. Though, so long as there are still people outside, one may light with a blessing, even if one is alone at home, or everyone is sleeping. Based on this, some[279] write that one may light with a blessing until 9:00 pm, even if no one is present. Others[280] write one may light with a blessing even if no one is present until 12:00 PM.] The candles are to be lit for at least 30 minutes even when lighting very late into the night.[281]

If the morning has arrived:[282] If the entire night passed and one did not yet light candles, the opportunity is lost and he can no longer fulfill the Mitzvah.[283] The night is considered to have ended starting from Alos Hashachar, and thus once Alos arrives, the Mitzvah can no longer be fulfilled.[284] In such a case, one is nevertheless to continue lighting the same amount of candles as everyone else on the next night[285], even though he did not light the night before.[286] [One who missed a night, and is pained that he cannot make it up, can place double the amount of oil corresponding to both nights.[287]]

C. Lighting before sunset in times of need:[288]

As stated above, one is not to light the candles before the end of sunset. However, if one will be occupied [after sunset and will hence be unable to light the Menorah at that time[289]], there are opinions[290] who rule that one may light the candles [with a blessing[291]] before sunset, starting from Plag Hamincha. [Plag Hamincha is 11/4 Zmaniyos[292] hours prior to sunset.[293] Practically, one may rely on this opinion in a time of need, and so is done in Shuls which light the Menorah after Mincha, before sunset, and so is done on in all homes on Erev Shabbos. Likewise, Bedieved, if one lit the candles after Plag Hamincha even not in a time of need, he fulfils his obligation.[294] If, however, one lit the candles prior to Plag Hamincha, he does not fulfill his obligation, and is required to extinguish the candles and relight them at the proper time.[295]] When lighting after Plag Hamincha, one must place [before lighting[296]] enough oil for the candle to last for a half hour past nightfall.[297] [If one did not place enough oil to last this amount of time, he is to extinguish the candle and relight it without a blessing after filling it with the proper amount of oil.[298]]

 

Summary:

One is to initially light the Menorah after sunset, prior to nightfall, which is the time between Mincha and Maariv. If one did not light at that time he is to light immediately after nightfall. If he did not light at that time, he is to light within half an hour from nightfall. If he did not light within that time he is to light anytime up until daybreak. A blessing may be said so long as there is someone still awake in the home.

Q&A on the proper time to light

According to Chabad custom, when exactly between sunset and nightfall is one to light the candles?

One is to light the candles at least 20 minutes before nightfall.[299] Thus, in Eretz Yisrael, one is to light immediately after sunset, which is approximately twenty minutes before nightfall.[300] In New York, one is to light approximately 10-15 minutes after sunset, which is approximately twenty minutes before nightfall.[301] Some of Anash in Eretz Yisrael also have the custom to light exactly 10 minutes after sunset, which is only 10 minutes before nightfall.[302]

 If by lighting on time one will be unable to stay near the candles for a half hour, may he light later on in the night?

Some[303] write it is better to light later in the night, at a time that he will be able to stay near the candles.

 

If one’s wife or/and daughters will not be coming home until after nightfall, is one to delay the lighting until they arrive?

It is proper even in today’s times [that the custom is to light indoors], to initially light the candles at its proper time [i.e. immediately after sunset/nightfall, each in accordance to their custom, and no later than within a half hour past nightfall[304]], as explained in Halacha A.[305] Nevertheless, if the members one’s household are not currently present, it is proper to delay the lighting until one’s household is present, in order to publicize the miracle.[306] [This certainly applies to one’s wife and daughters, who are included in one’s lighting, and are Yotzei the Mitzvah/blessings with him. Nonetheless, as stated above, initially one is to arrange for all family members to be present during the proper time of lighting. If majority of the household members are present, then seemingly there is no need to delay the lighting on behalf of one or two household members who have yet to arrive.[307] Nonetheless, a husband is to delay lighting until his wife arrives home, even in such a case.]

Until what time may one delay:[308] If a family member will only arrive home past midnight, one is not to delay the lighting on their behalf. This applies even if one is waiting for his wife to arrive home.  

If a family member was not present by the lighting, must they light or recite the blessing of Sheasa Nissim? If a household member was not present, he/she nevertheless fulfills his/her obligation. Nevertheless, he/she should try to be present by another Menorah lighting for the sake of hearing the blessing of Sheasa Nissim, as explained in Halacha 2D.

 

If a husband/father will be arriving home very late should the wife/daughter light before him arriving?

The wife is to delay the lighting until her husband returns home, if he will return home before midnight.[309] [Nevertheless, if the children will be sleeping by the time of the husband’s arrival, then it is best to have the wife light candles for the family.[310]]

May the husband light his own candles upon returning home? In all cases that the wife will be lighting before her husband returns home, the husband is to have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with her, and upon his return home he can light with a blessing if there are members of the household still awake. [311] If he did not have in mind to not be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting, and when he came home he unexpectedly realized that his wife had lit, then some Poskim[312] rule he does not fulfill his obligation with his wife’s lighting, and is to hence light candles with a blessing. Practically, however, he is to light candles without a blessing.[313]

 

If a child is becoming Bar Mitzvah on Chanukah, when is he to light his candles, before or after nightfall?

Some Poskim[314] rule he is to light candles after Tzeis Hakochavim, after he is already Bar Mitzvah. Others[315], however, rule that he may continue to light at the regular time, after sunset.

 

Q&A on lighting before or after the proper time

If one is unable to light at the proper time, is it better to light by Plag Hamincha or after nightfall?[316]

If one is accustomed to light inside his house:[317] One who lights candles inside his home, is to light candles after nightfall, rather than light before sunset, in the event that he cannot light at the proper time.

If one is accustomed to light outside: One who lights candles outside his home, and cannot light the candles at the proper time, some Poskim[318] rule that it is better to light after nightfall, rather than light before sunset. Other Poskim[319] however rule that it is better to light before sunset, after Plag Hamincha.

 

If one is only able to light by Plag Hamincha, is it better for him to personally light during Plag, or to have an emissary light on his behalf at night?[320]

It is better for him to have an emissary light on his behalf at night.

 

If one is unable to light at the proper time, is it better for him to personally light after nightfall, or to have an emissary light on his behalf at the proper time?[321]

It is better for him to personally light the candles upon his arrival at night, than to have them lit on time by an emissary.

 

If it is after nightfall, and one did not yet light or Daven Maariv, and there is no Minyan currently available, what is he to do?[322]

If there will be a Minyan available later on, he is to first light the Chanukah candles and Daven Maariv with the Minyan. If, however, he plans to Daven Maariv in private, then he is to first Daven Maariv and the light.

 

May a couple light past midnight with a blessing?

Yes. 

 

May one light with a blessing within 30 minutes before Alos?

Some Poskim[323] rule one may still light with a blessing even within a half hour before Alos [if a household member is awake, as explained above].

 The custom of the Chabad Rabbeim-To light in private:[324]

Many Rabbanim and Chassidic Rebbe’s are particular to light the candles at a time that an abundance of people have gathered, and come to watch the lighting. However, the Rebbe Rayatz, acted on the contrary, and was displeased when non-family members were around for the candle lighting.

6. Eating and doing Melacha before candle lighting:[325]

When the time of lighting Chanukah candles arrives [each in accordance to their custom[326]] it remains forbidden to eat a meal, do work, or even learn Torah, until the candles are lit.[327]

Half hour prior to candle lighting: Some Poskim[328] rule one is to refrain from working, eating and learning Torah a half hour before the time of candle lighting. [Hence, those who light after nightfall, abstain from the above activities starting a half hour before nightfall, while those who light after sunset, abstain from the above activities starting a half hour before sunset.] Nevertheless, those who light after sunset, may be lenient to learn Torah until the actual time of sunset arrives.[329]

Began a meal beforehand:[330] If one began eating a meal, or began performing work, prior to the time of lighting, he must stop and light the candles when the time arrives.[331]

 

Q&A

May one eat a snack prior to lighting candles?

Yes.[332]

Definition of snack: The definition of a snack is up to 57.6 grams of bread [or Mezonos[333]] and 57.6 grams worth of an [alcoholic[334]] beverage.[335] One may drink an unlimited amount of other liquids, such as water, tea, and coffee, and eat an unlimited amount of fruits.[336]

 

May one eat a meal, learn Torah, or perform an activity, within a half hour prior to lighting, if he has a Shomer [a person to remind him to light]?[337]

Yes. If one asks a friend to remind him to light candles when the time of lighting arrives, then he may eat, learn Torah or perform mundane activities. However, this only applies so long as his friend is not involved in the above activities.

 May women who are being Yotzei with their husband/father eat a meal and perform work prior to the lighting?[338]

The custom is for women not to perform work, just as is the law regarding a man who is lighting. However, in a time of need, she may be lenient.[339]

 

May an employee, employer, business owner work past nightfall during Chanukah?[340]

All employees and business owners are to arrange to be home from work by nightfall, so they can light the candles at its proper time. If they are unable to do so, then the following options are available: a) Have one’s wife light instead of him at home, at the proper time. b) If he eats all his meals at work, he can light the candles there at its proper time. c) To appoint a Shomer to remind them to light candles, as explained next, and they will light upon coming home.

 

May one who was appointed as an emissary to light on behalf of someone else eat and do Melacha prior to doing so?[341]

Yes, so long as they have already fulfilled their obligation.

 

If one is eating out by a friend/relative on one of the nights of Chanukah, may he eat prior to lighting candles?

He must either return home[342] and light candles prior to the meal, or appoint a Shomer to remind him, in which case he can light after the meal, upon returning home.

7. For how long are the candles to remain lit-The amount of oil and extinguishing the candles?[343]

A. Amount of oil to place in the candle:

One is to place enough oil for the candle to remain lit until people are no longer found by the marketplace, which is approximately a half hour after nightfall.[344] [The Chabad custom is to light the candles between Mincha and Maariv and place enough oil for the candles to remain lit for at least fifty minutes.[345] This is done in order that the candles burn for at least a half hour past nightfall.[346]] When lighting the candles after nightfall, even past a half hour into the night, the candles are to remain lit for at least 30 minutes.[347] There is no Mitzvah involved in placing more oil than necessary, for it to remain lit for more than a half hour past nightfall, as there is no Hiddur involved for it to be lit more than this amount of time.[348] [Thus, even according to Chabad custom, there is no need for the candles to be lit for 50 minutes when lighting after nightfall, and this is only done when lighting after sunset.]

Adding enough oil before the candle is lit:[349] There is an opinion[350] who states that since it is the lighting that performs the Mitzvah, therefore, one is required to place enough oil in the candle, to last a half hour after nightfall, prior to the lighting. If, however, one did not place enough oil upon lighting, and then added more oil, he does not fulfill his obligation. [Rather one is required to extinguish the candle, add more oil and then relight it, as explained in the Q&A!]

Wax candles:[351] When lighting with wax candles, although the candles only need to remain lit for a half hour past nightfall, nevertheless, there is a Hiddur Mitzvah to use long candles.[352] However, the candles are not to be too long.[353]

What should one do if a candle extinguished?[354] If the candles extinguished prior to remaining lit for the required time, [i.e. prior to a half hour after nightfall], one nevertheless fulfills his obligation and is not required to relight the candles.[355] [This applies even if it extinguished right after the lighting.[356]] Accordingly, if after lighting the candles, he accidentally extinguished the flame upon trying to fix it; nevertheless he is not required to relight it.[357] [This, however, only applies if enough oil was placed for it to last a half hour, and the candle was not placed in a windy area.[358]] One who desires to be stringent upon himself and relight the candles, is to do so without a blessing.[359] [Practically, one is to be stringent to always relight candles that extinguished before their time[360] and so is the Chabad custom.[361]]

On Erev Shabbos: On Erev Shabbos, one is to place enough oil in the candles for them to remain lit for at least 30 minutes after nightfall.[362] If the Chanukah candles that were lit Erev Shabbos extinguished before Shabbos had begun, some Poskim[363] rule one is nevertheless not required to relight the candles. However, other Poskim[364] rule that in such a case one must relight the candle without a blessing. Practically, one should always relight candles that extinguished before their time, especially on Erev Shabbos. If one has already accepted Shabbos, he is to ask another person to relight the candles.[365]

 

B.  May one extinguish the flames once they have been lit for a half hour:[366]

Once the flames have been lit for their minimum time, which is a half hour past nightfall, they may be extinguished.[367] Initially, it is proper to stipulate that only a half hours’ worth of the oil is designated for the Mitzvah, if one intends to extinguish it after this time.[368] [Thus, it is advisable to say prior to the lighting, that the oil is not sanctified for the Mitzvah once a half hour has passed and he decides to extinguish it. This stipulation may be done even several days before Chanukah, and suffices to be done one time if one has in mind for it to count for the lighting of all the days of Chanukkah.[369] According to all, the Shamash may be extinguished after the time of a half hour, even without stipulation.[370]]

 

Summary:

One is to place enough oil [or use a long enough candle] to last thirty minutes after nightfall. The Chabad custom is to light between sunset and nightfall and place enough oil to last 50 minutes. After this amount of time passes, it is permitted to extinguish the flames, although some are particular not to do so until the general public goes to sleep.

 

Q&A

If the flame did not catch onto the wick and extinguished as a result, must it be relit?[371]

Yes.

 

What is the law if the candles extinguished due to the wind, after it was lit?

If the candles were lit in an area where there is wind, and the wind extinguished the candle prior to it remaining lit for a half hour, then one must relight the candles.[372] The candles are to be relit without a blessing.[373]

 

What is the law if one purposely extinguished the candle after a half hour?[374]

If the candles were purposely extinguished prior to it remaining lit for a half hour, then one must relight the candles without a blessing.

 

What is one to do if he did not place thirty minutes worth of oil in the candle?  

If one did not place enough oil upon lighting and then added more oil, one does not fulfill his obligation.[375] Rather, one is required to extinguish the candle, add more oil, and then relight it without a blessing.[376] Others[377] however rule one is to relight it with a blessing. Practically, a blessing is not to be recited. According to all, if even one of the Chanukah candles contains the proper amount of oil, no blessing is said when relighting other candles after adding oil.

 

What is the law if one lit the wicks and then realized that the candle does not contain any oil, is the blessing to be repeated?

Some Poskim[378] rule that if the bottle of oil was in front of him at the time of the blessing [and he did not make an interval between the lighting and the discovery of the lack of oil] then he may add the oil, and does not need to repeat the blessing. If, however, the oil was not sitting in front of him at the time of the blessing [or if he made an interval by the time he realized that it lacked oil] he must relight with a blessing, if there was not even one candle that had oil.

 

How long is the Shamash to last for?[379]

The Shamash is to last for at least 30 minutes after nightfall.

 

If one does not have enough oil to last a half hour, is he nevertheless to light the candles?

If one does not have enough oil to last for a half hour after nightfall, he is to light the candles without a blessing.[380] If one has enough oil to last a half hour for only one candle, then he is to light one candle with a blessing, irrelevant of the number night of Chanukah.[381]

 Safety precautions for Chanukah lighting:

Unfortunately, the month of December is recorded to have the greatest number of house fires throughout different countries in the world, many of which are attributed towards religious lightings which were left unsupervised. Being irresponsible with the supervision of a flame endangers the life of one’s family and neighbors. It only takes minutes for a conflagration to begin and become uncontrollable, and thus proper precautions must be taken. Practically, as advised by fire experts, and as common-sense dictates, and as sourced within Halacha[382], one is to never leave a flame unattended. Thus, if one needs to leave the home after a half hour from the candle lighting, he is to extinguish the candle beforehand, as Halacha permits.[383] Likewise, prior to going to sleep, one is to extinguish the candle. If after the half hour he would like to go into another area of the home, the candles should be taken with him, as Halacha permits.[384] If one plans to leave the home within a half hour, then he should only light a minimal amount of oil [a half hour worth] and initially light it on a safe surface, such as on one’s counter, not near any flammable items.

8. Where in the home/property should the Menorah be lit?

A. Inside the house versus outside the house-The letter of the law:[385]

The candles are to be lit outside the front door of one’s house, which opens towards the public.[386] [This only applies if there is no courtyard in the front of one’s house, and the front door hence faces the public.]

Courtyard:[387] If one has a courtyard in front of his house, [and the courtyard is open to the public[388]] then it is to be lit by the entrance to the courtyard.

Building:[389] If one lives on an upper floor [or in an apartment building] and does not have a door that opens to the public, then he is to light by a window which is opened to the public [rather than light by the buildings front entrance].[390] [The same applies if one lives on the ground floor, but the public is unable to see the candles if one lights at the entrance of his house.[391] See Halacha C for the full details of where to light the Menorah in the event that one is lighting inside the house, and whether one is to light by the window, as stated here, or by the doorpost of an inner room.]

Time of danger:[392] In times of danger due to religious persecution, it suffices to simply light the Menorah on one’s table.

B. Inside the house versus outside the house-The custom:[393]

[The previous law, mentioned in A, was the custom at the times of the Mishneh and Gemara, however, eventually, this custom changed as result of the exile, and the danger involved in lighting outside. Thus,] The custom today of all people is to always light the Menorah inside the house, even though this is not visible to the public at all. [This was the widespread Ashkenazi custom of previous times, and is followed even today amongst majority of Ashkenazim, Sephardim , and Chassidim, and so is the Chabad custom to light inside the home.[394] However, some are accustomed today to light outside their homes, as explained in the Q&A.]

 

Summary of A-B:

The Mitzvah in the times of the Mishneh and Gemara was for the candles is to be lit outside the front door of one’s house, which opens towards the public. However, today in the times of exile, the widespread custom of all Jewry is to light the candles inside the house, and so is the Chabad custom.

 

Q&A

In today’s times when there is no danger to light outside, should one preferably light the candles outside as was done originally?

Some Poskim[395] rule that in today’s times when danger is no longer an issue, the candles are to be lit outside, as was the original institution of the Sages. Other Poskim[396] rule that at the very least the candles should be lit by a window, facing the public. However, in truth, the Rishonim[397] and Poskim[398] testify that the custom is to light inside the house, by the doorpost, even though the reason of danger is no longer relevant.[399] Accordingly, one is to continue to follow the custom to light the Menorah inside the home, by the doorpost, as was done in previous generations, even though no danger is relevant, and so is the Chabad custom, as stated above.[400] Nonetheless, some[401] conclude that those who light inside by the doorpost should preferably choose a doorpost which can be seen by the public.

If one is accustomed to light outside, where is he to light the candles in an apartment building?[402]

Some Poskim[403] question that perhaps one is to light the candles by the entrance to the building [or the entrance of his door, which leads to the stairway], and so is the custom of some.[404] Other Poskim[405] however rule he is to light inside his home, by his window, and so is the custom of others.[406] Others[407] are accustomed to light two sets of candles, one inside the home by the window, and a second by the entrance to the building.

 

If one is found in an area without Jews, is he nevertheless to light outside, if that is his custom?

Some Poskim[408] rule he is to light the candles outside as usual, in order to publicize the miracle to the gentiles. Other Poskim[409], however, rule that he may light the candles inside, as there is no Mitzvah to publicize the miracle to the gentiles.

 

C. Lighting by the doorpost [versus a window]:[410]

Within a Tefach:[411] It is a Mitzvah for the candles to be placed within at least one Tefach of the doorway. One is not to light it a further than a Tefach distance from the doorway.[412] [Practically, the Menorah is initially to be placed within the actual doorway, between the doorposts[413], although in a time of need, one may place it within one Tefach of the door, by the side of the door.[414]]

Left side:[415] The Menorah is to be placed on the left side of the entrance, which is opposite the Mezuzah.[416] If one is lighting the Menorah within the actual doorpost, then it is to be placed [directly[417]] against the left doorpost.[418] If one lit the Menorah on the right side, near the Mezuzah, instead of the left side, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.[419] If the door does not have a Mezuzah, one is to place the Menorah on the right side.[420] [It requires further analysis if this applies even if the door is obligated in a Mezuzah but does not have one, or only if the door is exempt from Mezuzah, for whatever reason.[421]]

Where to light inside the house-doorpost versus window:[422] The above positioning of the Menorah [within a Tefach of the doorpost] applies whether one is lighting the candles inside the house or outside the house. Thus, those who light inside the house, are to light the Menorah within one Tefach of the doorpost [of a room in the house, adjacent to the left doorpost opposite the Mezuzah]. One is not to swerve from this custom.[423] [However, some Poskim[424] rule that when lighting inside the house, if there is a window available that faces the public, the candles should be placed by the window rather than by an inside doorpost.[425] If, however, the window is 20 Amos above ground [from where people walk], then according to all, it is to be lit by the doorpost.[426] The Chabad custom follows the former opinion, to light by the doorpost in all cases, and not to light by the window.[427]]

If many people are lighting where should they light?[428] Each household member that is lighting candles is to beware to place the candles in his own area, as opposed to having everyone light together in the same spot.[429] Thus, although the custom is for every person to light by the doorpost, if there are many people lighting Chanukah candles, it is better for each person to light in a different area [even if it is not by the doorpost] than having everyone light by [the same] doorpost, and leading to confusion as to the amount of candles lit that night.[430] This applies even on the first night.[431]

 

Summary:

The Menorah is initially to be placed within the doorway of a room [or entrance of the house for those who light outside], between the doorposts, although in a time of need, one may place it within one Tefach of the doorpost. It is to be placed on the left side of the entrance, which is opposite the Mezuzah. It is to be placed directly against the left doorpost. Some are accustomed to light the Menorah by the window, and not by the doorway. This is not the Chabad custom. If there are many people lighting Chanukah candles, it is better for each person to light in a different area [even if it is not by the doorpost] than having everyone light by [the same] doorpost, and leading to confusion as to the number of candles lit that night. 

In one sentence: The Menorah is to be lit inside the house within the doorpost of a room, directly against the left doorpost, opposite the Mezuzah.

 

Q&A

Where are children to light their Menorah?

The Rebbe[432] suggested that children should light their Menorah in the entrance to their bedroom, assuming that doing so does not pose a safety hazard. Doing so has a greater effect on the child and his education.

 

Where is the Menorah to be lit by a doorpost that only contains a Mezuzah due to doubt or stringency?[433]

One is to place the Menorah opposite the Mezuzah even in such a case.

When lighting by the doorpost within one’s house, by which room should the Menorah be lit?

Some[434] write that one should preferably choose a doorpost which can be seen by the public, from outside. If this is not achievable, then one is to preferably light by the doorway of the kitchen or dining room.[435] However, in all cases, the Menorah should be lit in an area that the family will be able to gather there, and will spend time there, and this aspect overrides the previous mentioned aspects [of the kitchen, or doorway visible to the public].[436]

 

9. Lighting in area of eating versus area of sleeping?[437]

A. Eats and sleeps in two separate homes on a steady basis:

If one eats and sleeps in two different houses [on a steady basis[438]], then [in times of the Talmud that everyone would light the Menorah outside the house[439]] one would light in the area that he sleeps.[440] However, in today’s times that we all light inside the home, some Poskim[441] rule one is to light in the area that he eats.[442] Practically, so is the custom to light in the area that one eats.[443] [Thus, if one owns two homes, or twapartments, and he uses one for eating and one for sleeping, he is to light candles in the home used for eating. One is to thus endeavor that his family be in the eating area during the candle lighting, in order to publicize the miracle. Nonetheless, if one is unable to get his family to be present by the eating area for the candle lighting, then he may even initially light in his sleeping area where his family is present.[444]]

Son who eats at home but sleeps elsewhere:[445] If a son [or son-in-law[446]] eats on a constant basis by his father’s [or father-in-laws] home, but sleeps in his own home, it follows the same law as stated above [that today, he is to light in the area in which he eats, which is in the home of his father/father in-law].

 

Q&A

When lighting within one’s house, is it preferable to light in the room in which one eats?[447]

Yes.

 

Where are Yeshiva students, Seminary girls, and soldiers on base to light the Chanukah candles; in the dorm room, or dining room?[448]

[Regarding the obligation of Yeshiva students to light candles, See Halacha 3C!] Some Poskim[449] rule that a student should light in the area that he eats [i.e. Dining room]. Other Poskim[450] however rule he should light in his dorm room.[451] Some[452] suggest that one is to light in his room, and eat at least one meal in his room during Chanukah. Practically, the custom is like the latter opinion, for the students to light in their private rooms.[453] However, if there is worry of fire, the students may light in the dining room. In all cases, the students are to follow the instructions of the management [Hanhala], and if they do not allow to light in the rooms, the students are to light in the dining room.[454] According to IDF protocol, the candles may not be lit in the rooms, and may only be lit in the dining room.

Students who sleep at home but eat in Yeshiva:[455] A student who sleeps at home, but eats in the Yeshiva, falls under the above-mentioned dispute regarding where he is to light, and practically, the custom is to light at home. However, in a time of need, such as if lighting at home will cause Bittul Torah, the student may light in the dining room.

If one works in a store and will remain there past nightfall, where is he to light?[456]

All employees and business owners are to arrange to be home from work by nightfall, so they can light the candles at its proper time. If they are unable to do so, then the following options are available: a) Have one’s wife light instead of him at home, at the proper time. b) If he eats all his meals at work, he can light the candles there at its proper time. c) To appoint a Shomer to remind them to light candles, as explained next, and they will light upon coming home.

 

B. One who is eating out one night of Chanukah:[457]

The above only applies if one eats and sleeps in different areas on a steady basis. If, however, one eats and sleeps on a steady basis in the same home and just happens to be eating out on one of the nights of Chanukah, then he must return home to his family to light [prior to the continuing the meal[458]], and cannot light where he is eating.[459] [The same applies if he will be eating elsewhere for all eight days/nights of Chanukah, but will return home to sleep, that he is to return home to light, being that he does not eat in the other place on a steady basis.[460] Accordingly, those who are eating out during one of the nights of Chanukah are to first light the candles at home prior to going to the meal. Those who choose to light the candles in the area of the meal are making a mistake.[461] In the event that one traveled from far, and cannot go back home before the meal, he must appoint a Shomer to allow him to eat, and he may then continue the meal and light candles after returning home.[462]]

If one is eating out and his wife remained home:[463] If one is eating out on one of the nights of Chanukah but his wife remained home, he can have his wife light for him at his home, if he desires to remain eating by his friend and not return home to light. [Thus, those who go to a men’s only Chanukah party/meal, may remain by the meal and have their wives light on their behalf.] Nevertheless, it is best for him to return home and personally light the candles, rather than rely on his wife.[464]

 

Summary of A-B:

If one eats and sleeps on a steady basis in two different homes, he is to light in the home that he eats. If, however, there will be greater Pirsumei Nissa to his family in the area that he sleeps, then he is to light there. If one is eating away from home for one night of Chanukah, he must return home to light.

 

Q&A

If a family is eating out by another family on one of the nights of Chanukah [i.e. went to a relative for a Chanukah meal], where is he to light candles, by his area of eating or upon his return home?

From some Poskim[465] it appears that he may choose to light candles in his current area, where his family is eating.[466] However, from other Poskim[467] it is implied that he must return home to light. [Practically, he should go back home with all, or at least some, of his family members, and light at home prior to continuing the meal.[468] If he plans to sleep at home, but his family will remain to eat and sleep by the host, then he is to light candles specifically by the meal.[469] In the event that one traveled from far, and cannot go back home before the meal, he must appoint a Shomer to allow him to eat, and he may then continue the meal and light candles after returning home.[470]]

 

If one who lives alone [no wife and children] is eating out by a friend on one of the nights of Chanukah, where is he to light candles, by his area of eating or upon his return home?

This follows the same dispute[471], and ruling, of the previous Q&A, and he is thus to return home prior to the meal in order to light, or appoint a Shomer to remind him, in which case he may light after the meal, upon returning home.

 

If one eats at home, but will be sleeping in another area for one of the nights of Chanukah, where is he to light the candles?[472]

If one will be sleeping in another home during Chanukah, but will continue to eat at home [such as one who plans to sleep over a friend’s house after dinner] then he is to light at home. If, however, he will be eating and sleeping there, then see next.

If one will be eating and sleeping in another home for one of the nights of Chanukah, where is he to light candles?[473]

  • Example: One will be staying with his family for Chanukah by his parents or parent’s in-law, who live nearby. Where is he to light candles?

He is to light the candles in the area that he will be eating and sleeping that night [i.e. by his parents/parent’s in-law]. This applies even if he is staying near his home, and returns home on occasion, nevertheless he is to light the candles in the current area where he is eating and sleeping.[474] This applies even if he will not be staying in their home for all eight days of Chanukah.[475] [When staying as a guest in another person’s home, then whether he is obligated to light his own candles is subject to the laws explained in Halacha 3 regarding guests. As explained there, the Ashkenazi custom is for men to always light their own candles and not be Yotzei with their host, or wife who is lighting at home. In all cases, if he left family members at home, they must light their own candles and are not Yotzei with the lighting he performs away from home. See Halacha 3!]

If a guest is eating by one host and sleeping by another, where is he to light candles?

He is to light in the area that he is eating.[476] However, some Poskim[477] rule that if the two areas of eating and sleeping are a distance from each other, then he should light in the area that he will be sleeping.

Q&A on one who is traveling

If one is traveling and will reach his destination late at night, where is he to light?[478]

  • Example: A Bochur is returning to Yeshivah from Mivtzaim and will only be arriving after midnight, should he light at the Chabad house prior to leaving?
  • One went to visit family and will only be arriving home very late at night, should he light by the family or when he returns home?

One is to delay lighting until he reaches his destination.[479] However, there are Poskim[480] who rule that if one is with his entire family, he may light in his current area and does not have to light later on when the family arrives home.[481]

If one will be traveling from home after sunset where is he to light the Chanukah candles?

Some Poskim[482] rule he should light at home, prior to leaving, even though he will be traveling immediately afterwards and not remain there for the rest of Chanukah.

If one is traveling for Shabbos, where is he to light the candles on Erev Shabbos?[483]

If one is traveling on Erev Shabbos to go away for Shabbos, then if he is leaving his home prior to Plag Hamincha, he must light candles at the area that he will be staying for Shabbos. If, however, he will be leaving after Plag Hamincha, then he may choose to light candles either at home, or by his destination.[484] However, some[485] say that those who are accustomed to light inside their homes, should only light the candles at home if there will be family members who will remain to watch the candles, and to whom the miracle can be publicized to. Otherwise, one is to light the candles specifically by his destination, even if he travels after Plag Hamincha.

 

On Erev Shabbos, where is one to light the Chanukah candles if he and his family will be eating out for the Friday night meal?

· Example: One will be leaving his apartment with his entire family for a Shabbos meal on Erev Shabbos. Where is he to light? What if he will only return home very late when the candles are already extinguished.

He is to light the candles at home after Plag Hamincha, prior to leaving, and secure them in a safe area to avoid a fire hazard.[486] However, in a time of need that one cannot light the candles at home [such as if a secure area against fire cannot be secured, or if his entire family must leave the home before Plag Hamincha[487]] then he may light the candles in the area that he will eat the Friday night meal, in the presence of his family.[488]

 

If one is traveling back home on Motzei Shabbos, where should he light the candles?[489]  

Some[490] say that one is to delay lighting the candles until he returns home, and he is thus to try and return home right away. Others[491] however say that he may light the candles at his current location where he stayed for Shabbos, and does not have to wait until he returns home. This especially applies if he will be returning home very late at night, in which case he should specifically light by his current location.

Where is a Chasan and Kallah to light candles on the day of his wedding?[492]

If a Chasan is getting married during Chanukah, there are three options regarding where he is to light candles: 1) In his home, prior to leaving for the wedding; 2) In the area that he and his Kallah will be staying that night; 3) In the wedding hall. Practically, if the wedding is taking place before sunset, he is to [appoint a Shomer to remind him and] light candles in the area that he will be staying that night. Alternatively, he is to light candles in the wedding hall, such as in the Yichud room.[493] If the wedding is taking place after sunset, and he will be home [whether his new home or old home] during sunset, he is to be light candles at home, prior to leaving for the wedding. The Kallah is to be Yotzei with either her father before the Chuppah, or with her husband after the Chuppah.

Where are relatives and guests to light candles if they are by a wedding?[494]

Parents of Chasan and Kallah: The parents of the Chasan and Kallah, and their household, may light candles in the hall, if they will not be at home during the time of lighting, and do not want to appoint a Shomer to remind them to light after the wedding, upon returning home.[495]

Guests: The wedding guests are to light candles at home prior to going to the wedding, or are to have their wives or children light for them on home. Alternatively, the guests can appoint a Shomer to remind them to light after the wedding, upon returning home. The guests are not to light at the wedding hall, as explained in Halacha B! If one is coming to the wedding with his entire family, then whether he may light at the wedding hall is subject to the dispute recorded in the 1st Q&A. Seemingly, if one will be returning home with his family very late at night, he may choose to light candles at the wedding hall [although is preferably to hear the blessings from another]. This especially applies if he may only return past Alos Hashachar, in which case he must light candles in the hall.

In which home is one to light candles if he moves during Chanukah?[496]

One who moves during Chanukah may light candles in his current home, prior to leaving, if he is still there at the time of candle lighting. This applies even if he will be leaving immediately after the lighting. Alternatively, he may choose to light candles in his new home, upon arrival. However, if he will be leaving his current home before the time of candle lighting, he is to light candles in the new home that he will be moving to.

10. Not to place the candles in a windy area:[497]

One is to avoid placing the candles in a windy area, as the wind can extinguish the flame. [If the candles were lit in an area where there is wind, and the wind extinguished the candle prior to its remaining lit for a half hour, then one must relight the candles.[498] The candles are to be relit without a blessing.[499]]

 

Q&A

Must one who lights outside place the Menorah in a glass box in order to protect it from the wind?[500]

Some Poskim[501] rule that when lighting outside one is to place the Menorah in a glass case. Others[502] rule this is not the custom. 

 

11. One who has two entrances to his home:[503]

A courtyard [or house[504]] that has two opening [to the public] from two different directions[505] is required to have a Menorah lit by both entrances.[506] One Menorah is lit with a blessing while the second is lit without a blessing.[507] If both openings are in the same direction, then it suffices to light one Menorah by one of the openings.[508] If however the two openings belong to two different homes, then both openings are obligated in having a Menorah.[509] Some Poskim[510] rule that this applies even if the two homes are owned by the same person. Other Poskim[511], however, are lenient if the two homes are owned by the same person.

The custom today:[512] In today’s times, that everyone lights inside the actual house and the public has no view of the candles at all, then even if the courtyard or house has many openings to the public, and from many different directions, nevertheless, one is only to light one set of candled inside the house. Practically, so is the custom.

12. Positioning the Menorah:

A. What direction should the Menorah face?[513]

[The Menorah may face whatever direction one desires.] We do not make a point of placing the Menorah in either a north-south or east-west direction. This is unlike the custom followed in Shul in which the Menorah is placed from east to west, similar to the Menorah in the Beis Mikdash.[514]

 

When placing the Menorah in the doorway, should the Menorah be positioned vertical to the doorway or horizontal?

Some Poskim[515] rule that the Menorah is to be placed in a vertical fashion, within the width of the doorway, hence having the outer branches of the menorah extend pass the space of the doorpost. [Exhibit A] Other Poskim[516], however, rule that it is to be positioned horizontally, having its entire width within the width of the doorway. [Exhibit B]

 

B. Height from ground:[517]

The candles are to be placed between three to ten Tefachim above the ground [24-80cm.[518]].[519] It is not to be placed lower than three[520] Tefach and is a Mitzvah not to be placed higher than ten Tefach.[521] This applies even if one lights the candles inside his house.[522] If one placed the Menorah above ten Tefachim he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.[523] Likewise, if one placed the Menorah below three Tefachim, he nevertheless fulfills his obligation.[524] [Some Poskim[525] rule the Menorah is initially to be placed higher than seven Tefach from the ground. Other Poskim[526], however, rule it is initially to be placed exactly three Tefach from the ground. Practically, it is not necessary to follow either of these opinions so long as the Menorah is between 3-10 Tefach from the ground[527], and the Chabad custom is not to be particular in this matter.[528]]

Window: Those who light by the window [as explained in Halacha 9A] are to do so even if the window sill is higher than 10 Tefach from the floor [of the house[529]].[530] If, however, one has two windows, one that is higher than ten Tefachim from the ground and one that is lower, then certainly the candles are to be lit by the lower window sill.[531] It is not necessary for the Menorah to be above three Tefach from the window sill.[532] Although, it is preferably to be higher than three Tefachim from the floor of the home.[533] [See Q&A regarding if the window is 20 Amos from the street!]

Shul:[534] It is customary for the Menorah in Shul to be placed higher than ten Tefachim from the ground.

Placing the Menorah 20 Amos from the ground:[535] The Menorah may not be placed higher than twenty Amos [9.6 meters or 31.5 feet[536]] from the ground. If it was placed higher than twenty Amos from the ground, one does not fulfilled his obligation.[537] This applies whether one is lighting outside the front door of the house, or inside his house.[538] If one lit the candles above 20 Amos, and then placed it in the proper area, it is invalid.[539] [When lighting outside the front door of one’s home which faces towards the outside, or by a window that faces the public, the above height is measured from the ground floor of the outside, and not from the floor of the home.[540] However, one who is lighting inside his house and not by a window that faces the public, measures the 20 Amos from the floor of his house and not from the street level. Thus, one who lives in a very tall building, may light candles in his upper floor apartment, even though it is twenty Amos above street level.[541]]

 

Summary:

The candles are initially to be positioned between three and ten Tefachim from the floor. The candles must be positioned within 20 Amos from the street floor for those who light towards the outside, and 20 Amos from the floor of the home, for those who light in their home, by the doorpost.

 

Q&A

Must the actual flame be below ten Tefachim from the ground?[542]

Initially, both the Menorah and its flame is to be within 10 Tefachim from the ground.

 

Must the actual Menorah reach above three Tefachim from the ground, or only the flame?

Some Poskim[543] rule it is not necessary for the body of the Menorah to be above three Tefachim from the ground, so long as the actual flames are above three Tefachim. Other Poskim[544], however, rule that also the body of the Menorah is to be above three Tefachim from the ground, and doing so is of greater importance than having the flame be within ten Tefachim. According to this latter opinion, the Menorah is to be placed on a stool which reaches three Tefachim from the ground.

May the actual Menorah be placed on the ground, if its height reaches three Tefachim above the ground?[545]

In all cases, it is proper not to place the Menorah directly on the floor even if it reaches a height above three Tefachim.

When lighting on steps or stairs, how does one measure the three and ten Tefachim height?

  • Our house entrance is made in the way that after you open the door and walk in, there are a few steps going down into the home, into the living room area where the couch is and where we would like to light the Hanukkah candles. My question is as follows: I know that initially the menorah is supposed to be positioned three Tefachim from above the ground. Do the stairs count as part of three Tefachim or must I place a stool or chair on top of the stair, and position the menorah on top of it lighting. The top stair which is within the doorway where we would like to light, is over three Tefachim from the ground floor of the living room.

Some Poskim[546] rule that one is to measure the three and ten Tefachim from the actual stairs and not from the ground. However, seemingly this is referring to steps which are very wide and used also for sitting and doing other activities, in which case it is considered like the ground floor and indeed one should measure from it. However, narrow steps that are only meant for stepping on to get across and do not serve any independent use due to their very narrow space, are to be viewed similar to a stool or chair, and hence one measures the three and ten Tefachim from the ground below the stairs.[547] Thus, in the above case, one should place the Menorah on the actual stair which is above three Tefachim from the ground level where they will be sitting in the living room.

 

May the actual flame reach above 20 Amos from the ground if the Menorah is within 20 Amos?[548]

The flame may not reach 20 Amos above the ground and if it does the lighting is invalid.

If one lit the Menorah 20 Amos above ground level, must he relight the candles with a blessing?

One is to relight the candles with a blessing.[549] Some Poskim[550] however rule, that this only applies if one removed his mind from the candles after lighting them the first time; if, however, he realized his mistake immediately after the lighting, the blessing is not to be repeated. 

Is a public Menorah to be within 20 Amos from the ground?

Yes. This includes even the flame, as explained above, and especially applies according to those who are accustomed to reciting a blessing over it. Accordingly, the maximum height of the Menorah and candles is 32.5 feet from the ground.

May one light by the window of his apartment if it is 20 Amos above the street?[551]

If the window is 20 Amos above ground [from where people walk], then it is to be lit by the doorpost, as stated above.

13. Moving the Menorah:[552]

The Menorah must be lit in its final intended resting area. Thus, once the Menorah is lit, it may not be moved, as explained next.

Not to move the Menorah once it has been lit: Once the Menorah has been lit, it may not be moved from inside to outside [or vice versa[553], until it has remained lit for a half hour after nightfall[554]]. If one moves the Menorah from inside to outside [or vice versa, before a half hour passes] he does not fulfill his obligation.[555] [Some Poskim[556] are stringent to not move it at all from its place of being lit, even if it will be replaced elsewhere within the same room, or elsewhere outside, and will not be brought from inside to outside or vice versa. Others[557] are lenient to allow moving it to another area within the same room. Practically, one should initially be stringent like the former opinion.[558] If, however, one moved it within the same room, he fulfills his obligation.[559] It is even initially permitted to move the Menorah a few inches for the purpose of lighting it, and then return it to it place.[560]]

In Shul:[561] One is to initially be careful in the above matter, not to move the Menorah from its place, even regarding the candles that are lit in Shul. The Shul’s candles are to hence be lit in their final resting area, and not be moved from there until a half hour after nightfall.

Moving the Menorah after it is lit a half hour:[562] After the menorah has been alight for the required time of 30 minutes [after nightfall], it may be moved even if the lights are still aflame.

Lighting the Menorah while being held in one’s hand: [Based on the above ruling that one may not move the Menorah after it is lit, one is not to light the Menorah while he is holding it in his hand, but rather is to light in its set place.] If one lit it in his hand, he does not fulfill his obligation [even] if he remains holding it in this position.[563] [However, some Poskim[564] rule that only if one held the Menorah for 30 minutes does he not fulfill his obligation. Other Poskim[565] rule he does not fulfill his obligation even if he places the Menorah down right away. Other Poskim[566] rule that today that everyone knows the Menorah is only lit for the Mitzvah, one fulfills his obligation even if he lit the candles while the Menorah was held in his hands. Practically, one is to initially place the Menorah down and only then light it.[567]]

 

Summary:

Once the Menorah is lit, it may not be moved from its place until thirty minutes pass after nightfall. The Menorah must be placed down already during the time of lighting, and may not be held in one’s hand. However, one may even initially move the Menorah a few inches for the purpose of lighting it, and then return it to it place.

Q&A

If one is sick or handicapped and cannot get up to light, may the Menorah be brought to him and have it replaced to its position after it is lit?[568]

No, this should not be done.[569] Rather, another person should light the Menorah on his behalf, such as his wife.[570] The man, however, may still say the blessing prior to the lighting of his wife, or emissary.[571] If the Menorah will only be slightly moved after the person lights it, then it may be lit by him and then positioned in its proper area.[572]

 

May one temporarily move the Menorah from its place [such as to switch chairs] with intent to replace it there right away?[573]

Yes. If one desires to move the Menorah for a few moments in order to set up the chair and the like, he may do so.

 

If the Menorah was lit horizontal to the doorway, and is blocking the doorway, may it be moved to be vertical to the doorpost?[574]

If the Menorah is in middle of the doorway and one needs to go through, it may be moved slightly to side.

14. The materials of the wicks, oil, and Menorah:[575]

A. The oil/wax:

Which oils may be used? [From the letter of the law] all oils may be used for the Chanukah candles.[576] This applies even if the flame does not light well with the oil.[577] Nevertheless, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to use olive oil.[578] If olive oil is not available, one is to use other oils that give a pure and clean flame.[579]

Wax candles:[580] [One may use wax candles for the Chanukah lighting.] The custom in these provinces of Ashkenazim] is to light using bee’s wax candles.[581] [However, this only applies if oil is not available, as it is better to use oil [even not of olives] than to use a wax candle.[582]] Regarding using braided wax candles-see B!

The Shamash:[583] The Shamash is customarily made of bee’s wax.[584]

Shabbos Chanukah: Even on Erev Shabbos Chanukah, it is permitted to light the Chanukah candles using oils that are forbidden to use for Shabbos candles.[585] This however only applies if one only places enough oil to last a half hour after nightfall. If, however, there is enough oil to last more than a half hour after nightfall, it is forbidden to light Chanukah candles using oils that are forbidden to be used for the Shabbos candles.[586] Likewise, the Shamash must be made of oil/wax that is permitted to be used for the Shabbos candles.[587]

 

Summary:

One is to use olive oil. If olive oil is not available, one is to use other oils which give off a good flame, or use bees wax.

Q&A

Must all the candles be made of the same oil/wax?[588]

All the candles lit on the Menorah are to be made of the same oil/wax. Thus, one should not have some of the candles contain oil, and others contain wax candles. Likewise, one is to try to have all the candles be of the same oil.[589] However, if necessary, one may have one candle be of olive oil, and others contain other oils.[590]

Two Menorah’s: The above law of maintaining the same oil/wax for the candles only applies to a person’s individual lighting on his Menorah. However, the members of a household, who are each lighting their own Menorah, can each choose to use a different oil/wax.

 

Is a child to use oil or wax candles?[591]

This is dependent on age and safety. Ideally, a child should use olive oil candles, just like men, in order to educate him in Hiddur Mitzvah, however one may use wax candles if one does not want their child having oil.

 

If one can only afford to light either one oil candle per night, or to light wax candles according to the number of nights, which should he choose?[592]

It is better to light according to Mehadrin, with lighting the corresponding number each night, than to light with only a single candle, even if the single candle is olive oil.

Should one place water in the oil candle?[593]

It is proper to add water to the oil candles, as the Jewish people are symbolized to oil while the nations of the world to water. Having the oil lit on top of the water emphasizes the miracle of Bnei Yisrael over the nations of the world.

