Cooking/Bishul

Important Note:

The following laws deal with what constitutes the prohibition of cooking on Shabbos and not the Rabbinical prohibition associated with placing cooked food on or very near a fire on Shabbos. Regarding when one may place a food on or very near the fire even when the food does not contain a cooking prohibition, see the laws of Chazara where these laws are discussed extensively.

 

Concept:

  1. Meigis: Mixing a pot of hot food.
  2. Bishul Achar Bishul Bedavar Lach: Does the prohibition of cooking apply to a previously cooked liquid food.
  3. Bishul Achar Bishul Bedavar Yaveish: Does the prohibition of cooking apply to a previously cooked dry food.
  4. Bishul Achar Afiyah Vetzli: Does the prohibition of cooking apply to a previously baked or roasted food.
  5. Afiyah Vetzli Achar Bishul: May one roast or bake a previously cooked food.
  6. Davar Gush:A solid food.


1. The Biblically forbidden forms of cooking[1]
:

A. The Principal prohibition:

Cooking [on Shabbos] is one of the Principal [forbidden] actions, being that in the Tabernacle [colored] herbs would be cooked in order to use their dye.

 

B. The forms of cooking

Frying, baking and roasting: Not only is cooking in water alone included [in this prohibition], but even frying, and baking and roasting, are included in [the] cooking [prohibition].

Melting and hardening materials: As well anyone which has melted a hard item with fire, such as one who softens one of the types of metals, or heats up the metal until it becomes [as red as] a coal, or melts wax or fat or tar and sulfur with fire, or hardens a soft material with fire, such as one who places clay vessels in fire until it becomes an earthenware vessel, he is liable for cooking. [See Q&A]

 

C. The forms of heating:

Cooking on fire heated objects: Similarly, just as it is forbidden to cook with fire so too it is forbidden to cook with an item that received its heat from fire. For example [it is forbidden] to place an egg near a pot that was heated from fire or to break [an egg] on a cloth that was heated from fire, in order [for the egg] to fry a little bit. If it was fried there to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy he is liable for cooking just like if he had fried it [directly] on a fire.

 

D. The forms of foods and the heating level defined as cooking:

Cooking fruits and the like of foods which are eaten raw[2]: Fruits or other foods which are eaten raw and thus do not need to be cooked nevertheless if one cooks them he is liable. Therefore it is forbidden to place these [fruits] by an area where they can get cooked if left there for a long time, which is defined as any place where it can reach Yad Soledes.

Cooking foods that are already partially cooked:[3] Any [food] which has not yet been fully cooked, even if it was already cooked to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy, [nevertheless] it retains the cooking prohibition even if it is currently boiling.

Hastening cooking through stirring[4]: [Furthermore it is forbidden] to hasten the cooking of a non-fully cooked food, such as by stirring it with a spoon, even if it will regardless cook on its own.

How long must the food cook, for one to transgress the Biblical prohibition?

There are numerous instances that Admur writes the amount of cooking that makes one liable for the prohibition. The following are some of those instances:

  1. It is forbidden to place cold [liquid] on top of a kettle ….. for a long time that it would be able to cook, which means that it would become Yad Soledes.[5]
  2. A liquid dish…., if one heats it on Shabbos until it reaches [the heat of] Yad Soledes, he is liable for cooking.[6]
  3. Any food which has not been [fully] cooked before Shabbos [whether liquid or solid], one may not soak it on Shabbos in hot [liquidly] food that is Yad Soledes even if it will not dissolve in there at all. If one [transgressed and] soaked it in a Keli Rishon he is liable for cooking.[7]
  4. Therefore it is forbidden to place these [raw fruits] by an area where they can get cooked if left there for a long time, which is defined as any place where it can reach Yad Soledes.[8]
  5. Similarly, just as it is forbidden to cook with fire so too it is forbidden to cook with an item that received its heat from fire. [Thus] if it was fried there to the point of the food of Ben Drusaiy then he is liable for cooking just like if he had fried it [directly] on a fire. [9]

 

Summary- The following forms of cooking are Biblically forbidden:

  1. Cooking, baking, roasting, frying any uncooked food over or near a fire, or over an item heated by a fire, to the point that it heats to Yad Soledes[10] is a transgression of the Biblical cooking prohibition. Furthermore, even if the food was already cooked to Ben Drusaiy but was not fully cooked and one placed it on a fire or on a item heated by a fire in order to continue cooking it, or even if it was already on the fire and one stirred it to hasten its cooking, then one has transgressed the Biblical cooking prohibition.[11]

    The prohibition includes even cooking a food that is commonly eaten raw, such as fruits and the like.[12]

  2. Melting/Softening an object such as metal, wax, fat, tar and sulfur by a fire [or by an item heated by a fire].
  3. Hardening an object such as earthenware by a fire [or by an item heated by a fire].[13] [See Q&A]

Q&A

Does the prohibition to soften or harden a non-food item apply even if he does not have intent to do so and it inevitably occurs?[14]

No. The Melacha of softening metal and the like only applies when one intends to do so, and thus even if it will inevitably occur, if this occurs against ones will it does not contain a prohibition.[15]

 

May one pour boiling water into a plastic cup if it will cause it to melt?[16]

Yes, it is nevertheless allowed.[17]

 

Is melting/softening an object to less than Yad Soledes forbidden?[18]

If the item can only be melted with the heat of Yad Soledes then even if it itself was not heated to that point one is nevertheless liable.[19] However if it melted through heat that is less than Yad Soledes it is not prohibited.

 

Is the prohibition to soften an object applicable also by food, such as to place bread or Matzah in soup and the like?

