The laws of Shehiyah by baking bread, and of removing bread from an oven

1. The laws of placing bread in an oven close to Shabbos without enough time for it to fully bake:[1]

Needs to be able to crisp all around: It is forbidden to place any dough close to Shabbos into any of the forbidden ovens mentioned in chapter 1 unless there is enough time left before Shabbos to crisp[2] the entire surface of the dough including the bottom area that is resting on the pan or floor of the oven.

The reason for why it suffices if the dough crisps before Shabbos is because: then we are not worried that on one may come to stoke [the coals] as [if one were to do so] it will ruin the bread.

The laws by Burakus/Dough with filling: Dough which has a filling of meat, fish or cheese needs, in order to be allowed to be left on the fire from before Shabbos, to be crisp on its top and bottom, and it needs its stuffing to be cooked to the point of Ben Drusaiy before Shabbos begins.

The definition of Crisp: All bread which has been baked to the point that if one were to break it then there would not be strings of dough drawing out from it, then for certain its outside is crisp enough as required.
Other opinions: There are opinions which say that even if only one side of the bread gets crisp before Shabbos, this suffices to be allowed to leave the bread in the oven over Shabbos.

The Final Ruling:  One may rely on this latter opinion Bedieved, that if one transgressed and placed bread in a forbidden oven close to Shabbos and only one of the sides had become crisp, it may be eaten on Shabbos.

Placing the dough in the oven right before Shabbos without enough time for it to begin to bake: Even if one placed the dough really close to Shabbos, in which case if this were raw meat that was placed in a pot then it would be permitted to do so even initially being that it is completely raw before Shabbos, nevertheless by bread and the like, such as cakes and types of dough that are baked in a pan, it does not help at all and thus remains prohibited.

The reason for why dough may not be placed in right before Shabbos as opposed to raw meat:  This is because dough does not need a long time to bake, as opposed to meat which requires a long time to cook, and thus the bread can be ready to be eaten for the [Friday] night meal, and there is thus worry that one may come to stoke the coals in order to complete its baking in time for the Friday night meal.

The laws of Shehiyah by bread when he does not plan to eat it until after Shabbos: Even when one does not have intention to eat from the bread on Shabbos, it is forbidden to place it inside forbidden ovens so close to Shabbos that there is not enough time for the outside part of the bread to become crispy before Shabbos.

The reason for this is because: we are worried that one may change his mind afterwards and decide to eat it on Shabbos, and thus since he will now have intention to eat it, he may come to forget and stoke the coals to [speed up the] finishing [of] the baking.

 

2. The law if neither side of the bread had crisped before Shabbos and it was nevertheless left in the oven:[3]

If it did not crisp at all, it is forbidden to be eaten by him and others until enough time has passed after Shabbos to be able to bake it. However this prohibition to eat the bread on Shabbos only applies if one advertently, with prior knowledge of the prohibition placed the bread there. However if this was done inadvertently, without prior knowledge of the prohibition, then it is permitted for him to remove from the oven enough bread for the three meals of Shabbos, if he does not have any other bread for Shabbos. [As well] he can tell other people which do not have bread for Shabbos ‘Come and take for yourselves enough bread for the 3 meals’.

The reason for the above leniency by bread: Why did [the Sagest] not fine [one who left bread on the oven] inadvertently as they did fine by one who left food [on the oven] inadvertently even when he has no other food? [The reason for this is] because there is not so much of an obligation to eat cooked foods on Shabbos, however without bread one cannot fulfill the Mitzvah [to eat] three meals on Shabbos.

One who has enough bread besides for the bread that was inadvertently left in the oven but does not have Lechem Mishnah: If one has a large piece of bread [leftover] big enough for all three meals, then it is forbidden for him to eat on Shabbos from the bread [in the oven] which was baked through a prohibition, [even if he wants to do so] in order to make a blessing on two whole loafs, as the main Mitzvah of eating three meals on Shabbos can be fulfilled without this bread[4].

 

Summary of the laws of Shehiyah by bread:

Bread is only permitted to be left on an uncovered flame if both sides of the bread have crisped to the point that if one were to break open the bread there would not be any strings of dough stretching out of it. It is not allowed to be placed on a flame right before Shabbos, unlike raw meat which is allowed.

Filled pastries: Besides for being crisped on both sides, they must also have their filling be half cooked in order to leave them on an uncovered flame.

If one transgressed and left the bread in the oven, then as long as one side of the bread has crisped before Shabbos it may be eaten. However, if neither side of the bread has crisped, then if this was done advertently [with prior knowledge of the transgression] it is forbidden to be eaten until after enough time has passed after Shabbos to bake it. However, if it was done inadvertently [without prior knowledge of the prohibition] then if one has no other bread to eat on Shabbos, it may be eaten.