Q&A on quality of oil

May one light using non-Kosher oil?[594]

Meat and Milk: Some Poskim[595] rule it is forbidden to light the Chanukah candles using oil that is not Kosher due to it containing a mixture of meat and milk. If one lit the candles with such oil, he does not fulfill his obligation, and must thus relight with a blessing.[596] Other Poskim[597] rule that even initially such oil may be used. Practically, the Poskim[598] conclude that initially such oil may not be used, although Bedieved if one already used such oil to light, he fulfills his obligation.

Non-Kosher fats: Oil which is not Kosher due to it containing non-kosher fats, such as pig lard, some Poskim[599] rule it may be used to light the Chanukah candles even initially.[600] Other Poskim[601] rule it is forbidden to be used.[602] Practically, the Poskim[603] conclude that if one used such oil to light, he has fulfilled his obligation after the fact, although initially one is to avoid doing so.

Shemitah Oil: Some Poskim[604] rule one may not use Shemitah oil to light the Chanukah candles [even if Heter Mechirah was done with it].[605] Others[606], however, rule that such oil is permitted to be used.

 

May one use olive oil that is not fit for eating?[607]

Yes.[608] However, some Poskim[609] rule that it is best to use edible oil, for those who wish to follow the ruling of Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin.[610] Accordingly, it is better [more Mehudar] to use regular olive oil that is fit for consumption during the year [virgin or extra virgin] than to use the olive oil that is marketed as “Shemen Lamaor,” or “olive oil for lighting.”

Beware of fake olive oil:

Unfortunately, the olive oil market is flooded by fake and counterfeit olive oils that are sold for the price of olive oil [or slightly cheaper to create a bargain] when in truth they are made of other, cheaper oils with some flavor, color and other additives so it appears like olive oil. Due to this, various countries contain agencies who certify the authenticity of olive oil, and if one wants to make sure he has received a real product, one should check that the company has the certification tag.[611] Unfortunately, from past experience, having a Hashgacha on the oil does not suffice as proof for its authenticity, despite their vouch for its status of Kashrus.[612]

Bad smelling, or putrid, oil:[613]

Initially, one is not to use bad smelling oil, such as kerosene. Likewise, all oil which has become putrid, such as due to a rat being found in the oil, should not be used.[614]

May one use oil that was kept under one’s bed for the Chanukah lighting?[615]

If one kept edible oil under his bed, he is not to use it for candle lighting of either Chanukah candles or Shabbos candles.[616] However, inedible oil [such as Shemen Lamaor olive oil] may be used even if it was kept under a bed.[617] Furthermore, some Poskim[618] rule that if the oil was set aside for the Mitzvah, one may even initially use it even if it is edible oil. Practically, in a time of need, one may be lenient to use even edible oil that was used under a bed, even if it was not yet set aside for the Mitzvah.[619]

Candles: If one left a candle under his bed, it may be used for the Mitzvah.[620]

Stolen oil:

Some Poskim[621] question whether one may use stolen oil for the Chanukah Menorah lighting. Others[622] rule the oil may be used, although a blessing is not to be recited.

Borrowed oil-Owning the oil:[623]

Some Poskim[624] rule one may not use borrowed oil for the Chanukah Menorah as the oil must be owned by the person lighting it. Other Poskim[625] however rule that borrowed oil may be used, and so is the final ruling.

 

B. The wicks:

Material of the wicks: Wicks of all materials are valid to be used for the Chanukah candles.[626] This applies even if the flame does not light well on a wick of that material.[627] [Nevertheless, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to use wicks made of cotton or flax.[628]]

Shabbos Chanukah: Even on Erev Shabbos Chanukah, it is permitted to light the Chanukah candles using wicks that are forbidden to be used for Shabbos candles.[629] This, however, only applies if one only places enough oil to last a half hour after nightfall. If, however, there is enough oil to last more than a half hour after nightfall, it is forbidden to light Chanukah candles using wicks that are forbidden to be used for Shabbos candles.[630] Likewise, the Shamash must contain a wick that is permitted to use for the Shabbos candles.[631]

Should one use new wicks each night:[632] It is permitted to reuse the same wicks of the previous night for the next nights lighting.[633] [Some Poskim[634], however, write that the custom is to use new wicks each night.[635] There is no final arbitration in this matter, and each is to follow his custom. Some Poskim[636] write that if one decides to use the old wicks, then he should place the old wick of the first candle which was lit the previous night, within the candle which will be lit first tonight.[637] Other Poskim[638] however, write that doing so is not necessary, and so is the custom, not to be particular in this matter.[639] Regarding the Chabad custom: In Sefer Haminhagim[640], although both approaches [to reuse same wicks versus new wicks] are recorded, it plainly states that the custom is to use new wicks each night, although concluding that they have not verified the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz. Practically, however, the custom of the Previous Rebbe has been corroborated that he would reuse the same wicks each night.[641] However, it is testified that the people who set up the Rebbe’s Menorah used new wicks each night, however they testify that they did not receive a directive from the Rebbe in this matter and did this on their own initiative.[642] In conclusion, it seems that there is no conclusive Chabad custom in this matter, and whatever approach one chooses has upon whom to rely.]

A torch-Braided candles/Havdalah candle: A torch is invalid for use for Chanukah candles.[643] [It is therefore forbidden to use two candles that are braided together.[644] It goes without saying that a braid of 4-5 candles is invalid.[645] For this reason, a Havdalah candle may not be used for the Chanukah lights.] One must be careful when setting up the wax candles, that the candles do not cling to each other when they are lit, as this is similar to a torch [which is invalid].[646] [Similarly, one must be careful when setting up the wax candles, that the candles are not too close to each other in a way that they will melt and become combined into one candle.[647]] If one lit a candle that is similar to a torch, it does not count as even one candle.[648]

Two wicks in a single candle:[649] It is forbidden to light more than one wick in a single oil candle [or wax candle]. Thus, one may not fill a bowl with oil and place more than one wick inside. If one does so the candle is invalid and does not count for even one candle.[650] This applies even if the wicks are distanced from each other in a way that their flames do not mix.[651] If however one places a separation between each wick in the bowl, then each wick counts as one candle.[652] Thus, if one has an oil candle with two exits for wicks, it counts as two candles.[653] Nevertheless, two people should not both light in the same candle even in such a case, even on the first night.[654]

 

Summary:

Initially, one is to use wicks made of cotton or flax. If not available, then all other wicks are valid.

Q&A

Making one’s own wicks:[655]

It is customary of many who are meticulous to make their own wicks from cotton rather than purchase them ready made.

 

Using wicks that are covered in wax:[656]

Some Poskim[657] question whether using wicks that are covered with wax fulfills the Mitzvah, even if one uses olive oil.[658] Practically, it is best to either coat the wax covered wick with olive oil before lighting, or to light it one time before the official lighting and burn off the wax, in order to avoid this issue. Other Poskim[659] however rule that using such wicks does not pose any problem, and they may be used even initially.

 

May wicks that are very thick or very thin be used to light the candles?[660]

It is proper not to use very thick or very thin wicks for candles.

 

Must one have both a wick and oil for the candle lighting?[661]

Yes. One must have both a wick and a fuel, such as wax or oil, for the Mitzvah to be valid.[662]

 

May one use electric bulbs for Chanukah candles?[663]

No.[664] However, if nothing else is available, one may light it without a blessing.[665]

 

May one use a gas flame for the Chanukah candles, such as a stove top?[666]

No.[667]

 

May one use a long twig, or piece of wood, for Chanukah candles?[668]

No.[669]

C. The Menorah:

What material should a Menorah be built from? Every person is to place effort into having a nice Menorah, in accordance to what he can afford.[670] The highest level of beauty is a gold Menorah. The second level is silver.[671] One who can afford it, is to place effort to use a silver menorah, as it is not so much of an expense.[672] One should avoid using an earthenware Menorah, as will be explained next.

May one reuse the same candle holder each night:[673] An earthenware lamp which was used to light a single night is considered old [and repulsive[674]], and is thus not to be reused another night [due to it being belittling to the Mitzvah[675]]. Thus, one who is using earthenware cups for the oil, is to use new cups every night.[676] If this is not possible, then he is to clean it every night.[677] A metal or glass Menorah may be reused every night. An earthenware candle holder that is plated [with led[678] or other metal or glass] may be reused other nights just like metal.

How distanced must the branches of the Menorah be?[679] The branches of the Menorah are to be a distance of at least 2 cm from each other.

 

Summary:

The more expensive of a material used for a Menorah, the greater the Mitzvah.

 

Q&A

Must one use a Menorah, or can he simply stick candles on a table?[680]

One fulfills his obligation even if he does not light the candles on a Menorah, but simply sticks a candle on the table.[681] However, some Poskim[682] rule that a Menorah is needed, and one does not fulfill his obligation without it.[683] Practically, according to all one is initially to light the candles using a Menorah, as this is considered to beautify the Mitzvah, although, when not available, one may simply light the candles without a menorah.

 

The 15 types of Menorahs:[684]

Rabbi Avraham Azulaiy, in his magnum opus Chesed Leavraham, lists 15 levels of quality of vessels that can be used for the candle lighting. The higher it is on the list, the greater its quality for the Mitzvah.

1. Gold vessel

2. Silver vessel

3. Copper[685] which has a gold color vessel

4. Copper which has a red color vessel

5. Iron [Barzel] vessel

6. Tin [Bedil] vessel

7. Lead [Oferet] vessel

8. Glass vessel

9. Wood which has been made into a vessel

10. Bone which has been made into a vessel

11. Earthenware coated with lead [Eiver]

12. Earthenware that is not coated

13. Pomegranate shell which has been made into a vessel

14. Wall nut shell which has been made into a vessel

15. Acorn shells which has been made into a vessel

Egg shells:[686] One should not use egg shells as a vessel to hold the oil for the sake of lighting Chanukah candles.

A belittling item:[687] One is not to use a denigrated item for the Chanukah candles, such as the peel of a lemon or onion, as this is considered belittling to the Mitzvah.

Should one use glass bulbs on the Menorah?

Some Poskim[688] question that perhaps using a glass bulb to hold the oil on a metal Menorah, denigrates the level of vessel to that of glass [number 8 on the above list], even if the actual Menorah is made of gold or silver. Furthermore, perhaps it is considered that he is not lighting with a vessel at all, as glass bulbs cannot stand on their own and are hence not considered a vessel. Other Poskim[689] however rule that the glass bulbs are nullified to the Menorah, and hence the level of quality of vessel is not denigrated through using it, and so is the practical custom.

Q&A on Menorah designs

Using a Chabad-Rambam Menorah:

The commonly depicted shape of the Menorah contains curved half circle branches, and is used for coinage, marketing, designs and sculpture art. The Rebbe[690], after a thorough Halachic and historic analyzation, concluded that this shape is in truth not the shape of the Temple Menorah, but of a cloned Menorah which was captured by the Romans, and placed on display in Rome to depict the fall of the Jews. The true shape of the Temple Menorah, from both a Halachic[691] and Historic perspective, contained diagonal branches. This is the shape of the Menorah which was depicted by the Rambam in his magnum opus Mishneh Torah, and was testified by his son, Rav Avraham, to be an exact depiction of the Temple Menorah. Due to the Rebbe’s discovery and revelation, artists commonly name this Menorah as the Chabad Menorah, although in truth this is the Menorah of all Jewry, as depicted by the Rambam. The Rebbe stated that one is to endeavor to use for Chanukah an eight branch Menorah which follows the true Temple shape, and not the half circle branches which depict a cloned Menorah which was used by the Roman’s as propaganda for crushing the Jewish pride and spirit.[692] [This however does not mean that everyone should use a Temple shaped Menorah, but that if they are buying a Menorah with branches, then the branches should be diagonal. However, Menorah’s that do not contain branches may also be used, and so was used by the Rebbe himself.[693]]

 

May one make/use a Menorah of seven branches?[694]

It is [Biblically[695]] forbidden to make a Menorah which resembles the Menorah in the Temple, [and is valid for use in the Temple[696]]. Accordingly, one may not make a Menorah of seven branches, but rather of 5, or 6, or 8 branches.[697] This prohibition to make a seven branch Menorah applies even if it is made of non-gold metals, and even if it does not contain [the features of the Biblical Menorah such as] the goblets, buttons and flowers, and even if it is not 18 Tefachim [1.4 meters] high.[698] [It likewise applies even if one makes the Menorah into a different shape than that of the Temple, such as with half circle branches, or triangle shaped branches and the like.[699] Those Shuls which make/own a seven-branched metal Menorah are to be protested until they remove a branch or add an eighth branch.[700]

A non-metal Menorah of seven branches:[701] It is permitted to make a non-metal Menorah which contains seven branches.[702] Thus one may make a seven-branched wood, earthenware, [glass or plastic] Menorah.

 

1. Question: [Tuesday, 26th Kisleiv 5782]

One of the branches of our tall Chanukah menorah broke off together with the Shamash, and we hence now have only seven branches by the Menorah. May I use this menorah to light with until the seventh night?

 

Answer:

If the menorah is made of metal and contains extended branches into which each one of the candles is inserted, then you are to break off one of the branches from the menorah so that it only contains six branches. You may then use it to light candles on each night of Hanukkah until the sixth night. On the seventh and eighth night you should either use a different menorah or find a way of placing a seventh candle on the same level as the other candles.

Explanation: It is forbidden for one to make a replica of the temple menorah which contained seven branches. Likewise, one should not purchase or own such a menorah even if he is not the one who manufactured it. Hence, if a regular eight branch Chanukah menorah broke and now only has seven branches, then it is to have one of its branches broken off so it is no longer a seven-branch menorah. Now, this is only necessary by a Menorah that is made of metal and that contains actual branches for each one of its candles. However, a wood or glass menorah, or a flat menorah which does not contain branches at all, and simply contains an area to rest the oil bulbs or candlesticks, then since it does not resemble at all the temple menorah, it may contain only seven candle holders, and hence if one of the holders break off, it may still be used. There is no obligation to light the Hanukkah candles on an eight branch menorah or on a menorah at all for that matter, and hence even if the menorah is broken and does not have eight branches, it may be used for the lighting. However, when one runs out of branches for that number night of Hanukkah, then he should use another menorah or find a way of lighting an additional candle on the same level as the other branches.

Sources: See regarding the prohibition of making a seven-branch menorah: Michaber Y.D. 141:8; Rambam Beis Habechira 7:10; Avoda Zara 43a; Shach 141:35; Tevuos Shur on R”H 24, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14; Mishnas Chachamim on Avodas Kochavim p. 64, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14; Likkutei Sichos 20:169 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275]; See regarding breaking off a branch from a seven branched Menorah: Birkeiy Yosef 141; See Maharik ibid; Devar Moseh 1:122 See regarding that the candles should be on the same level and not some higher and some lower: Chayeh Adam 154:10; Kaf Hachaim 671:28; See also Mahariy Bruno 39

May a Menorah have designs of people?

Yes, and so is the custom.[703] However, some Poskim[704] are stringent in this matter.

May a Menorah have designs of animals and birds?

Yes, and so is the custom.[705] This applies even regarding lions and oxen.[706] Some Poskim[707] however rule that one is to avoid making forms and sculptures of animals and birds, unless some of the form is recognizably lacking.

May two people light candles on the same Menorah?

Two people may light candles on the same Menorah on opposite ends.[708] They are not to light candles on adjacent branches.[709]

May a Chanukah Menorah be used for other purposes, such as to light other candles and the like?

During Chanukah: The Menorah may not be used during Chanukah for a mundane purpose.[710] Some Poskim[711] rule it may not even be used for a Mitzvah purpose. Other Poskim[712] however are lenient.

After Chanukah: After Chanukah, the Menorah may be used for mundane purposes.[713] However, some Poskim[714] rule that a Menorah which one plans to use for the coming year retains its holiness and may not be used for other purposes. It certainly should not be used for belittling purposes.[715]

Does a Menorah require Geniza?[716]

A Menorah [whether used with oil or wax candles] does not require Geniza, and may hence be discarded in the garbage.

Do the glass bowls which hold the oil require Geniza?[717]

The glass bowls that hold the oil may likewise be discarded, although it is an act of piety to not discard it in a belittling area. [Thus, one is to wrap it in paper or a bag prior to throwing it out].

 

D. What should one do with the leftover oil and wicks after Chanukah?[718]

The leftover oils and wicks which were used to light the Chanukah candles must be burnt after Chanukah. It is forbidden to use them for any other purpose.[719] It is proper to stipulate before Chanukah that the oil which remains after the 30 minutes of lighting is not considered designated for the Mitzvah, in which case one is not required to burn it after Chanukah. See Halacha 21D!

15. How many candles are to be lit?[720]

[From the letter of the law, it suffices to light one candle every night.[721] However, in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Mehadrin we add a candle each night, as follows:] On the first night, one lights one candle. On each subsequent night, one is to add another candle until eight candles are lit on the last night, which is the eighth night.[722] In addition to the above candles, one also lights a Shamash which is kept separate from the other lights, as will be explained. [The above however is only applicable for one who can afford to add a candle each night, as doing so fulfills the Mitzvah of candle lighting Mehadrin Min Hamehadrin. However, if one is unable to afford more than one candle, he is to light a single candle each night, as is required from the letter of the law.[723]]

Household members:[724] All the [male] household members that light Chanukah candles [according to the Ashkenazi custom] are to follow the above Mitzvah of Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin and light an additional candle each night. If, however, one cannot afford this number of candles for every member of the family, then they are to light one candle per night.[725]

What is one to do if he forgot to light the previous night?[726] In the event that one did not light candles on one of the nights of Chanukah, nevertheless on the next night he is to light the same number of candles as is lit by everyone else.[727] [One who missed a night and is pained that he cannot make it up, can place double the amount of oil corresponding to both nights.[728]]

The Shamash:[729] It is customary to light an additional candle to the set number of candles of that night.[730] Customarily, the Shamash, which is the candle used to light the Chanukah candles, is used for this purpose.[731] After the lighting is complete, the Shamash is placed together with the other candles, although at a recognizable distance from them.[732] If, for whatever reason, one is unable to use the Shamash wax candle for this purpose, then at the completion of the lighting, he is to light an additional oil candle which is at a recognizable distance from the Chanukah candles.[733] The Shamash is to be recognizably higher than the other Chanukah candles.[734] This can be accomplished by either having a Shamash wax candle that is longer than the rest of the candles[735], or by placing the Shamash on a higher plane than the rest of the candles.[736] [The Shamash is customarily made of bee’s wax.[737]]

 

Q&A

When many people are lighting in the same home, is each one to have their own Shamash?[738]

Being that every person is to light the candles in their own individual area [as explained in Halacha 2C] therefore each individual needs to have their own Shamash. [However, if for whatever reason they are lighting near each other, then technically, a Shamash is not required for each one. Nevertheless, the custom is for each individual to have their own Shamash, as it contains mystical meaning.[739]]

 

What is one to do if he recited the blessing and then realized that he did not prepare enough candles?[740]

He is to light the available candles, and not talk until the extra candle is prepared and lit. If he talked in-between, he is not to say a blessing upon lighting the additional candle.

 

What is one to do if he lit the wrong number of candles?[741]

Lit more than required: Some Poskim[742] rule he is to extinguish all the candles and relight. Other Poskim[743] rule he is to only extinguish the extra candle.

Lit less than required: If one lit less than the required number of candles [and remembered while the candles are still lit] then he is to light the correct amount after he remembers. He is not to recite a blessing upon lighting the extra candle.[744] This applies even [if he spoke in between, or] did not have in mind to light another candle at the time of the blessing, and another candle then became available, nevertheless, a blessing is not to be recited.[745]

If one spoke after lighting the first candle but prior to lighting the remaining candles, is a blessing to be repeated?[746]

No. Nevertheless, initially one must be very careful not to speak until all the candles are lit.

If one became Bar Mitzvah, or converted, on Chanukah, how many candles is he to light?[747]

He is to light the same number as everyone else who is lighting that night.

 

What is one to do if he only owns 9 or 10 candles?[748]

He is to light two candles on the second night and light one candle on every other night. This applies even if one owns 10 candles, nevertheless, he is not to light two candles on the 3rd or subsequent night. [However, the Rebbe[749] suggests that perhaps one should light two candles on the third night.]

 

If one does not have enough candles for a certain night, how many candles is he to light?[750]

He is to light only one candle. One only lights more than one candle if he has enough candles to correspond to that night’s number of lighting. Thus, if on the 8th night he only has 7 candles, he is to only light one candle. [However, the Rebbe[751] suggests that if one has the same number of candles as the previous night, then perhaps one should light that amount of candles, even if he will not be able to light the correct amount that night.]

What is the law if one does not have enough oil to last a half hour for all the candles of that night?[752]

One is to place enough oil in at least one candle and then place a small amount of oil in the rest of the candles, even if it will not last a half hour.

What is the law if one has exactly enough oil/candles to last him for all the candles of each night, and his friend does not have any candles?[753]

It is better for one to light only a single candle per night, and give his friend enough oil/candles for him to also light one candle per night, than for him to light the Mehadrin number of candles each night and leave his friend without any candles. If, however, the friend is not obligated in lighting candles, such as he is part of his household, then it is better for him to light the Mehadrin amount of candles and have his friend be Yotzei with him.

*15. The Shamash-Purpose & Halachic details:[754]

The below is a compilation of laws relating to the Shamash that have been gathered from the various Halachos in this chapter, with some novel details that are brought here for the first time.

A. Its name and the candle that it refers to:

The technical term Shamash refers to the candle used to light the Chanukah candles, hence lending it its name “the servant,” and not necessarily to the extra candle that is lit in addition to the set number of candles of that night, as will be explained. Nevertheless, the custom amongst Ashkenazi Jewry is to designate the Shamash that was used to light the candles as the extra candle, and hence this extra candle is referred to as the Shamash.[755] Alternatively, this extra candle that remains by the Menorah is called the Shamash even if one used a separate candle for the lighting, as is the custom amongst Sephardim who light a separate extra oil candle for the Shamash.[756] This extra candle is called a Shamash being that one can use it for his benefit [unlike the actual Chanaukah candles which are prohibited in benefit], and hence its name refers to its potential use.[757]

Whatever the case, for semantic purposes, whenever the word Shamash is used in this article, it refers to the extra candle that is lit by the Menorah, as is indeed the intent of people when they use this term.

B. Its purpose:[758]

It is customary to light an additional [single[759]] candle to the set number of candles which are required to be lit for that night of Chanukah, and this extra candle is customarily referred to as the Shamash. The reason for this custom is because it is forbidden to make use of the light of the Chanukah candles.[760] Hence, we place a non-Chanukah candle near the candles in order so one who uses the light will do so from the permitted candle.[761]

The mystical reason:[762] There are a total of eight Shamashim that are lit during Chanukah. Each Shamash contains a great holiness, similar to the Kohen who would light the Menorah, and similar to the Serafim who shine the Kisei Hakavod. This is why the Shamash must be placed higher than the other candles.

C. Should the candle used for the lighting also be used as the Shamash?[763]

Letter of the law: There is no obligation to use the candle which was used to light all the candles as the extra candle that is lit near the other candles of the Menorah.[764] Accordingly, many [especially Sephardim] are accustomed to preparing an extra oil candle as the Shamash, and they use a wax candle to light it.[765]

Ideal custom:[766] Despite the above, it is customary amongst Ashkenazi communities, to use the Shamash, which is the candle used to light the Chanukah candles, as the extra candle and hence after the lighting is complete, the Shamash is placed together with the other candles. This latter custom is the better custom.[767] If, for whatever reason, one is unable to use the Shamash wax candle for this purpose, then at the completion of the lighting, he is to light an additional oil candle which is at a recognizable distance from the Chanukah candles.[768]

D. The type of oil or wax or wick:

From the letter of the law, the Shamash may be made of any type of oil, or wax, or wick.[769] However, due to both Halachic and esoteric reasons, the custom is to use a Shamash that is made of bee’s wax.[770]

Shabbos Chanukah:[771] On Shabbos Chanukah, the Shamash must be made of oil/wax that is permitted to be used for the Shabbos candles. Likewise, on Shabbos Chanukah, the Shamash must contain a wick that is permitted to use for the Shabbos candles.

E. How long is the Shamash to last for?[772]

The Shamash is to last for at least 30 minutes after nightfall.

F. When to light the Shamash:

The candle which is used to light all the other candles is to be lit before the start of the blessing in order not to make an interval between the blessing and the lighting.[773] [This comes to negate those who first say the blessing and then strike the match to light the Shamash, hence making an unnecessary interval between the blessing and lighting of the Chanukah lights.] Those who are accustomed to light an additional oil candle as the Shamash, are to light this candle only after all the other candles of that day are lit.

G. Who should light the Shamash?[774]

Any person, even a child, may be delegated the duty of lighting the Shamash, which also is a slight Mitzvah.

H. Its position by the Menorah:

At a distance:[775]  The Shamash is to be placed at a recognizable distance from the rest of the candles.

Higher up:[776] The Shamash is to be placed higher than the other Chanukah candles.[777] This can be accomplished either by having a Shamash that is longer than the rest of the candles[778], or by placing the Shamash on a higher plane than the rest of the candles.[779]

Right or left, and front or back:[780] The Shamash may be positioned as one wishes whether to the right or to the left of the Menorah, or in back or in front of the Menorah.

I. Benefiting from the Shamash:

It is permitted to receive benefit from the Shamash that is positioned near the Chanukah candles. One may light other candles from it and may use its light for benefit.[781] Nevertheless, initially, one is not to benefit from the Shamash if it is together with the other candles and not individually recognizable from them.[782] Likewise, initially, one may not use the light of the joint candles even when the Shamash is lit unless it is clear that one is only using the light of the Shamash.[783]

J. May one extinguish the Shamash once it has been lit for a half hour:[784]

After the passing of a half hour past nightfall, the Shamash may be extinguished. This applies according to all opinions, even if one did not perform a stipulation over it prior to lighting. [If one is using a different candle for the Shamash then the candle that was used to light all the other candles, Shamash included, then this candle that has been used to light all the candles may be extinguished may be extinguished as soon as one finishes lighting all the candles, including the Shamash.]

K. When many people are lighting in the same home, is each one to have their own Shamash?[785]

Being that every person is to light the candles in their own individual area[786], therefore each individual needs to have their own Shamash. [However, if for whatever reason they are lighting near each other, then technically, a Shamash is not required for each one. Nevertheless, the custom is for each individual to have their own Shamash, as it contains mystical meaning.[787]]

L. Should a Shamash be lit also when lighting the Menorah in Shul during the day:

Those who have the custom to light the Shul Menorah likewise by day, after Shacharis[788], should also light the Shamash when doing so.[789]

M. Using the flame of the Chanukah candles to light the Shamash:[790]

It is forbidden to light any mundane candle from an already lit Chanukah candle. This prohibition applies even against lighting a candle that will be used to light the other Chanukah candles.[791] [Hence, one may not light the Shamash from a Chanukah candle.[792]] However, some Poskim[793] rule one may light a mundane candle [i.e. the Shamash] for the sake of lighting other Chanukah candles, so long as there is no concern that it will extinguish prior to having a chance to light the Chanukah candles. Practically, we are stringent in this matter.[794]

16. How to set up the candles on the Menorah:

In a straight line: One must be careful to set up the candles in a straight line as opposed to a circle.[795] Also, the candles may not be set up in a zigzag fashion, with one candle in and one candle out.[796] They should also not be set up in a way that some candles are higher than another.[797] There should be some distance between each candle in order so the flames do not appear like a single torch.[798] There should be a minimum distance of an Etzbah [2 centimeters] between each candle.[799] [Nevertheless, the candles are not to be too far apart, as one is to be able to tell that they are all part of that night’s lighting for that person.[800]]

Starting from the right side of the Menorah:[801] One positions the candles on the Menorah starting from the right of the Menorah [i.e. the right side from the direction that one is facing], and each night he subsequently adds a candle from right to left. [This applies whether the Menorah is positioned to the left of the doorpost, or the right of the doorpost, such as when there is no Mezuzah, and applies whether the Menorah is vertical or horizontal, and whether the utmost right side is further away from the doorpost or is closer to the doorpost.[802] This applies whether one is right or left handed.[803]]

The Shamash:[804] The Shamash is customarily placed together with the other candles although at a recognizable distance from them.[805] It is to be placed higher than the other Chanukah candles.[806] This can be accomplished either by having a Shamash that is longer than the rest of the candles[807], or by placing the Shamash on a higher plane than the rest of the candles.[808]

 

Summary:

The candles are to be set up in a straight line, with the candle of the first night set up on the uttermost right end, hence adding one more candle from right to left. The Shamash is to be slightly taller than the other candles.

Q&A

Is one to first set up the candle on the far right or the candle of that night, which is on the far left, or does it not make a difference?

The Poskim do not discuss this matter, hence implying that one may set it up in whichever order he desires, so long as the candles rest from a right to left position on the Menorah.

 

How close to each other should he candles be?

The candles are to be at least a finger worth apart [2 centimeters].[809] This means that the flame of each candle should be at least a two-centimeter distance from the other flames.[810]

17. The Seder of lighting:

The attire:[811] A married man is to wear a gartel when lighting the Chanukah candles. One wears one’s usual [weekday] hat and clothes and not his Shabbos garb. See end of Halacha 18! [Some[812] are accustomed to wash their hands prior to lighting the candles. Others[813] are accustomed to immerse in a Mikveh prior to lighting.]

Gathering one’s family:[814] One is to gather his family for the candle lighting. Many Rabbanim and Chassidic Rebbe’s are particular to light the candles at a time that an abundance of people have gathered, and come to watch the lighting. However, the Rebbe Rayatz, acted on the contrary, and was displeased when non-family members were around for the candle lighting.[815]

Recite all blessings:[816] One only begins to light the candles after reciting all the blessings. [This applies to all nights of Chanukah.[817]] See next Halacha!

Light from left to right:[818] On the first night one sets up and lights a candle at the extreme right [of the Menorah]. On the second night one adds a candle adjacent to it [to the left of the previous night’s candle].[819] One begins the blessing [and subsequent lighting] with this added candle, which is on the furthest left side, and then continues to kindle the remaining candles from an order of left to right.[820] This same order is followed on the third night, in which one adds a candle adjacent to the two previous candles, and begins the blessing and lighting with that additional candle, and then continues to light from the left to the right. The same applies for each and every subsequent night. In conclusion, it come out that one always recites the blessing on the additional candle of that night, as this candle signifies the miracle, being that as each day passed the miracle grew greater. [This applies whether the Menorah is positioned to the left of the doorpost, or the right of the doorpost, such as when there is no Mezuzah, and applies whether the Menorah is vertical or horizontal, and whether the utmost right side is further away from the doorpost or is closer to the doorpost.[821] This applies whether one is right or left handed.[822] On each night, one is to stand slightly closer to the left side, so one can begin the lighting with the uttermost left candle.[823]]

May one light his Shamash or other candle from one of the lit Chanukah candles?[824] The custom is to not light the Shamash or any other candle, including another Chanukah candle, from an already lit Chanukah candle. See Halacha 20B!

May one light the first candle and have another light the rest?[825] [In a time of need[826]] one may have one person recite the blessings and light the first candle and have others light the remaining candles.[827] [However, initially, one is to light all the candles himself and not delegate the lighting of other candles to other people.[828] For this reason one is not to delegate his child to light one of the Chanukah candles, even if one desires to educate him in the Mitzvah. One may however have the child light the Shamash, which also is a slight Mitzvah.[829]] See Halacha 4!

Fully lighting the wick:[830] One is not to remove his hand from the wick until majority of the wick, which is above the oil, has caught fire.

Remaining close to the candles:[831] One is to remain close to the burning candles for about half an hour [except for Erev Shabbos[832]]. [It was the custom of the Rebbe Rashab to stay near the candles and learn Torah.[833] He would learn Gemara.[834]]

 

Summary:

One is to wear his regular weekday garb upon lighting, although married men wear a gartel. One is to gather his family, recite all the blessings and then light from left to right. One remains near the candle for a half hour.

Q&A

Does one fulfill his obligation if he lit from right to left instead of from left to right?[835]

Yes.

 

With which hand is the candle to be lit?

Those who are right-handed are to light the candles using their right hand.[836] Those who are left-handed are to use their left hand.[837]

 

Must one stand upon lighting the Chanukah candles?

One is required to stand when saying blessings which involve commands, such as when saying the blessing over Tzitzis, and Tefillin.[838] Accordingly, one is required to stand upon saying the blessings over the Menorah lighting. However, technically, this only applies to the person reciting the blessing, and not to the bystanders, who may remain seated.[839] Likewise, seemingly this only applies to the blessing itself, while the lighting may be done while sitting.[840] Nonetheless, the widespread custom is to light while standing, and a Jewish custom is Torah.[841] Therefore, initially the person saying the blessings and lighting the candles should do so in a standing position. Likewise, the widespread custom is for all the bystanders to stand for the blessing and lighting. Nonetheless, if it is difficult for one to stand then he may light it in a sitting position. Certainly, the listeners may sit in a time of need, such as due to weakness or exhaustion, or a pregnant and nursing mother and the like.

 Sparks of Chassidus

The light of Moshiach:[842]

During the time of the candle lighting, the Or Haganuz [the light which was hidden by creation] is revealed. This is the light of Moshiach. 

 

Listening to the candle’s message:

A saying of the Rebbe Maharash: One should listen closely to what the Chanukah lights have to say.

18. The blessings:[843]

The Nusach of the blessing:[844] Prior to lighting the candles on each night, one recites the blessing of “Lehadlik Neir Chanukah”[845], and “Sheasa Nissim Laavoseinu Bayamim Haheim Bizman[846] Hazeh”.[847]

Shehechiyanu:[848] On the first night of Chanukah, one also recites the blessing of Shehechiyanu, for a total of three blessings.[849] It is not repeated on any other night.[850] If one did not recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu on the first night [and the candles have already extinguished[851]] then he is to recite it [prior to lighting candles] on the second night or [on any other night] when he remembers [upon lighting that night’s candle[852]].[853] [If he only remembered after lighting the candle, then so long as the candles are still lit[854] he may recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu.[855] This applies to all nights of Chanukah, if one has not yet recited Shehechiyanu on a previous night.[856] If however the candles have already extinguished then he may no longer say the blessing that night.[857]] As stated above, the blessing of Shehechiyanu is only recited once during Chanukah, and is hence not repeated on any other night.

Recite all blessings:[858] One only begins to light the candles after reciting all the blessings.[859] [This applies to all nights of Chanukah.[860]]

Reciting Haneiros Halalu:[861] After lighting, one recites the hymn of “Haneiros Halalu[862] Anu Madlikin Al Hateshuos Al Hanissim Veal Haniflaaos”. [Haneiros Halalu is to be recited only after all the candles are lit.[863]]

If one did not light candles and does not plan to do so:[864] One who did not light Chanukah candles and will not be able to do so that night[865], and was not Yotzei with the lighting of his wife or household[866], is to say the blessing of “Sheasah Nissim” upon seeing the lit Chanukah candles of another Jew.[867] On the first night of Chanukah, he is to also recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon seeing the lit candles of another Jew.[868] In such a case, he does not repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon lighting candles on any subsequent night.[869] [See Q&A 2-3] [Some Poskim[870] however rule that regarding Erev Shabbos, if one did not light the Chanukah candles on Erev Shabbos then he may not say the blessing upon seeing the candles on Shabbos. However, before Shabbos, the blessings may be recited.[871]]

 

Q&A

May one light the candles and have another person recite the blessings?

If the other person will not be fulfilling his obligation with this lighting: It is permitted for one person to light the candles and have another person recite the blessings on his behalf, even if the person reciting the blessings has already fulfilled the Mitzvah or will do so later on.[872] Nevertheless, this only applies if the person who is lighting the candles does not know how to recite the blessings himself, otherwise, he must recite the blessings rather than have another person who is not included in this Mitzvah to say the blessings for him.[873]

If the other person is also fulfilling his obligation with this lighting: It is permitted to have one person light the candles and have another person, who is fulfilling his obligation with the lighting, say the blessing.[874] However, some Poskim[875] rule that the person who is lighting is to recite the blessings. Practically, the leader of the house who carries the main obligation of lighting the candles is to say the blessing and light the candles.[876]

When an emissary lights on behalf of another person on the first night, is he to also say the blessing of Shehechiyanu?[877]

Yes, [if the person does not know to say the blessing themselves].

 

May a blind person recite the blessings upon lighting?[878]

A blind person is obligated to light Chanukah candles.[879] Nevertheless, he is to do so without saying any of the blessings.[880] Preferably, he is to have another person, such as his wife or host, light on his behalf.

 

What is the law if one accidentally lit some or all of the candles prior to saying the blessing?

The blessing of Lehadlik: Some Poskim[881]  rule that once one candle has been lit one may no longer say the blessing of “Lehadlik Ner Chanukah”.[882] Others[883] however rule that one may recite even the blessing of Lehadlik so long as he did not yet light all the candles of that night.[884] If all the candles of that night have already been lit, then according to all opinions one may no longer say the blessing.[885]

Blessing of Sheasa Nissim and Shehechiyanu:[886] In all cases, one may still recite the blessing of Sheasah Nissim and Shehechiyanu so long as there are candles that are still lit. This applies even towards the candles of another person’s Menorah. The blessings are recited upon seeing these candles.

 

If after the blessing, the wicks did not catch fire and need to be replaced, is a new blessing to be said?

If one spoke in-between of irrelevant matters, then the blessing must be repeated.[887] If one did not make an interval of irrelevant matters, then a blessing is not to be repeated.[888]

 

If one spoke after lighting the first candle but prior to lighting the remaining candles, is a blessing to be repeated?[889]

No. Nevertheless, initially one must be very careful not to speak until all the candles are lit.

If a family member spoke during the blessing, do they fulfill their obligation?

Yes, as they are not obligated in the blessing at all. Nonetheless, initially they may not speak during the blessing of Sheasa Nissim, and if they spoke then they should try to hear the blessing from another person who is lighting.

May the bystanders answer Baruch Hu Uvaruch Shemo for the blessings?

Seemingly they are not to do so by the blessing of Sheasa Nissim.[890]

What is the law if one accidentally preceded the blessing of Sheasa Nissim to Lehadlik Ner?[891]

He is to simply recite the blessing of Lehadlik Ner after concluding the blessing of Sheasa Nissim, and nevertheless fulfills his obligation.

Q&A on Shehechiyanu

Is an Avel to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon lighting the Menorah?

Yes. An Avel is to recite all three blessings upon lighting on the first night, just like any other person.[892] However, an Avel is not to light the Shul Menorah on the first night, as he may not recite a public blessing of Shehechiyanu.[893]

If one will not be lighting candles during Chanukah and will not see the candles lit of another person, is he/she to say the blessing of Shehechiyanu on the Holiday?[894]

No.[895]

If one’s wife lit the candles the first night on his behalf, while he was not present, is he to light with a blessing of Shehechiyanu on the second night?[896]

No. This applies even if he did not see the candles the first night and did not say any blessing. 

If one is away from home and his wife is lighting at home on his behalf, is he to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu upon lighting his own Menorah?[897]

Yes. [If, however, he is staying as a guest in another person’s house who is lighting, then see Halacha 3 regarding lighting the candles with a blessing.]

 

Q&A on saying Sheasa Nissim if not lighting

Are household members who were not present at the time of the lighting in the home to say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim/Shehechiyanu upon seeing candles?[898]

No.

 

If a guest who paid to join the lighting of his host was not present at the time of the lighting, is he to say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim?

No.[899]

When saying the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing Chanukah candles must one see the entire candle or is it enough to simply see the light of the candle?[900]

One needs to see the entire candle, both the oil and wick, in order to recite the blessing.

                                                                                                                           

May one say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing Chanukah candles, if the candles have already been lit for a half hour after nightfall?

Some Poskim[901] rule the blessing may no longer be recited. Other Poskim[902], however, rule the blessing may still be recited.

May one say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing the Chanukah candles lit in Shul?

Some Poskim[903] rule the blessing may be recited upon seeing the Chanukah candles lit in Shul. Other Poskim[904], however, rule the blessing may not be recited.

May one say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing the Chanukah candles lit by a child?

This matter follows the same dispute as saying the blessing upon seeing the candles lit in Shul.

 

Q&A on the Nussach

What is the Nussach when reciting the blessing on behalf of another?

Some Poskim[905] rule that an emissary who is lighting candles on another’s behalf, in their presence, is to recite “Al Hadlakas Ner Chanukah”. The custom however is to recite the regular Nussach, just as is recited by one who is fulfilling the Mitzvah.[906] 

 

What blessing is a convert to say?

Some Poskim[907] rule a convert is to say the blessing of “Sheasa Nissim Liyisrael”. If, however, he said “Laavoseinu”, he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation. Others[908], however, rule that even initially a convert may choose to say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim Laavoseinu.

Is one to say Bahein or Bahen by Haneiros Halalu?

In the new Siddur of Tehilas Hashem [Kehos Israel], and the new printing of Siddur Im Dach, the Nusach is Bahen with Segal. In however the old editions of Tehilas Hashem and Siddur Im Dach, Rav Raskin’s glosses on the Siddur and Siddur Beis Yaakov, the Nusach is Bahein with Tzeirei.

May one sing Haneiros Halalu on Shabbos?

The beginning of Haneiros Halalu is not sung on Shabbos[909], however its continuation of “Al Nisecha” is sung.[910]

 

Kavana by blessing:[911]

One is to place special concentration to recite the blessings over the Chanukah candles with joy, due to it being a Mitzvah that only comes on occasion. This joy is also due to the hosting of the angels that visit the home at the time of the fulfillment of this Mitzvah.

Attire by the blessing:

One is to light the candles while wearing the same clothing as worn to go to Shul [i.e. the hat and jacket].[912] Some[913] have the custom to wear Shabbos clothing for the lighting. The Chabad custom is not wear Shabbos clothing for the occasion of the lighting, but rather one’s weekday hat and jacket. The Chabad custom is for married men to wear a Gartel upon lighting the candles.[914]

Standing by blessing:

One is required to stand upon reciting the blessing over the lighting, as explained in Halacha 17. See there!

Answering Amen with a Niggun by Chanukah candle lighting

1. Question: [Thursday 28th Kisleiv 5782]

We are accustomed, as many of the people are as well, to answer the Amen after the blessings of the Hanukkah menorah in a long tune which stretches out the Amen. One of my children said to me that she heard that it is forbidden to do so as it ruins and destroys the Amen. Is this correct?

 

Answer:

Your daughter is correct, as it is improper to stretch out the Amen, and hence although the amen may be slightly lengthened, it should not be lengthened too much, and certainly one should not say it in a melody in a way that the Alef is pronounced in a double form as “Ah-Ahh-Men.” In the event that a person is answering the Amen in length, there is no need for the person lighting to wait for the lengthy Amens to conclude prior to his lighting [and in truth perhaps there is no need for him to wait at all for even a regular Amen to finish].

Explanation:

This is quite an interesting question as it touches upon the subject of Amen Ketufa, and saying an Amen which is not comprehensible, as well as a blessing for a long life for whoever lengthens his Amen. The Talmud and Poskim records various laws and restrictions regarding how Amen is to be answered. The proper answering of Amen is so severe that Ben Azaiy states in the Talmud that on one’s form of answer is dependent the longevity of his life. One of the restrictions listed is that one is not to answer an Amen Ketufa. Now, regarding the definition of an Amen Ketufa we find two approaches, with the second being that one is not to split the Amen into two. Simply speaking, this means that one should not first say the “Ah” and then make a slight break and say the “Mein,” as doing so splits the word into two. Now, perhaps also included in this prohibition is if one lengthens too much on the “Ah,” and stretches out the Alef in a way that it no longer seems connected to the “Men”, especially if he says the Alef as two vocals as “Ah-Ahh-Men.” Although I have not found any sources which directly deal with this specific question, seemingly it is not a problem of Amen Ketufa, as the Poskim make no mention of this issue when discussing the lengthening of pronunciation of the Amen, and letters in Shema. Whatever the case, one should nevertheless not do so, as even if it’s not considered to split the word and be an Amen Ketufa, it adds to it another Alef, and is seemingly pronouncing it incorrectly [as the way that it is usually said with the Niggun is Ah-Ahh-Men]. This is aside for the general negation against stretching out the Amen. A precedent for the negation of lengthening on the pronunciation of a letter of a word can be found laws of shema where it states that one may not lengthen too much on the pronunciation of the letter Daled of Echad as it ruins is proper vowelization. This is likewise explicitly ruled in the Talmud and Poskim regarding the laws of answering amen in which it states that although the Amen may not be said quickly and rather is to be slightly lengthened, one is not to lengthen too much in the Amen, as the word is not expressed properly when it is over extended. Admur there explicitly rules that those who lengthen the Amen too much are “mistaken,” as says Rav Chisda that “Whoever answers Amen too much is mistaken.” Thus, although the sages state that whoever lengthens in his answering of amen is given long life, this is on condition that he doesn’t ruin the amen in his elongated pronunciation. Accordingly, it is best not to answer the customary melody stretched out amen after the Hanukkah lighting, and indeed I watched a few videos of the 770 lighting in the presence of the Rebbe, and in all the videos that I saw, the congregation answered a regular amen and not the drawn out melody long amen.

Sources: See regarding Amen Ketufa: Admur 124:11; Michaber and Rama 124:8; Beis Yosef 124; Brachos 47a; Mordechai Brachos 168; Sefer Agudah Brachos 7:171; Sefer Heshkol 1:25; Meiri Brachos 47a; Kaf Hachaim 124:46; See regarding not lengthening the Amen and that there is no need to wait for him to finish his Amen: Admur 124:12; Michaber and Rama 124:8-9; Tur 124; Rambam Brachos 1:14; Brachos 47a and Tosafus there; See Yabia Omer O.C. 6:7; See regarding not to lengthen the Daled of Shema: Admur 61:7; M”A 61:6; M”B 61:21; Kaf Hachaim 61:26; See regarding lengthening other letters of Shema: Michaber and Tur 61:8 [regarding the Alef]; Ketzos Hashulchan 19:17 [that the same applies to the Ches]; See Admur 61:21 that these laws apply by all prayers and even Torah learning

19. Doing work while the candles are lit:[915]

Work is permitted throughout the eight days of Chanukah. However, it is the custom for women not to do any work while the candles are lit [for the first half hour[916]].[917] Women may not be lenient in this.[918] [In some places, this custom exists likewise for men[919] and so is the implied Chabad custom.[920] One should follow in accordance to his custom.]