  • Foods which would soften with even cold water: According to all opinions it does not apply by foods which would soften even with cold water, such as bread and crackers and the like.
  • Foods which would only soften with hot water: There is a dispute amongst the codifiers as to whether this is forbidden due to Bishul.[20] According to the Alter Rebbe in the Siddur it is forbidden due to Bishul, in addition to a possible Molid prohibition. [See Halacha 8]
  • Foods which harden due to hot water such as an egg, would contain the prohibition of hardening a soft substance.[21]

 

May one toast bread near a fire on Shabbos or is this considered forbidden due to hardening a soft object?

Some Poskim[22] prohibit this for the reason mentioned above amongst other reasons. Other Poskim[23] however rule that doing so is permitted.

 

May one heat an egg on Shabbos to the point it becomes hard boiled?[24]

No. This may not be done even in a [Keli Shelishi].

 

2. The Rabbinically forbidden forms of cooking:
Cooking on sun heated objects: [25] Furthermore even [cooking] with [an item that was] heated from the sun, such as [cooking] on a cloth that got hot in the sun, is forbidden due to a decree [that if this were to be allowed then] one may come [to also cook on an item that] was heated through fire, as one who witnesses [a person cooking on such a cloth] thinks that the cloth was heated with fire.

Thus it is forbidden to roll [the egg] on sand, and road dust which have become hot from the [rays of] the sun. [See Q&A]

Cooking in hot springs on and before Shabbos: [26] One who cooks in the hot springs of Tiveria is exempt [from liability], because they are comparable to an item heated by the sun. Nevertheless it is Rabbinically forbidden [to cook in it] even if the food is positioned on top of [the spring] and thus cooks from above.

Heating uncooked foods and liquids on Shabbos to less than Yad Soledes Bo in an area where it can reach Yad Soledes: Is Rabbinically forbidden. See Halacha 4 for the full elaboration on this subject.

 

Summary- The following forms of cooking are Rabbinically prohibited:

1) To cook, bake, or do any of the above mentioned activities over an object heated by the sun.[27]

2) To cook, bake or do any of the above mentioned activities over hot springs.[28]

3) To enter a food that may not be heated to the point of Yad Soledes into an area where the food can become heated to that point, even if one plans to remove it before it becomes Yad Soledes.[29] 

 

Q&A

What form of cooking is electric heat considered?

It is considered like a substance heated through fire. Although some have sided that it is only Rabbinically forbidden.[30]

Microwave: According to all the heat of a microwave is considered to be like the heat of an object heated by the sun which is only Rabbinically forbidden. This matter contains ramifications as will be explained in their relevant areas.[31]

 

3. The permitted forms of cooking/heating:

 Cooking with direct sun heat: [32] To cook with the [heat of the] sun directly, such as to leave an egg in the sun in order to cook, or to leave water in the sun in order to heat up is allowed because doing so is not the common form of cooking [and thus is not Biblically forbidden]. [Furthermore this is even Rabbinically permitted as the Sages] did not decree [against cooking] with the sun due to [that one may then also come to cook] with fire being that [cooking in the heat of] the sun will not be confused with cooking with fire.

 

Summary-The following form of cooking is completely permitted:

To cook, bake, or do any of the above mentioned activities through the direct rays of the sun[33], [although regarding melting fat see below].

 

4. Heating uncooked foods and liquids on Shabbos to less than Yad Soledes Bo:

A. Placing cold liquids on top of a kettle: [34]

Is hot enough to make liquid Yad Soledes: It is forbidden to place cold [liquid] on top of a kettle even in order to just warm it up [as opposed to making it hot] so long as it’s hot water is so hot that if the cold [liquid] were to be left on top of it for a long time then it would be able to cook, which means that it would become Yad Soledes, as the law of placing [food] on top of a kettle is the same law as that of placing [food] near a bonfire. [See Q&A]

Is not hot enough to make liquid Yad Soledes: However if [the water in the kettle] is not so hot [to the point that it can warm up the food to Yad Soledes even if left there for a long time] then it is allowed.    

 

B. Placing hot uncooked food on top of a hot pot so it retain is heat:[35]

A vessel which contains a hot food which is Yad Soledes is permitted to be placed on top of a pot which is insulated in clothes[36] in order so it retain its heat and not get cold. This applies even if [the food in the upper pot] is not yet completely cooked in which case doing something to hasten its [further] cooking contains the cooking prohibition, nevertheless [here it is allowed to place it on top of another insulated pot which is not on a source of heat] being that it is impossible for it to become completely cooked through doing so and it cannot even further cook it, and it rather only retains its heat.    

If the lower pot will heat the food to the point of Yad Soledes[37]: However one may not place a vessel which has in it [food that] is not hot to the point of Yad Soledes on top of [another] pot which is so hot that it can heat the upper [pot] to the point that it will become Yad Soledes. The same law applies to placing [a pot] on top of a kettle which is this hot[38]. However this only applies when the [food in the] upper [pot] has not yet fully cooked in which case it contains the cooking [prohibition] even when hot.

 

C. Sealing the cover of a pot of uncooked food on Shabbos:[39]

 It is allowed to seal the lid [of the upper pot] in order to retain its heat.

 

D. Placing uncooked foods near a fire on Shabbos:[40]

Cold Water: It is permitted to place a bottle of water or of other liquids opposite a bonfire in order to thaw out its coldness, as long as that one places it a distance from the fire to the extent that it will not be able to heat up in that place to Yad Soledes even if it were to remain there for a long time.

However it is forbidden to place it near the fire in an area where it can heat up to the point of Yad Soledes.

