Which blessing should one precede-Hadama or Haeitz

Which blessing should one precede-Hadama or Haeitz?[1]

  • For example: One plans to eat a snack of a date and potato chips, which are both sitting on the table in front of him. Which blessing should one precede; the Haeitz on the fruit, or the Hadama on the potatoes?

If one desires one food more than another:[2] If one is planning to eat two foods which are in his presence[3], and one of the foods receives the blessing of Haeitz while the second food receives the blessing of Hadama [i.e. an apple and potato chips], then if one food is more desirable than another, then the blessing of that food must be preceded [even if the other food is Shaleim[4]]. Thus, if one desires the Hadama [i.e. potato chips] more than the Haietz [i.e. the apple], then he must first say the blessing of Hadama. [If, however, he desires the apple more than the potato chips, then he must precede the blessing over the apple.] This applies even if the Haietz is from the seven Minim [i.e. an olive, grape, etc], nevertheless, a more desirable Hadama is to be preceded.[5]

If one desires both foods equally:[6] If both foods are equally desirable, then although there is no complete obligation to precede the Haeitz over the Hadama, nevertheless, it is preferable [i.e. Tov] to precede the blessing of Borei Peri Haeitz [even if the other food is Shaleim[7]].[8] This applies even if the Haietz is from the seven Minim [i.e. an olive, grape, etc], nevertheless, it is not an obligation to precede the Haeitz, but is preferable to do so.[9]

Definition of Chaviv:[10] The definition of a more desirable food is either a food that the person currently has more desire for, or a food that the person usually has more desire for over the other foods, even if currently he does not desire it more. In a mixture in which the more desirable food is given precedence and one has in front of him two foods, one which is currently more desirable and one which is usually more desirable, he may precede whichever food he chooses [although it is best to precede the Haeitz, as stated above[11]].

 

Summary:

If one is planning to eat both a Haeitz and Hadama which are in his presence, then one gives precedence to whichever food is more desirable, and if both foods are equally desirable, then it is preferable to precede the blessing of Haeitz.

Q&A

If one of the Hadama or Haeitz foods is whole [Shaleim] while the other is not whole, do the above laws of precedence change?

Ø  For example: One plans to eat a snack of a date and tomato, which are both sitting on the table in front of him. The date is more desirable, although is cut in half, while the tomato is whole. Which blessing should one precede; the Haeitz on the fruit, or the Hadama on the potatoes?

Some Poskim[12] rule one always precedes the whole food over the non-whole food, even if the non-whole food is more desirable, and is a higher blessing. Other Poskim[13], however, leave this matter in question. Practically, the implication of Admur and other Poskim, is that the aspect of Shaleim does not affect the laws of precedence when one has a Hadama and Haeitz together.[14]

 

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[1] Seder 10:7 and 8; Luach 3:7

Background: Regarding the laws of precedence in a mixture of Haeitz and Hadama, there exist three opinions amongst the Poskim: 1) Always precede Haeitz. [Behag; 2nd opinion in Michaber 211:3] 2) Always precede the Chaviv. [2nd opinion in Michaber 211:1; Rambam 8, brought in Michaber 211:2; Tosafus Brachos 41a; Rabbeinu Yona 28b; Rashba Brachos 41a; Semak 151] 3) No precedence at all. [Stam opinion in Michaber 211:1; Rosh; Rashi; Rif; Rav Haiy] Admur ibid, based on the rulings of the Taz and M”A arbitrates between the various opinions.

[2] Seder 10:7; Luach 3:7; 2nd opinion in Michaber 211:1; Opinion of Rambam 8, brought in Michaber 211:2; Taz 211:2; M”A 211:4 and 13; M”B 211:9; Tosafus Brachos 41a; Rabbeinu Yona 28b; Rashba Brachos 41a; Semak 151

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is [always] obligated to precede the blessing of Haeitz [even if the Hadama is more Chaviv]. [2nd opinion in Michaber 211:3; Bahag, brought in Rosh 6:25; Elya Raba 211:2; Kaf Hachaim 211:6 and 14 that so is custom of world; See Taz 211:1, Orchos Chaim p. 38, Kol Bo ibid, Mamar Mordechai 211:5 and Kaf Hachaim 211:13 that according to Bahag this applies even if the Hadama is more Chaviv] Other Poskim rule one can precede whichever fruit one desires, even if one is more Chaviv than another. [Stam opinion in Michaber 211:1; Tur 211; Rosh; Rashi; Rif; Rav Haiy Gaon] Some Poskim rule that according to the Michaber it is best to always precede the Haeitz, and so is the custom, as the main ruling of the Michaber follows that there is never precedence, and thus one should always suspect that Haeitz comes first. In addition, according to Kabala, one is to always precede Haeitz to Hadama, as Haeitz is Tiferes while Hadama is Malchus. Likewise, since Hadama exempts Haeitz Bedieved, it is better to say Heitz first. [Kaf Hachaim ibid]

[3] Seder 10:2 and 16; If, however, one only wants to eat one of the foods that are present, or one wants to eat both foods but only one of the foods are currently in front of him, then the laws of precedence do not apply.

[4] See Q&A!

[5] Seder 10:8 “Yeish Lo Lehakdimo” [Vetzaruch Iyun from contrast of wording in Seder 10:7 “Tzarich Lehakdimo”]; Luach ibid; 2nd opinion in Michaber 211:1; Tosafus ibid; Rabbeinu Yona ibid; Rashba ibid;

Other opinions: See above. See Biur Halacha 211 “Viyeish Omrim”

[6] Seder 10:7 and 8; Luach ibid; This ruling of Admur is a merge of the following opinions: Stam opinion in Michaber 211:1 and 3 that there is no precedence; Taz 211:2 that always precede Haeitz if equally Chaviv; M”A 211:13 “precede Haeitz”; Kol Bo 24; Tosafus ibid; Semak ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is [always] obligated to precede the blessing of Haeitz [even if the Hadama is more Chaviv]. [2nd opinion in Michaber ibid; Behag, brought in Rosh 6:25; See Taz ibid who rules this way if they are both equally Chaviv; M”A ibid] Other Poskim rule one can precede whichever fruit one desires. [Stam opinion in Michaber 211:3; Rosh; Rashi; Rif; Rav Haiy Gaon]

[7] See Q&A!

[8] The reason: This ruling accepts the Poskim [see above] who rule that from the letter of the law, a mixture of Haeitz and Hadama never has a status of precedence. On the other hand, it suspects for the opinion [Bahag-see above] who rules that Haeitz always receives precedence, and hence Admur ibid concludes that it is best to say Haietz. [See also Taz ibid who makes a similar arbitration] The reason Haeitz is given precedence over Hadama is because the blessing of Haeitz is a higher quality blessing. [See Admur 202 Kuntrus Achorn 1]

[9] Seder 10:8; 1st opinion in Michaber 211:1; Tosafus ibid

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that one is obligated to precede the blessing of Shiva Minim if both foods are equally Chaviv. [Opinion of Rambam 8, brought in Michaber 211:2; Elya Raba 211:2]

[10] Seder 10/15

[11] See Biur Halacha 211 “Viyeish Omrim”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 211:3

[12] Derech Hachaim, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 211:5; See Seder Birchas Hanehnin of Rav Prus p. 218

[13] Shaar Hatziyon ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 211:3 and footnote 68

[14] So is implied from the fact that Admur ibid, and the Poskim ibid, completely omit this aspect, even though Admur brings it in Seder 10:6; So also learns Rav Elyashvili in his glosses on Seder footnote 38

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