When is work avoided: Work for women [and some men] is specifically avoided while the candles are lit, in order to serve as a reminder that it is forbidden to make use of the light.[921] Alternatively, this is done in order to properly contemplate the miracle that occurred.[922] 

Performing work after a half hour: After the candles have been lit for a half hour, one may perform all forms of work[923], though not in full view of the burning lights.[924] This applies equally to the first and last night’s of Chanukah.[925]

 

Summary:

Women may not perform work within 30 minutes from when the candles are lit. After 30 minutes, work may be done not in the presence of the candles. Although this prohibition does not apply to men, it is the Chabad custom for men to remain near the candles for the first 30 minutes, and likewise avoid performance of work.

Q&A

Which types of work are refrained from being done in the first half hour of the lighting?[926]

Some write that one is not to do any work that is forbidden on Yom Tov. Hence, only forms of work permitted on Yom Tov are permitted at this time.[927] Others write that only clothing related work is forbidden, such as laundry and sewing and the like.[928] [Nonetheless, it is best to refrain from doing any work in order to properly contemplate the Chanukah miracle.[929]]

May a woman cook or prepare dinner or Sufganiyot or Latkes while the candles are lit?

It is best to refrain from doing any work, including cooking and meal preparations for the first half hour, in order to properly contemplate the Chanukah miracle.[930] Nonetheless, some are lenient regarding Sufganiyot and Latkes.[931]

 

Sparks of Chassidus

A Segula for woman:[932]

According to tradition, women who refrain from work on Chanukah receive healing and Divine assistance. Hence, some women have a tradition that if they ever enter into danger they vow not to do work on one of the days of Chanukah and they are saved.

Reason work is permitted during Chanukah:[933]

Work is permitted during Chanukah, unlike other holidays, being that the ray of Chochmah enters into Malchus. Nevertheless, the candles themselves are a level sublime Holiness, and hence, when the candles are lit, and this revelation is taking place, one may not do any work in face of the candles.

20. Standing naked, changing diapers, doing belittling activity, in front of the Chanukah candles:[934]

It is customary to cover the children [and certainly adults] so they are not naked in front of the [Shabbos] candles due to it being a belittlement of the Mitzvah [Bizuiy Mitzvah]. [The same applies to any other Mitzvah candle such as a Havdala candle, Chanukah candles, and candles of a Shul.[935] This applies even if one is at a distance from the candles, and even if the child is not standing in front of the candles.[936] This applies even if only the Erva is revealed while the remainder of the body remains covered.[937] Thus, one is not to change a baby’s diaper in the same room as the Chanukah candles. The same applies against doing any belittling matter in front of the candles.[938] It however does not apply to a Yartzite or Yizkor candle that is lit at home.]

The danger in standing naked before candles:[939] One is not to stand naked even before a weekday candle as all that stand naked before a candle become crippled. [Nevertheless, in the Poskim we find a number of disclaimers towards this warning against a weekday candle: Some[940] explain that this danger only applies when standing still in front of the candle. It is however permitted to walk by the candle, even if one is unclothed. Others[941] rule that this danger only applies towards adults, and not towards children. Others[942] write it only applies when one stands in very close proximity to the candle, and not from a distance, even if he is able to benefit from the light.]

21. Making use of the Chanukah candles:

A. Using the light of the Chanukah candles:[943]

It is forbidden to use the light of the Chanukah candles to perform any mundane activity. This applies both to the Shabbos and weekday Chanukah candles. It is forbidden to even discern coins, or count them, in face of the light.[944]

Casual activity done at a distance from the light: Some Poskim[945] rule that the above prohibition only applies if one is close to the candle, and desires to discern the coins well. However, to perform an activity that does not require much discerning near the light, such as to eat near it, is permitted to be performed. Other Poskim[946], however, rule it is forbidden to do any activity in face of the candlelight even if it does not require much discerning, and one is a distance from the light. It is therefore forbidden to eat in face of the light. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, and it is thus forbidden to eat even one’s Shabbos meals near the candles.[947] [The above however applies only if there is no other light in the room, if however, one has other light in the room, and does not need to use the light of the candles, then it is permitted to eat and do activities near the Chanukah candles.]

Holy activity:[948] Some Poskim[949] rule it is forbidden to use the candles to perform even Holy work that involves a Mitzvah, such as to use its light to learn Torah. Other Poskim[950], however, rule it is permitted to use the light of the candles to perform holy activities. [Practically, one is to be stringent like the former opinion.[951]]

If there is other light, such as the Shamash, available:[952] One is not initially to benefit from the Shamash if it is together with the other candles and not individually recognizable from them, as explained in C.

May one benefit from the candles once they have been lit for a half hour?[953] The above prohibition applies until the candles have been lit for 30 minutes [after nightfall]. Once the candles have been lit for this amount of time after nightfall, it is permitted to use the light.[954] [If the candle extinguished prior to remaining lit for a half hour after nightfall, then it is forbidden in benefit until it is lit for the remainder of the half hour.[955]] Nevertheless, some Poskim[956] conclude that it is initially proper to stipulate that one does not have intent to designate the oil for more than the necessary amount of time, in order to be allowed to use it after the time passes.[957] Furthermore, some Poskim[958] rule one may not use the light of the candles so long as they remain lit, even after thirty minutes have passed.[959] One may, however, extinguish the candle and then relight it for the purpose of benefit even according to this opinion.[960] [Practically, one is to be stringent in this matter, not to do work by the candles even after the passing of a half hour.[961] However, regarding learning Torah near the light, one may be lenient, although it is best to simply extinguish the candle and then relight it.[962]]

If the Chanukah candles became mixed with other candles that were lit:[963] If a Chanukah candle which is forbidden in benefit [such as a Chanukah candle that is within a half hour of being lit[964]] became mixed with other mundane candles, it is not nullified even in a 1:1000 ratio.[965] [This applies even if the candle extinguished prior to remaining lit for a half hour.[966]] It is thus forbidden to benefit from any individual candle of this mixture.[967] One may however use the light of the candles if he lights enough candles in the mixture to guarantee that at least one of those candles is a candle of Heter.[968] [The above case refers to whole candles that became mixed with other candles, such as wax Chanukah candles became mixed with mundane candles, or a Chanukah bulb with oil became mixed with mundane oil bulbs. However, if the actual oil that was used for the Chanukah lighting became mixed with other oils, then it is nullified in 60x, as explained in D.]

 

Q&A

May one read a book and the like near the Chanukah candles if the [electric] light is on in the room?[969]

Yes.

May one stay in the room if the Chanukah candles is the only light in the room?[970]

Yes. One may use the lights to see items in the room to prevent him from stumbling. He is not required to close his eyes, as only matters defined as “use” were forbidden to be done using the light.

 

May one eat a meal in face of the Chanukah candles if there are no other lights on in the room?

Some Poskim[971] rule it is permitted to eat near the candles.[972] Other Poskim[973], however, argue that it is forbidden to do so. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion.[974]

May one benefit from the extra candles lit for Mehadrin Min Hamehadrin?[975]

No.

B. Using the flame of the Chanukah candles to light another candle:[976]

Lighting a mundane candle-the Shamash: It is forbidden to light any mundane candle from an already lit Chanukah candle. This prohibition applies even against lighting a candle that will be used to light the other Chanukah candles.[977] [Hence, one may not light the Shamash from a Chanukah candle.[978]] However, some Poskim[979] rule one may light a mundane candle [i.e. the Shamash] for the sake of lighting other Chanukah candles, so long as there is no concern that it will extinguish prior to having a chance to light the Chanukah candles. Practically, we are stringent in this matter.[980]

Lighting a Chanukah candle directly: It is permitted to light one Chanukah candle directly from another Chanukah candle [such as by stretching the wick of one candle to the flame of another candle[981]].[982] Nevertheless, the custom is to be stringent regarding Chanukah candles, not to light even other Chanukah candles from an already lit Chanukah candle.[983] [The above allowance only applies towards candles that have not yet been lit, however those candles that were lit and later extinguished are forbidden to be lit from other Chanukah candles, even if the candle extinguished within the half hour.[984] Certainly, if the Shamash extinguished, it may not be relit from a Chanukah candle.[985]]

Other Mitzvah candles:[986] Some opinions[987] rule that Shabbos candles, Shul candles, and Chanukah candles are all considered candles used for a Mitzvah, and one may hence light them from each other.[988] Likewise, the candles lit for learning Torah and for the sake of an ill person, are also considered Mitzvah candles.[989]

After a half hour:[990] The above restrictions only apply while the candles are lit for their Mitzvah [within a half hour after nightfall]. However, after the passing of the time of their Mitzvah [i.e. a half hour after nightfall] they are permitted in benefit, and it is certainly permitted to use them to light other candles. [However, according to those Poskim[991] who rule that so long as the candles are lit one is not to make use of them, here too, one is not to light a mundane candle from these candles even after the passing of a half hour.[992] However a Mitzvah candle may be lit.[993]]

 

Summary:

The custom is not to light other Chanukah candles from an already lit Chanukah candle. Certainly, one may not light the Shamash or other item from the Chanukah candle.

Q&A

May one who is lighting his first candle of the Menorah light it from another person’s candles?

Yes.[994] However, this only applies if the Menorah’s are adjacent to each other, as if they are a distance apart, one may not move the candle to light and then replace it by his Menorah.[995] It was already explained[996], that the Menorahs of two different people, are to initially be placed in separate areas in the house.[997]

 

C. The Shamash:

It is permitted to receive benefit from the Shamash that is positioned near the Chanukah candles. One may light other candles from it and may use its light for benefit.[998] Nevertheless, initially, one is not to benefit from the Shamash if it is together with the other candles and not individually recognizable from them.[999]

 

D. Leftover oil and wicks: May one benefit from the oil/wax that remains after the candles have extinguished?[1000]

What to do with leftover oil if candle extinguished within a half hour past nightfall: The leftover oil [or wax] of the 8th day’s Chanukah lighting is [forbidden in benefit and is thus] to be burnt on its own, if the candle extinguished prior to burning for a half hour [past nightfall].[1001] [This law applies likewise for the leftover oils of the other nights, if the candle extinguished prior to the passing of a half hour after nightfall[1002], although regarding the oil of the other nights, one may reuse the leftover oil for the lighting of the next night. However, regarding the oil of the 8th night, the leftover oil must be burned on its own due to it being the last night of Chanukah, and that it has no future use.[1003]]

Oil that remains after it was lit for a half hour:[1004] If the candle contained more than 30 minutes worth of oil [or wax], then the first thirty minutes of oil [lit past nightfall[1005]] is considered designated for the Mitzvah, while the oil [or wax] that remains after these thirty minutes does not contain any Mitzvah status, and may be even initially used for any purpose. [Thus, if the candle extinguished prior to remaining lit for a half hour after nightfall, then it is forbidden in benefit until it is lit for the remainder of the half hour, in which case the remainder is permitted in benefit.[1006] However, some Poskim[1007] rule that all the oil [or wax] is designated for the Mitzvah, and it thus may not be used for any other purpose. According to all, if one stipulated on his oil that only the oil which burns for the first half hour is designated for the Mitzvah, then the remaining oil may be used for other matters.[1008] Practically, it is initially best to suspect for the latter opinion and stipulate upon placing in the oil [or wax], that all oil that remains past a half hour is not sanctified for the Mitzvah.[1009] If one explicitly placed more than a half hour worth of oil for the sake of the Mitzvah, then all the leftover oil must be burnt on its own after Chanukah.[1010]]

What should one do with the leftover wicks of the Menorah:[1011] The leftover wicks of the Menorah are likewise to be burnt.

If the leftover oil mixed with other oil:[1012] If the leftover Mitzvah[1013] oil became mixed with other oil, it is nullified in 60x. If the mixture does not contain 60x then the entire mixture is forbidden in benefit and is required to be burnt on its own. Some Poskim[1014] rule one may not add more oil to the mixture in order to nullify it in 60x.[1015] [Other Poskim[1016] however rule that if one has more oil, he may add it to the mixture until it is nullified in 60x. Practically, we rule stringently in this matter.[1017]] [The above case refers to oil that became mixed with other oil. However, if the actual candle that was used for the Chanukah lighting became mixed with other candles, then it is not nullified even in 1000x, as explained in A.]

 

Summary:

After Chanukah, the leftover oils or wax of the first half hour, and the wicks which were used to light the Chanukah candles, must be burnt on their own. It is forbidden to use them for any other purposes. It is proper to stipulate before Chanukah that the oil or wax which remains after the 30 minutes of lighting is not considered designated for the Mitzvah, and hence, according to all, does not require burning after Chanukah.

Q&A

Must one burn the leftover oil that remains in the bottle? May this oil be used for other purposes?[1018]

The leftover oil that remains in the bottle is not considered Holy, and may hence be used for whatever purpose one desires. One is not required to burn this oil, and it may be used as fuel for other purposes, or for eating, if the oil is edible.

Must one burn the leftover oil of a child?[1019]

Yes. It follows the same law as the leftover oil of an adult.

May one save the leftover oil of the first half hour to use for next Chanukah?[1020]

No.[1021]

When is the oil to be burnt?

It is forbidden to own the oil for a long period of time, due to fear one may come to benefit from it.[1022] The oil must thus be burnt within one to two months from the end of Chanukah.[1023] Many are accustomed to burn it on the 8th day of Chanukah, in the morning after that nights lighting.

 

May the leftover oil of the first half hour be used to light Shabbos candles, or other Mitzvah purpose?[1024]

No.

Must one burn the leftover wax of the wax candles?

If the candle extinguished within 30 minutes after nightfall, then the area of wax that is part of the 30 minute lighting is required to be burnt after Chanukah. However, the part of the wax candle that lasts past 30 minutes is not required to be burnt. Likewise, if the candle was lit for a half hour after nightfall, it is not required to be burnt. Nevertheless, it is initially proper to stipulate before Chanukah that the wax that remains past a half hour is not part of the Mitzvah designation, as stated above.

 

Segula to use leftover oil:

There is a tradition from the Kotzker Rebbe that the leftover Chanukah oil contains a Segula against cellulitis/Shoshana. According to the tradition, one who has cellulitis is to smear the oil over the affected area. [Seemingly however this refers only to oil that remains after being lit a half hour after nightfall, as otherwise the oil is forbidden in benefit.]

22. Lighting on Erev Shabbos:[1025]

When are the Chanukah candles lit? On Erev Shabbos, the Chanukah candles are lit prior to the Shabbos candles.[1026] The candles are lit with a blessing even though they are being lit while still day.[1027] [The earliest time one can begin to light the Chanukah candles is from Plag Hamincha.[1028] Plag Hamincha is 11/4 Zmaniyos[1029] hours [75 Zmaniyos minutes] prior to sunset.[1030] Some Poskim[1031], however, rule the candles are to be lit near sunset, within a half hour to sunset. Based on this, the custom in Jerusalem is to light the Chanukah candles 25 minutes before sunset, and then immediately afterwards to light Shabbos candles.[1032]]

When should Mincha be prayed?[1033] Mincha is prayed prior to lighting the Chanukah candles.[1034] [In a time of need however one may light the candles prior to Mincha.[1035] If one is unable to Daven Mincha with a Minyan prior to candle lighting, it is better to light before Mincha and then Daven Mincha with a Minyan.[1036]]

How much oil must the candle contain?[1037] On Erev Shabbos one is to place enough oil in the candles for them to remain lit for at least 30 minutes after nightfall. [If one does not have enough oil to last for all the candles, then at least one candle should contain this amount of oil.[1038] Preferably, this should be the added candle that corresponds to that night.[1039] If one did not place enough oil for any of the candles to last 30 minutes past nightfall, he does not fulfill his obligation.[1040]]

Wax candles:[1041] One who is using wax candles, must verify that the candles are long enough for them to burn until 30 minutes after nightfall. Thus, practically the candles must be long enough to last a minimum of 70 minutes, if not more, depending on country.[1042] If one does not have enough long candles available, then it suffices to have at least one candle which is long enough to last this amount of time.

If the candles extinguished before Shabbos: If the Chanukah candles that were lit Erev Shabbos extinguished before Shabbos had begun, some Poskim[1043] rule one is not required to relight the candles. However, other Poskim[1044] rule that in such a case, one must relight the candle without a blessing. Practically, one should always relight candles that extinguished before their time, especially on Erev Shabbos. If one has already accepted Shabbos, then he is to ask another person to relight the candles.[1045]

 

Summary:

On Erev Shabbos Chanukah, one Davens and early Mincha. One lights the Chanukah candles prior to the Shabbos candles, within the time of Plag Hamincha. One is to place enough oil in the candles for them to remain lit for at least 30 minutes after nightfall.

 

Q&A on when to light

May a wife light the Shabbos candles prior to the husband lighting the Chanukah candles?[1046]

Initially, the wife is to only light the Shabbos candles once the Chanukah candles have been lit by her husband.[1047] However, in a time of need, she may light the Chanukah candles prior to her husband lighting. She may certainly begin the lighting after her husband has lit one candle, if she is pressed for time.[1048]

If a man already lit the Shabbos candles, may he still light the Chanukah candles?[1049]

So long as he did not explicitly have in mind to accept Shabbos upon lighting the candles, he may still light the Chanukah candles. [However, he must make sure to accept Shabbos within ten minutes of the initial lighting of the Shabbos candles.[1050]]

If a woman already lit Shabbos candles, may she still light the Chanukah candles if no one else is lighting for her?

No [unless she made a Tnaiy].[1051] However, she may ask a Jew who has not yet accepted Shabbos to light the candles for her, having him say the first blessing in her presence while she recites the remaining blessings [of Sheasah Nissim, and Sheheciyanu if this occurred on the first night].[1052]

If it is very close to Shabbos and one has not yet Davened Mincha or lit candles, what should he do?

One should first light candles and then Daven Mincha.

 Q&A on where to light

If one fears to light the Menorah by the doorway due to children and the like, where is he to light it?

It is to be lit by the window or table.

 

May one move the Menorah on Shabbos?[1053]  

Moving the Menorah itself:[1054] It is forbidden to move the actual Menorah even after it has extinguished, due to the Muktzah prohibition. It may be moved with an irregularity, just as is the law regarding all Muktzah.[1055]

Moving a tray or chair that contains a Menorah: If the tray or chair has become a Basis [see below] then it is Muktzah, and may not be moved unless one uses an irregularity. If the tray or chair is not a Basis, then the tray or chair may be moved together with the Menorah even regularly [without touching the menorah], if one needs the space [as is usually the case when by a doorway].[1056] The tray/chair however may not be moved in a regular fashion simply to prevent the Menorah from getting damaged.[1057]

Moving the Menorah while still lit:[1058] In the above case [that the tray or chair is not a Basis] one may move the tray or chair gently, even if the Menorah that is on it is still lit, even if it contains oil. However, by an oil candle, this is only allowed if one is able to do so very gently to the point that no oil swerves in the process.

 

How does one effect that the tray/chair does not become a Basis?

An item which intentionally contains a Muktzah item on top of it, becomes Muktzah over Shabbos just like the item itself.[1059] Thus, the chair and tray of the Menorah are Muktzah just as is the law of the Menorah.[1060] This status of Muktzah is called a Basis. Nevertheless, there are ways to prevent the chair or tray from becoming a Basis as explained next: A tray or chair does not become a Basis if one places bread[1061] [of the Shabbos meal[1062]] or another non-Muktzah item [such as a Siddur or Tehillim] of more importance[1063] than the flame resting on the tray/table during the entrance of Shabbos [sunset/ candle lighting][1064], and the tray was not manufactured specifically for candles.[1065] [Some say this means if the candle tray is not specifically manufactured to be used for candles[1066], then it may have bread [of the Shabbos meal] or another permitted item of more value than the Muktzah items, placed on the tray. Others[1067] say that even if the tray was not manufactured for this purpose, but was designated to now be used only for this purpose, then it is always a Basis.]

 

What is one to do if the tray has become a Basis?[1068]

One may only move it with an irregularity [Shinuiy]. 

23. Lighting on Motzei Shabbos:[1069]

In Shul?[1070] On Motzei Shabbos, in Shul, the Chanukah candles are lit after Maariv [before Aleinu[1071]], prior to Havdala.[1072]

At home:[1073] Certainly, at home, one is to first light the Chanukah candles and then recite Havdala, as one has already heard Havdala in Shul.[1074] [However, some Poskim[1075] rule that the Chanukah candles are to be lit only after Havdala.[1076] Practically, the worldly custom, as well as the Chabad custom, at home, is to first to say Havdalah and only then to light the Chanukah candles.[1077]]

Using the Chanukah candles for Havdala:[1078] On Motzei Shabbos, one may not use the Chanukah candle to recite the blessing of the Havdala candle, and rather a separate Havdala candle must be used.[1079] [This however only applies if one already lit the Chanukah candle and recited the blessing of “Lehadlik Ner Chanukah” over it. If, however, one has not yet lit the candle for the sake of the Mitzvah of Chanukah, then one may light this candle for Havdala, recite the blessing of Meoreiy Haeish, and then extinguish the candle and relight it for the sake of the Chanukah candle.[1080] Furthermore, it is even proper to do so.[1081]]

 

Summary:

In Shul, the Chanukah candles are lit prior to Havdala. In one’s home, the Chanukah candles are lit after Havdala.

 

Q&A

When does one recite Vayiten Lecha; after Havdala or after the Chanukah lighting?[1082]

The prayer of Vayiten Lecha is recited only after the Chanukah lighting. 

What time is one to take leave of Shabbos in order to light the Chanukah candles after Shabbos?

Some are accustomed to Daven Maariv as early as possible on Motzei Shabbos, in order to facilitate the lighting of the candles within a half hour after nightfall.[1083] Nonetheless, doing so has led to people desecrating Shabbos, and lighting the candles prior to the exit of Shabbos.[1084] Accordingly, it is best to not change from the regular time of Maariv on Motzei Shabbos which is followed during the rest of the year, and so is the custom.[1085] This applies whether one lights inside or outside the home.[1086]

One who takes leave of Shabbos by Rabbeinu Tam:[1087] One who takes leave of Shabbos by the time of Rabbeinu Tam, is to do so as well on Shabbos Chanukah, and only light the candles after the time of Rabbeinu Tam.

24. Lighting in Shul:[1088]

A. The Mitzvah:

One is to light Chanukah candles in Shul with a blessing in order to publicize the Chanukah miracle.[1089]

Relighting at home:[1090] One does not fulfill his obligation with the Shul’s Menorah lighting. [This applies even to the person who recited the blessings and lit the Shul’s Menorah, and thus he must relight at home with the blessings.[1091] Nevertheless, on the first night, he is not to repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu unless he is lighting also on behalf of others, such as his wife and daughters.[1092] Furthermore, some Poskim[1093] rule that one is also not to repeat the blessing of Sheasa Nissim on any night, unless he is also lighting on behalf of others. However, one who has in mind to not be Yotzei these blessings with the recital in Shul, may repeat them at home according to all.[1094] Accordingly, the congregation who hears the blessings of Shehechiyanu and Sheasa Nissim recited by the Chazan, is to explicitly have in mind to not be Yotzei.[1095]]

 

Q&A

Should one try to avoid being chosen to light the Menorah in Shul?

Some[1096] individuals avoid lighting the Menorah in Shul due to that they do not want to recite the blessings over it and then repeat the blessings at home. Practically, one is not to suspect for their opinion, and is even initially to accept the honor to light in Shul and then relight at home with a blessing.[1097]

 

May a child light the Shul’s Menorah?[1098]

A child below Bar Mitzvah is not to be given the honor of lighting the candles in Shul, even though no one is Yotzei with this lighting.[1099]

Should one use candles or olive oil for the lighting in Shul?

Ideally, it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to light in Shul using olive oil, just as is done at home.[1100] However, many are accustomed to light using candles, and so was the custom by the Rebbe to light the Shul Menorah using candles of bee’s wax.

B. Position of the Menorah in Shul:

The direction of its location:[1101] The Menorah is to be placed by the southern wall of the Shul.[1102] [This means as follows: In areas that are west of Jerusalem, in which the Aron faces Mizrach, the Menorah is to be set up to the right of the Aron. In areas that are east of Jerusalem, in which the Aron faces Maarav, the Menorah is to be set up to the left of the Aron. In areas that are south of Jerusalem, in which the Aron faces north, the Menorah is to be set up in the back half of the shul, to the left side of the Aron. In areas that are north of Jerusalem, in which the Aron faces south, the Menorah is to be set up in the front half of the shul, to the left of the Aron.[1103]]

The direction that the branches of the Menorah should face: The Menorah is to face from east to west.[1104] [However, some Poskim[1105] rule the Menorah is to face from north to south.[1106] Each community is to follow his custom.[1107] The Chabad custom is to have the Menorah face from east to west.]

Setting up the candles and how to face during the lighting:[1108] One is to light the Menorah with his front facing north, and his back facing south [i.e. from behind the Menorah, between the Menorah and the wall[1109]]. Thus, being that we set the candles starting from one’s right, one is to set up the candles starting from the end closest to the Aron. One then adds one more candle each night to the left of that candle, and begins lighting from the candle on the extreme left and then continues lighting towards the right. [Many[1110] however are accustomed to light in front of the Menorah, with one’s front facing south, and his back facing north. Thus, being that we set up the candles starting from one’s right, one is to set up the candles starting from the end furthest from the Aron. One then adds one more candle each night to the left of that candle, and begins lighting from the candle on the extreme left and then continues lighting towards the right. Practically, the worldly custom, and so is the custom of the Rebbe’s Shul, is to follow this latter opinion.[1111]]

 

Q&A

May the Shul Menorah be higher than ten Tefachim?[1112]

Yes, and so is the custom.

 

May the Shul’s Menorah be lit on a table?[1113]

Yes. The table is to be positioned by the southern wall of the Shul.

C. Reciting the blessings in Shul:[1114]

On each day of Chanukah, the Shul Menorah is lit with the blessings [of both “Lehadlik Neir Chanukah” and “Sheasa Nissim Laavoseinu”].[1115] [On the first night of Chanukah, one also recites Shehechiyanu.[1116] This blessing of Shehechiyanu is not repeated at home by the person lighting, unless there are other people fulfilling their obligation with his lighting at home.[1117] Furthermore, some Poskim[1118] rule that one is also not to repeat the blessing of Sheasa Nissim on any night, unless he is also lighting on behalf of others. However, one who has in mind to not be Yotzei these blessings with the recital in Shul, may repeat them at home according to all.[1119] Accordingly, the congregation who hears the blessings of Shehechiyanu and Sheasa Nissim recited by the Chazan, is to explicitly have in mind to not be Yotzei. The prayer of Haneiros Halalu is sung after the lighting in Shul, just as it is done at home.[1120]]

 

Q&A

May more than one Menorah be lit in a Shul with a blessing, such as if many Minyanim are taking place one after the other?[1121]

Only one Menorah is to be lit with a blessing per shul even if there are many minyanim that take place there. It is to be lit by the main Minyan.

 

May the Menorah be lit in Shul with a blessing if a Minyan is not present?

Some Poskim[1122] rule a blessing may only be recited over the Shul’s Menorah lighting if there is a Minyan present during the lighting. Other Poskim[1123] rule it is permitted to light the menorah with a blessing even if a Minyan is not present at that time, if people will come throughout the night and see the Menorah.[1124] Practically, it is proper to have a Minyan present upon reciting the blessings.[1125]

Do women and children count for the Minyan? Some Poskim[1126] rule that in this regard, women are to be included in the Minyan. Some[1127] write that even children who have reached the age of Chinuch are included in this Minyan.

May an Avel/mourner light the Shul’s Menorah?[1128]

He may light the Menorah from the second night and onwards. However, on the first night of Chanukah, an Avel is not to light the Menorah, as he may not recite a public blessing of Shehechiyanu.

May the blessing of Shehechiyanu be recited in Shul if one already lit candles at home and recited Shehechiyanu?[1129]

Yes.

All the people present already lit candles and recited Shehechiyanu? If all the people present by the lighting already lit candles and recited Shehechiyanu, such as when lighting in Shul before sunset of Erev Shabbos, then some Poskim[1130] rule the blessing of Shehechiyanu is not to be repeated. Other Poskim[1131] however rule the blessing is to be repeated even in such a case.

May Shehechiyanu be recited on the second night in Shul if the candles were not lit in that Shul on the first night?

Some Poskim[1132] rule it is allowed. Other Poskim[1133] rule the blessing of Shehechiyanu may not be recited.

 

D. When to light in Shul:[1134]

Between Mincha and Maariv:[1135] It is customary to light the Menorah in Shul between Mincha and Maariv [in the presence of a Minyan[1136]].[1137] [The custom in the Rebbe’s Shul is to light the Menorah after Kaddish Tiskabel of Mincha, prior to the prayer of Aleinu.[1138]]

Erev Shabbos:[1139] Some are accustomed on Erev Shabbos to light the Menorah in Shul prior to Mincha. [It is lit with a blessing, even if a Minyan is not yet present.[1140]] It is not necessary for the congregation to wait until all the candles are lit, and rather as soon as one candle is lit the Chazan may begin Shemoneh Esrei.[1141] [Others[1142] are accustomed to light the Menorah on Erev Shabbos between Mincha and Maariv, as is usually done during the week.[1143] Practically, the Chabad custom is to light the Menorah after Mincha and then return home and light the Chanukah candles and Shabbos candles.[1144] It is customary to Daven an early Mincha on Erev Shabbos for this purpose.]

Motzei Shabbos:[1145] On Motzei Shabbos, the Shul Chanukah candles are lit after Maariv [before Aleinu[1146]], prior to Havdala.[1147]

 

Q&A

If a Minyan is Davening before Plag Hamincha, may the Menorah be lit with a blessing?

The Shul’s Menorah may only be lit with a blessing from after Plag Hamincha. Thus, if there is an early Minyan of Mincha Gedola, or even Mincha Ketana but before the time of Plag Hamincha, then the candles may not be lit after Mincha until the time of Plag Hamincha arrives.[1148] The custom by the Rebbe’s Minyan in 770 was to light the candles in Shul between 3:35 and 3:40, which was after Plag Hamincha.[1149]

Until what time at night may the Shul’s Menorah be lit?[1150]

One may light the Shul’s Menorah so long as there is a Minyan present and the Menorah has not yet been lit in that Shul, and the Minyan has not yet participated in another Shul’s lighting. This applies even if the entire Minyan already lit their Menorah at home and it is very late.

E. How long should the Shul’s Menorah remain lit for?

In general, we rule that the Menorah is to remain lit for at least a half hour past nightfall.[1151] This applies also for the Menorah that is lit in Shul.[1152] [However, it is proper for the candles to light until the next day’s lighting, if doing so does not pose a safety hazard.[1153]]

Lighting the Menorah also by day:[1154] Some have a custom to light the Shul Menorah likewise by day, after Shacharis.[1155] [Also the Shamash is lit when lighting the Menorah during the day.[1156] Practically, the Chabad custom is to leave the Menorah lit consecutively for 24 hours.[1157] The Rebbe directed that on Zos Chanukah, the last day of Chanukah, the Menorah is to remain lit even after the leave of Chanukah, until it extinguishes on its own.[1158]]

 

Q&A

May the Menorah of a Shul be extinguished after it is lit, even prior to remaining lit for a half hour?

Some Poskim[1159] rule one may extinguish the candle upon everyone leaving the Shul, even prior to the passing of a half hour.[1160] Other Poskim[1161] however rule one is not to extinguish the candles until a half hour passes after nightfall.[1162] Practically, if there is worry of fire or the Menorah getting stolen, one may be lenient.[1163]

After a half hour:[1164] Once the Menorah has been lit for a half hour, it may be extinguished.

F. Moving the Menorah:[1165]

One is initially to be careful not to move the Menorah from its place, even regarding the candles that are lit in Shul. The Shul’s candles are to hence be lit in their final resting area, and not moved from there for the first half hour.

 

25. Mivtza Chanukah:

From the fact that we are required to light the candles on the outside towards the public one can learn that a special emphasis is placed during Hanukkah on affecting the public and bringing them the light of Torah and Mitzvos.[1166] The following are a number of campaigns that the Rebbe initiated as part of the endeavor of spreading the light to the outside.

A. Lighting a Public Menorah:[1167]

The Rebbe’s directed the arrangement of public Menorah lightings, in order to publicize the miracle of Chanukah.[1168] However, the participants do not fulfill their obligation with such lighting and thus should be informed that they must still light in their homes.[1169]

Is a blessing recited?[1170] Some Poskim[1171] rule that a blessing may be recited when lighting a public Menorah, just as the blessings are recited upon lighting the Menorah in Shul.[1172] Other Poskim[1173] rule that a blessing may not be said.[1174] Some[1175] rule that a blessing may only be said if a Minyan for Maariv is arranged by the public Menorah lighting.[1176]

Using torch wicks: A torch may not to be used for the Menorah lighting.[1177] Accordingly, one may not use more than a single wick, although may use a wick that is woven from many strings.

 

Lighting in stores:

It is customary to visit Jewish stores and stores that are populated by Jews and light a Menorah there in order to publicize the miracle. Regarding whether a blessing may be recited, this is subject to the same debate as stated above. According to all, however, a blessing may not be recited if the Menorah will not be in public view and is being lit for an individual within the store, such as in an office. Likewise, one must announce to those present that they do not fulfill their obligation with this lighting.

 

According to those who allow a blessing to be said, may the Menorah be lit in a public area with a blessing if a Minyan is not present?

Seemingly, this is subject to the same debate regarding a shul, as explained in Halacha 24C in the Q&A. If, however, one estimates that there will be less than a minyan who will pass by and see the lit candles, then a blessing is not to be recited.

 

According to those who allow a blessing to be said, may more than one Menorah be lit in a public area with a blessing?

This follows the same ruling regarding a shul, in which we rule that it may not be done. Th once a public menorah lighting has taken place in an area, a second lighting should not take place with a blessing.

B. Distributing Chanukah Menorah’s candles:

As part of the Rebbe’s campaign for one to endeavor that a Menorah is lit in each and every Jewish home, it is customary of Chabad emissaries world over to distribute menorahs and candles to Jews who otherwise would not be performing the lighting.

C. Distributing Sufganiyot:

It is customary of Chabad emissaries throughout the world to distribute Sufganiyot on Chanukah to help raise awareness of the holiday and spread joy amongst their fellow Jews. The Rebbe particularly encouraged that this be done in army bases of the IDF and the Rebbe would personally fund a portion of these doughnuts to be distributed.

D. Other Mivtzaim of the Rebbe:[1178]

  1. Boys of all ages should light their own menorah.
  2. One should gather children together and explain to them the miracle of Chanukah.
  3. One is to arrange that each Jewish boy and girl receives Chanukah gelt, and that they in turn also give to their friends.
  4. One is to increase in learning of Torah during the holiday.

______________________________________________________

[1] Michaber 671:1

[2] Shabbos 21b

[3] Keser Torah [Harav David Vital 1560] Tanya chapter 53

[4] Gemara Shabbos 23b as explained by Rashi, brought in M”B 671:1; Kaf Hachaim 671:1

[5] Likkutei Sichos 35 p. 318 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:263-265]

[6] Shulchan Aruch Chapter 571

[7] See Michaber 671:2; Rambam 4:1; Tur 571:2 that we rule Ner Ish Ubeiso, and that the obligation is to have one candle per home or household. Now, whenever an obligation falls upon a home unit, it falls specifically upon the homeowner, or leader of the household to fulfill. See regarding Shabbos candles: Admur 263:5; Kuntrus Achron 263:2

[8] M”B 670:12

[9] M”A 675:4; Rashal 77; Elya Raba 675:7

[10] Poskim ibid

The reason: As a blind person is obligated in all Mitzvos, and since the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa applies towards other people seeing the Chanukah candles, it is therefore an obligation for him to light it. [ibid]

[11] Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 675:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 675:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 15; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:23; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he may light candles with a blessing. [Rashal ibid; Shevet Halevi 4:67; Yalkut Yosef p. 224]

[12] Michaber 675:3; Shabbos 23b

[13] 677:3

[14] Orchos Chaim [Rishon] Chanukah 18 regarding ship; Maharsham 4:156; Aruch Hashulchan 677:5; Shaar Shlomo 51; Beis Shearim 362; Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:8; Tzitz Eliezer 9 p. 97; 15:29; Az Nidbaru 7:63, 67; 11:34-2 based on Rishonim and Achronim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:3; Mishneh Halachos 7:86; See Nitei Gavriel 2:1; Mikraei Kodesh Chanukah 18; Chazon Ovadia Chanukah p. 156-158

[15] Possible way of learning Rashi Shabbos 23b that one is exempt from lighting on a ship due to it not being a house [so learns Igros Moshe ibid, unlike Maharsham ibid]; Implication of Tosafus Sukkah 46a “There are people who do not have homes and cannot fulfill the Mitzvah”; Implication of Rambam Chanukah 4:1 “Every home is to light one candle”; Pnei Yehoshua Shabbos 21; Igros Moshe Y.D. 3:14-5; See Rav SZ”A in Minchas Shlomo 2:51; Halichos Shlomo 2:13; Hilchos Chag Bechag Chanukah p. 27;

[16] Rashi ibid even according to Maharsham

[17] Orchos Chaim [Rishon] Chanukah 18 regarding ship; Maharsham 4:156 regarding a train; Aruch Hashulchan 677:5 regarding a train; Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:8; Tzitz Eliezer 15:29; Az Nidbaru 7:63; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:3

[18] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1 footnote 6

Lighting a candle and taking a chance that it will be extinguished: Some Poskim [Betzel Hachochma 4:127; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:3] suggest lighting a single candle with a blessing even in areas that lighting a match is forbidden, and security will extinguish it, and if one will be forced to extinguish it himself, then he is to light it without a blessing. Practically, however, it does not seem reasonable to ask someone to perform an illegal act, offend others and take a chance of getting arrested, and rather in such a situation, Shev Veal Taaseh Adif, and he should rather light a filament flashlight without a blessing.  

[19] Maharsham ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[20] The reason: As the payment for the plane/train/bus ticket is considered like one is renting the space, and it is thus similar to a 2nd home, which requires lighting even if one’s wife is lighting for him in his 1st home. [Maharsham ibid] Alternatively, the reason one should light candles is because he is obligated to see candles in order to say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim, he is thus to light his own candles, even when he is technically Yotzei with the lighting at home. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[21] Michaber 671:1

[22] Elya Raba 671:1; Mamar Mordechai 671:2; M”B 671:3; Kaf Hachaim 671:5

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he does not need to go to the extent of hiring himself out for a job, in order to purchase the candles. [Olas Shabbos 671:1]

[23] Elya Raba 671:1; P”M 671 A”A 1; Chayeh Adam 154:6; M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 671:3

[24] The reason: This is due to the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa. [M”B 671:2]

[25] Michaber 678:1; Rava Shabbos 23b

The reason: As the purpose of Shabbos candles is to bring peace to one’s home [Michaber ibid] as one needs to eat near light, and the light prevents him from stumbling upon walking in the room. [See Rashi ibid; Taz 678:1; M”A 678:2] The Shabbos candle receives precedence even if he can afford to buy both Chanukah candles and wine for Kiddush with that money. [Radbaz 108; Erech Hashulchan 678:1; Kaf Hachaim 678:4] The entire Torah was given for the sake of peace, and hence if one cannot fulfill the Mitzvah of Chanukah due to a Mitzvah that brings peace, then even from the perspective of Chanukah, one should forgo its Mitzvah for the sake of the Mitzvah that brings peace. [See Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 372 [printed in Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 49]]

[26] See Kaf Hachaim 678:4

[27] M”A 678:1; Elya Raba 678:1; M”B 678:1; Kaf Hachaim 678:1

The reason: As one is only obligated to light one Shabbos candle to fulfill the Mitzvah of Ner Shabbos. The concept of lighting two candles for Shabbos is merely a proper act, and it is thus better to be Mihadeir in the Chanukah lighting [and light many Chanukah candles] rather than be Mihadeir in Shabbos candles. [P”M 678 A”A 1; M”B 678:1; See also Biur Halacha 263 “Shtei Pesilos”] As the concept of Mehadrin by Chanukah candles is brought in the Talmud, as opposed to the concept of lighting more than one Shabbos candle. [Shaar Hatziyon 678:3]

[28] Radbaz 13; Erech Hashulchan 678:2; Kaf Hachaim 678:5

The reason: As we do not delay the performance of a Mitzvah for the sake of performing a later Mitzvah. [ibid] Furthermore, Hashem could arrange that he make money the next day and hence afford to buy the candles. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[29] M”A 678:2; Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2

[30] The reason: As in upon lighting the Chanukah candles at home one will automatically achieve the Shalom Bayis affected by the Shabbos candles, as the Chanukah candle will give light to the room. Now, although it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights and eat near it, nevertheless, this is similar to a time of danger in which we rule the candles may be lit on the table, and due to lack of choice one is likewise allowed to eat near it. This law likewise applies during the week, if one only has one candle available. [M”A ibid]

[31] Elya Raba 678:2; Bigdei Yesha 678; Derech Hachaim; P”M 678 A”A 2 that so is implied from Michaber and Rama ibid; M”B 678:2; Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Shaar Hakavanos

[32] M”B 678:2

[33] Michaber 678:1; Rava Shabbos 23

The reason: As the Chanukah candles contains the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa. [Michaber ibid] Now, although the Mitzvah of Kiddush is Biblical, nevertheless, since one can make Kiddush on bread, the wine does not receive precedence. [Beis Yosef; Ran; Levush; Taz 678:2; M”B 678:6]

[34] M”A 678:3; M”B 678:5

[35] Rama 678:1

The reason: As the Chanukah candles contains the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa [Michaber ibid] and it is possible to recite Havdala in Davening. [Kaf Hachaim 678:10]

[36] Taz 678:2; Erech Hashulchan 678:4; M”B 678:4; See Kaf Hachaim 678:9

[37] The reason: As eating bread and Lechem Mishneh on Shabbos is a Biblical precept according to all, as well as that making Kiddush on bread [when wine is not available] is a Biblical command, while the Chanukah candles is merely Rabbinical. [Taz ibid;]

[38] Bach 678, brought in Beir Heiytiv 678:1; Peri Chadash 678; Ateres Zekeinim 678

[39] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Kiddush is only Rabbinical, and there is no Biblical command to eat Lechem Mishneh. [Ateres Zekeinim ibid; P”M 678 M”Z 2]

[40] P”M 678 A”A 2; Kaf Hachaim 678:8

[41] Likkutei Sichos 3:67 [Lashon Hakodesh]; See also Likkutei Sichos 15 p. 372 [printed in Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 49]

[42] Michaber 671:2; Rambam 4:1; Tur 571:2

[43] Such as children, above and below Bar Mitzvah, who live at home; one’s wife; an orphan who one took into one’s home. [M”B 671:8]

[44] If, however, the homeowner will not be lighting the candles, for whatever reason, then they are obligated to light on their own. [See M”B 675:9]

[45] Michaber 671:2; Tur 671; Tosafus Shabbos 21b; the recorded custom of Spain brought by Rambam 4:3, even though the Rambam is the source of the second opinion.

[46] The reason: As the Gemara Shabbos ibid records the level of Mehadrin [to light per family member] and Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin [to light per number night], and according to this opinion, the custom of Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin is not in addition to Mehadrin, but is instead of it. Meaning, rather than lighting per household members, one is to only light per number night. The reason for this is because the main idea of Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin is for it to be recognizable which night of the miracle one is holding by, and if each household member lights candles, people will simply think that each household member lit one candle [which is plain Mehadrin], as opposed to thinking of the number of candles lit for that night. [Biur Halacha 671:2 “Lo Yadlik Yoser”]

[47] Michaber 671:2; The recorded custom of Spain brought by Rambam 4:3, Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 16; Kaf Hachaim 571:18

Switch of opinions: This Sefaradi custom is unique being that it ends up that the Sefaradim rule like the Ashkenazi Poskim [i.e. Tosfos] while the Ashkenazim rule like the Sefardi Poskim [i.e. Rambam]. There is no precedence for such a switch of rulings amongst the Poskim. [Taz 672:1; Kaf Hachaim 671:6]

[48] M”B 671:8

[49] Rama 671:2; Rambam 4:1-2; Rif brought in Biur Hagr”a and Biur Halacha 671:2 “Veyesih Omrim”

[50] See D!

[51] Rama 571:2 as rules Rambam 4:1-2; Kitzur SHU”A 139:6 “The custom of all Israel”; The Bach writes that this is the followed custom of all communities with exception to Spain. The Bach concludes that one whose custom is like Tosafus, is not to swerve from it. Darkei Moshe explains that today being we all light inside, and there is no longer confusion as to how many candles one has lit, even according to Tosafus one is to follow the ruling of the Rambam. [See P”M 671 M”Z 1] See Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah 39

[52] Taz 677:1; P”M 671 M”Z 1; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13 based on M”A 677:9; Kesav Sofer 132-134; Sefas Emes Shabbos 21a

Background: It is not clear from the Gemara Shabbos 21b or Rambam ibid that each individual is to say a blessing or even light the candles, but rather that simply the Baal Habayis lights enough candles to correspond for each person. Nevertheless, the age-old custom based on Mehadrin of the Gemara and Rambam is for each individual to light a candle with a blessing. The Poskim discuss whether one who is away from home may light candles with a blessing, even though he is Yotzei with his family at home. All however agree that if he is at home, he may light candles with a blessing according to the Ashkenazi custom. The doubt is only when one is away from home, and hence perhaps the concept of Mehadrin is not applicable. See Taz ibid and Poskim he mentions; P”M 677 M”Z 1 that Mehadrin allows one to say a blessing and it is only when one is away from home that the concept of Mehadrin perhaps does not apply.