[Furthermore] to even leave it there for a short amount of time so it merely thaw the coldness alone, is forbidden due to a decree that one may come to forget and leave it there to the point that it will reach Yad Soledes. [See Q&A]

Placing raw fruits and the like near a fire: This same law applies for fruits or other foods which are eaten raw, that even though they do not need to be cooked nevertheless if one cooks them he is liable. Therefore it is forbidden to place these [fruits] by an area where they can cook if left there for a long time. This is defined as any area where it can reach Yad Soledes.

Regarding placing a cooked food very near a bonfire see “The laws of Chazara”.

 

Summary-Placing foods near an open fire:[41]

Foods that have a cooking prohibition: All foods that have a cooking prohibition may not be placed near a fire if they can reach Yad Soledes in that area, even if one plans to remove it from there prior from it reaching this temperature.

If the food will not be able to reach Yad Soledes in the area of heat that it is placed in[42] [even if it remains there the entire day[43]], then one may place it there. This is with exception to placing it inside a Keli Rishon. Thus one may place any food over a pot or near a fire if the food cannot reach Yad Soledes even if left there for a long time.[44]

Foods that do not have a cooking prohibition:  May be placed opposite the fire but are forbidden to be placed very close to the fire due to that one may come to stoke the coals.

 

Summary-Placing foods on top of the cover of a hot pot that is not on the fire:

Is permitted even if the food is uncooked if it cannot reach Yad Soledes, or even if it can reach Yad Soledes, but the food is already hot to the point of Yad Soledes and will not become further cooked thru placing it on top of the pot.[45]

If the food does not have a cooking prohibition it is allowed even if it will reach Yad Soledes.[46]

 

Q&A

A food which will be damaged if warmed to Yad Soledes may it be warmed near a fire if one will remove it prior to it reaching Yad Soledes?[47]

Many Poskim[48] rule it is permitted to leave it there with intent to remove it prior to reaching Yad Soledes.


May one place a baby bottle into a Keli Rishon or near a fire, with intent to remove it prior to it reaching Yad Soledes?[49]

One should not do so.[50] Although if one simply desires to thaw down the bottle and not heat it up, then if one is in a pressing situation this may be done on condition that one supervises that it does not begin to heat.

 

May one warm or dry his wet hands near a heater or fire?

No. This applies even if the water on his hand will not reach Yad Soledes. See the laws of bathing Chapter 126.

 

5. Stirring a pot of hot food and removing its content[51]

A. Not fully cooked-May not remove the food while hot`:

A pan and pot [of food] which were removed in a hot state from on the fire, if their [content] is not completely cooked one may not remove food with a spoon [See Q&A] being that by doing so one mixes and [helps further the cooking which thus] contains [the] cooking [prohibition] as explained above [in Halacha 10].  [It goes without saying that it is forbidden to mix the food. See Q&A]

 

B. Fully cooked:

If its [content is] fully cooked it is permitted to stir it after taking it off the fire[52]. [See Q&A]

Other Opinions: There are opinions which are strict regarding [stirring] a pot [of hot food] in all cases [even if the food is fully cooked and off the fire].

The Final Ruling:  The main Halachic opinion is like the first opinion [that if the food is fully cooked and off the fire it may be stirred], and one who wants to be stringent should [only] do so regarding actually stirring [the food]. [See Q&A] However regarding taking out the [food] with a spoon one should not be stringent at all if [the food] is fully cooked and is not on the fire. [See Q&A]

 

Summary: Stirring food that is in a Keli Rishon and is Yad Soledes:[53]

Is permitted if all the food in the pot is fully cooked and has been removed from the fire. One who wishes to be stringent to refrain from mixing it even in such a case may do so. When the food is on the fire it is forbidden to be mixed in all cases.

 

Summary: Removing food from a Keli Rishon pot of food that is Yad Soledes:[54]

Is forbidden if any of the food is not yet fully cooked.  If it is all fully cooked, it is allowed so long as the pot is off the fire[55].

 

Q&A On Uncooked Foods:

What should one do if he already removed the food from the fire and then realized that it is not yet fully cooked?[56]

One may not return the pot to the flame or remove the food from it with a spoon. Thus he must either simply wait until the food cools below Yad Soledes and then remove the food from it, or pour the food directly from the pot [without using any utensil] into a second pot[57] and then from that second pot he may remove the content with a spoon.[58]

 

May one remove uncooked food from a hot Keli Sheiyni?[59]

Yes [see previous answer]

 

May one remove uncooked food with a fork?[60]

If the food desired to be removed is submerged within the food that is in the pot then it is forbidden according to all.

If the food is on the surface of the food in the pot and thus one will not be causing any movement in the food in the pot by removing the food on the surface, the Ketzos Hashulchan rules that nevertheless it is forbidden due to that this may lead one to forget and come to remove food that is submerged. However Rav Farkash disputes this ruling and holds that in such a scenario it is permitted.

 

If some of the food in the pot is fully cooked, may the fully cooked foods be removed from the pot?

No. As doing so will still stir the pot and cause the non-fully cooked food to be cooked faster.

 

May one stir uncooked food that is in a Keli Sheiyni?[61]

Yes, with exception to if the food contains a sharp liquid, such as lemon juice or vinegar, in which case it is subject to debate.

 

Q&A on Cooked food that is on the fire

May one stir cooked Yad Soledes water that is on the fire?[62]

Although there are opinions which allow this one should be stringent like those opinions which prohibit doing so.

 

May one remove water from a pot of water that is on the fire?[63]

If the water is fully cooked [Yad Soledes] one may do so even using a spoon as there are opinions which hold that it is allowed to even mix water while it is on the fire. [See Q&A 2 of next case]

However if the water is not yet fully cooked it is forbidden to remove any water from it as doing so will hasten its cooking being that there is now less water in the pot.