 

3. The laws of removing bread from an oven on Shabbos:[5]

The ovens that existed back in the times of the Sages: The removal of bread on Shabbos from the ovens that existed in the times of the Sages [which was made similar to a pot and the bread is baked sticking to the walls of the oven] is Rabbinically forbidden even if it was placed there from before Shabbos and was fully baked before Shabbos began.[6]

If one has no other bread available: This prohibition to remove the bread was only enacted if one has other bread available to eat on Shabbos, however if he has no other bread available to eat on Shabbos, he may remove as much bread as he needs for the meals. 
The law by today’s ovens: In our ovens today, that the bread sits on the floor of the oven the prohibition of removing the bread no longer applies, and thus it is permitted to remove on Shabbos all the bread which was baked in a permissible way, even if one has other bread available. However this allowance only applies when one has intention to eat from the bread that he is removing, even though he does not technically need it being that he has other bread available. However if one does not intend to eat from it, then it is forbidden to remove it, even through doing so in an irregular way, as it is forbidden to prepare on Shabbos for the weekday.

How to remove the bread:  In all cases that it is allowed to remove the bread, it is Lechatchilah not to be removed with its designated tool. Rather one should stick a knife and the like [into the loaf] or remove it with a stick.[7] This is with exception to if one has no other bread for Shabbos, and the bread was allowed to be left there from Erev Shabbos, in which case one may remove it regularly.[8]


4. The law of removing bread from an oven when transgressed and placed there on Shabbos itself
:[9]

One who [transgressed and] placed bread in an oven on Shabbos itself, whether it was done inadvertently or advertently, and then afterwards he changed his mind and decided to remove it from the oven before it getting baked, then it is permitted to remove it, even though that [doing so] does not serve any need of Shabbos, being that it is not yet edible [since he wants to remove it now prior to baking].

[Furthermore] even by the ovens of those days which [also] have a [prohibition] to remove bread [on Shabbos], [it is nevertheless permitted to be removed].

The reason that this is allowed is because: The Sages permitted one to transgress the Rabbinical prohibition [involved in removing the bread], in order so that he would not come to do a [Biblical] prohibition which carries with it a punishment of stoning [when placed purposely], or [when placed inadvertently, without prior knowledge of the prohibition,] so he not come to be liable for a Chatas offering.

Removing it with an irregularity: Nevertheless, if it is possible to remove it through an irregular way, then he should do so.
May another person remove this bread from the oven before it gets baked? However a different person [other than the person which placed the bread there], the Sages did not permit him to remove it, even through an irregular way, [even though he is doing so] in order that his friend not come to be liable for a Chatas offering or for stoning.

The reason for this is: because we do not tell a person to sin in order to benefit his friend, being that his friend was negligent in placing the bread into oven on Shabbos. See the end of chapter 306 [Halacha 29, where it is explained that it was his negligence which latter caused him to be forced to transgress the prohibition, as he should not have placed it there to begin with].

 

Summary of removing bread from the oven on Shabbos:

Bread may only be removed from an oven on Shabbos, even if it was allowed to be there, if:

  1. By the ovens of back then: Only if he has no other bread to eat.

    By today’s ovens: Even if he has other breads to eat, if he plans to eat from it on Shabbos.

  2. One placed it in the oven on Shabbos and wants to remove it before it bakes so he not transgresses Shabbos. However only the person himself may remove it.

 

How to remove the bread:

In all cases the bread is Lechatchilah not to be removed with its designated tool, unless:

One has no other bread for Shabbos, and the bread was allowed to be left there from Erev Shabbos.

 

If one forgot to remove baked Challah from the oven before Shabbos may he do so on Shabbos?

One may only do so if he plans to eat from those Challahs on Shabbos.

 


[1] 254/6

[2]  The Michaber defines this as “That the top of the bread has risen a crispy peel due to the fire”. However see continuation of Halacha [based on Rama] that it suffices even if there are no longer any strings of dough when one breaks the loaf.

[3] 254/ 7-8

[4]  Meaning since without Lechem Mishnah one still fulfills the main Mitzvah of Seudas Shabbos, if he eats bread, therefore he is not allowed to partake in the bread left in the oven.

[5] 254/9

[6]  The reason for this prohibition is: The removing of bread from the ovens of back then, in which the breads were actually stuck to the walls of the oven required skill. Thus it was made forbidden by the Sages. The definition of this prohibition however is disputed: Rashi Shabbos 3b: Doing so is considered a Shvus [A Rabbinical form of Melacha on Shabbos]. Ran Shabbos 3b: Doing so is forbidden not because it is a Shvus but rather because it is a mundane act. [Uvdin Dichol]. In 688/4 Admur rules similarly to the Ran stating that Tekias Shofar on Shabbos is forbidden due to it being a mundane act, and that removing bread is as well the same prohibition. [Both blowing Shofar and removing of bread are considered skillful tasks, and were thus excluded from being a Biblical Melacha on Shabbos [See Shabbos 117b] but were nevertheless made forbidden Rabbinically.]

[7] 254/7 and 9

[8] 254/9

[9] 254/12

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