The reason: As he is fulfilling the Mitzvah of Mehadrin which was initially enacted by the Sages who established this Mitzvah, and hence, even if he is Yotzei, he may still light his own candles in order to fulfill the Mehadrin. [Sefas Emes ibid; So can be implied from Taz ibid] However, other Poskim learn that those who light have in mind to not be Yotzei with the Baal Habayis. [P”M 671 M”Z 1 “Meaning that they have in mind not to be Yotzei”; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13 based on M”A 677:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:2]

[53] Rama 671:2 and 671:7

 The reason: This is done in order so it be recognizable the amount of candles being lit that night. [ibid] By doing so, one satisfies even the opinion of Tosafus. [Biur Halacha 671:2 “Veyizharu”] However, when each Menorah is not individually recognizable, people can mistake the number of candles being lit that night, having joined the candles lit on two different Menorahs.

[54] M”A 671:2; P”M 671 A”A 2; Biur Halacha 671:2 “Kdei”

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that on the first night, it is not necessary for the household members to light in individual areas. [Elya Raba 671:3, brought in Biur Halacha ibid]

[55] See M”B 675:9

[56] Implication of Taz 677:1 “If he wants he can be Yotzei with his wife and if not then he can light himself”; P”M 671 M”Z 1 “Meaning that they have in mind not to be Yotzei”; Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13 based on M”A 677:9; See Kesav Sofer 132-134; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:2

[57] Sefas Emes Shabbos 21a; Taz 677:1 “A guest who lights in addition to his wife is not considered a blessing in vain, as its included in Mehadrin”; See M”A 674 that with one candle the entire family is Yotzei and thus the sons cannot light from one candle to another”

[58] The reason: As he is fulfilling the Mitzvah of Mehadrin which was initially enacted by the Sages who established this Mitzvah, and hence, even if he is Yotzei, he may still light his own candles in order to fulfill the Mehadrin. [Sefas Emes ibid; So is implied from Taz ibid]

[59] See previous Q&A that either one has in mind to not be Yotzei, or does not need to have this in mind. Either way, there is no need to precede one’s lighting to that of the parent.

[60] See Taz 677:3 in name of Terumos Hadeshen 101 who brings a dispute in this matter and concludes that it is considered Mehadrin for the husband/wife to also light. See P”M 677 M”Z 1 for the sides to this debate.

[61] See Taz 677:3 in name of Terumos Hadeshen 101 for a dispute in this matter regarding one who is married. See P”M 677 M”Z 1 that perhaps it only applies at home, and that is why he can’t light as a guest if his wife lights in his house. The Beis Yosef [and Michaber] however conclude that one is Yotzei and hence may not light with a blessing. [see Taz ibid]

[62] Rama 677:3; Taz ibid, and so concludes the.

[63] Implication of Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 16 and Kaf Hachaim 671:15; 677:15 who rule that even a married couple who is by the home of their parents is to light without a blessing; See also Yechaveh Daas 6:53; Vetzaruch Iyun, as according to all, lighting in addition to the father is at the very least the level of Mehadrin. However, perhaps the Mitzvah of Mehadrin is for the father to light one candle per person, as brought in the Gemara and not that each person lights one candle. Alternatively, perhaps in order for one to follow Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin they have to have in mind to not be Yotzei with the father’s lighting. [P”M 671 M”Z 1 “Meaning that they have in mind not to be Yotzei”; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13 based on M”A 677:9; See Kesav Sofer 132-134; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:2] Alternatively, it follows those who hold that one cannot have in mind to not be Yotzei with the father/wife. [See Yechaveh Daas ibid; Vetzaruch Iyun]

[64] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 16; Kaf Hachaim 671:15; 677:15; Taamei Haminhagim 848

[65] Kneses Yechezkal 17; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:3; Kaf Hachaim 671:7

[66] Michaber 675:3; Shabbos 23a

Having a man be Motzi the woman: See Halacha 4!

[67] The reason: The reason women are obligated in this Mitzvah, despite the fact that this is a Mitzvah “Shehazman Grama”, is because women were actively part of the Chanukah miracle, as the Greeks decreed that every bride must first sleep with the general, and it was through a woman that the Chanukah miracle took place. [Shabbos 23a; Taz 675:4; Beir Hagoleh 675:2; Kol Bo]

[68] M”B 675:9

Custom of wife of Rebbe Rashab: When the Rebbe Rashab was away from home for Chanukah, he would instruct his wife Shterna Sara, to light the candles, but to hear the blessing from one of the men [who were lighting]. [Sefer Hasichos 5706 p. 21; Likkutei Sichos 30 p. 312; Toras Menachem 4:233] The Rebbe, however, points out that the widespread custom is for the woman to be Yotzei with the men and not light on their own. [Toras Menachem ibid footnote 11]

[69] Michaber 675:3 “A woman may light Ner Chanukah”; M”A 675:4 “For the sake of her household”; Taz 675:4 “She can even light on behalf of a man”; M”B 675:9 and Biur Halacha 675:2 “Isha”

[70] Biur Halacha 675:2 “Isha”

[71] Olas Shmuel 105; Pischeiy Teshuvah; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:21; Machatzis Hashekel 677:8 in name of Shiltei Giborim [brought in Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 footnote 623] “The Mehadrin have every family member light candles, whether men or women”; Rambam Chanukah 4 “Whether for men or for women”; Kaf Hachaim 671:16

[72] Rashal 85; Kneses Hagedola 671; Elya Raba 671:3; Olas Shmuel 105; Pischeiy Teshuvah; M”B 671:9 and 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 671:16; 675:21; Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]; Minhag Beis Harav, brought in Toras Menachem 5750 2:51; Likkutei Sichos 30:312 “Practically, we do not find that women would light candles on their own”; Toras Menachem 4:233; See Shulchan Menachem 3:274; Minhag Yisrael Torah 671:1

The reason: Although the Ashkenazi custom is for all household members to light, nevertheless, the custom is for wives to follow the letter of the law, and not to light their own Menorah and rather fulfill their obligation through their husband. The reason for this is because one’s wife is like his body and it is thus considered as if she lit the candles. [Elya Raba 671:3; M”B 671:9] Alternatively, women are considered nullified to men in this regard and are hence not included in the Mitzvah of Mehadrin. [Olas Shmuel 105 brought in M”B 675:9] Alternatively, the reason is because women are not expert in the blessings. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:2, brought in Sefer Haminhagim ibid] Alternatively, because they are not expert in the laws of how it is to be done. [Likkutei Sichos 30:312; Toras Menachem 4:233] Alternatively, the reason is because originally when the custom was to light outside the home, women did not light candles as “Kol Kevuda Bas Melech Penima”. [Chasam Sofer Shabbos 21b]

[73] See Olas Shmuel 105; Pischeiy Teshuvah; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:21; Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]; Minhag Yisrael Torah 671:1

[74] See Poskim ibid; Machatzis Hashekel 677:8 in name of Shiltei Giborim [brought in Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 footnote 623] “The Mehadrin have every family member light candles, whether men or women”; Rambam Chanukah 4 “Whether for men or for women”; Kaf Hachaim 671:16

[75] Olas Shmuel 105; Pischeiy Teshuvah; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:21; Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]; Minhag Beis Harav, brought in Toras Menachem 5750 2:51; Likkutei Sichos 30:312 “Practically, we do not find that women would light candles on their own”

The reason:  Although the Ashkenazi custom is for all household members to light, nevertheless, the custom is for daughters to follow the letter of the law not to light their own Menorah and fulfill their obligation through their father. The reason for this is because women are considered nullified to men in this regard and are hence not included in the Mitzvah of Mehadrin. [Olas Shmuel 105 brought in M”B 675:9] Alternatively, the reason is because women are not expert in the blessings. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:2, brought in Sefer Haminhagim ibid] Alternatively, because they are not expert in the laws of how it is to be done. [Likkutei Sichos 30:312] Alternatively, the reason is because it is improper for daughters to light in face of the mother who is not lighting. [Sefer Haminhagim ibid]

The Chabad custom: As stated above from Sefer Haminhagim, the Chabad custom is for girls not to light candles. Nonetheless, in the year 1988 the Rebbe stated that even girls are to light candles if it will add to their education in a positive way. [Hisvadyus 5748 Vol. 2:91] However, the next year the Rebbe was asked by Neshei Ubnos Chabad if this instruction applies for the coming year as well, and the Rebbe answered that this question belongs to a Rav. The widespread custom today amongst daughters of Anash is not to light candles, as is the custom mentioned in Sefer Haminhagim.

[76] See previous footnote under Chabad custom!

[77] M”B 675:9 in name of Olas Shmuel 105

[78] The reason: As the Ashkenazi custom is to allow each person of the house to light their own candles and women are included in this law. [ibid]

[79] See M”A 677:1; Machatzis Hashekel ibid

[80] M”B 675:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:4; See Halacha 4

[81] Mishmeres Shalom 48:1

[82] The reason: As some Poskim hold that they do not fulfill the blessing of Sheasa Nissim with the household lighting unless they are present and hear the blessings. [Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9] Likewise, today that we light inside, it is important to have as many household members by the lighting as is possible in order to publicize the miracle. [See Rama 672:2; M”B 672:10]

[83] Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing of Sheasa Nissim and Shehechiyanu is to be recited by the household members upon seeing the candles. [Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba ; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9] Practically, the blessing is not to be recited as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23] However, some Poskim rule that the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is to be recited by one who was not present at that time. [Ashel Avraham Tinyana 675 “even a girl over Chinuch who did not hear the blessing must say it upon seeing the candles.”]

[84] Rama 675:3 “According to our custom that every family member lights their own candles, also a child who has reached the age of education is required to light”; P”M 671 M”Z 1; See M”B 677:13; Kaf Hachaim 677:22; According to Michaber, obviously the child does not light being that according to him only one person lights in each home.

[85] For the exact age of Chinuch in this regard: See Kaf Hachaim 677:26; 17:10 [Mentions ages: 3, 6, 7, 9]; Admur 343:3 “When he understands the Mitzvah.” [i.e. understands the miracle of Chanukah for which we commemorate the lighting]

[86] M”A 677:8 “Possibly even according to our custom that every family member lights their own candles, a child is exempt from lighting”; M”B 677:13; Biur Halacha 675:3 “Uledidon”; Shiltei Giborim, brought in M”A ibid; Meiri; Kaf Hachaim 677:22; The M”A and Biur Halacha ibid bring opinions that argue on Rama and hold that even according to the Ashkenazi custom that all male household members light, nevertheless, there’s no obligation to educate a child in a matter of Hidur Mitzvah, and therefore he is not obligated to light. The M”B 675:14 concludes he is only required to light one candle.

[87] Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English] based on Sichas Chanukah 5706 that so is the custom by Beis Harav; This seemingly follows the latter opinion above.

[88] Shevach Hamoadim p.101; Hiskashrus; Perhaps this also follows a similar change in the later generation for girls to begin lighting Shabbat candles at a very young age

[89] Shaar 12

[90] Michaber 677:2; Orchos Chaim

[91] M”B 677:13; Kaf Hachaim 677:22

[92] Mikraeiy Kodesh Chanukah 11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:4

[93] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:337

[94] See Likkutei Sichos 12:251

[95] Michaber 677:1; See Admur 263:9 regarding Shabbos candles

[96] 677:1 based on the Gemara Shabbos 23b

[97] See Mamar Mordechai 677:1; Kaf Hachaim 677:1 that this could mean that the family is lighting an extra candle for him. However, he negates this explanation.

[98] 677:3

[99] See Q&A!

[100] Michaber 677:1; Rebbe Zeira Shabbos 23a; M”A 677:3; M”B 677:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in today’s times, being that everyone [Ashkenazim] lights their own candle, Chashad applies in all cases, even if he does not have a room at all, and even if his wife is lighting for him, and hence one may no longer every rely on one’s family, nor on joining the lighting of the Baal Habayis. [Opinion in M”A 677:3; Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; Elya Raba 677:1; Derech Hachaim 1; See Kaf Hachaim 677:11; M”B 677:7; Biur Halacha 677 “Letazmo”]

[101] Although the Michaber ibid does not specifically establish the case with a married guest, so is the case in the source in the Gemara ibid, and so is recorded in the Poskim. However, in truth the same Halacha would similarly apply to any guest whose family is lighting for him at home, as explained in the Q&A!

[102] M”A 677:3 in name of Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; M”B 677:7

[103] Based on Michaber ibid who states “A guest of which his family is not lighting on his behalf” and the Poskim explain that this refers to one’s wife, and that if she is lighting on his behalf, he is Yotzei. [Mamar Mordechai 677:1; M”B 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:1]

[104] Kaf Hachaim 677:11; See Toras Hamoadim [Rav David Yosef] 2:4

The Sefaradi custom: The Sefaradi custom is not to light candles even if one has his own room, so long as his family is lighting in his home. [See other opinions in coming footnotes that so is the implication of Michaber ibid and so rules Yechaveh Daas 6:53 regarding Bochurei Yeshivos; Toras Hamoadim ibid]

[105] M”A 677:4, as explained Machatzis Hashekel ibid, that this applies according to all Poskim who rule one may light candles even when exempt. [Rama 677:3; Terumos Hadeshen 101; Maharil 145; Taz 677:1; M”A 677:9; Machatzis Hashekel ibid]; See Birkeiy Yosef 677:1; Kaf Hachaim 677:12

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not recite a blessing upon lighting the candles, as he fulfills his obligation with his wife’s lighting even in such a case, and is only required to light due to Chashad. [Beis Yosef 677; Rashal 85; Kneses Hagedola 677, brought in M”A 677:4; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 677:3; Chayeh Adam 154:33; Kaf Hachaim 676:25; 677:7, 9 and 11-12, 15] See other opinions in next footnote for a further discussion on this matter.

[106] Michaber 677:1 regarding one who has a room with an opening to the outside; Regarding that this applies even if one has a room with an opening only to the inside: M”A 677:3 in name of Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 146; M”B 677:7; Regarding that this applies even if he is married and his wife is lighting for him at home: Tur and Rambam, brought in Machatzis Hashekel 677:4; Kaf Hachaim 677:9

The reason: In previous times that the custom was to light outside, then the guest was only obligated in lighting if he has an own entrance from his room to the outside, due to Cheshad. [Michaber ibid; See Kaf Hachaim 677:13] However, today that we all light inside, there is now a Cheshad by the other family members on every person who does not light. Therefore, practically, if a guest has his own room, he is to light. [M”A 677:3; M”B ibid;]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one’s wife is lighting at home on his behalf, he is not obligated to light on his own even if he has his own room. [Implication of Michaber 677:1; Rashba 541; Rabbeinu Yerucham 1; Mamar Mordechai 677:2; Yechaveh Daas 6:43; Toras Hamoadim 2:4] The reason for this is because today that everyone lights inside the concept of Chashad no longer applies. Due to this dispute, some Poskim rule that if his wife is lighting on his behalf, he is to light without a blessing even in the event that he has his own room, as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [Beis Yosef 677; Rashal 85; Kneses Hagedola 677, brought in M”A 677:4; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 677:3; Chayeh Adam 154:33; Kaf Hachaim 676:25; 677:7, 9 and 11-12, 15] Alternatively, he is to hear the blessings from the host and then light. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] In addition to all the above, some Poskim rule that the above only applies if one has an entrance to the outside, and not when one has a room in the inside of his home. [Michaber ibid; See M”A 677:2 and 4; Kaf Hachaim 677:10 and 12] However, many Poskim negate the above opinions and rule that in today’s times it applies in all cases, even if he does not have a room at all. [Opinion in M”A 677:3; Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; Elya Raba 677:1; Derech Hachaim 1; See Kaf Hachaim 677:11; M”B 677:7; Biur Halacha 677 “Letazmo”] Other Poskim rule it only applies if one has his own room in which he eats in. [M”A 677:3] Practically, the M”B ibid concludes similar to the M”A ibid that the obligation only applies if one has his own room.

[107] Michaber ibid; See M”B 677:9; Kaf Hachaim 677:14

If one is receiving free meals or paid a lump sum for his meals: Some Poskim rule that if one is completely supported by his host, and eats and sleeps there, then he is not obligated to give a Peruta or light his own candles, even if he has his own room, as he is included in the lighting of the host. [Gan Hamelech 41; Kisei Eliyahu 677:1; Shulchan Gavoa 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:3] The reason for this is because even if he is obligated to light due to having his own room, or due to paying the Baal Habayis, nevertheless, the same way the host gives him his food and drink and board [either for free or for payment], so too he acquires him part of the oil. [ibid] Nevertheless, other Poskim argue on the above and rule that whenever he pays for room and board, he is considered like his own Baal Habayis and is not included in the lighting of his host, even if he does not have his own room. [See Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1] This certainly applies if he has his own room, in which case from the letter of the law he is obligated to light candles even if he is supported by his host for his meals. [Michaber 677:1; M”A 677:3 in name of Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; M”B 677:7; See Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1] Practically, one is to ask the host to acquire him part of the oil, even in such a case that he is supplied free meals or has paid a lump sum. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] See Halacha B for the full details of this matter!

[108] M”B 677:3

[109] Chayeh Adam 154:33; Kaf Hachaim 676:25

[110] Rama 677:3; Taz 677:1; M”A 677:9; Terumos Hadeshen 101; Maharil 145; Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Aruch Hashulchan 677:5; M”B 677:16

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not recite a blessing upon lighting the candles, as he fulfills his obligation with his wife’s lighting even in such a case, and [even when he has his own room] is only required to light due to Chashad. [Opinion in Terumos Hadeshen ibid, brought in Taz ibid; Beis Yosef 677; Rashal 85; Chayeh Adam 154:33; M”B 677:16; Kaf Hachaim 676:25; 677:7; Yechaveh Daas 6:53] One therefore cannot light with a blessing, even if he has in mind to not be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting, as this is not within his ability. [Rashal ibid, brought in Taz ibid; M”B ibid] This opinion understands that the concept of Mehadrin only applies when one is in his own home, and not when one is a guest and is being Yotzei with the lighting of his home.

[111] The reason: As just many people in the same home can light due to Mehadrin, so too a wife and husband may light in two different homes due to Mehadrin. [Terumos Hadeshen ibid, brought in Taz ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[112] M”A 677:9; Maharil ibid; M”B 677:15; See previous footnote for other opinions; See Machatzis Hashekel 677:1

[113] M”B 677:16

[114] See Q&A!

[115] Rama 677:3; Taz 677:1; M”A 677:1 and 9; Elya Raba; Levush; Olas Shabbos; Terumos Hadeshen 101; Maharil 145; Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Aruch Hashulchan 677:5; M”B 677:16

[116] 677:3

[117] Mahariy Abuhav brought in Orchos Chaim 676; Mordechai

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule one is not required to light candles in such a case, if his wife is lighting on his behalf. [See Michaber 676:3; Mamar Mordechai 677:4; Biureiy Hagr”a; Peri Chadash 677 based on Rashba and Ran; Kaf Hachaim 677:23]

[118] Michaber ibid

The reason: As one is obligated to see the candles. [Rama ibid]

[119] Rama ibid

[120] Rama ibid; Beis David 4763

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he is to light the candles without a blessing, as some Poskim rule one is not required to light at all in such a case. [Kaf Hachaim 677:23]

[121] M”B 667:3

[122] Machzor Vitri 1:238 “Those who travel in order to learn Torah, are not required to light or join with a Peruta if they know that their wife, or father or mother is lighting at home.”; Haparnes 152; Implication of Taz 677:1; Misgeres Hashulchan 139:17; Yechaveh Daas 6:53; Toras Hamoadim 2:4 [Rav David Yosef]; Chovas Hador Chanukah 1 footnote 47; Nitei Gavriel 13:2

Opinion of Admur: In 263:9 Admur rules in parentheses regarding Shabbos candles that a guest is not Yotzei with the lighting in his home, unless he owns the candles that his family is lighting, such as he is married, and his wife is lighting the candles at home. If, however, he is merely a dependent of his original home, and the candles are not owned by him [such as if he lives with his parents and his parents are lighting], then he does not fulfill his obligation, as one is only exempt with their household lighting, when he is present. Now, seemingly the same would apply by Neiros Chanukah as well, being that all the laws of Neiros Chanukah and Shabbos are learned from another. Accordingly, the parents must in addition to having their son in mind, also acquire him some of the oil in order for him to fulfill his obligation, and if not, he does not fulfill his obligation with his families lighting. [See Az Nidbaru 3:53, brought next, for very similar explanation, although he does not give the option of the parents acquiring some of the oil to the son.]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that when a family member is not home, he must always light candles and is not Yotzei with lighting of his parents or other family member that is not his wife [even if they have him in mind]. The reason that the sages only allowed a wife to fulfill one’s obligation when he is away from home, is because she is lighting from his possessions [and we apply the rule of Ishto Kegufo], and it is thus considered as if he himself is lighting. This is inapplicable by other family members. Now, the reason when family members are home they are exempt with the parents lighting, is because the Sages only obligated one lighting per home, however if the family member is away then he maintains his own obligation of lighting, and cannot be Yotzei until he lights, or his wife lights for him [in which it is considered as if he lit. [Az Nidbaru 3:53; 11:34; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:6; Implication of Rebbe Zeira in Shabbos ibid] 

[123] Taz 677:1; Misgeres Hashulchan 139:17; Nitei Gavriel 13:2

[124] See ruling of Admur in previous footnotes

[125] Misgeres Hashulchan ibid; Chovas Hador Chanukah 1 footnote 47; Nitei Gavriel 13:2 in name of Misgeres Hashulchan ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:2

[126] Misgeres Hashulchan ibid

[127] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:2

[128] Kinyan Torah 4:82; Mishneh Halachos 6:119

[129] Minchas Yitzchak 7:46; Nitei Gavriel 13:4

[130] Rashal 85; Thus, even according to Rashal who holds one cannot negate being Yotzei with his wife’s lighting when he is away from home, even if he has in mind, one can negate being Yotzei with his wife when they are both at home, as is the classical rule of Mehadrin. See Machatzis Hashekel 677:1

[131] M”A 677:1; Chayeh Adam 154:34; M”B 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:7; See Machatzis Hashekel 677:1

The reason: As perhaps in a case that one did not explicitly have in mind to not be Yotzei with his wife’s blessing, then even the Rama would agree that he cannot light even due to Mehadrin. [Machatzis Hashekel 677:1]

[132] Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Nitei Gavriel 9:8

[133] Based on Admur 489:12 regarding Sefiras Haomer and the same would apply to any Mitzvah as explained in Birchas Habayis 46:15 footnote 21

[134] Birchas Habayis 54 footnote 11; 46:15 footnote 21

[135] See Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Poskim ibid that if her host provides her for all her meals, then she is considered to have been automatically acquired a share in the oil.

[136] Based on ruling of Rama ibid and Taz ibid that the custom is to never rely on lighting of family; However, in truth, perhaps this applies only for men, who accepted the Mitzvah of Mehadrin, and not for women. Vetzaruch Iyun. Hence, we wrote above only that she may be stringent to do so, and not that she is obligated to do so.

[137] See Kaf Hachaim ibid in name of Poskim ibid that if her hosts provide her for all her meals, then she is considered to have been automatically acquired a share in the oil.

[138] As she is not Yotzei with her father’s lighting unless he explicitly has her in mind, and she has in mind to be Yotzei with him. Likewise, she is not considered a dependent unless she relies on her host on a steady basis.

[139] Based on ruling of Rama ibid and Taz ibid that the custom is to never rely on lighting of family

[140] Michaber 677:1 regarding one who has a room with an opening to the outside; M”A 677:3 in name of Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; M”B 677:7; Regarding that this applies even if he is married and his wife is lighting for him at home: Tur and Rambam, brought in Kaf Hachaim 677:9

Maharsham 4:146 [even if the Baal Habayis lights]; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 39; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1

[141] Maharsham 4:146 [even if the Baal Habayis lights]; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 39; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1

[142] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1 footnote 4

[143] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1 footnote 4

[144] Chovas Hador 2 footnote 39; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1

[145] Michaber 677:1; Rebbe Zeira in Shabbos 23a; Admur 263:9 regarding Shabbos candles

[146] See A in Q&A for exactly who can light on home on his behalf

[147] Implication of M”A 677:1 in name of Rashal; Implication of Admur 263:9 in parentheses; Gan Hamelech 41; Kisei Eliyahu 677:1; Shulchan Gavoa 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:2;

[148] Whether for free, or for a lump sum payment which includes room and board, as one is only considered an Achsanaiy who is not Yotzei with his Baal Habayis if he pays per meal. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] However, according to Admur ibid and M”A ibid perhaps this law would not apply if they pay for their room and board, which seemingly would remove them from being part of the household, as rule the Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1 that whenever he pays for room and board, he is considered like his own Baal Habayis and is not included in the lighting of his host.

[149] The reason: As even if he is obligated to light due to having his own room, or due to paying the Baal Habayis [and thus not being part of the household], nevertheless, the same way the host gives him his food and drink and board [either for free or for payment], so too he acquires him part of the oil. [Kaf Hachaim ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because the moment he is supported by the household for room and board, he becomes part of the household, and is thus Yotzei with his host, even if they have their own room, just like a son and daughter are Yotzei with their father even though they have their own room. [Implication of Admur ibid and M”A ibid]

[150] Gan Hamelech 41; Kisei Eliyahu 677:1; Shulchan Gavoa 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:2; Possible way of learning Implication of Admur ibid; unlike Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1 in previous footnote who require actual Shituf when one has his own room

Opinion of Admur: Admur ibid rules that if the Shabbos guest has his own room then he must light there even if he is a dependent. However, in truth, this ruling of Admur may be limited to Shabbos candles, as lighting in one’s own room is required due to Shalom Bayis. However, Chanukah candles, which do not have this aspect of Shalom Bayis, would not need to be lit even if one has his own room and he is no different than a son or daughter who has his own room, which is Yotzei with their father, due to them being part of the household. Now, although the Michaber and Poskim explicitly rule that one is obligated to light if he has his own room, seemingly this is referring to a case that he pays for food at his host, and not when he is relying to eat by them for free. Vetzaruch Iyun

[151] Kaf Hachaim ibid, as explained in previous footnotes; However, according to Admur ibid and M”A ibid perhaps this law would not apply if they pay for their room and board, which seemingly would remove them from being part of the household, as rule the Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1 that whenever he pays for room and board, he is considered like his own Baal Habayis and is not included in the lighting of his host.

[152] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[153] P”M 677 A”A 3; M”B 677:4 in name of Peri Megadim and Meiri; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1

[154] Michaber 677:1; M”A 677:3 in name of Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; M”B 677:7; See Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1; See opinion of Admur ibid

Other opinions: As stated above, the first opinion rules that even in such a case, he is not obligated to make a separate acquisition of the oil of the lighting of the host, as he is automatically joined by the mere fact that he is supported by them and provided all his needs. [See Gan Hamelech 41; Kisei Eliyahu 677:1; Shulchan Gavoa 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:3]

[155] Rama 677:3; M”A 677:1 in name of Rashal that he may light like Mehadrin, even when one is Yotzei with his host. Thus, even according to Rashal who holds one cannot negate being Yotzei with his wife’s lighting when he is away from home, even if he has in mind, one can negate being Yotzei with the host, as is the classical rule of Mehadrin

[156] M”A 677:1 in name of Rashal; Admur 263:9; M”B 677:4 in name of Meiri; P”M 677 A”A 3

[157] Pashut, as if he is considered part of the household, he fulfills his obligation with the leader of the house, just as a wife, son and daughter fulfill their obligation with their father, even if they have their own room. The only time having one’s own room requires him to light is when he is not part of the household he is staying by, in which case there is worry of Chashad. Now, although Admur ibid rules regarding Shabbos candles, that if one has his own room he must light, even if he is part of their household, this is due to Shalom Bayis, which is not applicable towards the Mitzvah of Chanukah candles.

[158] See Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1

[159] Gan Hamelech 41; Kisei Eliyahu 677:1; Shulchan Gavoa 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:2

[160] M”A 677:1 in name of Rashal; Rama 671:2 regarding Mehadrin; 677:3; The M”A 677:1 explains in name of the Rashal that he may light like Mehadrin, even when one is Yotzei with his host. Thus, even according to Rashal who holds one cannot negate being Yotzei with his wife’s lighting when he is away from home, even if he has in mind, one can negate being Yotzei with the host, as is the classical rule of Mehadrin

[161] Implication of Taz 677:1 “If he wants he can be Yotzei with his wife and if not then he can light himself”; P”M 671 M”Z 1 “Meaning that they have in mind not to be Yotzei”; Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13 based on M”A 677:9; See Kesav Sofer 132-134; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:2

[162] Beis Yosef 677 in name of Mahariy, brought in Kaf Hachaim 677:16

[163]

[164] Based on Rama 677:1 and Taz 677:2 that we follow the eating area versus the sleeping area

The reason: As there are more people found in the area of eating and it hence contains greater Pirsumei Nissa.

[165] Ateres Zekeinim 677:1

[166] M”A 677:1 [see also M”A 677/9]; Admur 263:9; Rashal 85; Chayeh Adam 154:32; Derech Hachaim 2; P”M 671 M”Z 1; M”B 677:1; Az Nidbaru 3:53; 11:34; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:6

[167] The reason: There are several reasons to obligate the Yeshiva Bochurim to light candles, and invalidate their ability to be Yotzei with their parents or Rosh Yeshiva: They cannot be Yotzei with their parents as a) they are no longer living at home and are not considered dependents of their parents when away. [Implication of M”A ibid; Admur ibid; Poskim ibid] and b) As their parents are not lighting from candles which they own and did not acquire them a part of the oil and perhaps do not have in mind to be Yotzei them. [as explained in A in Q&A] and c) As they have their own room, and they are thus not Yotzei with their parents at home, even if they were to be considered a dependent of their parents, as explained in Halacha A. They also cannot be Yotzei with the Rosh Yeshiva as they pay tuition for room and food, thus making them considered independent of their Rosh Yeshiva and as if they have their own home. [See Halacha A; Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1] Now, since they are not Yotzei with their parents at home, and cannot be considered a dependent of the Rosh Yeshiva, therefore, they must light their own candles. This would apply for both Sefaradim and Ashkenazim. [Az Nidbaru ibid]

Lighting one set of candles on behalf of all the students: Seemingly, from the letter of the law, it suffices if one set of candles is lit in the dining room, by an appointee of the Yeshiva or seminary, on behalf of the entire student body, as they are considered dependents of the Yeshiva or seminary and once one candle is lit, everyone is Yotzei, just like one candle is Motzi an entire family. However, according to those Poskim who rule that payment of a room separates oneself from the household [Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1] then in truth there is never a status of a household amongst a paying student body, and everyone must like their own personal candles, or be Yotzei through Shituf. Seemingly, even according to this approach it would suffice for the appointee to have in mind to acquire the oil to every student in the Yeshiva/seminary and hence they are Yotzei with that lighting even in accordance to the latter opinion.

[168] Machzor Vitri 1:238 “Those who travel in order to learn Torah, are not required to light or join with a Peruta if they know that their wife, or father or mother is lighting at home.”; Yechaveh Daas 6:53 that they are included in both their parents lighting and the lighting of the Rosh Yeshiva; Toras Hamoadim 2:4 [Rav David Yosef]; See Chovas Hador 1 footnote 49 regarding them being included in the lighting of the Rosh Yeshiva [seemingly contradicting his statement in 2 footnote 15]; See Maharil 145, brought in M”A ibid that Bochurim may light as they follow the Ashkenazi custom of Mehadrin, this would imply that a) Bochurim are Yotzei with their parents and b) according to the Sefaradi custom are not to light candles, as rules one of the opinions brought in Terumos Hadeshen ibid, recorded in Taz 677:1, however perhaps the ruling in the M”A in name of Maharil is referring to Bochurim who are supported by their hosts, as writes M”A 677:1 and hence nothing of their opinion can be inferred from here, regarding Bochurim of today.

[169] Yechaveh Daas ibid; See Halacha 2C and Q&A

[170] See Maharil 145 brought in M”A 677:9

[171] Rama 677:3; Taz 677:1; M”A 677:9; Terumos Hadeshen 101; Maharil 145; Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Aruch Hashulchan 677:5; M”B 677:16; Yechaveh Daas ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if we accept the notion that the students are Yotzei with their families, then it is forbidden for them to light with a blessing, even if he has in mind to not be Yotzei with his families lighting, as this is not within his ability. [Opinion in Terumos Hadeshen ibid, brought in Taz ibid; Beis Yosef 677; Rashal 85; Chayeh Adam 154:33; M”B 677:16; Kaf Hachaim 676:25; 677:7; Yechaveh Daas 6:53]

[172] See above Halacha B regarding a permanent guest!

[173] See Maharsham 4:146; Chovas Hador 2 footnote 15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:1

[174] Gan Hamelech 41; Kisei Eliyahu 677:1; Shulchan Gavoa 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:2

[175] Kaf Hachaim 677:6

[176] The reason: As the soldiers are dependents of the army during their year of duty, and once the head of the household lights one set of candles, they all fulfill their obligation. This is unlike the law of a Yeshiva student or seminary girl in which case we require each one to light their own candle, or join with a Peruta to a lighting, as the student pays for his lodging and meals, thus removing their status as a dependent from the Yeshiva.

[177] See Michaber 677:1;

[178] M”A 677:5; P”M 677 A”A 4; M”B 677:10; Kaf Hachaim 677:18

[179] Michaber ibid

The reason: Due to Chashad. [M”A 677:4]

[180] Beis Yosef 677; Rashal 85; Kneses Hagedola 677, brought in M”A 677:4; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 677:3; Chayeh Adam 154:33; Kaf Hachaim 676:25; 677:7, 9 and 11-12, 15

[181] M”A 677:4 [see Machatzis Hashekel ibid]; Birkeiy Yosef 677:1; See Kaf Hachaim 677:11-12; This certainly applies according to all Poskim who rule one may light candles in a separate home even when exempt. [Rama 677:3; Terumos Hadeshen 101; Maharil 145; Taz 677:1; M”A 677:9; Machatzis Hashekel ibid]

[182] Rama 677:1 that there is no need to light at home, as explained in M”A 677:7; P”M 677 A”A 5; Peri Chadash 677 and Kaf Hachaim 677:20 that if the son is a steady dependent then he does not need to light at all, as he is included in his father’s lighting

[183] P”M ibid

[184] Michaber ibid

[185] M”A 677:4 as explained in Machatzis Hashekel, and P”M 677 A”A 4; Birkeiy Yosef 677:1; See Kaf Hachaim 677:12;

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he is to light candles without a blessing. [Kneses Hagedola 677, brought in M”A 677:4; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 677:3]

[186] Michaber ibid; M”A 677:7 explains that even according to the Rama, this ruling is true regarding a non-steady guest

The reason: It does not suffice to join the lighting of the host when he has his own place to sleep, due to Chashad. [M”A 677:4; See Kaf Hachaim 677:21] This that in truth, if not due to the reason of Chashad, a guest for a meal can join the lighting of the host through acquiring some of the oil, even though he is not a steady dependent. [See Peri Chadash 677, brought in Kaf Hachaim 677:20

[187] Michaber 677:1; Rebbe Zeira in Shabbos 23b; See Admur 263:9 regarding Shabbos candles

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in today’s times, being that everyone [who is Ashkenazi] lights their own candle, Chashad applies in all cases, even if he does not have a room at all, and even if his wife is lighting for him, and hence one may no longer every rely on one’s family, nor on joining the lighting of the Baal Habayis. [Opinion in M”A 677:3; Mahriy Viyaal 31; Maharil 145; Elya Raba 677:1; Derech Hachaim 1; See Kaf Hachaim 677:11; M”B 677:7; Biur Halacha 677 “Letazmo”]

[188] Michaber 677:1; Rebbe Zeira in Shabbos 23b

[189] It is not necessary to give half the cost of the oil but rather a Peruta suffices. [M”B 677:3; Kaf Hachaim 677:2]

[190] Rashba 542; P”M 678 A”A 3; Kitzur SHU”A 139:20; Kaf Hachaim 677:8

[191] Kaf Hachaim 677:2

[192] M”B 677:3; Kaf Hachaim 677:5 that this is only according to the Ashkenazi custom

The reason: This is to suspect for the other opinions mentioned above in the footnotes, who hold that today joining a lighting is invalid. [M”B ibid]

[193] M”A 677:1 in name of Rashba 542; Peri Chadash; Elya Raba 677:2; M”B 677:3; Kaf Hachaim 677:2; Admur 263:9 regarding Shabbos candles

[194] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677 footnote 53

[195] M”A 677:1 in name of Bach and Aguda; Kneses Hagedola 677:2; Peri Megadim 677 A”A 1; Derech Hachaim 2; M”B 677:3 in name of Poskim ibid; Kaf Hachaim 677:4

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the host is not required to add any oil on behalf of the guest. [Peri Chadash, brought in P”M ibid]

[196] Poskim ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the host is required to add a half hour worth of oil on behalf of the guest. [Elya Rana 677:2, brought in P”M ibid]

[197] The reason: As if the host does not add any extra oil to his normal amount, it will not be apparent that the guest is taking apart in this lighting. [ibid]

[198] See Bezel Hachachmah 4:59; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:7

[199] M”B 677:4

[200] See Igros Moshe 1:190

[201] Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba ; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 675:3; See also Michaber 676:3 which contradicts 677:3; See Nitei Gavriel 12:5 and footnote 8 that contradicts himself.

[202] Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag

[203] M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190

[204] Meaning there is no family/host who is lighting candles there

[205] Peri Chadash 677 [brought in P”M 677 A”A 8, Biur Halacha 677 Imo, Kaf Hachaim 677:16]; Mahariy Zayin, brought in Shaareiy Yeshua 7:4; P”M 677 A”A 3 and 8

[206] Beis Yosef 677 in name of Mahariy, brought in Kaf Hachaim 677:16; Shibuleiy Haleket 185; Levush; Birkeiy Yosef 671:4; Shaariey Teshuvah 671:1; Kaf Hachaim 671:12; 677:16; Biur Halacha 677 Imo; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677 footnote 5

[207] Beis Yosef 677 in name of Mahariy, brought in Kaf Hachaim 677:16

[208] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3-4

[209] M”A 676:4; Kneses Hagedola; Olas Shabbos 675:1; Shulchan Gavoa 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:20

[210] M”A ibid

Custom of wife of Rebbe Rashab: When the Rebbe Rashab was away from home for Chanukah, he would instruct his wife Shterna Sara, to light the candles, but to hear the blessing from one of the men [who were lighting]. [Sefer Hasichos 5706 p. 21; Likkutei Sichos 30 p. 312; Toras Menachem 4:233] The Rebbe, however, points out that the widespread custom is for the woman to be Yotzei with the men and not light on their own. [Toras Menachem ibid footnote 11]

[211] Kaf Hachaim 675:19; See also Levush 671; Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 671:12; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:13; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; M”B 671:48 based on Biur Hagr”a; Kaf Hachaim 671:80;

[212] M”A 676:4; Elya Raba 676:2 in name of Bach; P”M 675 A”A 4; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 676:12 See Igros Moshe 1:190 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3 for a complete understanding of this Halacha

[213] P”M ibid; Admur 213:4; Michaber 213:2; Rambam Brachos 1:11; Brachos 45b

[214] M”A 676:4 in name of Bach; Elya Raba 676:2; Kneses Hagedola; Olas Shabbos 675:1; Shulchan Gavoa 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:20; 676:12

The reason: As the Mitzvah is upon the body of the person, and he hence must be present. [M”A ibid in name of Bach]

[215] See Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3

[216] Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba ; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9; Ashel Avraham Butchach Tinyana 675:3; See also Michaber 676:3 which contradicts 677:3; See Nitei Gavriel 12:5 and footnote 8 that contradicts himself.

[217] Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag

[218] M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190

[219] Igros Moshe 1:190; Simple implication of M”B 675:9 in name of P”M; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3

The reason: As the emissary cannot say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim if there is no one fulfilling their obligation with it. [Igros Moshe ibid]

[220] Michaber 675:3; M”A 675:4; Taz 675:4; Agudah; Bach; Kneses Hagedola; Levush; Olas Shabbos 675:1; Peri Chadash 675; Elya Raba 675:6; Shulchan Gavoa 675:6; Machazik Bracha 675:4; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:19

[221] This is referring to a woman which is not one’s wife. However, if one’s wife lights the candles at home then one fulfills his obligation even if he is not present at the time of the blessing. [676:3 as is evident from the law of a guest which has a wife which is lighting for him at home.]

[222] M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:20

See the following Poskim regarding a debate if women are included in the Mitzvah of Areivus, and can hence be Motzi others if they were already Yotzei: Rosh and Rabbeinu Yona Barchos 20b [no Areivus]; Ritva Brachos 5:2 and Mordechai Megillah 797 [There is Areivus]; Admur 186:2; 263 KU”A 5; 271:3; 296:19; 608:4-5 [All these sources implies there is Areivus and she can be Motzi]; P”M 271 A”A 2; 689 A”A 4 [questionable]; Degul Merivava 271 and Tzlach Brachos 20b [No Areivus]; Rav Akiva Eiger 271 and Shut Rav Akiva Eiger 7 [There is Areivus]; M”B 271:5; 273:20; 675:9; 692:10-11 [All these sources implies there is Areivus and she can be Motzi]; Biur Halacha 689 “Venashim”; Kaf Hachaim 675:20 [Permitted]; The following Poskim all rule she is considered within Areivus: Chasam Sofer 271; Rosh Yosef Brachos ibid; Avnei Nezer 439; Shaar Hatziyon 271:9; Minchas Yitzchak 3:54; Har Tzvi 2:122; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 271:8 footnote 89 and 92 for the full list of Poskim on each side of the debate

[223] Biur Halacha 675:2 “Isha”

[224] Michaber 675:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:4 regarding a child who became Bar Mitzvah during Chanukah

[225] Implication of stam opinion of Michaber ibid; Michaber 689:2 regarding Megillah based on Tana Kama in Megillah 19b and so rules: Rosh; Bahag; Levush; Bach; Olas Shabbos 689:3; Peri Chadash.

[226] Shnos Chaim 142; M”B 675:11; Kaf Hachaim 675:25

[227] Michaber ibid; Shabbos 23b

The reason regarding Megillah and the same applies here: Although a child [that has reached the age of Chinuch] is also Rabbinically obligated to light candles, nevertheless, he may not fulfill the obligation of a Gadol, as for the child it is a Rabbinical command from two aspects [“Trei Derabanan”-Megillah is Rabbinical; a Katan is Rabbinical] while a Gadol is Rabbinically obligated from only one aspect [Chad Derabanan]. [Beis Yosef in name of Levush; Olas Shabbos 689:3; Peri Megadim 689 A”A 1; M”B 689:6; Kaf Hachaim 689:11]

[228] Second opinion in Michaber ibid; Ran in name of Baal Haittur, as rules Rebbe Yehuda in Megillah ibid

[229] Peri Chadash 675; Olas Shmuel 105; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 19; M”B 675:13; Kaf Hachaim 675:26

[230] Michaber 675:3

[231] Rama 671:7 regarding the lighting in Shul and the same applies for the lighting at home, as explained in M”A 671:11; Rashal 85; M”B 671:49; brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:82

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that when lighting at home, one must light all the candles himself. [Levush 671] Some Poskim rule that a Baal Nefesh is to suspect for this opinion. [Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 671:12; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:13; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[232] Biur Hagr”a; M”B 671:48; Kaf Hachaim 671:80; This certainly applies in order to suspect for the “other opinions” brought in previous footnote.

[233] The reason: As the main Mitzvah is fulfilled when a single candle is lit and the remaining candles are only Hiddur Mitzvah. [M”B 671:49; Kaf Hachaim 671:81]

[234] M”B 671:48 in name of Gr”a; This certainly applies in order to suspect for the “other opinions” brought in previous footnotes.

[235] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim 671:83

[236] P”M 676 A”A 4; Admur 8:11 and in 585:5; 273:6; M”A 8:8; 585:3 based on Terumas Hadeshen 140; P”M 8 A”A 8; Opinion in M”B 585:5 and 692:10; Kaf Hachaim 8:21; 675:9; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 6 says the person may [not must] say the blessing and have the emissary light; See M”A 676:4 in name of Hagahos Maimanis and Kaf Hachaim 676:13 that one person can light and another can say the blessing, and they do not state that it’s better for the person to say the blessing rather than the emissary.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the person may always say a blessing for the other even if he knows how to recite the blessing. [Rama 585:2 regarding Shofar; Elya Raba brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid] See also Rama 671:7; M”A 671:11; Kaf Hachaim 676:13 who implies the person saying the blessing is to always be the person lighting

[237] Reim on Smag, Bach, brought in M”A 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:12; See Admur Kuntrus Achron 263:3

[238] M”A 676:4; Kneses Hagedola 676:1; Peri Chadash; Elya Raba 676:2; Kaf Hachaim 676:12

[239] Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 676:15

[240] So is Pashut from the law above which invalidates a Cheresh and Shoteh and Katan, and the same would apply to a gentile.

[241] The reason: See Admur Kuntrus Achron 263:3 that by Shabbos candles the main thing is the benefit from the light, and henceone may have a gentile light and a woman bless. However, by Ner Chanukah where the main thing is the lighting itself, Hadlaka Oseh Mitzvah, a gentile is invalid. [See article of Rav Yosef Zevin, printed in Yagdil Torah T.Z. 6:50, See there in great length]

[242] 672:1-2; Shabbos 21a

[243] 672:1; Shabbos 21a “The Mitzvah is from sunset until..”

[244] So writes Michaber ibid in the continuation of this Halacha, that this time of sunset is only Lechatchila.