 

May one stir a food that is on the fire if it has no liquid, such as a piece of Kugel?[64]

No. Due to doubt one is to act with regards to mixing solids just like as with liquids.[65]

 

If the pot has been moved off the fire but is still on the blech may it be mixed or have food taken out from it?[66]

Only if in the area that it is now standing in it cannot reach Yad Soledes. Otherwise it is considered to still be on the fire.[67]

 

May one pour water of a Keli Rishon onto a pot of cooked food that is on the fire?[68]

Yes[69].  However it is proper to pour the water in slowly as opposed to a forceful splash.[70] Nevertheless there are opinions which are stringent in this.

 

If the pot of fully cooked food is too heavy to remove from the fire how is one to remove food from it?[71]

In such a case one may move the pot to an area of the blech that is not hot enough to heat the food to Yad Soledes if it were to be cold. If this too is not possible there are Poskim which even allow one to remove the food very gently with a spoon taking much care to avoid movement within the pot. Others dispute this ruling.

 

May one pour water of a Keli Rishon onto a pot of cooked food that is off the fire?[72]

According to all opinions this is allowed.

 

When allowed to remove food may one remove food from even the bottom of the pot?[73]

Yes this is allowed despite the fact that doing so will consequently mix some of the food in the pot.

 

6. Heating liquid that was previously cooked to the point of Yad Soledes:[74]

Important note: Wherever it is explained here that it is permitted to heat a food, it may only be heated through being on or very near a fire if the conditions that are explained in “The laws of Chazara” are fulfilled. See there! 

A precooked liquid that cooled below 110 Fahrenheit: All liquid substances [See Q&A] are [forbidden to be] cooked [even] after having been previously cooked. Thus a liquid dish which was already fully cooked and cooled off, even if it did not cool off completely but is no longer [hot to the point of] Yad Soledes[75], if one heats it on Shabbos until it reaches [the heat of] Yad Soledes, he is liable for cooking.[76] [See Q&A]

A liquid which is still 110 Fahrenheit or above: However if it [the precooked liquid dish] was [still] hot to the point of Yad Soledes and one then further heated it, there is no cooking [prohibition involved]. [Furthermore it] is allowed even initially to be [further] heated near a bonfire, although not very close to the fire, as will be explained. (Whether it is [also] allowed to be placed on a stove top was explained in the laws of Chazara).   [See Q&A]

Other Opinions: [However] there are opinions[77] which say that even if [the precooked liquid] has [already] completely cooled down there is no [prohibition in] cooking it after [it having been previously] cooked, and it is thus allowed to be heated on Shabbos near a fire in a situation that no suspicion exists that one may come to stoke [the coals]. [See Q&A]
The Final Ruling:  The custom is to be lenient if [the liquid food] has not yet completely cooled down and is rather still fit to be eaten due to its heat. [See Q&A] However if it completely cooled down then we are accustomed like the first opinion….. Regarding doing anything [to this liquid] which involves a cooking prohibition.

The law if one transgressed and re-heated cold liquid:  If the liquid completely cooled down we are accustomed like the first opinion even regarding a case that one already heated it [and thus the food would be forbidden to be eaten] as was explained in chapter 253 [Halacha 25][78].

The law if one transgressed and asked a gentile to heat it near the fire[79]: (even if the Jew commanded the gentile to return it) if he returned it (even the Jew himself[80]) to an area where there are opinions which permit this to be done even initially, such as to place it near an oven[81] that is not swept or covered, or next to a bonfire, food that was completely cooked but has liquid which has completely cooled down, and [by placing it near the fire] it heated up there until it became Yad Soledes, then even though [transgressing such a prohibition according to some opinions] makes one liable to bring a Chatas offering (for the Jew) [if the Jew placed the food there], nevertheless, since there are opinions which allow this to be done even initially as will be explained in 318, [therefore] one may rely on their words after the fact (to not forbid the food placed on by the gentile, even if the Jew commanded him to do so).

Warming it up on a heater which will eventually turn on:  Even to place it on top of a heater prior to it being lit by a gentile in order for it to heat up when it gets lit is forbidden as explained there [in chapter 253 Halacha 27].

Practically[82]: Any food that was already fully cooked but cooled down a little, even though it is not hot to the point of Yad Soledes, [nevertheless] if it is [still] slightly hot to the point that it is edible due to its heat, the custom is to be lenient that [re-cooking] it does not involve the cooking prohibition and it is [thus] permitted to be placed on top of a hot pot or kettle [which is on a fire, even] in order to heat it a lot.

 

Summary of Re-cooking a precooked liquid:[83]

If is still Yad Soledes: Does not contain any cooking prohibition and thus is permitted according to all to cook by a fire [in ways explained in chapter 253] or to place in any pot of food that was heated on a fire and is now off the fire.

If is no longer Yad Soledes but is still hot enough to be eaten: The custom is to be lenient and allow it to be further warmed in the permissible ways explained in chapter 253.

If is cooled off to the point that it is no longer hot enough to eat: The custom is to be stringent that reheating contains a cooking prohibition [even after the fact and thus the food is forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos, Vetzaruch Iyun from 253]. If however a gentile heated it near a fire one may be lenient to eat it on Shabbos.

 

Q&A

When is a liquid considered pre-cooked?[84]

When it has been previously cooked to the point of Yad Soledes. Others however hold it must be cooked until boiling point.

If it has been cooked to less than Yad Soledes according to all there is a Biblical prohibition to further heat it on Shabbos even if it is still hot.


If a liquid had been originally cooked to only Yad Soledes and is still warm may it be heated even past Yad Soledes, to boiling point?
[85]

Yes, as once it has been cooked to Yad Soledes it is considered cooked.[86]  However there are Poskim[87] which rule  one is to be stringent in this.

 

Should one ideally be stringent like the Michaber’s opinion which holds that so long as the liquid is below Yad Soledes it is forbidden to reheat it?

The M”B[88] writes, based on an implication from the Magen Avraham, that although we are accustomed to be lenient, nevertheless it is proper to be stringent like the Michaber.

However from the Alter Rebbe it is implied that we do not hold at all like the opinion of the Michaber. See Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 140 for a further analysis on this subject.

 

If the precooked liquid which has fully cooled down had cooked to the point of “condensing in a way damaging for the owner” is it still forbidden to reheat?

According to Admur there is no difference and either way it is forbidden.[89]

 

Is fruit juice considered a liquid?[90]

Yes.

 

Is pure jam or paste, and the like of other pure fruit/vegetable pastes, considered like a liquid or solid?[91]

This matter is disputed amongst Poskim. The Igros Moshe rules that a liquid substance is determined by whether or not it can flow, and thus considers all pastes like a liquid[92]. However Rav SZ”A rules that ketchup has the status of Yaveish being that it derives from tomato paste, and something which was originally a solid remains a solid even when its turned into a flowing paste.


Is ketchup considered a liquid?
[93]

This is subject to the above dispute and thus according to the Igros Moshe that a liquid substance is determined by whether or not it can flow, ketchup is a liquid[94]. Now, although ketchup is precooked, nevertheless since it is considered a liquid it thus contains the cooking restrictions being that it is cold.

 

May one reheat a doughnut with jam inside?

If the jam is not made of pure fruit then according to all it has the status of a liquid. If it is made from pure fruit, it is subject to the dispute mentioned above by ketchup.

 

If the liquid fully cooled down, and then became reheated[95] may one place it into a Keli Rishon?[96]

No. It only remains permitted to be further heated when it is still warm due to the heat of a Keli Rishon.[97]

 

May one use a wet spoon or ladle to remove soup from a pot that is off the fire?

No. See the laws of a Keli Rishon-Q&A there!

 

7. Heating a dry solid which was previously cooked/roasted/baked to the point of Yad Soledes:[98]

Important note A: Wherever explained here that it is allowed to heat a food, it may only be heated through being on or very near a fire if the conditions that are explained in “The laws of Chazara” are fulfilled. See there!

Important Note B: The following cases only refer to dry foods which do not dissolve in heat. Regarding dry foods which dissolve-see the next Halacha!

Important Concepts: In the following Halachas one must be aware of the following terms. Cooked = Heated with liquid. Roasted = Heated directly on or near the fire without liquid, such as a barbecue. Baked = all doughy substances which are baked in an oven. Thus if one is allowed to re-cook a food on Shabbos it means that he is allowed to place it in a Keli Rishon of liquid and not directly near a fire unless stated otherwise. As well a cooked food means that it was cooked through liquid, as opposed to baked or roasted.

Re-heating in water a food that was precooked: [99] A dry food [See Q&A for the exact definition] which was fully cooked [See Q&A with regards to chicken bones] [in liquid] and [now] contains no liquid at all is [permitted to be] heated [in a Keli Rishon] even if it completely cooled down. [However as will be explained it may not be heated near a fire, as doing so constitutes roasting after cooking.]

Reheating in water a roasted or baked food- First Opinion:[100] There are opinions which say that although there is no [prohibition in] cooking an already cooked [food] that is dry, nevertheless there is [a prohibition to] cook [food] that has been previously baked or roasted, and [thus according to them[101]] if one places baked or roasted [food] even while still burning hot into a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes, he is liable. Accordingly even regarding [placing these foods] into a Keli Sheiyni one needs to be stringent Rabbinically.

One therefore needs to be careful not to place baked bread even into a plate [of food] that is a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes.

Second  Opinion by a roasted and baked food: However there are opinions which permit placing a baked and roasted food, even if cold, even into a burning hot Keli Rishon, being that [according to them] there is no [prohibition to] cook [a food that has been] already baked or roasted.

The Final Ruling: It is the custom[102] to initially be careful like the first opinion to not place bread[103] even into a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes. However if one did so it is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] even [if one placed it] in a Keli Rishon, as rules the latter opinion.    

Baking and roasting an already cooked food:[104] According to the first opinion that there is [a prohibition in] cooking an already baked and roasted [food] there is also [a prohibition to] bake and roast [a food that has] already been cooked. Meaning [that according to them] any [food] that is cooked is forbidden to be placed without [warm and precooked] liquid near a fire by an area that it is able to heat up to the point of Yad Soledes.

Baking and roasting an already baked or roasted food: [105] According to all opinions there is no [prohibition to] bake and roast an already [fully] baked and roasted [food] and [thus] a food which is baked or roasted is allowed to be placed near a fire in the way that will be explained [in 318/24], even if it has already completely cooled down.

Warming a dry cooked food by placing it on top of a pot:[106] If [the food] is dry and fully cooked, then even if it has cooled off completely, there is no cooking [prohibition] involved in [heating] it, and it is [thus] permitted to heat it on top of the [pot and kettle], even if it will become Yad Soledes.

 

Summary: Re-heating a fully cooked solid food that does not contain liquid:

Note: Whenever a cooking prohibition applies to a food it is forbidden to heat it to Yad Soledes on or near a fire. Regarding placing it in a Keli Rishon etc, these laws will be elaborated later on and any food which here is explained to have a cooking prohibition is with regards to those laws considered uncooked, and thus one is to follow whatever rulings apply to uncooked foods.