[245] The reason: As during this time, those passing by notice the candles. [Levush; M”B 672:1; Kaf Hachaim 672:2] One is not to light prior to sunset being that one does not benefit from the light. [M”A 672:1]

[246] Michaber 672:1 “One is not to light the Chanukah candles prior to sunset but rather towards the conclusion of sunset. One is not to delay it past the end of sunset or precede it to this time”; Rambam 4; See Biur Halacha 672:1 “Velo Makdimim”

[247] Opinion in Rama 672:2; Tur in name of Tosafus

[248] M”A 672:5 in name of Maaglei Tzedek; Chayeh Adam 154:20; M”B 672:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:24

[249] The reason: As the entire lighting today is done only one’s family, and not to the people outside. [Tur; M”B 672:9]

[250] Rama 672:2 “Some Poskim however rule that today since anyways the lighting is done inside the house, there is no obligation to be careful to light on time, nevertheless it is best to be careful to light within the time even today.”; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265]

Other customs: There are many Tzadikkei Polin which would intentionally light much time past nightfall due to there being a greater publication of the miracle at that time. [Nimukei Orach Chaim 672; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4 footnote 18]

[251] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1

[252] Beis Yosef; Bach; Magen Avraham 672:1; Elya Raba 672:1; Kneses Hagedola 672:1; Mamar Mordechai 672:1; Chayeh Adam 154:18; Derech Hachaim 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 7; M”B 672:1; Kitzur SH”A 139:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:2; So is the custom of the Sefaradim; Custom of Chazon Ish is to light by Tzeis Hakochavim of Geonim [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:234] Custom of Gur [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

The reason: The Beis Yosef explains that the end of sunset means after nightfall and so rules Magen Avraham 672:1. Nightfall here in the Michaber refers to nightfall of Rabbeinu Tam. However, we rule in accordance to the nightfall of the Geonim. See coming footnotes. According to these opinions, one is not to light the candles before nightfall, during Bein Hashmashos, as we do not view this period of time as a questionable Rabbinical time of which we rule leniently. [P”M 672 A”A 1; Kaf Hachaim 672:2]

If one is in doubt if nightfall arrived: If one is in doubt as to whether nightfall has arrived, he is to light the candles, as it is better to light earlier than later. [Chayeh Adam ibid]

[253] See the end of this Halacha for sources; Maariv should be davened either before nightfall, for those accustomed to do so, or right after nightfall before lighting.

[254] P”M 672 A”A 1; Biur Halacha 672 “Lo Meachrim”

[255] Bahag; Ran; Rashba; Meiri; brought in Gr”a, Peri Chadash 672:1; Custom of Kneses Hagedola on Tur; M”B 672:1; See Biur Halacha 672:1 “Velo Makdimim”; The custom of Jerusalem Jewry [Yishuv Hayashan] based on the Gr”a is to light immediately after sunset

[256] Bein Hashmashos begins immediately after sunset. [In accordance to our ruling to follow the Geonim] However, in the ruling of the Michaber, this Bein Hashmashos refers to the time of Rabbeinu Tam, as the Michaber in his Shulchan Aruch 261:1 rules like Rabbeinu Tam. The Bein Hashmashos of Rabbeinu Tam begins 15 minutes prior to nightfall and his nightfall begins 72 minutes after sunset. [M”B 672:1] Hence, according to this opinion, the candles are to be lit 15 minutes prior to nightfall. The reason this opinion interprets “after sunset” as Bein Hashmashos is because according to Rabbeinu Tam there are two sunsets. Hence, they interpret “the end of sunset” to refer to the end of the first sunset prior to the start of the 2nd sunset, which is approximately 15 minutes prior to nightfall. According to the opinion of the Geonim that Bein Hashmashos begins immediately after sunset, which is the final ruling today, one is to light the Menorah immediately after sunset. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1; See Az Nidbaru 7:70]

[257] This is opposed to those who Daven Maariv while it is still day, as was a common custom in those times, and is likewise opposed to one who Davens Maariv only later on at night.

[258] Mor Uketzia; Custom of Gr”a; Machazik Bracha 672:3 “One who does so does not lose out”; Shaareiy Teshuvah 672:2; M”B 672:1; Biur Halacha 672:1 “Lo Meachrin”; Igros Moshe 4:101; Kaf Hachaim 672:5 concludes it all depends on whether one can make it home with enough time to light prior to the passing of a half hour, and if one can’t, then he should follow the above ruling and light before nightfall.

The reason: As a) If one waits until after Maariv he has delayed from the main time of Tzeis Hakochavim; b) As many Poskim hold one is to light before Tzeis Hakochavim and c) Perhaps even according to the Tur/Michaber one can light within a half hour before Tzeis Hakochavim, d) According to the Rambam, it can be learned that one is to light exactly at sunset, and if a half hour passes after sunset it is no longer valid. [Biur Halacha ibid]

[259] Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 908

[260] Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265]

The reason: This is done in order to fulfill one’s obligation according to all opinions. [Igros Kodesh 10:153; printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:266; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:280]

[261] M”B 672:1; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English] that we place in oil for 50 minutes; Igros Kodesh 10:153; Shulchan Menachem 3:266; See Eretz Tzevi; Az Nidbaru 7:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1 that one is to place enough oil in at least one candle to last 30 minutes past nightfall of Rabbeinu Tam

[262] Michaber 672:2; Shabbos ibid

[263] Michaber ibid “Until Shetichleh Regel Min Hashuk which is around a half hour”

The reason:  As within a half hour after nightfall people are on the streets and pass by one’s home and hence the miracle becomes publicized. [Michaber ibid]

[264] M”B 671:5 in name of Peri Chadash

Background: From the letter of the law, it must only be lit until a half hour after nightfall, even if the candle itself will not be lit for a half hour, due to it being lit sometime after nightfall. [M”A 672:2-3; M”B 671:5 in name of Peri Chadash] Nevertheless, this only applied in the times of the Gemara. However, today, that we light inside and the publication of the lighting is mainly directed towards one’s family and not towards the public, therefore, the candle is always to remain lit for a half hour, irrelevant of when it was lit. [Peri Chadash; P”M 672 A”A 2; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that today, when lighting after the proper time, it is not necessary for the candles to last a half hour, or until a half hour passes from nightfall. [Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[265] Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Mishneh Halachos 4:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4; See Bnei Yisachar, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 16 for a similar ruling

[266] Or Letziyon 1:45

[267] Beir Heiytiv 672:2 in name of Kneses Hagedola; Shvus Yaakov 2:40; Shaareiy Teshuvah 672:2; M”B 672:1; Biur Halacha 672:1 “Lo Miachrin”; Kitzur SHU”A 139:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:5; Shulchan Menachem 3:266

The reason: As Maariv is a more common Mitzvah [Tadir] and includes the recital of Shema which is Biblical and hence takes precedence. [Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; M”B ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to first light and then Daven Maariv. [M”A 672:5 in name of Kneses Hagedola, P”M 672 A”A 1 that leaves this matter in question]

[268] M”B 672:1; Kaf Hachaim 672:6

The reason: As if they delay lighting until after Maariv and only then begin to set up the candles, there is strong worry that the time of lighting will pass by the time they light. [ibid]

[269] Shagas Aryeh 22; Yeshuos Yaakov 679; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:338; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:3

[270] Maharsham 9:38

[271] Michaber 672:2; Tur 672; Ravayah 972; Hagahos Maimanis brought in M”A 672:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that once a half hour has passed after nightfall, the Mitzvah can no longer be fulfilled. [Rambam Chanukah 4:5, brought in Tur 672] Others rule it is questionable whether one can still fulfill the Mitzvah. [Tosafus Shabbos 21, Implication of Rosh ibid, brought in Beis Yosef 672, and M”A 672:6] Other Poskim rule that one must light the candles prior to midnight, and hence once midnight has arrived, the Mitzvah can no longer be fulfilled. [Rashal 85 brought in M”A ibid; Taz 672:1] Rav Yaakov Yosef z”l concludes that Safek Brachos Lihakel, and that one may never light candles with a blessing past a half hour after nightfall. Nonetheless, the remainder of the Yosef family [Rav Ovadia Yosef z”l, Rav Yitzchak Yosef shlita, Rav David Yosef shlita, all concur that a blessing may be recited as rules Michaber ibid]

[272] M”A 672:6 that so is implication of Michaber ibid; Peri Chadash 672; Chemed Moshe 672:3; Machazik Bracha 672:2; M”B 672:11

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one must light the candles prior to midnight and hence when lighting after midnight one may not recite a blessing. [Rashal 85 brought in M”A ibid; Taz 672:1] Other Poskim rule one may never light the candles with a blessing, after 30 minutes pass after midnight. [Tosafus Shabbos 21, Implication of Rosh ibid, brought in Beis Yosef 672, and M”A 672:6]

[273] Hagahos Maimanis brought in M”A 672:6; M”B 672:11

May one light with a blessing within 30 minutes before Alos? See Q&A!

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may light the candles even after Alos, so long as it is still dark outside. [Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:119]

[274] Michaber ibid

Is the lighting past nightfall included in the initial Mitzvah, or it is Tashlumin? Some Poskim explain that the initial Mitzvah can only be fulfilled until a half hour past nightfall, and the lighting of later on is merely a status of Tashlumin. [Ravayah 972; Shut Magidos 2:163]

[275] M”A 672:6; Hagahos Maimanis

[276] M”A ibid; Elya Raba 672:3; Chayeh Adam 154:19; Derech Hachiam 2; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 7; Kitzur SHU”A 139:10; M”B 672:11; Kaf Hachaim 672:26

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one may light with a blessing up until Alos Hashachar even if he is alone and all his family members are asleep. [Chemed Moshe 672:3] Some Poskim conclude that one who is lenient like this opinion is not to be protested against. [Shaar Hatziyon 672:17; Igros Moshe 4:105; Mishpat Leyaakov 36; Chazon Ovadia]

[277] Chemed Moshe 672:3; M”B 672:11;

[278] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid that so long as two people are awake, it may be lit with a blessing; Kaf Hachaim ibid; However the Chemed Moshe ibid writes one is to wake up 2-3 family members. In any event, the Chemed Moshe rules one can say a blessing even if no family members are present.

[279] Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4; See Bnei Yisachar, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 16 for a similar ruling

[280] Mishneh Halachos 4:79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4

[281] P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that when lighting after the proper time it is not necessary for the candles to last a half hour. [Poskim brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[282] Michaber 672:2

Other opinions: From some Poskim it can be understood that one is able to light Chanukah candles even the next day, with a blessing, as a form of Tashlumin. Vetzaruch Iyun [See Ravayah 972 who compares it to Tashlumin of Tefila; See Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:119 who permits past Alos until light]

[283] Michaber ibid

[284] Hagahos Maimanis brought in M”A 672:6; M”B 672:11

May one light with a blessing within 30 minutes before Alos? See Q&A!

[285] Meaning that if the next night is the 2nd night of Chanukah, then he is to light two candles, and on the third night he is to light three candles. We do not say that for this person the second night is considered the first night. [M”B 672:12; Darkei Moshe]

[286] Rama ibid; Maharil; Aguda

The reason: The Mitzvah of lighting candles each night is not similar to the Mitzvah of Sefiras Haomer, as there is a separate Mitzvah each night to light candles, unlike Sefiras Haomer which is a Mitzvah that is dependent on the completeness of the count. [Beis Yosef; Levush; Biur Hagr”a; Kaf Hachaim 672:27]

[287] Ruach Chaim brought in Kaf Hachaim 672:29

[288] Michaber 672:1

[289] M”B 671:2; Kaf Hachaim 672:8

[290] Mahariy Abuhav

[291] Peri Chadash 672:1; Birkeiy Yosef 672; M”B 672:3 in name of Peri Chadash ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite a blessing when lighting prior to sunset. [Miseches Sofrim 20:2; M”A 672:1; Siddur Beis Oved 1; Tefila Ledavid; Chida in Kisei Rachamim chapter 20; Kaf Hachaim 672:10]

[292] M”B 672:3

This means that one calculates the amount of day hours in the day and then divides that by 12. One then times that by 1.25 hours, which is the number of hours in Plag Hamincha [1 hour and 15 minutes]. Thus, if there are 14-day hours in the day, then each hour when divided into 12 contains 70 minutes, and thus Plag Hamincha would be 1.25 hours times 70 minutes which equals 87.5 minutes prior to sunset. 

[293] Admur in Siddur Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4 [that the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset]; Ketzos Hashulchan 27:4; 74:11 and footnote 25; 76:1; So also rules Gr”a; Chok Yaakov and other Poskim

Background: Admur in the Siddur in Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4 rules the day is calculated from sunrise to sunset, and so is the custom today of all Jewry. In accordance to this calculation, Plag Hamincha is 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, and so rules Ketzos Hashulchan ibid. See also Admur in 261:5; 443:4.

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 263:6 Admur rules that Plag Hamincha is 1 hour and 15 minutes before nightfall. This is based on 58:3; 89:1 in which Admur rules the day is from Alos until Tzeis. Likewise, in 261:5 where Admur rules that although one may be stringent to accept Shabbos from 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, he may not be lenient to light candles until 1 and ¼ hours prior to nightfall. However, in Admur 443:4 he rules it is counted from sunrise until sunset and so rules Admur in the Siddur.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Plag Hamincha is 1.25 Zmaniyos hours prior to nightfall. [Chayeh Adam 154:18; M”B 672:3; 679:2; 692:13; Kaf Hachaim 672:9; 692:29]

[294] Bach; Kaf Hachaim 672:7

[295] P”M 672 A”A 1; Shaar Hatziyon 672:4; Kaf Hachaim 672:11

[296] Pashut; Kaf Hachaim 672:1; See M”B 672:4

[297] Michaber ibid

The reason: As the candles must remain lit during the night time, which is when the publication of the miracle is achievable. [M”B 672:4]

[298] P”M 672 A”A 1; M”B 672:4; Kaf Hachaim 672:12

The reason: One does not say a blessing, as perhaps it suffices if the candle remains lit for a half hour during Plag Hamincha, as the entire allowance to light the candles during Plag is because we consider it as night. [P”M ibid]

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule one is to relight the candles with a blessing. [Chayeh Adam 154:18, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[299] See Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265] based on Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv that we are particular to light 50 minutes total in order so it be lit for a half hour after nightfall. This implies that the candles should be lit for at least 20 minutes before nightfall. Seemingly the reason for this is in order so the first half hour of the lighting extend into Tzeis Hakochavim. Vetzaruch Iyun. Reply of Harav Groner “Our custom to light about ten-fifteen minutes after the Shekia to let them burn for fifty minutes.”; See Hiskashrus 752 footnote 15

[300] Reply of Rav Eliyahu Landa Shlita, that so is the custom of Anash, and so was the custom of his father to look at the clock and light immediately after sunset. This is seemingly the best custom as a) It fulfills the Mitzvah according to all opinions, as some require the lighting to take place immediately after sunset. b) The candles are lit approximately 20 minutes before nightfall, as is the Chabad custom, as stated above.

[301] Reply of Rav Groner ibid that so is our custom; So rules: Igros Moshe 4:101; Az Nidbaru 7:70; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:1 footnote 5

[302] Heard from many of Anash in Yerushalayim area, and so testified to me Harav Asher Lemel Hakohen

[303] Nitei Gavriel 3:4

[304] Michaber 672:1-2

[305] Rama 672:2 “Some Poskim however rule that today since anyways the lighting is done inside the house, there is no obligation to be careful to light on time, nevertheless it is best to be careful to light within the time even today.”; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv; Igros Kodesh 14:184; 10:153 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:265]

[306] Nitei Gavriel 3:10 based on Makor Chaim 672:1 and Poskim brought next; Hiskashrus Chanukah; See the following Poskim who all rule that according to our custom today, one is to light at night when one’s family is all present: M”A 672:5 in name of Machzor Maglei Tzedek Minhagei Wormz p. 240; Chayeh Adam 154:20; M”B 672:10; Kaf Hachaim 672:24 [Now, although the Rama ibid concludes that even today one is to initially be particular in this, seemingly one can argue that according to the above Poskim, this is coming to say that one should be particular to make sure that his household is gathered by the proper time, however, if they are not then he should light later on when they arrive. Vetzaruch Iyun, as one can argue to the contrary, that the novelty of the Rama’s conclusion is that one should light on time, even if his family is not present. Vetzaruch Iyun.]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to never delay lighting on time, within the first half hour after nightfall, even if his family will not be present. [Ruling of Rav Yaakov Yosef, based on the fact that some Poskim rule that even today the Mitzvah is over once a half hour after nightfall has arrived, and one is hence to suspect for their opinion.]

[307] As Ein Ladavar Sof, and when one arrives another leaves, and hence in large families, it very difficult to wait upon everyone being present.

[308] Birchas Habayis 54:6

[309] Birchas Habayis 54:6

[310] So seems Pashut as otherwise the family will miss out on the lighting and on the Pirsumei Nissa. [Nitei Gavriel 9:8]

[311] Machatzis Hashekel 677:1; Nitei Gavriel 9:8

[312] Rashal 85 [Thus, even according to Rashal who holds one cannot negate being Yotzei with his wife’s lighting when he is away from home, even if he has in mind, one can negate being Yotzei with his wife when they are both at home, as is the classical rule of Mehadrin. See Machatzis Hashekel 677:1]; See Birchas Habayis 54 footnote 10 that if he did not have anything in mind, then if upon his return home he does not desire to be Yotzei with his wife’s lighting, he may light the candles. No mention however is made regarding the blessing

[313] M”A 677:1; Chayeh Adam 154:34; M”B 677:2; Kaf Hachaim 677:7

The reason for the doubt: On the one hand, perhaps he can no longer light with a blessing being that his wife was Motzi him, as ruled in 677:1. On the other hand, perhaps we only say that he is automatically Yotzei with his wife if he knew she would be lighting, otherwise we say there is an Anan Sahadi that he does not intend to be Yotzei with her. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid] In the event that we assume he is not Yotzei it should be permitted to light with a blessing due to the law of Mehadrin, just like we permit the wife to light, if she so chooses, despite her husband’s lighting. [See M”B 675:9; Nitei Gavriel 9:8] However, since perhaps he is Yotzei, being he had nothing in mind, therefore, the above Poskim conclude to light without a blessing. [Machatzis Hashekel ibid]

[314] Mikraeiy Kodesh Chanukah 11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:4

[315] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:337

[316] Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2

[317] Shevet Halevi 4:66

[318] Shevet Halevi 4:66

[319] Chovas Hador Chanukah 1 footnote 50

[320] Shevet Halevi 4:66; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2 footnote 13

[321] Shevet Halevi 4:66; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:2 footnote 13

[322] See Halacha above; Yeshuos Yaakov 681:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:3

[323] Shevet Halevi 8:156 based on Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:119; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5; See Nitei Gavriel 3:19 who writes [on his own basis] that one may only light with a blessing up until a half hour before Alos, as the candle is required to light for a half hour. However, from the Setimas Haposkim ibid it implies that this is not necessary. See Kaf Hachaim 672:15 that not all Poskim agree that the candles must light for a half hour when lit after the time, and perhaps Bedieved, all Poskim agree this is not necessary.

[324] Toras Menachem 15:314; See Igros Kodesh 24:280; Sefer Haminhagim p. 70 footnote 10

[325] M”A 672:5; Rashal 85; Bach 672; Kneses Hagedola 672; Olas Shabbos 672; Peri Chadash 672:1; Elya Raba 672:1; Beir Heiytiv 672:2; Chayeh Adam 154:20; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 7; Mishneh Berurah 672:10;  Kaf Hachaim 672:4

[326] See Shaar HaTziyon 672:14; Those who light after Tzeis, are to separate from Melacha from when Tzeis arrives. Those who light after sunset, are to separate from Melacha from when sunset arrives.

[327] The reason: One cannot say that today one may be completely lenient regarding Melacha and meals, even though the Rama holds there is no real need to light on time, being that we light inside. The reason for this is because according to all, the beginning time of lighting is either by Tzeis or sunset and goes throughout the night, and if one does not do so prior to eating or prior to performing Melacha, he may forget to do so all together. This is similar to the decree against eating or performing Melacha prior to Mincha or Maariv, or Bedikas Chameitz.

[328] Machatzis Hashekel 672:5; Derech Hachaim 1; Shaar HaTziyon 672:14; Kaf Hachaim 672:4

[329] Shaar Hatziyon ibid

The reason: As there is a dispute as to when the actual time of obligation begins, and one may thus be lenient at least in this regard.

[330] M”A 672:5; Rashal 85; Bach 672; Mishneh Berurah 672:10;  Kaf Hachaim 672:4 and other Poskim mentioned above

[331] The reason: Although by all Rabbinical Mitzvas one is not required to stop if he began doing the Melacha at a permitted time [See Admur 489:17], nevertheless, since the time of Chanukah candles is within a half hour from sunset/nightfall, therefore, one needs to stop when the time arrives. [Bach; Shaar Hatziyon 672:15] Vetzaruch Iyun regarding those who are accustomed to light inside the house, in which case the time for lighting extends throughout the night. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:7

[332] M”B 431:6 regarding Bedikas Chametz; See also regarding Megillah: M”A 692/7; Elya Raba 692/11; M”B 692/14; Kaf Hachaim 692/36; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:7

[333] Peri Megadim 431 Ashel Avraham 4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/8 based on P”M 431 A”A 4

[334] Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/8 based on M”A 232; M”B 232/35

[335] M”B 692/14 in name of Derech Hachaim 3; Kaf Hachaim 692/36

[336] M”B 431/6 regarding Bedikas Chametz; Regarding Megillah: Piskeiy Teshuvos 692/8 based on M”A 232; M”B 232/35

[337] Admur 275:4 regarding reading near a candle on Shabbos; 431:11 regarding Bedikas Chametz [permits learning]; 489:17 regarding Sefiras Haomer; Rama 232:2 regarding Shema; Taz 275:3; Tzemach Tzedek 47; Birkeiy Yosef 275:3; M”B 275:6; Nitei Gavriel 4:4

Ruling of Admur in 431 and other opinions: In 431:1 and Kuntrus Achron 431:2 Admur rules that a Shomer is only valid to allow one to learn Torah, being that it is a Mitzvah, and is invalid to allow one to eat or perform other mundane activity. This follows the opinion of the M”A 275:5 that a Shomer is invalid to allow one to perform mundane activity near candles on Shabbos. [see also Nachalas Tzevi Y.D. 262:1] However, the Taz ibid rules it is valid, and so rules Admur ibid. This thus creates a contradiction in the ruling of Admur between Shabbos and Pesach regarding whether mundane activity is allowed. Perhaps however one can suggest that regarding Pesach we are more stringent. Vetzaruch Iyun. [See Beis Shlomo 48; Otzer Halachos 24; Mishneh Shleima 30:3; Pamei Yaakov 4:14; Nitei Gavriel ibid]

[338] Bezel Hachochma 4:58; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:7

[339] See Hagahos Nachalas Tzevi Y.D. 262:1 regarding the father of the child who has appointed a Mohel

[340] Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:7

[341] Bezel Hachochma 4:60; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:7

[342] See Halacha 9B for the details of why he must return home and cannot light by his host.

[343] 672:1-2

[344] If one lit the candles by the proper time, he is to place, prior to lighting, enough oil to last a half hour after nightfall, which the time that people from the marketplace are still outside. [Michaber 672:1-2] This applies even today, when lighting inside the house. [M”A 672:3] If he is lighting after nightfall but within a half hour from nightfall, then he only needs to place enough oil to last until a half hour passes after nightfall. [Michaber 672:2] However, today, that we light inside and the main publication is to one’s household, one needs to place enough oil to last a half hour regardless of the time that he lights. [Peri Chadash; P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, must place enough oil to last until the people at home go to sleep. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4] The Rambam [4:5] writes one is to place enough oil to last a half hour or more.

Shaos Zmaniyos: Some write that the half hour time period refers to fluctuating hours of Shaaos Zmaniyos. [Chidushei Maharitza p. 4b, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 672 footnote 23]

[345] Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; The custom dates to the Rebbe Rashab, and most likely he received it Rebbe from Rebbe of previous generations. [Igros Kodesh 10:153; Shulchan Menachem 3:266]

[346] Igros Kodesh 10:153; Shulchan Menachem 3:266; Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:220

[347] Peri Chadash; P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15

How long must the candles remain lit for when lit within a half hour after nightfall: From the letter of the law, it must only remain until a half hour after nightfall, even if the candle itself will not be lit for a half hour, due to it being lit sometime after nightfall. [M”A 672:2-3; M”B 671:5 in name of Peri Chadash] Nevertheless, this only applied in the times of the Gemara. However, today, since we light inside and the publication of the lighting is mainly directed towards ones family and not towards the public, therefore, the candle is always to be lit for a half hour, irrelevant of when it was lit. [Peri Chadash; P”M 672 A”A 2; M”B 671:5; Kaf Hachaim 672:15]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that today, when lighting after the proper time, it is not necessary for the candles to last a half hour, or until a half hour passes from nightfall. [Poskim brought in M”A 672:2; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[348] M”A 672:3; M”B 672:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is a Hiddur Mitzvah in having the candles light longer than their minimum required time of a half hour. [Elya Raba 672:6, brought in Kaf Hachaim 672:18] Other Poskim write it is a Hiddur to place a lot of oil, as through doing so the flame is of greater quality. [Maharam Shick on Taryag Mitzvos Mitzvah 98] Others write that it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to place enough oil to last throughout the night. [Sheilas Yaavetz 4] Other Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, must place enough oil to last until the people at home go to sleep. [See Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4] The Rambam [4:5] writes one is to place enough oil to last a half hour or more. Other Poskim rule that those who light outside their home are to place enough oil to last until people are no longer found outside, which is approximately 9:00, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until that time. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5] Practically, this novelty is not recorded in the classical Poskim.

[349] Michaber 675:2; Kitzur SHU”A 139:13

[350] Rosh; There are no Poskim who argue on this ruling [Kaf Hachaim 675:14]

[351] M”A 672:3; Chayeh Adam 154:21; M”B 672:6

[352] The reason: As long candles look more beautiful, as opposed to one who adds more oil, in which case there is no greater beauty added. [M”A ibid]

[353] M”B ibid

[354] Michaber 673:2; Shabbos 23b

[355] The reason: This is because it’s the act of lighting the candle which does the Mitzvah and not it being lit for half hour. [Michaber ibid; Shabbos 23b]

[356] Taz 673:8; Levush 673:1; M”B 673:25; Kaf Hachaim 673:52

If the candles were lit before sunset/nightfall: See next case regarding Erev Shabbos, that whenever the candles are lit before night, Some Poskim rule it must be relit, and hence it is only agreed to by all that one fulfills his obligation if the candles were lit at night.

[357] Michaber ibid; Ran in name of Rashba

[358] See Michaber 680:1

[359] Rama 673:2; Rashba 539 and Ran

[360] M”B 673:27; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 673:56, 58

[361] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

[362] Michaber 672:1; M”B 679:2

[363] Michaber 673:2; Terumos Hadeshen

[364] Taz 673:9; Rashal; P”M 673 A”A 9; M”B 672:26; Kaf Hachaim 673:57

[365] M”B 672:27; 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 673:57; See Admur 263:25

[366] Michaber 672:2; Rif and Rosh; Rashal 85

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to extinguish the candle even after the time has passed, being that all the oil was placed for the sake of the Mitzvah, and that so is the custom. [Bach and Tzeida Laderech, brought in M”A 672:4; 677:10; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 672:9; Kaf Hachaim 672:21] Furthermore, some Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, must place enough oil to last until the people at home go to sleep, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until the time people go to sleep and the candles thus no longer serves as a publication. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4-5 footnote 24; see there footnote 16 and 23 for Melaktim who bring a similar opinion] Other Poskim rule that those who light outside their home are to place enough oil to last until people are no longer found outside, which is approximately 9:00, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until that time. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5] Practically, this novelty is not recorded in the classical Poskim.

[367] The reason: As one only designates the amount of oil necessary to fulfill the Mitzvah, and hence the excess oil is not considered Holy. The candle may thus be extinguished and then relit for one’s personal use. [Beis Yosef 677; M”B 672:7]

[368] Mahariy brought in Beis Yosef 677; M”A 677:10; Elya Raba 672:2; Chayeh Adam; M”B 672:7; Kaf Hachaim 672:21

The reason: Some Poskim conclude that it is initially proper to stipulate that one does not have intent to designate the oil for more than the necessary amount of time, as there are Poskim [Mahariy brought in Beis Yosef] who rule that if did not make this stipulation, then the entire oil is designated for the Mitzvah and may hence not be extinguished. [Poskim ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary at all to make any stipulation when placing the oil, and it may be extinguished after a half hour in all cases. [Taz 672:1; first answer in Beis Yosef 677] The Elya Raba ibid negates this opinion of the Taz.

[369] See Admur 638:7 regarding stipulating on Noiy Sukkah for the entire duration of Sukkos

[370] Yosef Ometz 1076; Kinyan Torah 2:102; Shraga Hameir 3:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5

[371] M”B 673:25; Kaf Hachaim 673:55

[372] M”A 673:12; Taz end of 673; Elya Raba 673:14; Kneses Hagedola 673; Chayeh Adam 154:22; Ateres Zekeinim 680; Kaf Hachaim 673:54; M”B 673:25

[373] M”A 673:12; Taz end of 673; Elya Raba 673:14; Kneses Hagedola 673; Chayeh Adam 154:22; Kaf Hachaim 673:54; M”B 673:25

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the candles are to be relit with a blessing. [Peri Chadash 672:2]

The reason a blessing is not recited: As we hold that the initial lighting does the Mitzvah, and it is not for certain that the wind will extinguish the candle at the time of the lighting. [Shaar Hatziyon 673:30 in name of Peri Megadim; See Taz ibid; Kneses Hagedola ibid]

[374] P”M 673 A”A 12; Kaf Hachaim 673:55

[375] Michaber 675:2 in name of Rosh “Yeish Mi Sheomer”; Kitzur SHU”A 139:13

[376] Chemdas Moshe 675:3; P”M 675 M”Z 3; Chayeh Adam 154:21; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 8; M”B 675:8; Maharam Shik 332; Kaf Hachaim 675:16

[377] Peri Chadash 675, brought in Kaf Hachaim 675:16

[378] Kaf Hachaim 676:11 in name of Ruach Chaim 676:1; Kerem Shlomo 676

[379] See Kinyan Torah 2:102

[380] P”M 672 A”A 6; Biur Halacha 672:2 “Kazeh Hashiur”; Kaf Hachaim 672:17

[381] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[382] See regarding the night of Yom Kippur that people would stay up to guard the candles in Shul, while others would hire a gentile to do so: Admur 610:7 [hiring gentile]; 619:18 [Staying up in Shul to gaurd]; M”A 610:4; Maharil p. 322

[383] See Michaber 672:2; Chapter 3 Halacha 7!

[384] See M”A 675:2; Chapter 3 Halacha 13!

[385] Michaber 671:5; Shabbos 21b

[386] The reason: This is done in order to publicize the miracle. [Rashi Shabbos ibid; M”B 671:21]

[387] Michaber ibid; Tosafus Shabbos ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:4 in name of Brisker Rav that this applies even today

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to light the candles by the door which opens to the courtyard. [Rashi Shabbos ibid; Ran and Or Zarua, brought in Biur Halacha 671:5 “Pesach”; Kaf Hachaim 671:38] Other Poskim rule that even according to the opinion of the Michaber and Tosafus, it only applied in previous times when courtyards served as part of the home, however, today that it is only used as an entryway, one is to light by the door leading to the courtyard. Alternatively, one is to light in by the window which faces the public, or by a balcony which faces the public. [Az Nidbaru 5:39 in name of Chazon Ish; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:4]

[388] M”B 671:22

[389] Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid

[390] The reason: He is not to light by the door downstairs, in the entrance of the building, as it is not recognizable that he lit these candles. [Beis Yosef brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:39]

[391] Az Nidbaru 5:39 in name of Chazon Ish; Chovos Hadar Chanukah 1 footnote 14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:4

[392] Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid

[393] Rama 671:7; Tosafus Shabbos 21b; Kol Bo Chanukah p. 4; Ittur Hilchos Chanukah 10 Dibros; Or Zarua Chanukah 323; Ohel Moed Shaar Moed Katan; Birkeiy Yosef 673:2; Aruch Hashulchan 671:24; Michaber 671:5 “In times of danger light inside the house and leave it on the table, and this suffices.”; Likkutei Sichos 5:456; Sefer Haminhagim p. 70; See Shulchan Menachem 3:267-269; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:3; Yalkut Yosef Chanukah 671:22-23; See also Admur Kuntrus Achron 277:2 and 277:3 from where it is evident that the Menorah was lit behind the door, inside the house

[394] Likkutei Sichos 5:456; Sefer Haminhagim p. 70; See Shulchan Menachem 3:267-269; Igros Kodesh 11:414

[395] Az Nidbaru 10:26; See Sheilas Yaavetz 1:149 that one should light outside; Poskim in next footnote to question this matter but do not conclude to change the custom

[396] See Igros Moshe 4:125 that the custom is to light by the window, towards the public

[397] Ittur Hilchos Chanukah 10 Dibros “After it became accustomed due to danger, so is the custom”; Or Zarua Chanukah 323 “Today that there is no danger I do not know why we light inside” [proving that even after the danger, the custom was still to light inside]; Ohel Moed Shaar Moed Katan “Today we light inside by the doorpost even though there is no longer any danger”

[398] Aruch Hashulchan 671:24 “Today the custom is to light inside even though there is no danger”; Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65 [mentioned in Taamei Haminhagim 850 and Nimukei Orach Chaim ibid]; Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 671 [There he delves into this question and concludes that he does not understand why today we do not light outside even though no danger is involved, but so is the custom. He brings that his grandfather the Baal Bnei Yisaschar did not light outside despite having had a glass casing to protect the Menorah from the outside wind. He only planned to use this glass casing for the outside when Moshiach would come.]; Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Likkutei Maharich p. 106; Mikraeiy Kodesh 16; Minchas Yitzchak 6:66; Shevet Halevi 7:84; Divrei Yehoshua 1:40; Yaskil Avdi 7:46; Moadim Uzmanim 2:140; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:3

[399] The reason why today even not in times of danger we light inside: As we are afraid the wind will extinguish the candles, and the Sages did not obligate one to place the candles in a glass casing. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid; Minchas Yitzchak ibid; See Ritva Shabbos 21b] Alternatively, it is due to worry of the Menorah getting stolen. [Darkei Moshe 671:9 in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham; Imrei Noam 2:22] Alternatively, the reason is because today, during Galus, we do not have much ability to affect the outside world, and thus it is enough if we affect the inside, in our own home. [Bnei Yissachar Mamar 2:46 and 3:39 in name of Olellus Efraim, brought in Taamei Haminhagim 850; See also Mamar Osri Lagefen Torah Or p. 92 that during Galus we refine ourselves, and only in Yemos Hamashiach will we begin refining the world; See also Likkutei Sichos 3:67 in explanation of why we rule that if one is unable to afford both candles for Shabbos and Chanukah, then the Shabbos candles take precedence. The Rebbe there explains that this is because if one is unable to invest energy, and influence the spreading of peace into both his own home and also the outside world, then his own home takes precedence.]

[400] Aruch Hashulchan 671:24; Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65; Nimukeiy Orach Chaim 671; Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Likkutei Maharich p. 106; Mikraeiy Kodesh 16; Minchas Yitzchak 6:66; Divrei Yehoshua 1:40; Yaskil Avdi 7:46; Moadim Uzmanim 2:140; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:3

[401] Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65 in name of Rav Pinchas of Koretz; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:3

[402] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:5

[403] See Chovos Hador 1 footnote 16; Moadim Uzmanim 2:143; 6:67; M”B 671:23 and Beis Yosef 671 that if one who lives upstairs has a door that opens to the courtyard, he is to light by that door; So was the custom of the Brisker Rav and Rav Kahanamen

[404] The reason: As the people in the building will see the candles, and it is hence considered Pirsumei Nissa.

[405] Az Nidbaru 5:39 based on Chazon Ish; Shevet Halevi 7:84; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[406] The reason: As one must publicize the miracle to the outside and not to the joint owners of the building. [ibid] Likewise, it is not recognizable who lit the candles.

[407] Moadim Uzmanim 6:67

[408] Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:153

[409] Noheig Katzon Yosef p. 183; Lehoros Nassan 4:63; Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:6

[410] 671:7; Shabbos 22a

[411] Michaber ibid

[412] The reason: As if one distances the Menorah more than one Tefach from the door, it is not apparent that the homeowner lit it. [Rashi Shabbos ibid; Levush; M”B 671:31]

[413] Siddur Admur [Siddur Raskin p. 599]; Mateh Moshe 979 in name of Rashal brought in M”A 671:4; See Shaar Hakolel 46:1

The reason: This is similar to the Mezuzah, which is placed on the actual doorpost. [See M”A ibid]

Custom of Arizal: The Arizal was not careful to place the Menorah by the actual doorway, between the doorposts. [Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Chanukah 4]

[414] See Admur Kuntrus Achron 277:2 from where it is evident that so is the initial area for placing the Menorah, not directly between the doorposts, but on its side

[415] Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid

[416] The reason: This is done in order to have the Mezuzah on the right side and the Chanukah candles on the left side [Michaber ibid] in order so one be surrounded by Mitzvos. [Levush; M”B 671:33; Kaf Hachaim 671:58]

Heker Tzir: Those doors which have a Mezuzah placed in accordance to Heker Tzir [which is the Chabad custom for the doors of all the inner rooms of the house] the candles are to be placed opposite the Mezuzah, and this is considered the left side.

[417] Taz 671:6; Elya Raba 671:14; M”B 671:36; Kaf Hachaim 671:62; Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]

Other opinions: The Michaber 671:7 writes to place it within more than half way towards the left doorpost. The M”A 671:8 explains this to mean that one is to place it anywhere within the half closest to the left door post [if the door area were to be split in half], and it does not have to be actually by the edge of the left side. However, the Taz ibid holds that it needs to be placed at the actual edge, and so rules the M”B ibid.

[418] Michaber ibid

[419] Peri Chadash; M”B 671:33; Kaf Hachaim 671:57

[420] Michaber ibid; Avi Haezriy in Tur; Sefer Hamamarim 1883 Neir Chanukah; Shaareiy Moadim p. 250

The reason: As by all Mitzvahs one precedes the right side to the left. ]Maharil 40; M”B 671:34; Kaf Hachaim 671:59] Furthermore, placing it on the right side brings greater publication of the miracle, being everyone turns to the right. [Bach; M”B 671:34; Kaf Hachaim 671:59]

[421] Sefer Hamamarim 5643 Neir Chanukah

[422] Rama 671:7; Ohel Moed Shaar Moed Katan; Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65; Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Likkutei Maharich p. 106; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; The Rama ibid writes as follows “Today since we all light inside the house and there is no publication of the Mitzvah to the public, it is not of so much importance to light within a Tefach near the doorpost [of an inner room of the house]. Nevertheless, the custom is to light within a Tefach of the doorpost just as was done in previous times [when the Menorah was lit outside the house]. One is not to swerve from this custom.”

[423] Rama ibid

The reason: In order that one enter through a doorway and pass in between two Mitzvos. [Darkei Moshe; M”A 671:8; M”B 671:37; Kaf Hachaim 671:63]

[424] Michaber 671:5 based on Shabbos ibid [He writes that when lighting in an upper story home one is to light by a window. Likewise, he rules that in times of danger one places the Menorah on his table and this suffices. The Michaber does not mention in either occasion that one is to light the Menorah by the doorpost.]; Magen Avraham 671:8; Chayeh Adam 164:16; M”B 671:38; Kaf Hachaim 671:39 and 64; Igros Moshe 4:125 that the custom is to light by the window, towards the public

If the window is above ten Tefach from floor of house: When lighting by a window, it may be placed there even if the window is above 10 Tefach from the floor of the house. [Magen Avraham 671:6] See Halacha 10B! Nevertheless, it is not necessary for the Menorah to be above three Tefach from the window sill. [Aruch Hashulchan 671:22] Although, it is preferably to be higher than three Tefachim from the floor of the home. [M”B 671:27]

If the window is not clear glass: Those accustomed to light by the window, are to do so even if window is closed and is not made of clear glass, as the passersby nevertheless see candles lit, which publicizes the miracle, even though the number of candles are blurred. [Rav Elyashiv, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 14]

[425] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa overrides the advantage of walking in between the two Mitzvos. [Levush; Kaf Hachaim 671:64]

[426] Peri Chadash; Chayeh Adam 154:16; Machatzis Hashekel 671:6; Pischeiy Teshuvah; Shaar Hatziyon 671:42; Kaf Hachaim 671:39; 48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:8; See Likkutei Sichos 5:456

The reason: As when lighting towards the outside, its purpose is for the public to see the Menorah, and if it is above 20 Amos from the ground, they cannot see the Menorah. [Kaf Hachaim 671:48]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even in such a case, one is to light by the window, as there is some publication to the public. [P”M 672 M”Z 5]

If there are other buildings of the same height opposite one’s window: If there are other tall building opposite one’s window which is above 20 Amos from the ground, some Poskim rule that one may light by his window, rather than inside, as it is within eyes view of the inhabitants of the other building, and hence performs Pirsumei Nissa. [Shevet Halevi 4:65] Other Poskim, however, rule that this does not suffice, as the publication must be to people walking by, and hence one should light the candles inside the home. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:343; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:8 footnote 32 in name of Rav Elyashiv]

[427] Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]; Sefer Hasichos 5706 p. 21; Igros Kodesh [Rayatz] 4:181; Likkutei Sichos 5:456

The reason: The Rebbe argued that lighting the candles by the window is disadvantageous for several reasons: 1) Often the house is 20 Amos above ground level. 2) It prevents the publication of the miracle to the family, as many menorahs are made in a way that the back panel only allows the candles to be seen from one side, and it is better to publicize the miracle to one’s family than to the public. [Likkutei Sichos ibid]

[428] Rama 671:2 and 671:7

[429] The reason: This is done in order for the number of candles corresponding to that night remain recognizable. [Rama ibid] However, when each Menorah is not individually recognizable, people can mistake the number of candles which correspond to that night, do to seeing the candles of two different people joined together.

[430] Rama 671:7

[431] M”A 671:2; P”M 671 A”A 2; Biur Halacha 671:2 “Kdei”

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that on the first night it is not necessary for the household members to light in individual areas. [Elya Raba 671:3, brought in Biur Halacha ibid]

[432] Toras Menachem 5748 2:64[brought in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:280; Shulchan Menachem 3:269]

[433] Az Nidbaru 10:25; Kinyan Torah 2:119; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:10

[434] Bnei Yissachar Mamar 4:65 in name of Rav Pinchas of Koretz; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:3

[435] Minchas Yitzchak 7:45, as explained in Halacha 9 that we follow the area of eating; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 14

[436] Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[437] 677:1

[438] M”A 677:7; Taz 677:2; Kneses Hagedola 677; Bach 677; Elya Raba 677:3; M”B 677:12; Kaf Hachaim 677:21

What is the definition of a steady basis? See Chovas Hador 2 footnote 3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677 footnote 21

[439] M”A 677:6 and Taz 677:2 that even according to the Michaber and Rosh, they only said to light in the sleeping area in those times.

[440] Michaber 677:1; Tur in name of Rosh

[441] Rashba 542, brought in Rama 677:1

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule that even today one is to light in the area that he sleeps. [Rashal, brought in Taz 677:2]

[442] The reason: The entire reason for choosing the area of sleeping over the area of eating is due to Chashad, that people will say that the people did not fulfill the Mitzvah. However, today that people light inside their homes, and there is no longer worry of Chashad, one should light in the eating area, being that it is the main area obligated in the Mitzvah. [See M”B 677:11-12]

[443] Rama ibid

[444] Implication of M”A 677:7; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677 footnote 22

[445] Michaber 677:1

[446] See Taz 677:2

[447] Minchas Yitzchak 7:45, as explained in Halacha 8C in Q&A; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 14

[448] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:6

[449] Rama ibid that we follow the area of eating; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:343 in name of Chazon Ish

[450] Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Igros Moshe O”H 4:70-3; Yoreh Deah 3:14-5; Shevet Halevi 3:83; Az Nidbaru 5:38; Lehoros Nassan 6:44; Moadim Uzmanim 6:87; Chovas Hador 1 footnote 59

[451] The reason: As a) the students spend more time in the private rooms, than in the dining room, and that is their main residents. B) There is greater Pirsumei Nissa, as they will remain in their rooms, and see the candles. C) Lighting in the dining room will cause confusion of whose candles is whose, and the Pirsumei Nissa will hence be affected. [Poskim ibid] For all these reasons, it is not similar to the case the Rama ibid spoke of, in which he ruled one should light in the area of eating.

[452] See Shevet Halevi ibid; Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Chovas Hador ibid; Az Nidbaru 7:69; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[453] Shevet Halevi ibid; Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Chovas Hador ibid; Az Nidbaru ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[454] Az Nidbaru ibid; Moadim Uzmanim ibid

[455] Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[456] Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:7

[457] M”A 677:7; Taz 677:2; Kneses Hagedola 677; Bach 677; Elya Raba 677:3; M”B 677:12; Kaf Hachaim 677:21; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4

[458] See Halacha 6 that it is forbidden to eat or continue a meal, do work, or even learn Torah, until the candles are lit.

[459] The reason: As although today there is no Chashad towards the public if he lights by his friend’s house, as they assume one lights inside his house, there is Chashad towards his family, who does not see him lighting at home. [Bach ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid] Alternatively, the reason is because the entire Mitzvah of lighting is to take place in one’s home, thus creating the entire law of a guest explained in Halacha 3, and being that one does not eat here on a steady basis, it is not considered his home, and he thus may not light there. Lighting by the meal would be similar to one who is lighting the candles in middle of the street, which of course has no relevance to the Mitzvah. [Taz ibid]

[460] Implication of Peri Chadash 677; Kaf Hachaim 677:15; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677 footnote 21 and 24

[461] Taz ibid

[462] See Halacha 6 in Q&A

[463] Poskim ibid

[464] The reason: As Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mibeshlucho. [M”A ibid]

[465] Implication of Bach ibid and so learns Kinyan Torah 5:72 in Taz and M”A ibid; See Peri Chadash 677; Biur Halacha 677:1 “Bemikom Sheochel”; Kaf Hachaim 677:17; See Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4 footnote 25 and 29-30; Az Nidvaru 7:69

[466] The reason: As the entire objection of the Bach ibid against lighting by his temporary meal area is simply due to Chashad of one’s family, who has remained home. However, here, that one’s family is with him and sees that he lit the candles, there is no Chashad is applicable. Accordingly, there is no obligation for one to light candles in his actual home, but simply that he light candles somewhere where Chashad is not relevant. Alternatively, one can say that when one eats in a new area, then that area becomes his temporary home, and he is able to light candles there. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[467] Possible way of learning Taz 677:2 and M”A 677:7 [Taz ibid implies that the entire Mitzvah of lighting is to light in one’s home, and being that one does not eat here on a steady basis, it is not considered his home, and he thus may not light there. In his words “Lighting by the meal would be similar to one who is lighting the candles in middle of the street, which of course has no relevance to the Mitzvah.”]; Possible implication of Peri Chadash 677; Biur Halacha 677:1 “Bemikom Sheochel”; Kaf Hachaim 677:17 that only when one is eating and sleeping elsewhere with his family may one light elsewhere; See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid who leans to rule like this understanding, although, in truth, it is possible to understand the Taz to only be referring to a case that one left his family at home, in which case Chazal established the lighting to be done at home. If, however, he is with his family elsewhere, then he may light where they are. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[468] Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[469] Minchas Yitzchak ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[470] See Halacha 6 in Q&A

[471] The reason: As the entire objection of the Bach ibid against lighting by his temporary meal area is simply due to Chashad of one’s family, who has remained home. However, here, that one has no family at home, there is no Chashad is applicable. Accordingly, there is no obligation for one to light candles in his actual home, but simply that he light candles somewhere where Chashad is not relevant. However, according to the Taz ibid, there is an actual obligation to light in one’s home, and an area of temporary meal is not one’s home.