 

If it does not contain fat/oil and will not dissolve then the following are its laws:

Re-heating in liquid a food that was originally cooked in liquid:[107] There is no cooking prohibition involved in re-heating in liquid [such as putting it into a Keli Rishon] a food that was originally cooked in liquid [and was now taken out and dried] even if the food fully cooled down. [If it has not dried yet, such as it is still within the liquid it was cooked in, then if it is still warm it may be reheated in ways explained in chapter 253].

Heating without liquid a food that was cooked with liquid:[108] However if it was cooked in a pot with liquid it is initially forbidden to roast it or bake it, which is defined as heating it without liquid directly near the fire [See Q&A], due to it containing a roasting/baking prohibition. However if one did heat it without liquid one may be lenient like the opinions which holds that it does not contain a roasting/baking prohibition [and thus if it was heated in a permitted way as explained in chapter 253, it may be eaten on Shabbos].

Heating with liquid a food that was originally baked or roasted [without liquid]:[109] Has the same ruling as the previous scenario that initially it is forbidden to re-heat it in liquid [that is Yad Soledes or will become Yad Soledes, with exception to those foods allowed in a Keli Shelishi or to be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni, as will be explained]. However Bedieved, if one already did so the food remains permitted.

Heating without liquid a food that was cooked or baked without liquid:[110] Does not contain a baking/roasting prohibition even if it fully cooled down, and thus one may heat it near a fire [but not too close to the fire]. [See Q&A]

To heat the food in an area that it will not be able to reach Yad Soledes: The above restrictions mentioned in this scenario are only with regards to reheating the food in an area that it can reach the point of Yad Soledes. However if the food will not be able to be heated to the point of Yad Soledes it is allowed to heat it in any of the above cases [with exception to placing it in a Keli Rishon], as explained in Halacha 4.

To heat with heat of a fire food which was cooked with solar heat: See Q&A

To heat a food which was previously Kavush or Maluach but never yet cooked or baked: See Q&A

 

Q&A

What is the definition of a dry solid?[111]

If a food has enough moisture to be Tofeiach Al Menas Lehatfiach, it receives the same law as a liquid. This means that a solid food must be dry to the point that it’s moisture cannot wet one’s finger enough to make a further finger wet.[112] In such a case it is considered dry[113], even if it contains liquid inside of it, such as by a piece of meat. If any part of the solid contains this amount of moisture then it has the same laws as a liquid even if majority of the solid is dry as explained[114]

Example: Spaghetti for soup may not be placed in a Keli Rishon if it has the amount of moisture stated above. [It may however be placed in a Keli Sheiyni and even have soup from a ladle taken from a Keli Rishon poured onto it in any case.[115]]

 

Do chicken bones need to be fully cooked to be allowed to further heat the chicken or the dish that they are in?[116]

If one or the majority of one’s city is accustomed to eat the chicken bones, then the chicken bones must be cooked to the point that they are chewable.

If neither oneself or the majority of one’s city eats them, they do not need to be cooked.

If one is in doubt as to whether they have been cooked to the point that they are chewable, then if he himself does not chew them, even if majority of the city does, he is not required to be stringent.

 

What foods are considered cooked as opposed to baked or roasted?[117]

  • Cooked: Any food which was submerged in a pot of liquid and cooked, whether the liquid was oil or water or fat and the like, is considered cooked.
  • Roasted: Any food which was roasted directly over fire [without the medium of a pot].
  • Baked: Any food which received a change of texture through heat, and is placed in a pot without liquid, such as dough and eggs, is considered baked.
  • Fried with a minute amount of oil: If only a minute amount of oil was placed in order to prevent the food from sticking the following is its definition: By foods which are usually baked, such as pastries and dough, they are considered baked.[118] By foods that are normally cooked, such as meat and vegetables, it is disputed whether it is defined as baked or cooked.[119] One is to be stringent like both opinions [and thus not heat it to Yad Soledes near a fire, or place it in a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni] although one may place it in a dry pot that is near a fire and let it simmer within its own juices.
  • Fried with a large amount of oil: If a large amount of oil was placed in, to the point that it fries within the oil, then foods which are normally baked, or which change from liquid to solid through cooking[120], are considered cooked even if they are not submerged within the oil. [Thus one may place such a food into a Keli Rishon so long as it is dry from the oil]. However other Poskim rule that all foods which are not completely submerged within the oil are questionable whether they are defined as “cooked” or “baked”.[121] Seemingly according to all foods which are not baked and do not change from liquid to solid through cooking, enter into this doubt.[122]
  • Simmered within its own juice: If the food was placed in a pot without any liquid and it simmered within its own juice the following is its definition: It is disputed whether it is defined as baked/roasted or cooked. One is to be stringent like both opinions [and thus not heat it to Yad Soledes near a fire, or place it in a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni.]
  • A food which was both cooked in liquid and baked/fried: Is considered to be both baked and cooked and thus does not have a cooking or baking/roasting prohibition on Shabbos.[123] It makes no difference whether it was first baked and then cooked or vice versa.[124] [See Q&A 9]

 

Is placing a food that is defined as cooked, into an empty pot near the fire, considered roasting?[125]

No. So long as the food is not directly receiving the heat from the fire it is not considered as if one is now roasting it on Shabbos. Thus any dry food which was previously cooked may be placed in an empty pot near a fire.

 

May one place a food that is defined as cooked on top of a pot that is on the fire?

Yes, as explained in above answer that this is not considered roasting.