[472] See Az Nidbaru 7:69; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677/4-2

[473] So rule regarding if one’s family will be eating and sleeping for all eight days of Chanukah in another home, such as to the home of his father or father in-law: Peri Chadash 677; Biur Halacha 677:1 “Bemikom Sheochel”; Kaf Hachaim 677:17; The same applies even if he will only be eating and sleeping elsewhere for one night: Taz 677:2; Chovas Hador 1:12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677/4-3

[474] The reason: If his family is with him by the

[475] Taz 677:2 that even if he is staying away for one night, this is the law of Achsanaiy; Chovas Hador 1:12; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677/4-3

[476] Rama 677:1 and Taz 677:2 that we follow the eating area versus the sleeping area; M”B 677:11

The reason: As there are more people found in the area of eating and it hence contains greater Pirsumei Nissa.

[477] Ateres Zekeinim 677:1

[478] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4

[479] As explained in the summary and the first Q&A above based on Taz 677:2; M”A 677:7; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Heard from Rav Asher Lemel Cohen

[480] Kinyan Torah 5:72

[481] Kinyan Torah 5:72 based on Bach ibid, as explained in the first Q&A. See there

[482] Shevet Halevi 8:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677 footnote 18 and footnote 35 in name of Rav SZ”A

[483] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4

[484] See Shevet Halevi 8:158

[485] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 33 as one is required to perform the Pirsumei Nissa until a half hour after nightfall, and if no one remains at home, one is unable to perform the Mitzvah properly.

[486] As one who happens to be eating out on one of the nights of Chanukah, must return home to his family to light, and cannot light where he is eating [M”A 677:7; Taz 677:2; Kneses Hagedola 677; Bach 677; Elya Raba 677:3; M”B 677:12; Kaf Hachaim 677:21; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:]  and perhaps this applies even if he comes with his entire family, as explained in the previous Q&A.

[487] Otherwise, whatever adult family member who can remain is to do so and light there even if the husband/father must leave the home before Plag.

[488] In a time of need one may rely on the implication of the Bach that when one is with his family, he may light in the area that he eats. To note that even the Taz ibid, from whom we implied that one may not light where he eats, he does not mention that doping so is a blessing in vain. [See Bach 677; Taz 677:2 and M”A 677:7; Peri Chadash 677; Biur Halacha 677:1 “Bemikom Sheochel”; Kaf Hachaim 677:17; Kinyan Torah 5:72; Minchas Yitzchak 7:48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4 footnote 25 and 29-30; Az Nidvaru 7:69]

[489] Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:4

[490] Chovas Hadar 2 footnote 65

[491] Koveitz Darcheiy Horah; See Shevet Halevi 8:158; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 35 in name of Rav SZ”A

[492] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:5; Beis Chasanim 15:4

[493] This follows a) The opinion of the Maharsham [See Halacha 2-3] who rules that when one buys a ticket for the train it is as if he has rented that area, and certainly the same applies to a hall, that it is considered as if the Chasan has rented that area, and it is thus like his home. b) The approach in Poskim that one may light wherever he is if his family is with him, as explained in the 1st Q&A above!

[494] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:5

[495] The reason: This follows the same reasoning as the previous Q&A, as the parents of the Chasan and Kallah are the one’s who in truth rent the hall.

[496] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:5

[497] Michaber 680:1 regarding Shabbos; Peri Chadash 680; M”B 680:1; Shulchan Gavoa 680:1; Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Kaf Hachaim 680:1

[498] M”A 673:12; Taz end of 673; Elya Raba 673:14; Kneses Hagedola 673; Chayeh Adam 154:22; Ateres Zekeinim 680; Kaf Hachaim 673:54; M”B 673:25

[499] M”A 673:12; Taz end of 673; Elya Raba 673:14; Kneses Hagedola 673; Chayeh Adam 154:22; Kaf Hachaim 673:54; M”B 673:25

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the candles are to be relit with a blessing. [Peri Chadash 672:2]

The reason a blessing is not recited: As we hold that the initial lighting does the Mitzvah, and it is not for certain that the wind will extinguish the candle at the time of the lighting. [Shaar Hatziyon 673:30 in name of Peri Megadim; See Taz ibid; Kneses Hagedola ibid]

[500] Shaareiy Teshuvah 673:13; Kaf Hachaim 673:68; Shearim Hametzuyanim Behalacha 129:7

[501] Sheilas Yaavetz 149 writes that one should do so. See Shut Leiv Chaim 3:147 [Rav Chaim Falagi] with regards to why one is not required to actually see the candles without the medium of a glass.

[502] Birkeiy Yosef 673:8 writes that this is not the custom. The Nimukeiy Orach Chaim asks why in truth this is not required from the letter of the law, being that without a casing the wind is liable to blow out the candles, and one must light the candles in a way that they could now last for a half an hour. Nevertheless, he concludes that if it were required then all the Poskim would not have omitted this detail. See there!

[503] Michaber 675:8; Shabbos 23a

[504] M”B 671:50; Kol Bo; Rama ibid in end of this Halacha

One who has two windows facing two different directions: Practically, he is not required to light in the two windows. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:17

[505] See Kaf Hachaim 671:85 regarding if one opening is by the east and one by the south.

[506] The reason: This is due to Chashad [Michaber ibid], that people who pass by one entrance and do not see the Menorah will think that he does not care to fulfill the Mitzvah. [M”A 671:12; M”B 671:51]

[507] Rama 671:8; Ran; See Kaf Hachaim 671:90 that if one household member lit with a blessing by one direction then the owner of the house may light in the other direction with a blessing.

[508] Michaber ibid; Gemara ibid

The reason: We do not suspect that people will think the other entrance is owned by another Jew and he did not light his candles, as the people in the area most probably know the residents of each house, and it is not common for strangers to walk outside at such late hours. [M”A 671:12; M”A 671:52]

[509] Rama ibid limits the above case that both openings belong “to a single home”; Kol Bo

[510] Darkei Moshe 671; Kol Bo, brought in M”A 671:13; Gr”a; M”B 671:53; Kaf Hachaim 671:89

[511] M”A 671:13, brought in M”B ibid

[512] Rama 671:8

[513] Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]

[514] See Rama 671:7

[515] Opinion in M”A 676:4; Mateh Moshe, brought in M”A ibid and Admur in Siddur, as understood from Shaar Hakolel 46:1 and Nitei Gavriel 28:3 p. 178 and Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6; See Kaf Hachaim 676:32

Background:

The M”A ibid mentions the opinion of the Rashal 85 and Bach 676 versus the opinion of the Mateh Moshe in name of Rashal; It is unclear to me from the description as to which position each opinion holds of. [See Machatzis Hashekel ibid who implies that according to the Rashal and Bach it is placed in this position, while according to the Mateh Moshe in name of Rashal it is placed horizontal, as brought in the next position. However, see Levushei Serud ibid who implies the opposite, and so is implied from Shaar Hakolel ibid who learns in Admur in the Siddur, who rules like the Mateh Moshe, that it is placed vertical. The Nitei Gavriel ibid likewise understands the ruling of the M”A 676:4 in name of the Mateh Moshe, and the ruling of Admur in Siddur, that the Menorah is to be positioned vertically, with its length placed to the width of the doorway hence having the ends of the Menorah protruding out of the doorway, and so also learns Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6.

[516] Opinion in M”A 676:4; Understanding of Machatzis Hashekel in the Mateh Moshe in the M”A ibid [see previous footnote]; Chayeh Adam 154:43; M”B 676:9

[517] 671:6; Tur in name of Maharam Rothenberg

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the Menorah is to be between 10-18 Tefachim from the ground. [Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:8 in name of Seder Hayom]

[518] So is according to Shiureiy Torah of Grach Na’ah; According to Chazon Ish, the measurement is between 28.8-96 cm; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:7 that one may be lenient like whatever opinion he chooses regarding Rabbinical matters, such as Chanukah

[519] Michaber ibid “It is placed higher than three Tefach from the ground, and is a Mitzvah to be placed lower than ten Tefach from the ground.”

One who is lighting on stairs: Stairs that are used for walking, are to have their 3-10 Tefach measured from the floor. [See Aruch Hashulchan 671:22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:9]

[520] The reason for higher than three: As if the candles are placed lower than three Tefachim, it appears as if it was placed on the ground, and is not recognizable that the person lit it there. [Bach brought in M”B 671:26; Levush; Peri Chadash 671; Beis Yosef; Kaf Hachaim 671:45]

[521] The reason for lower than ten: As there is greater publication of the miracle when the Menorah is placed lower than ten Tefachim, as a candle that is lit for its light is not lit so low. [Bach brought in M”B 671:27; Levush; Kaf Hachaim 671:47] For the reason according to Kaballah-See Peri Eitz Chaim 19:4; Kaf Hachaim 671:46

[522] Tur; Beis Yosef “So is custom of all the meticulous”; M”B 671:27; Kaf Hachaim 671:48

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that those who light inside the house, may position the Menorah higher than ten Tefachim. [Elya Raba in name of Mordechai that so is custom, brought in Machatzis Hashekel 671:6 and M”B ibid] Practically, one is not to rely on this ruling, as it opposes the ruling of the Shulchan Aruch and Arizal. [Kaf Hachaim 671:48]

[523] Peri Chadash 671; P”M 671 A”A 6; M”B 671:26; Kaf Hachaim 671:50

[524] Peri Chadash 671:6; P”M A”A 671:6; Misgeres Hashulchan on Kitzur SHU”A 139:7; M”B 671:26; Kaf Hachaim 671:50

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is invalid even Bedieved. [Kitzur SHU”A 139:13; See Nitei Gavriel 16 footnote 11]

[525] Tur Barekes brought in Shaarei Teshuvah 671:8; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 5 based on Arizal; Shomer Emunim 5; Machazik Bracha 671:3 brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:46

[526] Shomer Emunim 65

[527] Kaf Hachaim 671:46 that based on Arizal there is no purpose of placing it higher than seven Tefachim, and so long as it is between 3-10 Tefachim it is initially valid.

[528] Sefer Haminhagim p. [English] “It is not necessarily higher than seven tefachim [seven handbreadths, viz., 56cm.] nor necessarily approximating a height of three tefachim [viz., 24cm.].”

[529] P”M 671 A”A 6

[530] M”A 671:6; Elya Raba; Chayeh Adam 154:16; M”B 671:27; Kaf Hachaim 671:48

Other Poskim: Some Poskim question that perhaps it is better to place the Menorah by the door, lower than ten Tefachim, then by a window of ten Tefachim. [P”M, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 671:30

[531] Machatzis Hashekel ibid; M”B 671:27

[532] Aruch Hashulchan 671:22

[533] M”B 671:27

[534] P”M 675 A”A 2; M”B 671:27; Mor Uketzia 675; Kaf Hachaim 671:49

[535] 671:7; Shabbos 22a

[536] So is according to Shiureiy Torah of Grach Na’ah; According to Chazon Ish, the measurement is 11.52 meters, or 37.8 feet; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:7 that one may be lenient like whatever opinion he chooses regarding Rabbinical matters, such as Chanukah

[537] The reason: As the eye does not focus on a height above 20 Amos from the ground, and it thus lacks the publication of the miracle. [Rashi Shabbos ibid; M”B 671:28; Kaf Hachaim 671:51]

[538] Tur; Bach; Taz 671:5; Peri Chadash 671; Elya Raba 671:12; P”M 671 M”Z 5; M”B 671:28; Kaf Hachaim 671:51

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one is lighting inside his house, it is permitted for the candles to be over 20 Amos above the floor. [Rabbeinu Yoel Halevi brought in Tur]

[539] Rama ibid

The reason: As it is the lighting that performs the Mitzvah. [ibid]

[540] See Q&A!

The reason: As when lighting towards the outside, its purpose is for the public to see the Menorah, and if it is above 20 Amos from the ground, they cannot see the Menorah. [Kaf Hachaim 671:48]

[541] Machatzis Hashekel 671:6; Kaf Hachaim 671:48

[542] Aruch Hashulchan 671:22; Kaf Hachaim 671:52 based on P”M 671 M”Z 5; Shaar Hatziyon 671:33; Divrei Yatziv 2:284; Minchas Yitzchak 6:65; Az Nidbaru 5:37; Lehoros Nassan 4:63; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:343; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:9

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that so long as the bottom part of the Menorah is within 10 Tefachim, it is valid, even if the upper part of the Menorah reaches above ten Tefachim. [Leket Yosher in name of Terumos Hadeshen, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 36] There were Chassidic masters who would have Menorah’s that reach above ten Tefach from the ground. [See Nitei Gavriel Chanukah 5 footnote 24]

[543] Lehoros Nassan 4:63; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:9

[544] Kinyan Torah 1:131

[545] Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:9

[546] Aruch Hashulchan 671:22

[547] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:9

Explanations: The main reason for why we require the menorah to be placed higher than three Tefachim from the ground is because otherwise it appears as if it was placed on the ground [See Michaber 671:6; Tur 671 Bach brought in M”B 671:26; Levush; Peri Chadash 671; Beis Yosef; Kaf Hachaim 671:45], and since people don’t generally light candles on the ground and rather place it on an elevated surface, it will therefore appear that the candles were simply temporarily placed there and not truly lit for the sake of the mitzvah. Now, this only applies when the candles are lit on what is understood to be ground-level by most people, however a ledge or step which is elevated and is hence typical to place a candle there to give light, would not be viewed as a temporary location by the onlooker. Thus, narrow stairs which are not meant for any living activity but simply to walk past would be a valid elevated area for those sitting on the ground floor and see it.

[548] P”M 671 M”Z 5; Shaar Hatziyon 671:33; Kaf Hachaim 671:52

[549] Peri Chadash; M”B 671:29

[550] Kaf Hachaim 671:53; See P”M 671 A”A 7

[551] Peri Chadash; Chayeh Adam 154:16; Machatzis Hashekel 671:6; Pischeiy Teshuvah; Shaar Hatziyon 671:42; Kaf Hachaim 671:39; 48; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:8; See Likkutei Sichos 5:456

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that even in such a case, one is to light by the window, as there is some publication to the public. [P”M 672 M”Z 5]

If there are other buildings of the same height opposite one’s window: If there are other tall building opposite one’s window which is above 20 Amos from the ground, some Poskim rule that one may light by his window, rather than inside, as it is within eyes view of the inhabitants of the other building, and hence performs Pirsumei Nissa. [Shevet Halevi 4:65] Other Poskim, however, rule that this does not suffice, as the publication must be to people walking by, and hence one should light the candles inside the home. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:343; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:8 footnote 32 in name of Rav Elyashiv]

[552] Michaber 675:1; Shabbos 22b

[553] M”B 675:5

[554] M”A 675:2; Darkei Moshe 675:1; Rav Yaakov Viyaal; Elya Raba 675:2; M”B 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:10

[555] Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid

The reason: As one who sees the person moving it will say he lit it for his own needs [and not for the sake of the Mitzvah]. [Michaber ibid]

[556] Darkei Moshe in name of Harav Yaakov Viyaal; brought in M”B 675:6; See Halachos Ketanos 1:2 [brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 675:1 and Kaf Hachaim 675:11] that implies one is not Yotzei if he does so.

[557] Machatzis Hashekel 671:7; Poskim brought in M”B 675:6 and 671:30; See M”A 263:23 based on Rashal and Peri Chadash; Misgeres Hashulchan 139:8; Kaf Hachaim 671:54

[558] M”B 675:6 in name of Peri Megadim

[559] Machatzis Hashekel 671:7; M”B 671:30; Kaf Hachaim 671:54

Other opinions: See Halachos Ketanos 1:2 [brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 675:1 and Kaf Hachaim 675:11] who implies one is not Yotzei if he does so.

[560] Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]  “The menorah once had to be moved a tefach or two closer to the [Previous] Rebbe so that he would be able to light it, and they then replaced it into its original position after the blessing.” This implies there is no reason to be stringent if it will be placed within the same area.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one should not move the Menorah at all, even if it will be replaced to it area. [Lev Chaim 3:146]

[561] M”A 675:2; M”B 675:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may move the Shul’s Menorah from place to place even within the half hour. [Beis Yosef, brought in M”B ibid]

[562] M”A 675:2; Darkei Moshe 675:1; Rav Yaakov Viyaal; Elya Raba 675:2; M”B 675:6; Kaf Hachaim 675:10; M”B 675:6; Sefer Haminhagim p.160 [English]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to move the Menorah so long as the candles remain lit, even after 30 minutes have passed. This is due to Maaras Ayin. [Elya Raba 672:2; Derech Hachaim 4; Shaar Hatziyon 672:12; Kaf Hachaim 672:22; based on M”A 670:2 in name of Rashal regarding being stringent not to use the light past this time] Some Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, are not to move the Menorah even after the time has passed, although in a time of need one may be lenient and place it by a window and the like. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:1] See Miseches Sofrim “One does not move the Menorah until it extinguishes”

[563] Michaber 675:1; Rava Shabbos 23b

The reason: As the viewer states to himself that he is holding it for his own use, and not for the sake of the Mitzvah. [Michaber ibid]

[564] Taz 675:3; brought in M”B 675:7; P”M 675 M”Z 3; brought in Kaf Hachaim 675:12

[565] Elya Raba 675:4; Mamar Mordechai 675:6; brought in Kaf Hachaim 675:12

[566] Peri Chadash, brought in P”M ibid and Kaf Hachaim 675:13

[567] P”M ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[568] See Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:11

[569] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 6; Kaf Hachaim 675:9; So rules the Shut Lev Chaim 3:146 [Rav Chaim Falagi] despite the fact that from the letter of the law one can reason that in such a case the sick person is allowed to light by his bed and then have it moved.

[570] So rules the Shut Leiv Chaim [Rav Chaim Falagi] despite the fact that from the letter of the law one can reason that in such a case the sick person is allowed to light there.

[571] Ben Ish Chaiy ibid; Kaf Hachaim ibid

[572] See Sefer Haminhagim p.159 [English]

[573] See Elya Raba 674:2; Chemed Moshe 671:7; Minchas Moshe 16; Nitei Gavriel 35:7; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]  “The menorah once had to be moved a tefach or two closer to the [Previous] Rebbe so that he would be able to light it, and they then replaced it into its original position after the blessing.” This implies there is no reason to be stringent if it will be placed within the same area.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one should not move the Menorah at all even if it will be replaced to it area. [Lev Chaim 3:146]

[574] Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:1

[575] 672:1

[576] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b

The reason: The novelty of this ruling is that one would think that bad quality oils should not be used due to fear that the candle may extinguish prior to the half hour. The reason it is nevertheless permitted is because the law is that even if the candle extinguishes one still fulfills his obligation, as the lighting fulfills the Mitzvah. [M”B 673:1]

[577] Michaber ibid

[578] Rama ibid in name of Mordechai; Kol Bo and Maharil; Admur 264:12

[579] Rama ibid

[580] Rama 673:1

[581] The reason: The reason for this is because the clarity of the flame on bee’s wax is similar to the flame of oil. [Rama ibid]

[582] M”B 673:4; Mahariy Bruna 39; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 5 based on Meiri and others; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:6

The reason: The reason for this is because the Chanukah miracle took place with oil. [M”B ibid]

Other Poskim: Some Poskim rule one may never use wax candles for the Menorah as the miracle took place with oil. [Maharal of Prague in Ner Mitzvah, brought in Ateres Zekeinim and Shaar Hatziyon 673:4]

If one set up wax candles and oil then arrived: In the event that one already set up wax candles for the lighting, due to lack of oil, and then received oil prior to the lighting, it is disputed amongst Poskim as to whether he should switch the candles for oil. See Shvus Yaakov [remain with candles]; Chacham Tzevi [switch]; Birkeiy Yosef 673:3; Aruch Hashulchan 673:6; Shaareiy Teshuvah 673; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:6

[583] Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 814

[584] The reason: As bee’s wax is the closest quality to oil [see Rama 673:1], and obviously olive oil cannot be used being that one needs to use the Shamash to light the other candles. In addition, we desire to make a distinction between the candles of the Mitzvah and the Shamash. [Sefer Haminhagim ibid]

[585] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b

The reason: This is because it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights either during the week or on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid] There is thus no reason to prohibit the forbidden wicks and oils being that the entire reason behind the prohibition was to prevent one from fixing the flame in the process of using it. [Tur 673; Kaf Hachaim 673:1

[586] Rama ibid; Rashba 170

[587] M”A 673:1; Bach 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:2; Elya Raba 673:4

[588] M”B 673:2 in name of Yeshuvos Yaakov

[589] Implication of M”B ibid; See Shaar Hatziyon 673:1

[590] Shvus Yaakov 2:31; Shaar Hatziyon ibid concludes that perhaps even the Yeshuos Yaakov would agree in this case; Ashel Avraham Butchach 673; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673 footnote35;

[591] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:6 footnote 33

[592] M”B 671:6; Chayeh Adam 154:24; Binyan Olam 34; Kaf Hachaim 671:20

[593] Yifei Laleiv 2:2; Kaf Hachaim 671:32

[594] Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:3; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:3

[595] Shaareiy Teshuvah 673:1, in name of Shaar Efraim 38, brought in Aruch Hashulchan 673:5; M”B 673:2 in name of P”M;

[596] The reason: As all Mitzvos require a Shiur and any oil that is forbidden in benefit is considered as if it does not have a Shiur. [Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid]

[597] Beir Heiytiv 673:1 in name of Shaar Efraim 36; Aruch Hashulchan 673:5

[598] P”M Pesicha Chakira 9:29; Maharsham 4:122; Igros Moshe 1:191; Minchas Yitzchak 7:47

[599] See Maharsham 9:39; Daas Torah 673; Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 673 footnote 15; Shearim Hametzuyanim ibid

[600] The reason: As the oil is not forbidden in benefit and there is no obligation of “Hamutar Beficha” regarding Rabbinical commands. [ibid]

[601] Shnos Chaim 208; See Kaf Hachaim 673:9

[602] The reason: As we require that the oil be “Min Hamutar Beficha” just like all Mitzvos. [ibid]

[603] Igros Moshe 1:191; Minchas Yitzchak 7:47

[604] Ridbaz 25:9; Levushei Mordechai 3:53; Maharash Engel 2:4; Imrei Yosher; Shevet Halevi 1:184

[605] The reason: It is forbidden to get benefit from the light of the Chanukah candles and thus by using such oil it is considered like one is destroying Shemitah produce which is forbidden to be done.

[606] Minchas Shlomo 42; Kinyan Torah 3:17

[607] The difference between the oils: There are five gradations of olive oil, which are based on their level of acidity, and quality of press. Virgin, and extra virgin olive oil have a very small percentage of acidity, and come from the first press. Olive oil that is marketed as “for lighting purposes only” is of very low quality as it is not from the first press, contains a high percentage of acidity, and usually contains chemicals which help in its extraction.

[608] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 12 “However, if it is inedible due to bitterness, it is permitted.”; Kaf Hachaim 673:11; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:5 All oils are valid for the Menorah lighting. [Michaber 673:1] The oils do not have to be fit to be eaten. [As proven from the lack of mention made in Shulchan Aruch and similarly that most Poskim agree one may light using Cheilev which is forbidden to eat due to being not Kosher].

[609] Rav Mordechai Eliyahu; Rav Yaakov Yosef; Yalkut Yosef Chanukah p. 117; Rav Elyashiv, brought in Ashrei Ish p. 239

[610] The reason: Some say that inedible oil should not be used for a Mitzvah as it is repulsive, and is similar to the prohibition against using oil that had a rat fall inside. [Rav Mordechai Eliyahu based on Rama Y.D. 104:2] Alternatively, since they add chemicals to the extraction process, therefore it is considered “Panim Chadashos” and is not considered olive oil at all, and is thus no better than any other oil on the market. [Rav Yaakov Yosef] Alternatively, edible oil that was used in the Mikdash, therefore, it should likewise be used for the Chanukah lighting. As well, the better the oil the more one beautifies the Mitzvah.

[611] Check out here for a list of certified authentic olive oils: http://blog.aboutoliveoil.org/21-olive-oil-brands-certified-for-authenticity

[612] See the following report on this issue: http://www.bhol.co.il/3820/%D7%9C%D7%90-%D7%A9%D7%9E%D7%9F-%D7%9C%D7%90-%D7%96%D7%99%D7%AA-.html

[613] Aruch Hashulchan 673:3

[614] Rama Y.D. 104:2; M”B 673:3

[615] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 12; Kaf Hachaim 673:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:5

[616] The reason: As since the evil spirit has resided on this oil, being the evil spirit resides on food left under a bed, it is therefore repulsive to be eaten, and since it is repulsive to be eaten it is also repulsive to be used for the Mitzvah, as the verse states “Hakrivehu Na Lipsachesacha.” [ibid]

[617] The reason: As the evil spirit does not reside on inedible foods. [ibid]

[618] See regarding an Esrog: Sdei Chemed Mareches Lamed Kelal 141:31; Orchos Chaim 649:10; Chaim Ubracha 649:11; Chelkas Yaakov 3:77; Minchas Yitzchak 8:57; Piskeiy Teshuvos 649:5

[619] See Kaf Hachaim Y.D. 116:5; Yabia Omer 1:9-10; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[620] As candles are not edible and hence do not receive the evil spirit.

[621] Shoel Umeishiv, brought in M”B 673:2; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:4

[622] Nehar Shalom 673; Peri Hasadeh 4:53; Kaf Hachaim 673:5; Eretz Tzvi Teumim 52; See Admur 11:12; Admur in 649:5 and Rama in 649 regarding a stolen Daled Minim

[623] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:4

[624] Beis Shearim 361, brought in Mishneh Halachos 8:229; Beis Yitzchak Y.D. 2:145 leaves this matter in question

[625] Pnei Meivin 223; Sdei Chemed 15; Mikraeiy Kodesh Chanukah 21; See Devar Yehoshua 2:112; Lehoros Nassan 1:30

[626] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b

[627] Michaber ibid

[628] Chayeh Adam 154:8; Kitzur SHU”A 139:4; M”B 673:2

[629] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 21b

The reason: This is because it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights either during the week or on Shabbos. [Michaber ibid] There is thus no reason to prohibit the forbidden wicks and oils, as the entire reason behind the prohibition was to prevent one from fixing the flame in the process of using it. [Tur 673; Kaf Hachaim 673:1

[630] Rama ibid; Rashba 170

[631] M”A 673:1; Bach 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:2; Elya Raba 673:4

[632] Michaber 673:4; See Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English] in footnotes; Chikrei Minhagim 3:230

[633] Michaber ibid “We do not worry to switch the wicks, until they have become consumed”; Implication of Tur 677; Miseches Sofrim 20:4; Shibulei Haleket 185; Abudarham Seder Ner Chanukah p. 200 based on Rashi; Peri Chadash 673; Kitzur SHU”A 139:4; Siddur Yaavetz; Custom of Chasam Sofer

The reason: Although using the same old wicks may seem like a belittlement to the Mitzvah, nevertheless, it is permitted to do so being that on the contrary, such wicks are easier to light. [Levush 673; M”B 673:31; Kaf Hachaim 673:71] Alternatively, it is proper to do a second Mitzvah with an item which was already used for a Mitzvah. [Toras Menachem 15:303, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:271] Alternatively, as the laws of the Chnuakh candles do not follow the exact same laws as the Temple Menorah lighting. [Shulchan Gavoa 673:4]

[634] Darkei Moshe 673:6 in name of Kol Bo 44; Abudarham ibid that so is custom [even though he personally negates]; Tanya Rabasi Hadlakas Neiros 35; Orchos Chaim Chanukah 5; Meiri Shabbos 21b; Ohel Moed 2:2; Leket Yosher p. 152 that so was custom of Terumos Hadeshen; Seder Hayom Chanukah p. 236; Elya Raba 673:16; Shulchan Gavoa 673:14; Mishmeres Shalom 48:3 that so was custom of his forefathers; Custom of Darkei Teshuvah and Munkatcher Rebbe;  Kaf Hachaim 673:72; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English] “The custom is for the wicks to be new each night”

[635] The reason: As on each night a new miracle occurs. Alternatively, the reason is because this is in memory of the Temple lighting in which new wicks were used daily. [Poskim ibid; See Menachos 85a; Rambam 12]

[636] Mishmeres Shalom 48:3

[637] The reason: In order so one does not decrease in the holiness of the wick which was lit first on the previous night. [ibid]

[638] Bezel Hachachma 4:128

[639] The reason: As it is permitted to use the wick after the 30 minutes have passed for even mundane matters. Hence, certainly it is permitted to use it the next night for a different candle. [ibid]

[640] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

[641] Toras Menachem 15:303 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:271]; Shevach Hamoadim. p.102. Although Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English] writes based on a Sicha of the Rebbe that the custom of the previous Rebbe was not known, nevertheless, in the later years the Previous Rebbe’s custom was verified to be as stated above; See Hiskashrus 752 footnote 77; Chikrei Minhagim 3:230

[642] See Hiskashrus 596:17; Chikrei Minhagim ibid footnote 7

[643] Michaber 671:4; Shabbos 23b

[644] M”A 671:4 in name of Rashal; Elya Raba 671:5; Chayeh Adam 154:10; M”B 671:19; Kitzur SHU”A 139:4; Kaf Hachaim 671:35

Other opinions: Some Poskim imply it is permitted to use a candle that has been braided from three candles/wicks. [Rabbeinu Yerucham brought in M”A ibid]

[645] M”A ibid in name of Rabbeinu Yerucham; M”B ibid

[646] Rama 671:1

[647] M”A ibid; Darkei Moshe 671:2; Chayeh Adam ibid; Kitzur SHU”A 139:9; M”B 671:18; Kaf Hachaim 671:35

[648] Michaber ibid

[649] M”B 671:16

[650] Michaber 671:4; Shabbos 23b

The reason: As it appears like a torch [Michaber ibid] being that the flames of the candles join together. [M”B 671:14

[651] Tur, brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:27

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that if one distanced the wicks from each other, it is valid even if there is no vessel separating them. [Baal Haittur, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[652] Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid that

[653] Michaber 671:3; Shabbos ibid

[654] M”A 671:2; M”B 671:12

[655] See Darkei Hayashar Vehatov p. 28; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:2 footnote 11

[656] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:2

[657] Lehoros Nassan 6:45

[658] The reason: As the wax supplies the fuel for the first moments of the flames life and only after it is consumed does the oil fuel the flame, and it is thus found that at the time of lighting, one did not actually light with enough fuel.

[659] Rav SZ”A, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Birchas Moshe 12:27

[660] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 814 in name of Darkei Teshuvah

[661] Pischeiy Olam Shabbos 21a; Levushei Mordechai Telisa 59; Kaf Hachaim 673:19; Meoreiy Eish p. 95; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1; Igros Kodesh 27:46, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:271; See however Beis Yitzchak 2:31 who implies that one does not need a wick

[662] The reason: One requires both oil and a wick to fulfill the Mitzvah of candles lighting, which is in memory of the Temple Menorah which was lit using a wick and oil. [See Pischeiy Olam Shabbos 21a; Levushei Mordechai Telisa 59; Kaf Hachaim 673:19; Meoreiy Eish p. 95; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1]

[663] Levushei Mordechai Telisa 59; Beis Yitzchak 2:31; Maharshag 2:120; Pekudas Elazar; Kaf Hachaim 673:19; Har Tzevi 2:114; Mikraeiy Kodesh Chanukah 20; Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:4; Meoreiy Eish p. 95; Tzitz Eliezer 1:20-12; Beir Moshe 6:58-59; Yabia Omer 3:35; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1; Shulchan Menachem 3:272

[664] Reasons mentioned for why electricity is invalid: 1) One needs to have a minimum amount of fuel to last a half hour from the time of the lighting, and electricity is a constant flow which does not contain a half hour worth at any given moment, and thus if the electricity were to go out the light would also go out. [Pekudas Elazar ibid; Har Tzevi ibid] However, in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 2:280 the Rebbe negates the first reason mentioned, based on the fact that it is not considered utterly common for the electricity to be shut off, and it thus is considered to have the minimum amount. 2) Because one may only use a material which has fat which burns, similar to the miracle which was done with oil. [Levushei Mordechai ibid] 3) One needs a wick. [Poskim ibid] 4) A bulb is similar to a torch which is invalid. [Tzitz Eliezer ibid]

[665] Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1 footnote 6

[666] Pischeiy Olam Shabbos 21b; Beis Yitzchak Y.D. 120; Shearim Hametzuyanim 128:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1

[667] The reason: As one requires both oil and a wick to fulfill the Mitzvah of candles lighting, which is in memory of the Temple Menorah which was lit using a wick and oil. [See Pischeiy Olam Shabbos 21a; Levushei Mordechai Telisa 59; Kaf Hachaim 673:19; Meoreiy Eish p. 95; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1]

[668] Levushei Mordechai Telisa 59; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1

[669] The reason: As one requires both oil and a wick to fulfill the Mitzvah of candles lighting, which is in memory of the Temple Menorah which was lit using a wick and oil. [See Pischeiy Olam Shabbos 21a; Levushei Mordechai Telisa 59; Kaf Hachaim 673:19; Meoreiy Eish p. 95; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:1]

[670] M”B 673:28

[671] Chesed Leavraham [Avraham Azulai] Mayan 2 Nahar 58

[672] Seder Hayom p. 98; Elya Raba 673:15; Birkeiy Yosef 673:7; Kitzur SH”A 139:5; Seemingly this does not contradict the statement brought earlier from the Chesed Leavraham that it is best to buy a gold Menorah as this is not as affordable as a silver Menorah and hence is not practical to write as a directive for the public. Vetzaruch Iyun

The Rebbe’s Menorah: There were years that the Rebbe lit candles using a simple Menorah that did not have branches or a back. [Hiskashrus 1010 footnote 12]

[673] Michaber 673:3

[674] M”B 673:29

[675] M”B 673:29

[676] Seder Hayom p. 97 writes that for this reason one is to avoid using earthenware candle holders at all.

[677] Michaber ibid writes to refurbish it in a fire every night.

[678] M”B 673:30

[679] M”B 671:18 in name of Elya Raba; See Rama 671:4

[680] See Shaareiy Teshuvah 673:13; Shearim Hametzuyanim 128:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:11; Igros Kodesh 27:46, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:271

[681] Admur in the Siddur; See Shevet Halevi 8:157; Az Nidbaru 13:49; Chacham Tzevi 75; Shvus Yaakov 1:33; M”B 671:18; So is proven from all the Poskim who do not mention anywhere that a Menorah is needed, and furthermore some discuss whether one fulfills his obligation if he stuck a candle to the wall, and no mention at all is made over the fact that no Menorah was used.

Ruling of Admur in Siddur: Admur there writes: “The correct custom is to stick the candles or to place the Menorah by the width of the doorpost.” Thus, implying one fulfills his obligation of lighting the Chanukah candles, even if he does not use a vessel. So learns also Hiskashrus 385; and Siddur Admur of Rav Raskin.

[682] Chesed Leavraham Mayan 2 Nahar 58 lists 15 levels of vessels, and negates using shells of pomegranates and the like and concludes “These materials must be made into a vessel, and must be able to stand on their own without leaning, otherwise they are not fit to be used for Chanukah lights” [It is said that the source of the Chesed Leavraham is a hand-written letter by the son of the Ravad, Rabbi Yitzchak Sagi Nahor, who had received it from Eliyahu Hanavi, that a vessel is needed for the candle to be lit on.]; Avnei Neizer 500 based on Chesed Leavraham ibid [See however Igros Kodesh 27:46]; See Taamei Haminhagim 849; This is also hinted to in the Michaber who states we place the candles in from left to right and start lighting from the left, now if one does not have a Menorah what does it mean to start from the left. [Taamei Haminhagim 856]

[683] The reason: As the Menorah is considered part of the “Ner”, and one must light a Ner for Chanukah candles. [The Avnei Neizer 500 questions whether or not one must have a Menorah or a wick and fuel is enough. He says that this is dependent on whether the Menorah is considered part of the “Ner” or not. He concludes that based on the Chesed Leavraham ibid that one does not fulfill his obligation if a vessel is not used; See however Igros Kodesh 27:46, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:271, who questions his conclusion] Other Poskim negate simply sticking candles on a table, as the Mitzvah in the Temple took place using a vessel. [See Taamei Haminhagim 849]

[684] Chesed Leavraham Mayan 2 Nahar 58; Sdei Haretz 3:41; Ikarei Hadaat 35:11; Sdei Chemed 7; Kaf Hachaim 673:60; 68; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:9

[685] See Mahariy Bruno 39 and Shiyurei Kneses Hagedola 673:5 that copper is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar amongst other metals; Kaf Hachaim 673:68

[686] Chesed Leavraham ibid; Admas Kodesh 2:7; Birkeiy Yosef 673:6; Shaareiy Teshuvah 673:13; Sdei Chemed 7; Kaf Hachaim 673:60-63

[687] Orchos Yosher 17; Yifei Laleiv 2:2; Kaf Hachaim 673:62

[688] Shevet Halevi 8:157; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:9

[689] Shevet Hakehasi 3:201 based on Mishneh Keilim 13:6

[690] Likkutei Sichos 21:168 and 26:201 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 7:192]

[691] Depiction of Menorah of Rambam brought in Pirush Hamishnayos and Hilchos Beis Habechira 3:10; Rav Avraham the son of Rambam on Parshas Teruma 25:32 “The six branches come out of the main branch in a diagonal, as my father depicted, and not in a half circle, as is depicted by others”; Rashi Teruma 25:32 “The branches are diagonal”; See Bechor Shur Rosh Hashanah 24 and Mishnas Chachamim Avoda Kochavim p. 64, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14 who implies the Temple Menorah had diagonal branches

Other opinions: Some sources record that the Menorah contains half circle branches. [Maaseh Choshev 7:7; Chochmas Hamishkan; Zayis Ranan Behalosecha; Even Ezra Tetzaveh 27:21; Teruma 25:37]

[692] Likkutei Sichos 21:168 footnote 41 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275]

[693] Hiskashrus 541:12 footnote 9

[694] Michaber Y.D. 141:8; Rambam Beis Habechira 7:10; Avoda Zara 43a; Likkutei Sichos 20:169 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275]

[695] Maharik 75; Birkeiy Yosef 141

[696] See Shach 141:35-36; Chidushei Rav Akiva Eiger ibid; Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14

[697] Seven branched Menorah with eight candles: Some Poskim rule that one may make a seven branched Menorah which will hold eight candles. [Chacham Tzevi 60, brought in Yad Efraim 141]

[698] Michaber ibid; Maharik Shoresh 75 in name of Rabbeinu Yitzchak of Krubel

The reason: As a metal Menorah remains valid for use in the Temple even though it is not made of gold. [Shach 141:35] Likewise, the Menorah remains valid for use even if it does not contain the goblets, flowers, and buttons, and even if it is not 18 Tefach high. [Shach 141:36]

A gold Menorah which does not have the flowers etc.: Some Poskim suggest that one may make a gold Menorah of seven branches so long as it does not contain the goblets and buttons, being that a gold material Menorah is invalid if it does not contain these features. [Implication of Shach ibid, brought in Bechor Shur on R”H 24, Rav Akiva Eiger 141, Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:15] However, other Poskim clearly rule that it is forbidden to make a seven-branched gold Menorah even without these features. [Bechor Shur on R”H 24, brought in Rav Akiva Eiger ibid; Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:15] Practically, one is to be stringent regarding a questionable Biblical prohibition. [See Maharik ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 141; Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14]

[699] Tevuos Shur on R”H 24, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14

Other opinions: Some Poskim lean to permit making a seven branched Menorah which contains circle shaped branches. [Mishnas Chachamim on Avodas Kochavim p. 64, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14]

[700] Birkeiy Yosef 141; See Maharik ibid; Devar Moseh 1:122

[701] Shach 141:35; Implication of Michaber and Tur ibid

[702] The reason: As only a metal material Menorah is valid for use in the Temple. [Talmud; Rambam Beis Habechira 7] Thus, all other materials may be made into a Menorah of the same shape as the Temple. [Shach ibid] However, see Tevuos Shur on R”H 24, brought in Pischeiy Teshuvah 141:14 and Rav Akiva Eiger ibid that even an invalid Menorah may not be made to replicate the Temple Menorah

[703] As rule Michaber and Rama Y.D. 141:7; Haemek Sheila [Netziv on Sheilasos] 57:3

[704] Maharit 2:35; Yaavetz 2:104, brought in Yad Efraim 151:4; Beis Lechem Yehuda ibid; Rav Poalim 4:10, in name of many Rishonim who argue on the opinions brought in Michaber ibid

[705] Michaber 141:1; Rambam 3; Rabbeinu Efraim in Mordechai; Ran

[706] Shach 141:30; implication of Michaber ibid; Rashba 167; Shiltei Giborim; implication of Tosafus Avoda Zara 43

[707] Baiy Chayi Yoreh Deah 175, brought in Yad Efraim 141:6

[708] Chayeh Adam 154:11; M”B 671:12; Kaf Hachaim 671:22

[709] M”A 671:2; M”B ibid

[710] Admur 588:5 regarding Shofar; 638 regarding Sechach and walls of Sukkah; Shiltei Giborim Shabbos 9b “It is forbidden to use the Chanukah Neir for mundane purposes, as its already been designated for all eight days of Chanukah”; Tashbatz 2:171 in name of Sheilasos126 Parshas Shlach “It is forbidden to use the Chanukah Ner even though it does not have Kedusha”; Beis Yehuda 21 regarding if one may use the Menorah to light Shabbos candles; Mishnas Sachir 2:205 based on Rishonim and Poskim who rule that any object which is designated for a Mitzvah receives holiness like the wood of Sechach; Kinyan Torah 6:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:10; Vetzaruch Iyun today that the oil is held in glass bulbs, perhaps according to all one may use the Menorah, as its Tashmish Detashmishei Mitzvah.

Other opinions: The questioner in Mishnas Sachir ibid argued that it is permitted to use the menorah for mundane purposes even during Chanukah, as even the leftover oil may be used for mundane purposes! However, in truth the cases are not the same, as once the oil has been lit for a half hour, its Mitzvah has ceased, and it is hence similar to a Menorah after Chanukah which one does not plan to reuse, which may be used for mundane matters according to all. However, the Menorah is still being used until the end of Chanukah, and hence its prohibition would apply. [See Mishnas Sachir ibid; Tashbatz ibid]

[711] Mishnas Sachir 2:205;

[712] Kinyan Torah 6:47; Implication of Shiltei Giborim ibid; Michaber 674:2 that one may light Shabbos candles from Chanukah candles; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:10

[713] Admur 588:5 who permits using a Shofar on Shabbos Rosh Hashanah for resting a plate on it and only forbids doing so when R”H falls on a weekday, and only on that day; See also Admur 586:27; Questioner in Mishnas Sachir ibid; Kinyan Torah 6:47 that even the Bach only forbade belittling usage and not all mundane usage, and hence even according to the P”M it is allowed

[714] Mishnas Sachir 2:205 based on P”M 21 A”A 1 in name of Bach that if one plans to reuse the Shofar or Lulav next year, its forbidden to use it for a mundane purpose, and the same applies to a Menorah which one plans to reuse next year; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:10; See Kinyan Torah 6:47

[715] Admur 586:27 regarding Shofar; Kinyan Torah ibid; See Admur 638 regarding Sechach

[716] See Admur 21:1 regarding Tzitzis and Admur 638:19 regarding Sechach. Admur ibid rules that Tzitzis [Tashmishei Mitzvah] may be discarded and it is only an act of piety to not discard them in a garbage and place it in Geniza. Now, in 42:6 Admur rules that “Ner Chanukah” is considered Tashmishei Mitzvah. Nevertheless, seemingly this only refers to the actual vessel that holds the oil. However, the Menorah itself which holds the glass bulbs of oil is considered Tashmish Tashmishei Mitzvah which has no holiness at all, and may be discarded according to all even in a filthy area. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 154:3]

The law by wax candle Menoras: Seemingly, even a wax candle Menorah may be discarded, and there is no act of piety to avoid doing so, being that the wax does not need the Menorah to hold it, and one can simply place it on the ground. The Menorah is thus considered Tashmish Detashmishei Mitzvah. Nonetehless, in truth this logic is not Halachcially accurate, as the determining factor for Tashmishei Mitzvah is not whether the Mitzvah is dependent on the item, but simply that the item made direct use with the Mitzvah, and hence by a candle Menorah there is room to learn that since the Menorah itself directly holds the candles, then the Menorah receives the status of Tashmishei Mitzvah of which we rule that it is an act of piety not to discard it in the trash. [See Admur 42:4] Nonetheless, this argument can be negated with a counter argument that in truth only the first 30 minutes of the candles are considered the Mitzvah of Menorah, while the remaining wax is mundane [See Michaber 677:4; Halacha 20D!], and hence since only the bottom tip of the wax touches the Menorah, and that area is not considered part of the Mitzvahg, it ends up that the Menorah never directly touches the Mitzvah area of the candle, and it is hence only a status of Tashmishe Detashmishei Mitzvah, of which we rule that even initially it may be discarded.