 

May one place a food defined as roasted or baked into an empty pot near the fire?[126]

Yes.

 

May one place bread on top of a cooked hot potato or hot piece of cooked meat?[127]

So long as there is no liquid on the potato or meat it is permitted as this form of heating is defined as baking and not cooking.

 

May one heat water near a fire, which was cooked using sun heat if the water is still warm?[128]

This matter requires further analysis.[129]  

 

May food cooked through a microwave be later heated through heat of a fire?[130]

Whether the food was baked or cooked in the microwave it may not be baked or cooked through fire. [As a microwave is considered solar heat which as explained in the previous question that it is questionable whether food heated through such heat may be heated through fire.[131]] This however may be done through a gentile.

 

May one heat on Shabbos, to Yad Soledes, a raw food which was salted or pickled?[132]

No. Pickled and salted foods are not considered cooked with regards to being allowed to re-cook it on Shabbos. They thus maintain all the regulations of an uncooked food.

 

May one move a pot of fully cooked food, which is on the blech, closer to the flame in order so its liquid condense?

There is no cooking prohibition involved in doing so, although at times it is not allowed due to the Chazara restrictions. See the laws of Chazara Chapter 1 Q&A.

 

Practical Q&A

  • Important Note-The status of a Bowl of soup and Chulent: In all cases that a ladle or spoon was used to pour the soup or chulent into one’s bowl, the chulent or soup in the bowl has a Keli Shelishi status. 

May one place Schnitzel into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni, such as into his chulent?

Baked Schnitzel: May not be entered either into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni. May be entered into a  Keli Shelishi.

Fried Schnitzel: If it was deep fried it may be placed even into a Keli Rishon if the schnitzel is dry. If it just simmered in oil one is to be stringent against placing it even in a Keli Sheiyni.

 

May one place a barbecued hot dog in his Keli Rishon or Sheiyni such as into his Chulent or soup?

Yes[133]

 

May one place cold Yerushalmi Kugel into a bowl of hot chulent and the like?

The Kugel is moist: If the Kugel is moist from liquid to the point of Tofeiach Al Menas Lehatfiach, then if the Kugel is cold it may not be placed into a hot Keli Rishon in any circumstance. Regarding placing it into a Keli Sheiyni it has the same law as dry Kugel. It may be placed into a Keli Shelishi in all cases.

Dry Kugel: If the Kugel is dry then whether it may be placed into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni depends on how it was cooked. If the noodles of the Kugel were previously cooked and then baked it is allowed to be placed into both a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni. If it was only baked then if the chulent has liquid it is forbidden to be placed either into a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni. It may however be placed in a Keli Shelishi.

 

May one place potato Kugel in a Keli Sheiyni?

Tzaruch Iyun if potato Kugel is defined as baked or cooked

 

May one swipe his Chalah into hot gravy of meat or chicken?

It is forbidden to swipe one’s Chalah into the gravy of a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni which is Yad Soledes. Hence one may not dip his Chalah into a tray of chicken gravy which has come out of the oven, or into the spoon which he uses serve the chicken gravy with.

 

May one place soup nuggets into soup that is a Keli Rishon or Sheiyni?[134]

This depends on whether the nuggets were baked or fried. If baked, it is forbidden. If fried with enough oil to define it as cooked [see above Q&A] then it is allowed.

 

May one place bread into soup that is a Keli Rishon/Sheiyni?[135]

No, as explained above. Although one may pour on to it from a Keli Sheiyni and place it into a Keli Shelishi.

 

8.  Heating precooked/baked foods on Shabbos which dissolve/melt in heat [such as congealed fat and oil]:

Important Note: The following law contains a complex number of opinions both within the Shulchan Aruch itself and between the ruling in the Shulchan Aruch and the Siddur. It is thereby imperative to read the summary brought below, which summarizes the law in accordance to the rulings of the Siddur, which is the Mahadurah Basra in these regards.

 

A. The Ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch regarding the cooking prohibition:

Dissolving a precooked food near a fire: [136] Although congealed fat [which was previously cooked] does not contain a cooking prohibition [in melting it], nevertheless it is questionable [whether it is allowed] due to a different [prohibition] as will be explained below.

Dissolving a precooked food in a Keli Rishon:[137] Dry food which contains no liquid at all is [permitted to be] cooked after having been previously cooked as long as it was originally fully cooked. This applies even if it completely cooled down. It is even allowed to soak it in a hot Keli Rishon [I.e. any pot that was previously on a fire] in order so it dissolve there and become a liquid substance.[138]

B. The First Opinion in the Shulchan Aruch regarding the Nolad prohibition:

The above allowance [in Halacha 7] to heat up pre-cooked foods only apply when [the food] does not contain fat, however foods which are filled with pieces of congealed fat are forbidden to be heated. [This applies] even [if they are heated] at a distance from the fire in an area where [the food will] not [be able to get heated top the point of] Yad Soledes.[139]

The reason for the above restriction is: [140] because the congealed fat that is inside [the food] melts [in the heat]. Melting this fat is similar to [one] crushing a piece of ice in order to liquefy it, in which case the Sages prohibited [one from doing so]. [The reason the Sages prohibited this is] because [through doing so] one is creating [a new substance] on Shabbos which is similar to a [Biblically] forbidden action being that he is creating this water [from the ice] as will be explained in the laws of squeezing juice from foods. This same decree applies likewise to dissolving fat.