[717] See Admur 21:1 that Tzitzis [Tashmishei Mitzvah] may be discarded and it is only an act of piety to not discard them in a garbage and place it in Geniza. Now, in 42:6 Admur rules that “Ner Chanukah” is considered Tashmishei Mitzvah that may be used for mundane matters after the Mitzvah. Now, this seemingly only refers to the vessel holding the oil, as the oil itself and the wicks must be burnt after Chanukah and may not be used for any mundane purpose. Accordingly, Admur here is saying that the vessel holding the oil is Ner Chanukah and has a status of Tashmishei Mitzvah. Thus, although it is permitted to discard the glass bowls, it is an act of piety to not discard them in the garbage, just as we rule regarding Tzitzis in 21:1.

[718] Michaber 677:4

[719] Oil of a candle that remained lit more than a half hour: The Michaber 672:2 rules that if the candle lit for its minimum time, which is a half hour, then the remaining oil is not considered sanctified for a mitzvah and thus may be used for mundane matters. Thus, there is no need to burn this oil after Chanukah. However, there are opinions who argue on this ruling of the Michaber and hold that if one did not make a stipulation when he placed the oil, then the oil which remains past a half hour is sanctified. Practically, it is best to suspect for this opinion and stipulate upon placing in the oil, that all oil that remains past a half hour is not sanctified for the Mitzvah. In this way one follows according to all opinions. [M”B 677:18]

[720] Michaber 671:2; Beis Hillel in Shabbos 21

Other opinions: According to Beis Shamaiy, one is to light 8 candles on the first night and decrease one candle each night. [Shabbos ibid]

[721] Shabbos 21; M”B 671:4

[722] The reason: Some say we add one more candle each night to emphasize which day of the miracle we are holding by. Others say we light one more candle each night as one is to increase in holiness and not decrease. [Shabbos ibid; See Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 207, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275-281]

How can the Sages require Mehadrin Min Hamihadrin if it is more than 1/3 of the original Takana? See Likkutei Sichos 5; Statement of Velvel of Volozhin; Letter of Rebbe printed in Shaarey Hamoadim Chanukah p. 203

[723] M”B 671:4

[724] M”B 671:10

[725] Although this does not fulfill the level of Mehadrin Min Hamehadrin, it does fulfill the level of Mehadrin. [Shaar Hatziyon 671:11]

[726] Rama 672:2; Maharil; Aguda; See Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 207, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275-281, that this matter is dependent on the dispute regarding the reason for the Mitzvah of Mehadrin, mentioned in Shabbos 21b

[727] Meaning, that if the next night is the 2nd night of Chanukah, then he is to light two candles, and on the third night he is to light three candles. We do not say that for this person the second night is considered the first night. [M”B 672:12; Darkei Moshe]

The reason: The Mitzvah of lighting candles each night is not similar to the Mitzvah of Sefiras Haomer, as there is a separate Mitzvah each night to light candles, unlike Sefiras Haomer which is a Mitzvah that is dependent on the completeness of the count. [Beis Yosef; Levush; Biur Hagr”a; Kaf Hachaim 672:27]

[728] Ruach Chaim brought in Kaf Hachaim 672:29

[729] 673:1

In today’s times of electricity: In truth, in today’s times of electricity, the use of the extra candle called the Shamash has become obsolete, as we no longer need it for the sake of light. Nonetheless, the custom is to light an extra candle as it contains mystical meaning. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7]

Lighting two candles: Some are accustomed to light two extra candles near the Menorah. [Custom of Belz, recorded in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[730] Michaber ibid; Tur; Rabbeinu Yerucham

The reason: The reason for this is because it is forbidden to use the Chanukah candles for light. Hence, we place a non-Chanukah candle near the candles in order so one who uses the light will do so from the permitted candle. [Michaber ibid] Nevertheless, initially one may not use the light of the joint candles even when the Shamash is lit unless it is clear that one is only using the light of the Shamash. [M”B 673:15 in name of M”A]

The mystical reason: There are a total of eight Shamashim that are lit during Chanukah. Each Shamash contains a great holiness, similar to the Kohen who would light the Menorah, and similar to the Serafim who shine the Kisei Hakavod. This is why the Shamash must be placed higher than the other candles. [Kav Hayashar 96]

[731] Rama ibid

Using the Shamash as the extra candle placed by the Menorah: The Michaber ibid writes that the custom is to place an extra candle at a distance from the Chanukah candles, to serve as the extra light, and all the candles, including the extra candle, is lit using the Shamash. Thus the extra candle is not the same candle as the Shamash. Accordingly, many are accustomed to prepare an extra oil candle as the Shamash, and they use a wax candle to light it. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7 that so is recorded in the name of Rebbe Yitzchak the son of the Raavad] However, the Rama ibid writes that it is not our custom to place an extra candle near the other candles during the lighting and rather we simply place the Shamash that was used for the lighting near the other candles when the lighting is complete. This is considered a better custom [Rama ibid] being that it makes it more evident to the onlooker that the Shamash is not one of the candles being lit for its obligation that night. [M”B 673:19 in name of Peri Megadim]

[732] Michaber ibid; Rabbeinu Yerucham

[733] Michaber ibid writes that this is the initial custom, as brought in previous footnotes, the Rama ibid writes using the Shamash is better, although he too agrees that if one can’t use the Shamash then one is to follow the custom of the Michaber

[734] Rama ibid “The Shamash should be longer than the other candles”; Mordechai; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159

The reason: So if one comes to use the light of the Menorah one will use the light of this candle. [Rama ibid]

[735] Rama ibid

[736] M”B 673:20

[737] Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 814; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7 footnote 37

The reason: As bee’s wax is the closest quality to oil [see Rama 673:1], and obviously olive oil cannot be used being that one needs to use the Shamash to light the other candles. In addition, we desire to make a distinction between the candles of the Mitzvah and the Shamash. [Sefer Haminhagim ibid]

[738] M”B 673:18 in name of M”A

[739] See Kav Hayashar 96; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7

[740] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 10; Kaf Hachaim 675:17

[741] Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:1

[742] Ohel Moshe 2:69; Mishnas Sachir 2:199

[743] Chochmas Shlomo 671; Alef Lecha Shlomo 380; Kinyan Torah 6:48; 7:51; Rivivos Efraim 1:434; Shevet Hakehasi 3:208

[744] Beis Yosef in name of Orchos Chaim, brought in M”A 676:1; Peri Chadash 672; M”B 672:6; Kaf Hachaim 672:19-20

[745] P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B ibid in name of P”M; Kaf Hachaim 672:19-20

The reason: As the main Mitzvah is already fulfilled when the first candle is lit. [ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a blessing is to be recited on the extra candle that is lit, if he did not have in mind to light more than one candle. [Elya Raba 672:7 in implication of Beis Yosef in name of Orchos Chaim; Erech Hashulchan 672:7; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:6]

[746] See P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B ibid in name of P”M; Kaf Hachaim 672:19-20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing is to be repeated. [Implication of Beis Yosef in name of Orchos Chaim, brought in M”A 676; P”M in Rosh Yosef Shabbos 23a, in contradiction of his ruling ibid; See Minchas Yitzchak 4:115; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] This is similar to the law that one each household member may light their own candles with a blessing for the sake of Mehadrin, so too one may say a new blessing for the sake of the extra candles if he talked in between. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[747] Rama 672:2; Maharil; Aguda; See Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 207, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275-281

[748] Chasam Sofer 135; M”B 671:5 in name of Chayeh Adam; See Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 207, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275-281, that this matter is dependent on the dispute regarding the reason for the Mitzvah of Mehadrin, mentioned in Shabbos 21b

[749] See Likkutei Sichos ibid that perhaps according to all one should add as much as he can.

[750] Based on previous Q&A as rules Chasam Sofer 135; M”B 671:5 in name of Chayeh Adam; See Likkutei Sichos 20 p. 207, printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:275-281, that this matter is dependent on the dispute regarding the reason for the Mitzvah of Mehadrin, mentioned in Shabbos 21b

[751] See Likkutei Sichos ibid that according to the reason of “Kineged Yamim Hayotzin” one should add as much as he can, and according to the reason of Maalin Bakodesh, so long as one is not decreasing it is valid.

[752] M”A 671; M”B 671:6

[753] M”B 671:6

[754] See Nitei Gavriel 20

[755] See Rama 673:1 “In these provinces, the custom is not to add a candle, and we simply place the Shamash which was used to light the other candles.”

[756] See M”A 671:5 “From this came the custom to light a Shamash”; 673:4-5; Machatzis Hashekel 673:1; Levushei Serud 673:2; P”M 671 A”A 5

[757] See Levushei Serud ibid “Through the Shamash one is able to do work near the lights”

[758] Michaber 673:1; Tur; Rabbeinu Yerucham

[759] Lighting two candles: Some are accustomed to light two extra candles near the Menorah. [See Nitei Gavriel 20:6 footnote 14; Custom of Belz, recorded in Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[760] Michaber 673:1; Shabbos 22b

The reason: This prohibition was enacted in order to properly emphasize the Mitzvah status of the candles and thereby publicize the Chanukah miracle to all. [Rashi brought in M”B 673:8] Furthermore, since the candles commemorate the miracle that occurred with the Menorah, therefore it receives the same law as the Menorah in which its candles are forbidden in benefit. [Ran brought in M”B 673:8]

[761] Michaber ibid

In today’s times of electricity: In truth, in today’s times of electricity, the use of the extra candle called the Shamash has become obsolete, as we no longer need it for the sake of light. Nonetheless, the custom is to light an extra candle as it contains mystical meaning. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7]

[762] Kav Hayashar 96

[763] See Michaber and Rama 673:1

Background: The Michaber ibid writes that the custom is to place an extra candle at a distance from the Chanukah candles, to serve as the extra light, and all the candles, including the extra candle, is lit using the Shamash. Thus, the extra candle is not the same candle as the Shamash. Accordingly, many are accustomed to preparing an extra oil candle as the Shamash, and they use a wax candle to light it. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7 that so is recorded in the name of Rebbe Yitzchak the son of the Raavad] However, the Rama ibid writes that it is not our custom to place an extra candle near the other candles during the lighting and rather we simply place the Shamash that was used for the lighting near the other candles when the lighting is complete. This is considered a better custom [Rama ibid] being that it makes it more evident to the onlooker that the Shamash is not one of the candles being lit for its obligation that night. [M”B 673:19 in name of Peri Megadim]

[764] Pashut, as the main point is that there be an extra candle by the Menorah, and whether it is the original candle used for the lighting is irrelevant; See Michaber and Rama 673:1

[765] See Michaber 673:1 as commented on by Rama ibid from whom it is evident that according to the Michaber an extra candle was lit from the “Shamash” candle which was used to light all the other candles, and hence the “Shamash” was not designated as the extra candle and was extinguished as soon as all the candles were lit; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7 that so is recorded in the name of Rebbe Yitzchak the son of the Raavad; See also Machatzis Hashekel on M”A 673:2 that the Shamash is made with an oil and a wick

[766] Rama ibid

[767] Rama ibid

The reason: As by doing so it is more evident to the onlooker that the Shamash is not one of the candles being lit for its obligation that night. [M”A 673:6; Peri Megadim 673 A”A 6; M”B 673:19]

[768] Michaber ibid writes that this is the initial custom, as brought in previous footnotes, the Rama ibid writes using the Shamash is better, although he too agrees that if one can’t use the Shamash then one is to follow the custom of the Michaber

[769] See Machatzis Hashekel 673:1; Seder Hayom

[770] Hagahos Maharil; Sefer Haminhagim p. 157 [English]; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 814; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7 footnote 37

The reason: As bee’s wax is the closest quality to oil [see Rama 673:1], and obviously olive oil cannot be used being that one needs to use the Shamash to light the other candles. In addition, we desire to make a distinction between the candles of the Mitzvah and the Shamash. [Sefer Haminhagim ibid]

[771] M”A 673:1; Bach 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:2; Elya Raba 673:4; Machatzis Hashekel and Levushei Serud on M”A ibid

[772] See Kinyan Torah 2:102

[773] Nitei Gavriel 23:11; See Michaber 206:3; Admur 167:3; However, see Admur Seder 9:2, Luach 6:2, and 206:3 that one is to not cut a fruit until after the blessing, as it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to say the blessing on a whole food and that this is not considered a Hefsek, as it is done for the sake of the eating.

[774] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim 671:83

[775] Michaber 673:1; Rabbeinu Yerucham

[776] Rama ibid “The Shamash should be longer than the other candles so if one comes to use the light of the Menorah one will use its light”; Mordechai; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159

[777] The reason: This is done in order so if one come to make use of the candles, then he will make use of the Shamash which is higher up. [Rama ibid]

[778] Rama ibid

[779] M”A 673:7; Bach end of  673; Maharil Chanukah p. 403; Maglei Tzedek Chanukah 18a; M”B 673:20

[780] See Nitei Gavriel 20:2-3 that he was witnessed all customs

[781] Elya Raba 673:10; Shaareiy Teshuvah 673; M”B 673:15; Biur Halacha 673:1 “Sheim Yishtamesh” in name of Machatzis Hashekel

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is initially forbidden to benefit from the light of the Shamash, even if the Shamash is individually recognizable from the other candles. [P”M 673 A”A 4 in explanation of M”A 673:4; P”M 673 A”A 1; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7]

[782] M”A 673:4; M”B ibid

[783] M”B 673:15 in name of M”A

[784] Yosef Ometz 1076; Kinyan Torah 2:102; Shraga Hameir 3:16; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5

[785] M”A 673:5; Elya Raba 673:10; M”B 673:18

[786] Rama 671:2 and 671:7

 The reason: This is done in order so it be recognizable the amount of candles being lit that night. [ibid] By doing so, one satisfies even the opinion of Tosafus. [Biur Halacha 671:2 “Veyizharu”] However, when each Menorah is not individually recognizable, people can mistake the number of candles being lit that night, having joined the candles lit on two different Menorahs.

[787] See Kav Hayashar 96; Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7

[788] Melamed Lehoil 121; Orchos Chaim 671:13

The reason: Some say the reason for this custom is to fulfill one’s obligation according to the Rambam who ruled that also by day the Menorah was lit.  [Orchos Chaim 671:13]

[789] Likkutei Sichos 18:315 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:270]

[790] Michaber 674:1; Shabbos 22a

[791] Michaber ibid; Rosh in name of Rif; Ramban; Rav in Shabbos ibid

The reason: As it appears as a belittlement to the Mitzvah, as not everyone is aware that one plans to light the Chanukah candle with it. [Levush; Taz 674:1]

[792] M”B 674:3 in name of Peri Chadash and so is implied from the Michaber ibid; Kaf Hachaim 674:7

[793] 2nd opinion in Michaber ibid; Sefer Haterumos; Ran; Shmuel in Shabbos ibid

[794] Rama ibid; Kaf Hachaim 674:8 that this applies even according to the Sefaradim

[795] Rama 671:4; Hagahos Maimanis in name of Semag

The reason: As otherwise it appears like a torch, which is invalid. [Rama ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is permitted to set up the candles in a circle, being each candle is separated from the other. [Peri Chadash brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:29]

[796] M”A 671:3; M”B 671:15

The reason: As this can lead one to making them in a circle.

[797] Chayeh Adam 154:10; Kaf Hachaim 671:28

Other opinions: Some Poskim are lenient in this matter. [Mahariy Bruno 39 brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[798] M”A 671:4; Darkei Moshe 671:2; Chayeh Adam 154:10; Kitzur SHU”A 139:9; M”B 671:18; Kaf Hachaim 671:35

[799] M”B ibid; Elya Raba 671:8; Chayeh Adam ibid; Kaf Hachaim 671:34

[800] Pashut; Nitei Gavriel 22:7

[801] Siddur Admur; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; Michaber 676:5; Maharik Shoresh 164 based on Mordechai in name of Rebbe Meir; Minhag Rinuss brought in Taz 675:6 and Terumos Hadeshen 106; Drashos Maharil Chanukah; Darkei Moshe 676:2; Peri Chadash 676; Elya Raba 676; Custom of Arizal as brought in Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Chanukah 19:4; Shaar Hakavanos 108; Chasam Sofer 187; Kitzur SHU”A 139:10; Aruch Hashulchan 676:11; Kaf Hachaim 676:31 that so is the final Halacha; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6

Background: The debate regarding the positioning of the candles on the Menorah from right to left or left to right, is due to several factors. 1) Should one always light first the candle that is nearest to the doorway? [See Shaar Hakavanos ibid and Taz ibid] 2) Should one always start with the candle that is on the right side? [See Taz ibid] 3) Should one start from the left side so one can go from left to right? Practically, the above questions created several opinions in Poskim regarding how to set up the candles, and which candle to begin lighting with: Opinion 1: The mainstream approach, which is the widespread custom that is stated above in name of the Poskim ibid, is to always set up the candle from the right, and light from left to right. In this approach, on the one hand we begin with the right side [as says option 2] and then go from left to right [as says option three]. [See Aruch Hashulchan 676:11] Opinion 2: Other Poskim however say that one is to always begin lighting from the right side and go from right to left [as says option 2]. [Minhag Astreich in Taz ibid and Terumos Hadeshen ibid; Tzemach Tzedek 66; Manuscript of son of Raavad in name of Eliyahu Hanavi] Accordingly, the additional candle must be set up on the foremost right side, which means that the first candle is to always be set up on the uttermost left side of the Menorah, so on the next nights one can begin lighting the additional candle from the far most right side. Opinion 3: Other Poskim rule that he is to light starting with the candle most adjacent to the doorpost. [Rashal 85, brought in M”A 676:4; Gra] Accordingly, one will always begin with the same candle each night [which is the first candle lit on the first night] and at times one will go from right to left, and at times from left to right, depending on the position of the Menorah. For example, if one is lighting in front of a door and placing the Menorah by the wall of the left doorpost, then he begins lighting on the farthest right-hand side, and lights from right to left each night. If he is lighting inside the room, behind the door and he places the Menorah on the wall which is on the right-hand side [opposite the Mezuzah] then he sets up the Menorah on the left-hand side, and lights from left to right each night. Opinion 4: Others rule that one is to light in a way that he comes closer to the doorpost each night, as well as always go from left to right. [Shaar Hakavanos 108] Hence, on the first night he to set up the first candle in the area that is furthest away from the doorpost, and light from left to right. To do so one must position the Menorah inside the room, to the right side of the wall [opposite the Mezuzah], and position the first candle to uttermost right side of the Menorah. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] 

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is to set up the candles starting from the uttermost left side of the Menorah and add one candle to its right side every night. One is then to begin lighting the candle on the foremost right of the Menorah, and light from right to left. [Minhag Astreich in Taz ibid and Terumos Hadeshen ibid; Tzemach Tzedek 66; Manuscript of son of Raavad in name of Eliyahu Hanavi] Other Poskim rule that he is to light starting with the candle most adjacent to the doorpost, and hence at times he is to set up the candles rom left to right, and at times from right to left, depending on the direction of the Menorah and which side is most adjacent to the doorpost. [Rashal 85 brought in M”A 676:4; Gr”a]

[802] M”A 676:4 in name of Beis Yosef; Darkei Moshe; Elya Raba 676:9; Kaf Hachaim 676:32

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that he is to light starting with the candle most adjacent to the doorpost. Hence, when one is lighting inside the room, opposite the Mezuzah, he is set up the candles on the uttermost left side. So too, when lighting outside the room, but there is no mezuzah, he sets up the first candle on the uttermost left side. [Rashal 85; Gra] Due to this, some Poskim rule one is to position the Menorah vertically to the doorpost, hence causing that there is no candle that is closer to the doorpost than another, and one may begin with the left according to all. [Bach 676; M”A ibid; M”B 676 in name of Mateh Moseh; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6] Shaar Hakavanos ibid records that one is to begin lighting with the candle that is furthers away from the doorpost and come closer each night. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 29]

[803] Beir Moshe 5:128; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6; ; Dinei Iter 20:2; Shevet Halevi 8:151; Shraga Hameir 7:9-3

[804] 673:1

[805] Michaber ibid

[806] Rama ibid “The Shamash should be longer than the other candles so if one comes to use the light of the Menorah one will use its light”; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159

[807] Rama ibid

[808] M”B 673:20

[809] Elya Raba; M”B 671:18

[810] Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 8 based on Elya Raba ibid

[811] Kav Hayashar 96; Yifei Laleiv 2:5; Kaf Hachaim 675:8; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]

Other customs: Some are accustomed to wear Shabbos clothing during the lighting. [Likkutei Maharich; See Sefer Yeish Nochalin of Shelah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:5]

[812] See Admur 432:12; M”A 432 and Machatzis Hashekel ibid

[813] Tiferes Tzevi Y.D. 27; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676 footnote 24

[814] See Rama 672:2; M”B 672:10]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:5

[815] Toras Menachem 15:314; See Igros Kodesh 24:280; Sefer Haminhagim p. 70 footnote 10

[816] Rama 576:2 in name of Maharil; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]

[817] Biur Halacha 676:2 “Vayivareich” in name of Beis Yosef and Darkei Moshe

[818] Michaber 676:5; Maharik Shoresh 164 based on Mordechai in name of Rebbe Meir; Minhag Rinuss brought in Taz 675:6 and Terumos Hadeshen 106; Drashos Maharil Chanukah; Darkei Moshe 676:2; Custom of Arizal as brought in Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Chanukah 19:4; Shaar Hakavanos 108; Siddur Admur; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; Kaf Hachaim 676:31 that so is the final Halacha; See Aruch Hashulchan 676:11-13; Shevet Halevi 6:83; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to one is to always light the candles from right to left. [Minhag Astreich in Taz ibid and Terumos Hadeshen ibid; Tzemach Tzedek 66; Manuscript of son of Raavad in name of Eliyahu Hanavi] Other Poskim rule that he is to light starting with the candle most adjacent to the doorpost. [Rashal 85, brought in M”A 676:4; Gra] Accordingly, one will always begin with the same candle each night [which is the first candle lit on the first night] and at times one will go from right to left, and at times from left to right, depending on the position of the Menorah. For example, if one is lighting in front of a door and placing the Menorah by the wall of the left doorpost, then he begins lighting on the farthest right-hand side, and lights from right to left each night. If he is lighting inside the room, behind the door and he places the Menorah on the wall which is on the right-hand side [opposite the Mezuzah] then he sets up the candle on the left-hand side, and lights from left to right each night.

[819] Poskim ibid; Beis Yosef ibid “One always begins with the added candles, as it

[820] This is done in order to one turn to the right. [Michaber ibid; Yuma 58; Maharil 40; M”A 676:5]

[821] M”A 676:4 in name of Beis Yosef; Darkei Moshe; Elya Raba 676:9; Kaf Hachaim 676:32

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that he is to light starting with the candle most adjacent to the doorpost. Hence, when one is lighting if one is lighting in front of a door and placing the Menorah by the wall of the left doorpost, then he begins lighting on the farthest right-hand side, and lights from right to left each night. [Rashal 85, brought in M”A 676:4; Gr”a] Due to this, some Poskim rule one is to position the Menorah vertically to the doorpost, hence causing that there is no candle that is closer to the doorpost than another, and one may begin with the left according to all. [Bach 676; M”A ibid; M”B 676 in name of Mateh Moseh; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6]

[822] Beir Moshe 5:128; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:6; Dinei Iter 20:2; Shevet Halevi 8:151; Shraga Hameir 7:9-3

[823] M”B 676:11

[824] Rama 574:1

[825] Rama 671:7 regarding the lighting in Shul and the same applies for the lighting at home, as explained in M”A 671:11; Rashal 85; M”B 671:49; brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:82

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that when lighting at home one must light all the candles himself. [Levush 671] Some Poskim rule that a Baal Nefesh is to suspect for this opinion. [Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 671:12; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:13; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[826] Biur Hagr”a; M”B 671:48; Kaf Hachaim 671:80; This certainly applies in order to suspect for the “other opinions” brought in previous footnote.

[827] The reason: As the main Mitzvah is fulfilled when a single candle is lit and the remaining candles are only Hiddur Mitzvah. [M”B 671:49; Kaf Hachaim 671:81]

[828] M”B 671:48 in name of Gr”a; This certainly applies in order to suspect for the “other opinions” brought in previous footnotes.

The reason: this is due to the rule of Mitzvah Bo Yoser Mibeshlucho.

[829] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 18; Kaf Hachaim 671:83

[830] Mahariy Bruno 39; Pischeiy Teshuvah; Kaf Hachaim 673:53

[831] Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; Hayom Yom 25th Kisleiv;Toras Menachem 2:618; Shulchan Menachem 3:281; Makor Chaim of Chavos Yair “The main Mitzvah is to remain near the candles for a half hour”; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:394; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:5

[832] Hayom Yom ibid that on Erev Shabbos the Rebbe Rashab would not do so

[833] As the idea of learning Torah is especially connected to Chanukah, as the Greeks desired to abolish Torah learning. [Rebbe ibid]

[834] Toras Menachem Reshimos p. 323; Sichos Kodesh 55735 1:284

[835] Shulchan Gavoa 676; Kaf Hachaim 676:33; See M”B 676:9

[836] See Admur Kama 2/3-6; Basra 2/4; 206:8

[837] Shraga Hameir 7:9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:6; Dinei Iter 20:3; See Tzemach Tzedek Orach Chaim 4/6 and 5/8 regarding Netilas Yadayim; Admur 183/7 that a lefty is to hold the Kos Shel Bracha in his left hand; 651/14 that a lefty is to hold the Lulav in his left hand; So writes also Rav Ginzberg in Haaros Ubiurim 783 p. 74

Other opinions:

[838] Admur 8:3; M”A 8:2; Beis Yosef 8:1 in name Orchos Chaim Tzitzis 27 based on Yerushalmi “That which it states in the Yerushalmi that all blessings are to be said standing, it refers to Birchas Hamitzvos”; Haittur Zohar Tetzaveh brought in P”M 8 M”Z 1; P”M Pesicha to Hilchos Brachos 202:18 “We hold that Birchas Hamitzvos must be said standing” [however, see P”M 432 M”Z 3]; M”B 8:2 “All blessings of Mitzvos need to be done standing”

The reason: This is learned from Sefiras Haomer which is required to be said and blessed on in a standing position. [M”B ibid; See Kol Bo p. 16, brought in P”M 432 M”Z 3]

Cases of exception: The above rule is with exception for the blessings made over Shechitah and Challah, being that these two Mitzvos don’t hold the same weight as other commands, as they are done merely for the sake of being able to eat food. [Admur ibid; M”A 8:2] Vetzaruch Iyun according to this ruling here why we are accustomed today to sit by various blessings of Mitzvos, such as “Al Achilas Matzah”; “Leishev Basukkah” and others. See P”M Pesicha to Hilchos Brachos 202:18 who explains that since these Mitzvos involve eating, they may be said in a sitting position; See Bach 8; Pnei Yehoshua Megillah 21a; Mor Uketzia 8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 8:4 who differentiate between Mitzvos that are performed standing versus sitting. 

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the blessings of Mitzvos are not required to be said in a standing position, with exception to those Mitzvos that must be performed standing. [P”M 432 M”Z 3 “Chazal instituted the blessing similar to the performance if it is done standing”; Artzos Hachaim 8:1 states it is only a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar; Bach 8 only requires standing for Mitzvos that have no benefit; See Pnei Yehoshua Megillah 21a; Mor Uketzia 8 that depends it if the Mitzvah is accustomed to be performed standing; Piskeiy Teshuvos 8:4]

[839] Birur Chaim 2:1 [pp. 198-203]; See regarding Shofar: Admur 585:2; Ben Ish Chaiy Netzavim 15 brought in kaf Hachaim 585:1; See also Yifei Laleiv 2:2; Kaf Hachaim 690:2 that so was custom of the Beis Keil shul in Jerusalem; Mikraeiy Kodesh brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 690:1; Stringent opinion by Shofar [not relevant to Chanukah as we don’t apply Shomeia Keoneh]: Kaf Hachaim 585:1; Machatzis Hashekel on M”A 690:1 regarding Megillah; Beis Oved 690:9 brought in Kaf Hachaim 690:2; Shaar HaTziyon 690:1

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is required to stand also for the actual lighting. [Chakal Yitzchak 3; However, see Birur Chaim who negates his proofs, and so seems clearly evident from all the sources that one is not required to stand]

[840] Setimas Kol Haposkim who omit writing of any obligation or necessity to stand during the lighting which proves that the sages never established that it be done in a standing position. Now, although the blessing must be recited in the standing position this does not certainly mean that the lighting which is the mitzvah must be done in the standing position, as these are two separate matters as proven from the two Halachos in Admur 8:3-4 which distinguishes between the obligation to stand for the blessing over Tzitzis versus the obligation to stand while putting it on while putting it on and so is also proven from the reading of the Megillah which may be read sitting when reading it in private even though one must stand for the blessings. [See Michaber 690:1]

[841] See Rameh 102 that there are number of Mitzvos which were accustomed to be done standing; Chakal Yitzchak 3 that so is the custom to both say the blessing and light it while standing and that so was done in the Temple lighting; Nitei Gavriel 27:2 footnote 2; See Birur Chaim ibid

[842] Rav Pinchas of Koretz, student of the Baal Shem Tov; Bnei Yissachar Kislev Mamar 2

[843] 676:1-5

[844] Michaber 676:1

[845] The word Shel: The word “Shel” is omitted from the blessing, unlike the Nusach of the blessing said over Shabbos candles. [Siddur Admur; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158; Rokeiach 226; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos 108B; Peri Chadash; Shulchan Gavoa 676:2; Halachos Ketanos 1:3; Shaareiy Teshuvah 676:1; Birkeiy Yosef 676 and Machazik Bracha; Yifei Laleiv 2:2; Maaseh Rav 131; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 2; Kaf Hachaim 676:1] This is because we are forbidden from using the Chanukah candles. [Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 676:1; Shlah Tamid 249b] Alternatively, this is because there is no other Mitzvah involved in Chanukah. [Machazik Bracha 676:1; Shaareiy Teshuvah ibid; Kaf Hachaim 676:2] This blessing contains 13 words. [Shaar Hakolel 46:2 in name of Peri Eitz Chaim] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:2

Other opinions: Some are accustomed to reciting the word Shel Chanukah. [M”B 676:1; Gemara Shabbos 23a; Rambam; Rif] or Shelchanukah in one word. [Rashal brought in M”A 676; Beir Heiytiv 676:1] or only Lehadlik Ner. [Miseches Sofrim]

[846] No Vav: Regarding why we say Bezman without a Vav in the beginning [Ubezman Hazeh], see M”A 676; Elya Raba 676:1; Mateh Moshe 980; Ruach Chaim 676:3; M”B 676:1; Kaf Hachaim 676:5

Other customs: Some are accustomed to reciting Ubezman Hazeh with a Vav. [Machzor Vitri; Kneses Hagedola 676; Levush 682; Ram Zakus in Emunas Chachamim p. 52]

Bizman versus Bazman: One is to say Bizman Hazeh with a Chirik under the Beis, and not Bazman Hazeh with a Patach under the Beis. [Likkutei Maharich in name of Siddur Yaavetz; This is unlike the Razah in the Siddur Otzer Hatefilos.]

[847] Michaber 676:1 regarding 1st night; Michaber 676:2 regarding every subsequent night.

The reason: The reason these two blessing are recited every subsequent night is because each night a new miracle occurred in the fact the oil lasted that entire day. [M”B 676:3]

[848] Michaber 676:1; Shabbos 23b; Siddur Admur

Pronunciation: The word Lizman Hazeh is said with a Chirik under the Lamed and not a Patach. [Siddur Admur; M”A 676; Elya Raba 676:1; Mateh Moshe 980; Rashal; Siddur Shlah; Siddur Reb Shabsi; Ruach Chaim 676:3; M”B 676:1; Kaf Hachaim 676:6] However some are accustomed to recite it with a Patach. [Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:2 footnote 9]

[849] Michaber ibid; Gemara ibid

[850] Michaber 676:2

The reason: As we are blessing Hashem for letting us live the year and reach this opportunity of doing the Mitzvah. It is thus only applicable on the first night. [See Taz 676:1] Alternatively, the reason is because the blessing counts for all the nights of Chanukah. [Mamar Mordechai 676:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:20] Alternatively, once the time has arrived and the blessings is recited it is no longer applicable to recite again “Higianu” as the time has already arrived. This is unlike the blessing of Sheasa Nissim which is said on the miracle of each night. [M”B 676:3]

[851] Michaber 676:3; Shulchan Gavoa 676:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:18

[852] M”B 676:1 in name of Levush; Kaf Hachaim 676:19

[853] Michaber ibid; Tur in name of Rosh; Rishonim in Kaf Hachaim 676:16

[854] This applies to any candle, even on someone else’s Menorah. [Michaber 676:3]

[855] Kaf Hachaim 676:18

[856] Kaf Hachaim 676:19

[857] M”B 676:1 regarding if remember after lighting; Kaf Hachaim ibid that this applies after extinguish

Vetzaruch Iyun why he did not explicitly write “after they extinguish” and simply wrote “after the lighting”. Such wording is misleading. See Shaar Hatziyon 676:3 from which it is clear the blessing may be recited until the candles extinguish, just as is the ruling of Michaber in 676:3.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may say Shehechiyanu on the first night even if the candles have already extinguished. [Meiri brought in Shaar Hatziyon ibid]

The 8th night: If on the 8th night, after all the candles have extinguished, one remembered that he did not yet say Shehechiyanu that Chanukah then it requires further analysis if he may still say the blessing. [Shaar Hatziyon Kaf Hachaim 676:19 ibid]  

[858] Rama 676:2 in name of Maharil; Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]

Other opinions: Some have the custom to begin lighting the candles immediately after the first blessing. [See Vayeishev Hayam 11]

[859] As the blessing must be recited prior to the Mitzvah. [Taz 676:2; M”B 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:21]

[860] Biur Halacha 676:2 “Vayivareich” in name of Beis Yosef and Darkei Moshe

[861] Michaber 676:4; Tur in name of Miseches Sofrim

Other Opinions: Some opinions rule that it is to be recited between the two blessings. [Miseches Sofrim; opinion in Peri Chadash 676] The Poskim negate this opinion. [Peri Chadash ibid; Shaar Hakolel 46:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:30]

How many words are in the prayer of Haneiros Halalu? Some write it is to contain 36 words corresponding to the 36 candles lit during Chanukah. [Rashal 85; Taz 676:5; M”A 676:3] Some dialects however contain 39 words. The Poskim write that some of the words do not count as part of the 36 number. [See Elya Raba 676:8; Machatzis Hashekel 676; Kaf Hachaim 676:28] In the Siddur, the Nussach of Admur contains 47 words

[862] The two words of Haneiros Halalu contain eight letters and correspond to the eight days of Chanukah. [M”A 676:3]. See Shaar Hakolel 4; Pardes Chabad 6:53]

[863] Siddur Admur; Shaar Hakolel 46:3; Sefer Haminhagim p. 159 [English]; P”M 676 M”Z 5 brought in M”B 676:8

The reason: The reason for our custom to refrain from singing until after all the candles are lit, is in order to not create an interval between the blessing and lighting of the extra candles.

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule that Haneiros Halalu is to be recited after the 1st candle is lit, while lighting the remaining candles. [Rashal 85; Taz 676:5; M”A 676:3; M”B 676:8] 

[864] Michaber 676:3; Shabbos 23a

Other opinions: Some Poskim write that today the custom is to no longer say the blessing of Sheasa Nissim upon seeing candles. [Tzafnas Paneiach Chanukah 3:3]

[865] If, however, he plans to light the candles later on that night, then he should not recite the blessing upon seeing it. Taz 676:3; M”B 676:5]

[866] Michaber ibid; Rashi ibid

If one was not present at the lighting of the household: The above law applies even if one was not present at the time of their lighting. [Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing of Sheasa Nissim and Shehechiyanu is to be recited by the household members that were not present at the time of the lighting, upon seeing the candles. [Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9] Practically, the blessing is not to be recited as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190] However some Poskim rule that the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is to be recited by one who was not present at that time. [Ashel Avraham Tinyana 675 “even a girl over Chinuch who did not hear the blessing must say it upon seeing the candles.”]

[867] The reason: The Sages established for the blessing to be recited by one who did not light candles, as they knew that not everyone owns a home and has ability to light candles, and therefore they initially established when they made their decree for everyone to say a blessing upon seeing candles, if they did not light. [Tosafus Sukkah 46a] Alternatively, it is because the main purpose of the candle lighting is to publicize the miracle, and thus one who sees the lit candles is considered to be participating in the Mitzvah. [Sdei Chemed Chanukah 9:3]

[868] If he did not recite Shehechiyanu upon seeing the lit candles on the first night, he is to recite it on the second night. [Rashal 85; Kaf Hachaim 676:17]

[869] Michaber ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he is to repeat the blessing of Shehechiyanu on the second night. [Mor Uketzia 676] Practically, we do not rule this way. [Machazik Bracha 676:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:27]

[870] Pnei Meivin 227; Brought in Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:10

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may recite the blessing even on Shabbos itself. [Shraga Hameir 5:19]

[871] P”M 679 A”A 1 implies there is no difference between Shabbos and other days; Shearim Hametzuyanim ibid establishes this to be referring to before sunset.

[872] M”A 676:4 in name of Hagahos Maimanis; Kaf Hachaim 676:13; When the Rebbe Rashab was away from home for Chanukah, he would instruct his wife Shterna Sara, to light the candles, but to hear the blessing from one of the men [who were lighting]. [Sefer Hasichos 5706 p. 21; Likkutei Sichos 30 p. 312; Toras Menachem 4:233]

[873] P”M 676 A”A 4; Admur 8:11 and in 585:5; 273:6; M”A 8:8; 585:3 based on Terumas Hadeshen 140; P”M 8 A”A 8; Opinion in M”B 585:5 and 692:10; Kaf Hachaim 8:21

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the person may always say a blessing for the other even if he knows how to recite the blessing. [Rama 585:2 regarding Shofar; Elya Raba brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid ]

[874] M”A 676:4 in name of Hagahos Maimanis; Kaf Hachaim 676:13; Admur 213:6; 8:11; Michaber 8:5; Implication of Taz 585 brought in Shaareiy Tziyon 585:24; M”B 589:4 in name of Achronim; See M”A 676:4; Kneses Hagedola 676:1; Peri Chadash; Elya Raba 676:2; Kaf Hachaim 676:12; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 6

[875] Implication of Rama 671:7; Erech Hashulchan 676:1; See Kaf Hachaim 589:12 and 585:38; Yoreh Deah P”M 1 M”Z 17; Piskeiy Teshuvos 585:9

[876] See Rama ibid; M”A 671:11; Machatzis Hashekel ibid that the head of the house is to say both the blessing and perform the lighting, as Mitzva Bo Yoser Mebishlucho

[877] Peri Chadash; Kaf Hachaim 676:15

[878] M”A 675:4; Rashal 77; Elya Raba 675:7

[879] Poskim ibid

The reason: As a blind person is obligated in all Mitzvos, and since the Mitzvah of Pirsumei Nissa applies towards other people seeing the Chanukah candles, it is therefore an obligation for him to light it. [ibid]

[880] Mor Uketzia; Machazik Bracha 675:5; Shaareiy Teshuvah 675:3; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 15; M”B 675:9; Kaf Hachaim 675:23; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he may light candles with a blessing. [Rashal ibid; Shevet Halevi 4:67; Yalkut Yosef p. 224]

[881] Opinion of Peri Chadash 672 as explained in Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13; Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:9; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:6

[882] Since one fulfills his obligation with a single candle on every night he has already fulfilled his Mitzvah and thus can no longer say the first blessing on it.

[883] Halachos Ketanos 1:3-11; Shut Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev 10; M”B 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:10 and 22

[884] The reason: As some Poskim [Elya Raba 672:10] rule one may recite a blessing on the Hiddur Mitzvah of the additional candles, as well as that so long as the candle is still lit within its half hour one is still fulfilling the actual Mitzvah of the first candle, and it is hence similar to one who is wearing a Tallis, as well as some Poskim rule one may always recite a blessing after the Mitzvah. Thus, in this case through joining all three reasons one may be lenient. [Rebbe Akiva Eiger ibid]

[885] Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13; Ben Ish Chaiy ibid rules that although this itself is disputed, nevertheless “Safek Brachos Lihakel”; M”B 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:10 and 22

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing may be said even after all the candles are lit, even if the candles have burned for some time and no longer contain enough oil for the Shiur [of a half hour]. [P”M 263 A”A 11]

[886] Michaber 676:3; Ben Ish Chaiy ibid; M”B 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:10 and 22

[887] As one has not yet fulfilled his obligation [M”B 673:25] and hence since he made an interval of an unrelated matter the blessing must be repeated. [see 25:33]

[888] See 25:33

[889] See P”M 672 A”A 3; M”B ibid in name of P”M; Kaf Hachaim 672:19-20; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing is to be repeated. [Implication of Beis Yosef in name of Orchos Chaim, brought in M”A 676; P”M in Rosh Yosef Shabbos 23a, in contradiction of his ruling ibid; See Minchas Yitzchak 4:115; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid] This is similar to the law that one each household member may light their own candles with a blessing for the sake of Mehadrin, so too one may say a new blessing for the sake of the extra candles if he talked in between. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[890] As they need to be Yotzei the blessing of Sheasa Nissim.

[891] Maaseh Eliyahu 1:236; Nitei Gavriel 24:8

[892] Machazik Bracha 671:9; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:7; Kisei Eliyahu 676:1; Kaf Hachaim 671:73 and 676:7 based on M”A 551

[893] Maharam Mintz 43; Taz 671:8; P”M 671 M”Z 8; Machazik Bracha 671:9; Chayeh Adam 154:17; Derech Hachaim 4; M”B 671:44; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:7; Kaf Hachaim 671:73; See also regarding Megillah: M”B 692:1; Derech Hachaim 2; Kaf Hachaim 692:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim permit the Avel to recite Shehechiyanu even by a public reading. [Olas Shmuel 106 that he has not seen the world be careful in this matter; Teshuvah Meahava 2:286; Mishmeres Shalom ibid; Gesher Hachaim 23:4; Beis Yitzchak Yoreh Deah 2:158; Minchas Elazar 2:32; See Nitei Gavriel 37:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 692:6]

[894] Meiri Megilllah 4a; Peri Chadash; Birkeiy Yosef 692; P”M 676 M”Z 12; Rav Akiva Eiger Tinyana 13; Emek Sheila Netziv 26:10; Sdei Chemed 9:3; Kaf Hachaim 676:14; Igros Moshe 1:190; Shevet Halevi 3:90; Piskeiy Teshuvos 676:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim question that perhaps one may say the blessing of Shehechiyanu, even if he will not be lighting or seeing candles during the holiday, just as is the law on Pesach and Sukkos. [Shaar Hatziyon 676:3]

[895] The reason: This blessing was only instituted to be said on behalf of the candles. [ibid]

[896] M”A 676:2; P”M 676 A”A 2; M”B 676:7; Kaf Hachaim 67:26

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule he is to recite the blessing of Shehechiyanu on the 2nd night. [Bach brought in M”A ibid]

[897] Peri Chadash 676; Kaf Hachaim 676:15

[898] Michaber 676:3 [contradicts 677:3]; M”A 676:1; Taz 676:4; Birkeiy Yosef 676:3; M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:23; Piskeiy Teshuvos 675:3; In Rishonim: Rashba; Ran; Smag;

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the blessing of Sheasa Nissim and Shehechiyanu is to be recited by the household members upon seeing the candles. [Michaber 677:3 as explained in M”B 677:14 [contradicts 676:3]; Mordechai; Biur Hagr”a in name of Rashi; Elya Raba ; Bach; Peri Chadash; brought in M”B ibid; Shaar Hatziyon 676:9] Practically the blessing is not to be recited as Safek Brachos Lihakel. [M”B 676:6; 677:14; Kaf Hachaim 676:24; 677:21 and 23; Igros Moshe 1:190] However some Poskim rule that the blessing of Sheasa Nissim is to be recited by one who was not present at that time. [Ashel Avraham Tinyana 675 “even a girl over Chinuch who did not hear the blessing must say it upon seeing the candles.”]

[899] See Igros Moshe 1:190 regarding a Shliach and the same would apply in a case of Mishtatef Beperutah. The Igros Moshe explains that it is relevant to the same dispute mentioned in the previous case of a household. See previous footnote.

[900] Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:10

[901] Sdei Chemed 9:3; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:67; Rav Akiva Eiger 75

[902] Gilyonei Hashas Shabbos 21b; Kinyan Torah 7:51; Shraga Hameir 5:198

[903] Minchas Elazar 2:68; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:103

[904] Igros Moshe 1:190

[905] Reim on Smag, Bach, brought in M”A 676:4; Kaf Hachaim 676:12

[906] M”A 676:4; Kneses Hagedola 676:1; Peri Chadash; Elya Raba 676:2; Kaf Hachaim 676:12

[907] Kitzur SHU”A 139:12

[908] Igros Harambam 9; Olas Shabbos 677:1; Elya Raba 677:2; Peri Chadash; M”B 675:14; Kaf Hachaim 677:4

[909] Sichas Shabbos Chanukah 1982; Hiskashrus 908

[910] Hiskashrus 908, as Rebbe himself would start to sing it may times on Shabbos.

[911] Kav Hayashar 96; Yifei Laleiv 2:5; Kaf Hachaim 675:8; See Kaf Hachaim 676:9 for the Kabbalistic intents of lighting.

[912] Kav Hayashar 96; Yifei Laleiv 2:5; Kaf Hachaim 675:8

[913] See Darkei Chaim Veshalom 812; Likkutei Maharich 3

[914] Sefer Haminhagim p. 158 [English]

[915] Michaber 670:1

[916] See below

[917] The reason for the custom by women: The reason for why this custom relates specifically to women is because it is through them that the miracle took place. [Taz 670:2; M”A 670:1. As explained above regarding Yehudis who killed the general who besieged Jerusalem.] Alternatively, the reason is because the decrees of the Geeks were especially difficult for women, as they were decreed to spend the first night of their wedding with the Greek master. [Kitzur SH”A 139:3] As for why they avoid work specifically while the candles are lit, this is in order to serve as a reminder that it is forbidden to make use of the light [Machatzis Hashekel brought in M”B 670:4], or alternatively in order to properly contemplate the miracle that occurred. [Levush 570:1, brought also in Kaf Hachaim 570:7]

[918] Michaber ibid states: Some say one may not allow women to be lenient in this matter.

[919] Taz 670:2 in name of Maharil who received such a tradition; M”B 670:3. Taz himself rules that men are certainly not included in this custom.

[920] Implication of Sefer Haminhagim which states that one is to stay near the lights for 30 minutes and that after the set time one may do work not in full view of the candles. This implies that prior to the set time men are to avoid work during that half hour, as learns the Maharil. [Hiskashrus Chanukah; Other Melaktim [Shevach Hamoadim, Piskeiy Teshuvos] do not mention this law to apply also regarding men.]

[921] Machatzis Hashekel brought in M”B 670:4

[922] Levush 570:1, brought also in Kaf Hachaim 570:7

[923] M”B 670:4; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English edition]

Other Opinions: The simple meaning behind the words of the Michaber is that work may not be done by women so long as the candles are lit. The Magen Avraham explains this to mean until the candles of the Shul extinguish, which is until midnight. Others have a custom to refrain from work the entire festival of Chanukah, although others have denounced this custom and asked for it to be nullified. [M”A 670:2] 

[924] Sefer Haminhagim ibid; See Michaber 672:2 that work may even be done in view of the candles. However see M”B 672:8 based on Rashal brought in M”A ibid that one may not do work using the light of the candles so long as they are lit.

[925] Sefer Haminhagim ibid

[926] Piskeiy Teshuvos 670:2

[927] The Munkatcher would not even write while the candles are lit. [ibid]

[928] The reason: As it is illogical to claim that the work at this time is more severe than that of Chol Hamoed. [ibid]

[929] See next Q&A regarding cooking.

[930] From the letter of the law, it is permitted to cook and do other meal preparations. [Or Letziyon 4:41] However, some write that it is best to refrain from the above during the first half hour. [Piskeiy Teshuvos 670:2] Practically, so seems to be the proper custom, to avoid all work at all in order to properly contemplate the Chanukah miracle during that time, as writes the Levush.

[931] Shalmei Moed p. 244 that so was the custom in the home of Rav SZ”A

[932] Ben Ish Chaiy brought in Kaf Hachaim 670:10

[933] See Derech Mitzvosecha Mitzvas Ner Chanukah p. 146 and onwards; Likkutei Torah Devarim p. 96 regaridng Rosh Chodesh

[934] Admur 275:13; Rama 275:12; Darkei Moshe 275:4; Rokeiach 45

[935] Levush 275; Tosefes Shabbos 275:16

[936] See Chikreiy Halachos ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[937] Kaf Hachaim 275:41

[938] Kaf Hachaim 275:42

[939] Admur Shemiras Haguf Vehanefesh 9; Admur 275:13 in parentheses “It is customary to cover the children so they not be naked in front of the [Shabbos] candles due to Bizuiy Mitzvah (and also during the week there is danger to stand before the candles naked).”; Pesachim 112b; Derisha 275:1; Elya Raba 275:14; Beir Heiytiv 275:10; M”B 275:27

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that in today’s times there is no longer a danger involved in this matter, as the natures have changed since the times of the Talmud. [Tosefes Shabbos 275:16; Teshuros Shaiy 51; Zecher Yehosef 28

[940] Chikreiy Halachos 1:32

[941] M”B ibid in name of Elya Raba 275:14

[942] Roshei Bashmayim 6; Makor Chaim 5; Zecher Yehosef 28; See Yabia Omer Y.D. 3:7

[943] 673:1

[944] Michaber ibid; Shabbos 22b

The reason: This prohibition was enacted in order to properly emphasize the Mitzvah status of the candles and thereby publicize the Chanukah miracle to all. [Rashi brought in M”B 673:8] Furthermore, since the candles commemorate the miracle that occurred with the Menorah, therefore it receives the same law as the Menorah in which its candles are forbidden in benefit. [Ran brought in M”B 673:8]

[945] Beis Yosef, Darkei Moshe and Rashal, brought in M”A 673:2; The M”A 678:2 seems to conclude like this opinion as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights, and so rules Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2

[946] Bach; Smak and Sefer Haterumah, brought in M”A 673:2; Conclusion of M”A ibid that so is the custom and so is proven from 678:1 from the fact we rule one cannot light the Chanukah candles in one’s house as Shabbos candles, if one only has one candle available; However see M”A 678:2 that seems to conclude like the previous opinion, as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights; See P”M 678 A”A 2

[947] M”B 673:9-10; 678:2

[948] Michaber ibid

[949] Tur in name of Rosh; Stam opinion in Michaber ibid

[950] Tur in name of Baal Haitur; second opinion in Michaber ibid

[951] Kaf Hachaim 673:32 in name of Levush and Kelalim of Beis Yosef to rule like his first opinion. 

[952] M”A 673:4; M”B ibid

[953] Michaber 672:2; Rama 674:1; Tosafus Shabbos 22

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to benefit from the candle even after the time has passed, being all the oil was placed for the Mitzvah, and that so is the custom. [Bach and Tzeida Laderech, brought in M”A 672:4; 676:10; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 672:9; Kaf Hachaim 672:21] In their opinion, seemingly this would apply even if one extinguishes and later relights the candle. Furthermore, some Poskim rule that those who light inside their home, must place enough oil to last until the people at home go to sleep, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until that point. [Mishmeres Shalom 48:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:4-5 footnote 24] Other Poskim rule that those who light outside their home are to place enough oil to last until people are no longer found outside, which is approximately 9:00, and one may not extinguish or make use of the candles until that time. [Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:390; Moadim Uzmanim 2:141; 6:86; Piskeiy Teshuvos 672:5] Practically, this novelty is not recorded in the classical Poskim.

[954] The reason: As one only designates the amount of oil necessary to fulfill the Mitzvah, and hence the excess oil is not considered Holy. The candle may thus be extinguished and then relit for one’s personal use. [Beis Yosef 677; M”B 672:7]

[955] Michaber 677:4; M”A 673:8; Elya Raba 673:11; Peri Chadash 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:8; Mahariy Bruno 51; Kaf Hachaim 673:47

[956] Mahariy brought in Beis Yosef 677; M”A 677:10; Elya Raba 672:2; Chayeh Adam; M”B 672:7; Kaf Hachaim 672:21

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is not necessary at all to make any stipulation when placing the oil, and it may be extinguished after a half hour in all cases. [Taz 672:1; first answer in Beis Yosef 677] The Elya Raba ibid negates this opinion of the Taz.

[957] The reason: As there are Poskim who rule that if did not make this stipulation then the entire oil is designated for the Mitzvah. [Poskim ibid]

[958] Rashal 85, brought in M”A 670:2; Elya Raba 672:2 concludes to suspect for Rashal; M”B 672:8 and 674:8; Kaf Hachaim 672:21; See opinions in “Other Poskim” brought in previous footnotes!

[959] The reason: This is due to Maaras Ayin, that the onlooker will think it is permitted to benefit from the light even within a half hour. [M”B ibid] This applies even if one stipulated beforehand that the oil is only designated for a half hour. [Shaar Hatziyon 672:12]

[960] Rashal ibid; Kaf Hachaim 672:21; See Biur Halacha 673:2 “Viyesh”

[961] See Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English] that work should not be done in full view of the candles even after 30 minutes have passed

[962] Biur Halacha 673:2 “Viyesh”

[963] Rama 673:1; Terumos Hadeshen 103

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule the candles are nullified in a 1:2 ratio. [Rashal 85, brought in M”A 673:8] Other Poskim rule it is only not nullified during Chanukah itself, if the oil can still be used for the Chanukah candles. [Taz 673:6; See Machatzis Hashekel 673:8; Kaf Hachaim 673:50]

[964] M”A 673:8; Elya Raba 673:11; Peri Chadash 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:8; Mahariy Bruno 51; Kaf Hachaim 673:47

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that according to those who hold that one may not make use of the candles even after the passing of a half hour, then if the candles get mixed up even after a half hour, they are not nullified. [Peri Chadash 673, brought in Kaf Hachaim 673:48] Practically, however, regarding Taaruvos one may be lenient even according to their opinion. [Machatzis Hashekel 673:8; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

Chanukah candles that were never lit: Oil that was set aside for the Chanukah lighting does not receive any holiness until it is actually lit. [Elya Raba ibid; Erech Hashulchan 673:5; Kaf Hachaim 673:47; Unlike Olas Shabbos 672]

[965] The reason: As the Chanukah candle is a Davar Shebiminyan. [Rama ibid]

[966] [966] M”A 673:8; Elya Raba 673:11; Peri Chadash 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:8; Mahariy Bruno 51; Kaf Hachaim 673:47

[967] Beir Hagoleh; Darkei Moshe 673:5; Kaf Hachaim 673:49

[968] Rama ibid

[969] 673:2 regarding Shamash

[970] Shaareiy Teshuvah 673:3; M”B 673:11

[971] Beis Yosef, Darkei Moshe and Rashal, brought in M”A 673:2; The M”A 678:2 seems to conclude like this opinion as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights, and so rules Ruach Chaim in name of Rosh Yosef; Chayeh Adam 154:36; See Kaf Hachaim 678:2

[972] The reason: As although it is forbidden to use the Chanukah lights and eat near it, nevertheless this is similar to a time of danger in which we rule the candles may be lit on the table, and due to lack of choice, one is likewise allowed to eat near it. This law likewise applies during the week, if one only has one candle available. [M”A ibid]

[973] Bach; Smak and Sefer Haterumah, brought in M”A 673:2; Conclusion of M”A ibid that so is the custom and so is proven from 678:1 from the fact we rule one cannot light the Chanukah candles in one’s house as Shabbos candles, if one only has one candle available; However see M”A 678:2 that seems to conclude like the previous opinion as he rules one may eat near the Chanukah lights; See P”M 678 A”A 2

[974] M”B 673:9; 678:2

[975] M”B 673:7; Shearim Hametzuyanim 129:13

[976] Michaber 674:1; Shabbos 22a

[977] Michaber ibid; Rosh in name of Rif; Ramban; Rav in Shabbos ibid

The reason: As it appears as a belittlement to the Mitzvah, as not everyone is aware that one plans to light the Chanukah candle with it. [Levush; Taz 674:1]

[978] M”B 674:3 in name of Peri Chadash and so is implied from the Michaber ibid; Kaf Hachaim 674:7

[979] 2nd opinion in Michaber ibid; Sefer Haterumos; Ran; Shmuel in Shabbos ibid

[980] Rama ibid; Kaf Hachaim 674:8 that this applies even according to the Sefaradim

[981] Peri Chadash end of 673; Shulchan Gavoa 674:1; Kaf Hachaim 674:3; However, one may not remove the wick from the candle and then light it. [Peri Chadash ibid] Certainly one may not move the candle towards the unlit candle in order to light it. [Peri Chadash 674; Mamar Mordechai 674:1; Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[982] Michaber ibid; Shabbos ibid

[983] Rama 674:1; Hagahos Maimanis; Mordechai

The reason: As the main Mitzvah is fulfilled with a single candle, while the remaining candles are not considered such a Mitzvah, and therefore the extra candles should not be lit from the obligatory candle. [Rama ibid]

[984] M”A 674; M”B 674:2 and 7; Kaf Hachaim 674:4

[985] Rashal 85; Bach; Elya Raba 674:1; Chayeh Adam 154:26; M”B 674:7; Kaf Hachaim 674:11

[986] Michaber 674:2

[987] Tur in name of Sefer Hateruma

[988] Michaber ibid

[989] Rama ibid

[990] Rama 674:1; Nimukei Yosef

[991] See “Other opinions” in Halacha A in footnotes!

[992] Bach; Peri Chadash; Elya Raba 674:1; M”B 674:8; Kaf Hachaim 674:12

[993] M”B 674:8; Kaf Hachaim 674:12

[994] P”M 674 A”A 2

[995] See Halacha 13!

[996] See Halacha 2C!

[997] Kaf Hachaim 674:10

[998] Elya Raba 673:10; Shaareiy Teshuvah 673; M”B 673:15; Biur Halacha 673:1 “Sheim Yishtamesh” in name of Machatzis Hashekel

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is initially forbidden to benefit from the light of the Shamash, even if the Shamash is individually recognizable from the other candles. [P”M 673 A”A 4 in explanation of M”A 673:4; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 673:7]

[999] M”A 673:4; M”B ibid

[1000] 677:4

[1001] Michaber ibid as explained in M”B 677:18 that “Hatzarich Leshiur Hadlaka” means that there was enough oil to last 30 minutes and it extinguished before that time; So also explains Levush; Kaf Hachaim 677:26

The reason: As the oil of the half hour of burning as designated for its Mitzvah. [Michaber ibid] Now, although we rule that all Tashmishei Mitzvah may be used for mundane matters after the Mitzvah is complete [see Admur 21:1 and 42:6] nevertheless, here, it is forbidden being that one intended for all this oil to be used up, and it is hence considered designated for the Mitzvah, similar to Hekdesh. [See Ramban Shabbos 21b]

[1002] M”A 673:8; Elya Raba 673:11; Peri Chadash 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:8; Mahariy Bruno 51; Kaf Hachaim 673:47

[1003] Tur; Levush; M”B 677:17; Kaf Hachaim 677:26

[1004] Michaber ibid as explained in M”A 677:10 and M”B 677:18; Kaf Hachaim 677:26-27; See also Michaber 672:2

[1005] See Biur Halacha 671:1 “Ubilvad”

[1006] Michaber 677:4; M”A 673:8; Elya Raba 673:11; Peri Chadash 673; Kneses Hagedola 673:8; Mahariy Bruno 51; Kaf Hachaim 673:47

[1007] Mahariy brought in Beis Yosef 677; Bach and Tzeida Laderech, brought in M”A 672:4; 677:10; Peri Chadash 677; brought in M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 677:26

[1008] M”B 677:18; Poskim in next footnote

[1009] M”A 677:10; Elya Raba 672:2; Chayeh Adam; Poskim brought in M”B 677:18; 672:7; Kaf Hachaim 672:21

[1010] Levush; Kaf Hachaim 677:26

[1011] Kitzur SHU”A 139:20; Tur; Beis Yosef; See Kaf Hachaim 677:26 in name of Levush

[1012] Michaber 677:4

[1013] This refers to the oil that remains when a candle extinguished prior to a half hour after nightfall, whether of the 8th night, or of any other night of Chanukah, as explained above. However, the oil that remains after a half hour after nightfall, is not considered Mitzvah oil according to the many opinions, and hence Bedieved if the oil mixed, nullification is not required, even if a stipulation was not made. [Machatzis Hashekel 673:8; Kaf Hachaim 673:48] However, some Poskim rule that according to those who hold that one may not make use of the candles even after the passing of a half hour, then if the candles get mixed up even after a half hour, they are not nullified. [Peri Chadash 673, brought in Kaf Hachaim 673:48]

[1014] Yeish Mi Sheomer in Michaber ibid; Rama Y.D. 99:6; Tur in name of Mahram of Rothenberg; Rosh; M”A 677:12; Suggestion of Shach 99:19; Elya Raba 677:7; Metzudas Yissachar 19; Ikkareiy Hadaat 35:32; Pischeiy Teshuvah; Kaf Hachaim 677:31

[1015] The reason: As it is forbidden to nullify an Issur Lechatchila. [Rama ibid] It is not similar to the law regarding adding more wood to forbidden wood on Yom Tov, being that the benefit of the wood is only received after it turns to ash. [M”A 677:12; Tur 677; Levush 677; Kaf Hachaim 677:30; See Admur 507:3]

[1016] Michaber Y.D. 99:6 [brought in M”A 677:12; M”B 67720]; Rashba; Rashal brought in Taz 99:12; Taz 677:4; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 677:8

The contradiction in Michaber: In Y.D. ibid the Michaber rules that one may add Heter to nullify a Rabbinical Issur. This seemingly contradicts his ruling here 677:4 that one may not add Heter oil to the mixture to nullify it in 60x. [Taz 99:12] Some Poskim therefore conclude that in truth, based on the Michaber in 99:6, one may add oil to the mixture, and the above opinion in 677:4 is a Daas Yachid. [Taz 677:4; Peri Chadash 677; Shulchan Gavoa 677:8] The Shach 99:19 however suggests that items which are forbidden in benefit due to sacrilege [i.e. using Mitzvah oil for mundane activity] are more severe in their laws then a regular Rabbinical Issur, and hence, there is no contradiction in the Michaber’s rulings. Nevertheless, the Shach concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. [The Shach questions this answer based on the fact that the source of the stringent opinion brought by the Michaber in 677:4 is the Mahram Rotenberg which is proven to hold like the Rama that one may not add Heter to even Rabbinical Issurim.] The Magen Avraham 677:12 suggests that perhaps Chanukah oil is more stringent as it has a status of Davar Sheyeish Lo Matirin [As the oil will become permitted next year by Chanukah]. Some Poskim however question this assertion. [The Beir Heiytiv [Yoreh Deah 99:14; Orach Chaim 677:5] and Rav Akiva Eiger ask on this answer of the Magen Avraham that if in truth the oil were a Davar Sheyeish Lo Matirin then it would never be nullified even in a 1000x while the Michaber suggests that if there were 60x it would be nullified.]

[1017] As so rules Rama ibid, and even according to Michaber, many Poskim understand him to rule stringently in this case

[1018] Pashut; Biur Halacha 677:4 “Hatzarich”

[1019] Shevet Hakehasi 3:204; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:8; based on Sukkah 45a that the Esrog of a child receives Kedusha

[1020] M”A 677:11; Tur 677; Levush; M”B 677:19; Kaf Hachaim 677:29

[1021] The reason: As we suspect that one may come to use it in the interim, either for eating or for lighting. [ibid]

[1022] See Michaber Y.D. 57/20; Shach 84/17; Taz Y.D. 84/7; Rashal Perek Eilu Treifos 125, brought in Taz and Shach ibid; Admur 435/4; 447/1; Kuntrus Achron 446/1

[1023] Admur 447/1; See Shach 57/47 “21 days is a short time”; Michaber ibid “12 months”

Saving the oil to burn with the Chametz on Erev Pesach: As stated above, it is forbidden to saver the oil for more than 1-2 months. Nonetheless, some are accustomed to save the oil for the burning of the Chametz on Erev Pesach. This is due to that a) today people no longer make use of this oil, and there is hence no suspicion of coming to benefit from it in the interim. B) The oil is usually from a half hour past nightfall, and hence may be benefited from, according to the letter of the law. Nonetheless, it is not to be used to help fuel the burning of the Chametz, as the oil is forbidden in benefit [if it is from within a half hour][See Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:9; 445:5]

[1024] Implication of Michaber ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 677:9; See Aruch Hashulchan 677:6; Chochmas Shlomo 677; Shraga Hameir 5:118

[1025] 679:1

[1026] Michaber ibid; Tur 679; Bahag; Darkei Moshe 679; Bach 679; Birkeiy Yosef 679:1; Radbaz 757; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Bigdei Yesha; Kaf Hachaim 679:1; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

The reason: As there are opinions who hold that after one has lit the Shabbos candles he has fully accepted Shabbos and thus may no longer light the Chanukah candles. Now, although most Poskim argue on this ruling [regarding men] it is nevertheless proper to first light the Chanukah candles in order to fulfill one’s obligation in accordance to all opinions. [M”B 679:1] Also, according to Kabala, the Chanukah candles are to be lit first. [Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev]

Other opinions: Some rule one may light the Shabbos candles first and then light the Chanukah candles. [Tosafus, brought in Tur ibid]

[1027] Rama ibid; Terumos Hadeshen 102; M”A 679:5

[1028] M”A 679:1; Bach; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Peri Chadash 679; Derech Hachaim 1; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:5

[1029] M”B 672:3

This means that one calculates the amount of day hours in the day and then divides that by 12. One then times that by 1.25 hours, which is the number of hours in Plag Hamincha [1 hour and 15 minutes]. Thus, if there are 14 day hours in the day, then each hour when divided into 12 contains 70 minutes, and thus Plag Hamincha would be 1.25 hours times 70 minutes which equals 87.5 minutes prior to sunset. 

[1030] Admur in Siddur Hilchos Kerias Shema and 443:4; Gr”a; Ketzos Hashulchan 76:1

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch: In 263:6 Admur rules that Plag Hamincha is1 hour and 15 minutes before nightfall. This is based on 58:3; 89:1 in which Admur rules the day is from Alos until Tzeis. Likewise, in 261:5 where Admur rules that although one may be stringent to accept Shabbos from 1 and ¼ hours prior to sunset, he may not be lenient to light candles until 1 and ¼ hours prior to nightfall. However, in Admur 443:4 he rules it is counted from sunrise until sunset and so rules Admur in the Siddur.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Plag Hamincha is 1.25 Zmaniyos hours prior to nightfall. [M”B 672:3; 679:2; 692:13; Kaf Hachaim 692:29]

[1031] Moadim Uzmanim 2:152 based on Rishonim and Biur Hagra 679

[1032] Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Mivakshei Torah ; Moadim Uzmanim 6:84; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 679 footnote 3

[1033] P”M 671 A”A 10; Birkeiy Yosef 679:2; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671; Moed Lekol Chaiy 27:45; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 20; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 671:79; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

Other customs: Many are accustomed to Daven Mincha after the Chanukah lighting, as it is difficult to arrange a Minyan prior to the Chanukah lighting. [Tzur Yaakov 1:136; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:2; Tzur Yaakov 1:136]

[1034] The reason: As the allowance to light the Chanukah candles prior to sunset follows the opinion that from Plag Hamincha is considered night, and thus if one were to afterwards pray Mincha it would contradict to the lighting of the Chanukah candles. [P”M 671 A”A 10; Shaar Hatziyon 679:7; Kaf Hachaim 671:79] Alternatively, the reason is because in the Mikdash, the Karban Tamid was offered prior to lighting the Menorah. [Birkeiy Yosef ibid] See however Tzur Yaakov ibid who answers how these reasons do not contradict the above custom.

[1035] Shaar Hatziyon ibid

[1036] Kitzur Shlah Chanukah; Elya Raba 679; Kaf Hachaim 671:79; There were times that the Rebbe lit Chanukah candles, and then Shabbos candles and only then Davened Mincha with the Minyan. [Hiskashrus 908 footnote 77] See Dvar Moshe 1:15

[1037] Michaber 672:1; P”M 679 A”A 2; Mamar Mordechai 67:2 Machatzis Hashekel 679:2; Chayeh Adam 154:35; Derech Hachaim 4; M”B 679:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:6

[1038] M”B 672:2; Kaf Hachaim 679:6

[1039] Kaf Hachaim ibid

[1040] Chayeh Adam ibid

[1041] M”B 679:2

[1042] As one begins to light the Chanukah candles prior to the Shabbos candles which are lit 18 minutes before sunset, and following sunset until nightfall is approximately 20 minutes, depending on country. In some places the candles must last much longer due to a longer twilight period. Likewise, the earlier one lights the candles before Shabbos, the longer they must last.

[1043] Michaber 673:2

[1044] Taz 673 brought in M”B 672:26

[1045] M”B 672:27; 679:1

[1046] Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:1

[1047] Binyan Shlomo 53; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev based on Kaballah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 679:1

[1048] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeshev

[1049] Elya Raba 679:2; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a man may not light the Chanukah candles after lighting the Shabbos candles. [Taz 679:1]

[1050] Kuntrus Achron 263:2 [brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 26] “a lot less than 15 minutes”; Ketzos Hashulchan 74 footnote 17 “This is approximately 10 minutes” and so writes Piskeiy Teshuvos 263:15 and 32 and Kitzur Dinei Hadlakas Neiros 4:10 and 15; Eretz Tzevi 1:113 says it’s about 8 minutes

[1051] M”A 679:1; Taz 679:1; Chayeh Adam 154:35; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:3; See Admur 263:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule a woman may light the Chanukah candles even after lighting the Shabbos candles. [Levush, brought in M”A ibid]

[1052] P”M 679 A”A 1; M”B 679:1; Kaf Hachaim 679:4

[1053] Admur 277:5-6; See Admur 279:8 regarding the law by candelabra made of assembled parts

[1054] Admur 279:1; Michaber 279:1

[1055] See Tehila Ledavid 308:22 that this allowance applies even for candelaberas which are made of assembled parts. Vetzaruch Iyun as moving with a Shinuiy still contains the suspicion, and even more so, that it may fall and one may come to reassemble it.

[1056] Admur 311:14; 308:661-62; Michaber 308:27; 309:3-4; 310:8; 311:8

[1057] Admur 311:14; Michaber 311:8

[1058] Admur 277:3 “A door with an oil candle attached to it may be moved slowly in a way that will not cause the oil to extinguish the flame. 277:5 “If one needs to use the space under the tray then he may move the tray together with the candle which is on it, even if it is made of oil, to any place of his desire.”; Elya Raba 277:14; Elya Zuta 277:3 “It is possible to carry the table slowly in a way that the oil will not swerve, and it is hence not a Pesik Reishei”; Ketzos Hashulchan 112:14

[1059] Admur 309:4; Michaber 309:4; Shabbos 142b;

[1060] Admur 277:6; Michaber 277:3

[1061] Admur 277:6; M”A 277:8; M”B 277:18

[1062] Admur ibid; M”B 277:18; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10; Seemingly this is coming to teach that only the Shabbos Challahs are considered to oneself of more importance then the candles. This contrasts with weekday bread, to which the candles hold more importance in relation to, and thus the table would still remain a basis. This can seemingly answer why in the end of this Halacha Admur mentions that bread also must be of more importance then the flame, as if it is weekday bread then it is not of more importance. [See Ketzos Hashulchan 112 footnote 24; Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos 279 footnote 16]

[1063] One follows whichever is of more importance to oneself, whether due to its value or its necessity. Thus, when Shabbos candles are on one’s table the permitted item placed on one’s table must be of more importance to oneself then is having the light on the table. [Ketzos Hashulchan 112 footnote 24

[1064] Admur 309:4; Based on Michaber 310:8; brought in Admur 310:16

[1065] Admur 279:4; Michaber 279:3

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that the bread overrides the candle even in such a case. [Kol Bo, brought in Michaber ibid]

[1066] Such as a simple metal or silver tray, or deposable baking pan. Now, although these have been designated to be used for the candles, nevertheless, since they were not specifically made for this use, they can become nullified to the permitted object over the Muktzah object. So is implied from the term used in Admur 279:5 “since the candle is made for the sake of the flame”, and not simply designated. So rules Piskeiy Teshuvos 279:2, however see the new Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10 brought below.

[1067] P”M 279 A”A 14; Piskeiy Teshuvos 277:10; M”B Dirshu; Igros Moshe 5:22-11

[1068] Admur 308:15; 311:15; 276:9-10; 266:19; 301:39 KU”A 10; So also rules: Mishneh Shabbos 141a; Rosh 3:19 in name of Rabbeinu Yonah; Michaber 311:8; Michaber 308:43; Rama 308:3 regarding blowing; M”A 308:7 regarding kicking Muktzah and 308:41 regarding his question on Michaber regarding sitting on Muktzah; M”B 276:31; 308:13 and 81 and 88; 311:30; 1st opinion in Chayeh Adam; Derech Hachayim; 1st opinion in Aruch Hashulchan 311:20; Kaf Hachaim 311:68 [although brings strict opinion in 69].

[1069] 681:2

Background:

On Motzei Shabbos, there are two Mitzvos which need to be fulfilled with the exit of Shabbos; 1) Havdalah and 2) Chanukah candles. The question arises as to which Mitzvah one is to perform first. On the one hand, the Mitzvah of Havdala is more common, and hence should receive precedence based on the rule of Tadir. On the other hand, the Mitzvah of Chanukah candles contains Pirsumei Nissa. There is another advantage involved in lighting the Chanukah candles first, as it is proper to delay the leave of Shabbos, and Havdala as much as possible. Practically, there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to the order that should be followed, as will be explained in the coming footnotes. Nonetheless, the final ruling is a compromise of the opinions, that in Shul one precedes the Chanukah candles, while at home one precedes Havdalah, for reasons to be explained.

[1070] Michaber ibid; M”B 681:3; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to first recite Havdala and then light the Chanukah candles, as Havdala is a more frequent Mitzvah, and thus takes precedence. [Taz 681:1] The custom of the world is not like this opinion regarding the Shul lighting and hence one should not change the custom. [M”B ibid]

[1071] So is the custom in Beis Chayeinu. [Shevach Hamoadim 7:3]; See Beir Heiytiv 681:1 regarding saying it before Vayiten Lecha; See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:336 regarding saying it before Kaddish Tiskabel, in order so it be considered part of the communal prayers. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[1072] The reason: As it is a Mitzvah to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, as well as that the lighting of the candles contains the Mitzvah of publicizing the miracle. [M”B 681:2]

[1073] 681:2

[1074] Rama ibid; Mor Uketzia 681; Chayeh Adam 154:37; Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 235; Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Minhag Yishuv Hayashan in Yerushalayim; See M”B 681:3

The reason: As the lighting contains the Mitzvah of “Pirsumei Nissa” which takes priority over Havdalah. Alternatively, the reason is because it is proper to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, and thus Havdalah is delayed. [M”B 681:2]

[1075] Taz 681:1; Birkeiy Yosef 681:1 that many are accustomed like the Taz; Makor Chaim 681; Derech Hachaim; Kitzur SHU”A 139:17; Sdei Chemed Chanukah 19 in name of many Poskim and that so is the custom of Yerushalayim; Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 25; Aruch Hashulchan 681:2 that so is the custom; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 820; Nimukei Orach Cham 681; Maor Vashemesh Parshas Mikeitz in name of the Chozeh Melublin, in name of Rav Shmelka Minikulsburg that regarding this matter the ruling follows the Taz ibid; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Custom of Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:2; See Biur Halacha 681:2 “Madlikin”

Ruling of Mishneh Berurah: The M”B 681:3 and Biur Halacha “Madlikin” records both opinions and concludes that that in a Shul one first lights the Chanukah candles while at home one may do as he chooses.

[1076] The reason: As the Mitzvah of Havdalah is more Tadir. [Taz ibid]

[1077] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Poskim ibid; Aruch Hashulchan ibid that so is the custom; Custom of Chazon Ish; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:2

[1078] Michaber 681:1; Tur in name of Yerushalmi

[1079] The reason: As it is forbidden to benefit from the Chanukah candle, and one may not recite a blessing over the Havdalah candle until one benefits from its light. [Michaber ibid]

[1080] Bach; Ateres Zekeinim; M”B 681:1; Kaf Hachaim 681:1

[1081] Poskim ibid

The reason: As it is proper to perform two Mitzvos with the same candle.

[1082] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]; Luach Eretz Yisrael [Tukichinsky]; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

The reason: In order to precede the lighting of the Chanukah candles as much as possible. [Luach ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that Vayiten Lecha is recited prior to Havdalah. [M”B 681:2]

[1083] Gr”a in Maaseh Rav 237

[1084] Biur Halacha 293 “Gimel Kochavim”

[1085] Moadim Uzmanim 2:155; Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[1086] See Moadim Uzmanim ibid that in today’s times, even those who light outside the home, have a number of hours until the time of “Tichleh Regel Min Hashuk” passes.

[1087] Igros Moshe 4:62

[1088] 671:7

[1089] Michaber ibid; Birkeiy Yosef 671:6; Kaf Hachaim 671:71; Az Nidbaru 7:67

The reason: Three reasons are recorded behind the lighting of the Menorah in Shul: 1) One is to light the Menorah in Shul in order to publicize the Chanukah miracle, and teach them the order of the blessings. This especially applies in today’s times that most people light inside their homes. [Michaber ibid; Rivash 111; Sefer Hamanhig; brought in Orchos Chaim; Kol Bo] 2) Alternatively, a Menorah is lit in Shul in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of those who are unable to light, just as they instituted to say Kidush in Shul. [Levush 671:8; Kol Bo; Orchos Chaim; opinion in Beis Yosef 671] 3) In commemoration of the Menorah that was lit in the Temple. [Kol Bo; Hamanhig; Haeshkol; See Ramban Behalosecha; Ataz 673 in name of Rosh] The two latter reasons are not accepted in Halacha.

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule there is no known root or reason behind the lighting in Shul and one is hence not to recite a blessing upon lighting the Menorah in Shul. [Shibulei Haleket 185]

[1090] Rama 671:7; Rivash 111

[1091] The law by a guest: See Glosses of Baruch Frankel brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:76

The law by a Yeshiva Bochur: If a Yeshiva Bochur who lives in the Yeshiva lit the candles of the Shul, it is disputed as to whether he is to still light the candles of his room with a blessing. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:16

[1092] Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:7; M”B 671:45

[1093] Taharas Hamayim Mareches Ches Os Gimel; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:103; Birchas Habayis Birchos Chanukah; Yalkut Yosef p. 325 based on Meiri Megillah 23a; Rav SZ”A, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 57

[1094] Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:14 footnote 57

[1095] Birchas Habayis Neiros Chanukah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:14 footnote 59

[1096] Brought in Sefer Hatanya

[1097] Birkeiy Yosef 671:6; Kaf Hachaim 671:71

[1098] Minchas Yitzchak 6:65; Divrei Yatziv 2:286; Shraga Hameir 2:16; Kinyan Torah 1:131; Az Nidbaru 5:37; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:11

[1099] The reason: Although from the letter of the law, a child may light the Shul’s Menorah, being that no one is being Yotzei with it, nevertheless one is to abstain from doing so, as it is belittling to the congregation. [Poskim ibid]

[1100] Ateres Zekeinim 673 in name of Rosh; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:11 footnote 43

[1101] Michaber 671:7

[1102] The reason: This is in memory of the Temple Menorah which was positioned in the southern area. [Corrected version of Rama ibid; Mamar Mordechai 671:12; M”B 671:40-41; Kaf Hachaim 671:68]

[1103] See Bezel Hachachma 2:50; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:13

[1104] Rama 671:7; Terumos Hadeshen 104

The reason: This is in memory of the Temple Menorah which was positioned from east to west. [M”B 671:42]

[1105] M”A 671:9 in name of Rambam; Smag; Rivash 410; brought in M”B 671:42

[1106] The reason: As, in their opinion, the Menorah in the Mikdash faced from north to south and not from east to west. [ibid]

[1107] M”A ibid; M”B 671:42

[1108] Mahariy Bruno 39; Chasam Sofer 186; M”B 671:43; Kaf Hachaim 671:69; See Shevet Sofer 24; Divrei Yisrael 211; Bezel Hachochma 2:50; Lehoros Nassan 7:52

[1109] Mahariy Beruno ibid, brought in Kaf Hachaim ibid

[1110] Kaf Hachaim ibid that so is the custom of the Sefaradim; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:13 based on Beis Yosef and that so is the custom of the world; See Poskim ibid

[1111] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[1112] P”M 675 A”A 2; M”B 671:27; Mor Uketzia 675

[1113] Derech Hachiam 4; M”B 671:40; Kaf Hachaim 671:67

[1114] Michaber 671:7; Birkeiy Yosef 671:6; Kaf Hachaim 671:71; Az Nidbaru 7:67

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite a blessing upon lighting the Menorah in Shul. [Shibulei Haleket 185; Maharam Shick 174 that so was custom of Chasam Sofer; See Moadim Uzmanim 6:89]

[1115] The reason: The reason blessings are recited by the Shul’s lighting, despite it being a mere custom, is because it is permitted to recite a blessing over a custom as is done by Hallel of Rosh Chodesh [and of the first night of Pesach]. [Rivash 112; Gr”a; M”B 671:44; Kaf Hachaim 671:70]

[1116] M”B 671:44

[1117] M”B 671:45; See Igros Moshe 1:90; Kinyan Torah 4:83

[1118] Taharas Hamayim Mareches Ches Os Gimel; Hisorerus Teshuvah 1:103; Birchas Habayis Birchos Chanukah; Yalkut Yosef p. 325 based on Meiri Megillah 23a; Rav SZ”A, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 671 footnote 57

[1119] Igros Moshe 1:190; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:14 footnote 57

[1120] Birchas Habayis Neiros Chanukah; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:14 footnote 59

[1121] Nitei Gavriel 40:8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:15

[1122] Mor Uketzia 671 brought in Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:7; Machazikei Bracha 671:7; Moed Lekol Chaiy 27:33; Zivchey Tzedek 2:29; Pekudas Eliezer 48; Beis David 474; Kaf Hachaim 671:72 and 79; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:15; See Minchas Elazar 2:68; Maharshag 2:172

[1123] M”A 671:10; Final ruling of Biur Halacha 671:7 “Viyesh Nohagin”

[1124] The reason: As there is no source anywhere in Poskim to say that a Minyan is required at the time of the lighting and rather so long as the lighting will lead to publication of the miracle, it may be done. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[1125] Biur Halacha ibid; Luach Kolel Chabad; Hiskashrus 908; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[1126] Rav Poalim 2:62

[1127] Yalkut Yosef p. 202, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:15

[1128] Maharam Mintz 43; Taz 671:8; P”M 671 M”Z 8; Machazik Bracha 671:9; Chayeh Adam 154:17; Derech Hachaim 4; M”B 671:44; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:7; Kaf Hachaim 671:73; See also regarding Megillah: M”B 692:1; Derech Hachaim 2; Kaf Hachaim 692:7

Other opinions: Some Poskim permit the Avel to recite Shehechiyanu even by a public lighting. [Olas Shmuel 106 that he has not seen the world be careful in this matter; Teshuvah Meahava 2:286; Mishmeres Shalom ibid; Gesher Hachaim 23:4; Beis Yitzchak Yoreh Deah 2:158; Minchas Elazar 2:32; See Nitei Gavriel 37:4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 692:6]

[1129] Zera Emes 96; Machazik Bracha 671:8; Shaareiy Teshuvah 671:11; M”B 671:45; Kaf Hachaim 671:74

[1130] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 11; Kaf Hachaim 671:75; Yalkut Yosef p. 202; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:341

[1131] Mishneh Sachir 1:201; Tzitz Eliezer 13:69; Kinyan Torah 4:83; Lehoros Nassan 7:50; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:14

[1132] Siach Yitzchak 336 brought in Nitei Gavriel 40:23

[1133] Ben Ish Chaiy Vayeishev 11

[1134] 671:7

[1135] Rama ibid

[1136] M”B 671:46

[1137] The reason: This applies even according to those who are accustomed to light after nightfall, as one is to light the Shul’s Menorah when the Minyan is present, and the miracle is consequently publicized. Likewise, it is improper to delay the lighting until after Maariv, being that everyone must return home to light at that time. [M”B ibid; See Levush; Kaf Hachaim 671:77] See Zivcheiy Tzedek 2:30 regarding why according to all one may light in Shul after Pelag, before night, even though in general we only allow lighting in Pelag in a case of need.

[1138] Shevach Hamoadim 7:3; See Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:336 regarding saying it before Kaddish Tiskabel, in order so it be considered part of the communal prayers. See Piskeiy Teshuvos 681:1

[1139] Rama ibid; Rashal 85; Kol Bo; Abudarham

[1140] M”A 5671:10; M”B 671:47; Drashos Maharil Chanukah; Chayeh Adam 154:17; brought in Kaf Hachaim 671:78

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is not to recite a blessing if the Minyan is not present. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[1141] Rama ibid; Maharil

[1142] Darkei Moshe 671:5; M”B 671:47; ; Implication of Levush and Chayeh Adam

[1143] The reason: This custom is followed also on Erev Shabbos, in order to publicize the miracle to the public. Nevertheless, if there is not enough time left after Mincha to light the candles, then it is certainly to be lit prior to Mincha, even if there is no one around, as the miracle will be publicized when people come to Shul for the Minyan. [ibid]

[1144] Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

[1145] Michaber ibid; M”B 681:3; Sefer Haminhagim p. 160 [English]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to first recite Havdalah and then light the Chanukah candles, as Havdalah is a more frequent Mitzvah and thus takes precedence. [Taz 681:1] The custom of the world is not like this opinion regarding the Shul lighting and hence one should not change the custom. [M”B ibid]

[1146] So is the custom in Beis Chayeinu. [Shevach Hamoadim 7:3]

[1147] The reason: As it is a Mitzvah to delay the leave of Shabbos as much as possible, as well as that the lighting of the candles contains the Mitzvah of publicizing the miracle. [M”B 681:2]

[1148] Michaber 672:1 [that the earliest one can light is from Plag Hamincha]; Sichos Kodesh 1963 p. 401 “The Rebbe told Rav Shmuel Lavitin that during Chanukah one must Daven Mincha at 3:30 so the lighting will be past Plag Hamincha”; Hiskashrus 908; See Igros Kodesh 10:228; Kfar Chabad 740:76

[1149] Heard from Harav Y.L. Groner; Nitei Gavriel 41:2 footnote 2; Plag Hamincha was usually at 3:30. Harav Ashkenazi writes that the candles are lit before Pelag Hamincha. Vetzaruch Iyun as to why he wrote this!

[1150] Mishnas Sachir 202; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:16

[1151] 672:1

[1152] Implication of M”A 675:2; M”B 675:6; Shevet Halevi 8:156; See Milameid Lehoil 121; Zivcheiy Tzedek 2:30 in name of Rokeiach that learns that part of the allowance to light with a blessing after Pelag in Shul is because it will remain lit until after a half hour; P”M 675 A”A 2 says that one cannot benefit from the Shul’s Menorah just like the house Menorah, which can imply that it needs to light for a half hour [Vetzaruch Iyun, as perhaps he would hold one can extinguish and then relight it.]; See M”A 670:2 that the candles are lit until midday.

The reason: It does not state anywhere in [earlier] Poskim that the Shul candles need to remain lit for a half hour. Furthermore, since the entire purpose of the lighting in Shul is Pirsumei Nissa, it is implied that it can be extinguished once the Pirsumei Nissa has ended. Nevertheless, we light it for a half hour due to Lo Pelug. [Milameid Lehoil ibid] Furthermore, the Menorah in the Temple was lit throughout the night and the Menorah in Shul is lit in commemoration of the Temple’s Menorah, according to some opinions. Furthermore, according to some opinions, one fulfills his obligation with the Shul’s lighting and hence it should follow the same laws as any other Menorah. [Shevet Halevi ibid]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that it is not necessary for the Shul’s Menorah to last for a half hour after nightfall. [Shraga Hameir 6:85]

[1153] Rebbe in Toras Menachem 5750 2:40 [printed in Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:280; Shulchan Menachem 3:270]; See Poskim in Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:12 footnote 48; Chikrei Haminhagim 2:164

[1154] Melamed Lehoil 121; Orchos Chaim 671:13

[1155] The reason: Some say the reason for this custom is to fulfill one’s obligation according to the Rambam who ruled that also by day the Menorah was lit.  [Orchos Chaim 671:13]

[1156] Likkutei Sichos 18:315 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 3:270]

[1157] Rebbe in Shaar Halacha Uminhag 2:280; Shulchan Menachem 3:270

[1158] Hiskashrus Chanukah based on oral directives given by the Rebbe in a number of years

[1159] Shraga Hameir 6:85

[1160] The reason: As it does not state anywhere in [earlier] Poskim that the Shul candles need to remain lit for a half hour. Furthermore, since the entire purpose of the lighting in Shul is Pirsumei Nissa, it is implied that it can be extinguished once the Pirsumei Nissa has ended. Therefore one may be lenient to extinguish the candles even within a half hour, if there is no one left in Shul. [ibid]

[1161] Shevet Halevi 8:156

[1162] The reason: As the Menorah in the Temple was lit throughout the night and the Menorah in Shul is lit in commemoration of the Temple’s Menorah, according to some opinions. Furthermore, according to some opinions, one fulfills his obligation with the Shul’s lighting and hence it should follow the same laws as any other Menorah. [Shevet Halevi ibid]

[1163] Shevet Halevi ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:12

[1164] Melameid Lehoil 121; See Zivcheiy Tzedek 2:29; See Michaber 672:2 and Halacha 7 regarding this ruling in the house Menorah.

[1165] M”A 675:2; M”B 675:6

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may move the Shul’s Menorah from place to place even within the half hour. [Beis Yosef, brought in M”B ibid]

[1166] See Shaar Hamoadim Chanukah p. 274

[1167] See Likkutei Sichos 25:419; Shulchan Menachem 3/273-274

[1168] Hisvadyos 1987 2 p. 98 and 133

[1169] Hisvadyos 1987 2 p. 98

[1170] See Hiskashrus 696:14; Chikrei Haminhagim 1:208; Piskeiy Teshuvos 671:15

[1171] Mishneh Sachir 2:202; Az Nidbaru 6:75; 5:37; 11:32 and 34; Rav Ginzburg in Hiskashrus 696:14, and so was done in the satellite hookup with the Rebbe.

[1172] The reason: They base their allowance on either a) The Rivash explains that the reason the blessing is recited over the lighting in Shul is because of the publication of the miracle, and since here too the miracle is being publicized, a blessing may be said. b) The Kol Bo explains that the reason the blessing is recited over the Shul lighting, is in order to fulfill the Mitzvah for those who are not able to light, and thus likewise by a public lighting where many people who don’t light attend, a blessing may be said. c) The main institution of the lighting was to be done outside, and thus a public lighting has greater advantage than even the Shul lighting. [Az Nidbaru ibid]

[1173] Tzitz Eliezer 15:30; Minchas Yitzchak 6:65; Shevet Halevy 4:65; Divrei Yatziv 2:286; Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach brought in Az Nidbaru 6:75; Kinyan Torah 1:131; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:398

[1174] Their reason: Even the custom of lighting with a blessing in a Shul is not agreed to by all Poskim. Those who allow doing so go into difficulty to explain its basis. There is thus no room to extend this to being allowed to light with a blessing as well in an area which was never previously accepted.

[1175] Yalkut Yosef p. 204; Rav Yochanan Guraryeh in Chikreiy Minhagim p. 217

[1176] This makes the lighting similar to the lighting done in a Shul.

[1177] See Halacha 14B!

[1178] Shevach Hamoadim p.98

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