The law if the fat will melt into the food and will thus not be recognizable:[141] However the above [prohibition to melt the fat] only refers to when so much fat has melted that it oozes out [of the pastry], and is its own substance. [Meaning] that it is not mixed into any other food and is [thus] recognizable on its own. However if it has been left such a great distance [from the fire] that not enough fat will melt for it to ooze out [of the pastry], and rather only a slight amount of it will melt and will get absorbed into the pastry itself and [will thus] not be visible on its own, then it is allowed to [be placed there] even initially just like it is allowed to place a piece of ice in a cup of wine despite that the ice will melt into it, being that [the melted water] will get mixed and nullified within the wine in the cup, and is [thus] not a separate substance as is explained there [in Chapter 320 Halacha 16].
[Furthermore] even if a small amount of [the fat] does flow out [of the pastry] and is [recognizable as] a substance of its own, [nevertheless] since it is a small amount it is not given any [Halachic] importance and is permitted.

Heating up fatty meat: [142] Therefore it is allowed to heat up on Shabbos a piece of fatty meat even though some of [its fat] will flow being that [what will flow] is [only] a small amount [of fat].

Placing a dissolvable precooked dry solid into a Keli Rishon[143]: It is allowed to soak a precooked dissolvable solid [other than fat or oil-see next case] into a hot Keli Rishon in order so it dissolve there and become a liquid substance[144]. [However according to the Siddur, which is the final ruling, it is forbidden to heat it in a way that it will dissolve and reach a heat of Yad Soledes, as will be explained below.]

Heating up soup or stew: [145]  However it is forbidden to heat up a pot [of stew or soup], which its fat has congealed, even by an area that [it will] not [reach] Yad Soledes, even if there is a lot of gravy inside [the pot] and the fat will thus dissolve into the gravy, as nevertheless the fat will float on its surface and be [recognizable as a] separate substance.

Melting fat in the sun: [146]  In all cases that it is forbidden to heat up a food with congealed fat [it is] even [forbidden] to do so by leaving it in the sun.

If the fat melted on Shabbos it may not be eaten: [147]  Furthermore, if [the fat] already [melted] then the fat that had melted on Shabbos is forbidden [to be eaten].

The reason for this is:[148] as this is the law with juice that has flowed on Shabbos from fruits that are designated to be used for juice. Such juice is forbidden [to drink] due to a decree that [if this were to be allowed] one may come to squeeze the fruits on Shabbos [in order to make juice] being that these [fruits] are designated for this purpose as will be explained there [in chapter 320 Halacha 3]. This [suspicion] also applies to this fat [that has melted on Shabbos] as since it is common for [the fat] to be liquidly and transparent therefore when it is congealed it is similar to fruits that are designated to be juiced, of which what flows from on Shabbos is forbidden until night [after Shabbos].

 

C. The Second Opinion in the Shulchan Aruch:[149]

However there are opinions which argue on all this and say that there is no prohibition at all in melting fat through placing it in a hot area, as the [Sages] only prohibited breaking [and thus dissolving] a piece of ice with ones hands, however to let it dissolve on its own there is no decree [against doing so].

Therefore [according to their opinion] it is allowed to heat up this pastry which is filled with fat even in an area which [the pastry will become] Yad Soledes being that there is no cooking [prohibition involved here]. [There is] no [prohibition involved in heating] the bread because there is no [prohibition to] bake a pre-baked [food] and not in the fat which is congealed and dissolves because there is no [prohibition to] cook a pre-cooked [food] that is dry, even though it will melt through this second cooking as was explained above.

However a pot [of soup or stew] which its fat has congealed may only be heated in an area that the food will not be able to reach Yad Soledes being that by liquid that has become cold there is a cooking [prohibition involved in reheating it to Yad Soledes, as explained above [in Halacha 7].

D. The Final Ruling in Shulchan Aruch: [150] 

Concerning the final ruling the custom is to initially be stringent like the first opinion although once the fat has already melted one may be lenient like the second opinion. [Furthermore] even initially one may rely on the second opinion in a time of need, being that this is the main Halachic opinion.
Placing the fat on top of a heater that is not yet lit: As well one may be lenient to place pastries filled with fat onto a heater before it is lit, and [thereby cause that] when the gentile will light it, it will also heat up.

The reason for this is: because [in this scenario] even regarding the cooking prohibition, [meaning if one were to place there] a food which has a cooking prohibition applicable to it, then [cooking it] would not contain a Biblical prohibition but rather only a Rabbinical [prohibition] if he places it there prior to the gentile lighting the fire of the oven as explained in chapter 253 Halacha 27]. Thus here since there are opinions which completely permit [one to place it even near an active fire] one may at the very least be lenient regarding placing it there before the oven is lit.

Doing it through a gentile, and not in front of an ignoramus: Nevertheless one should not be lenient in front of an uneducated Jew, and [when lenient] one should [only] do so through a gentile.     

Melting congealed fat on top of legumes: [151] According to all opinions it is permitted to place fat that has congealed on top of hot legumes and flour as long as one does not break [the fat] apart with ones hands, and rather simply places [the fat] on top of them or into them letting it melt on its own, being that [the fat] that melts is not [recognizable as] its own substance and rather becomes absorbed within the food.

Melting congealed fat on top of a hot roast: [152] It is questionable whether one may place congealed fat on top of hot roast in order for it to dissolve on its own, as since the melted fat does not get absorbed into the meat but rather floats on its surface it therefore can be compared to a pot [of soup or stew] which its fat has congealed of which the custom is to be initially stringent.

 

E. The ruling of the Siddur regarding the cooking prohibition, which is the Final Ruling of Today:

Precooked foods which dissolve upon re-cooking contain the cooking prohibition: Although there is no prohibition to cook a precooked food that is dry, nevertheless if some of it dissolves through the cooking then it contains a cooking prohibition if the dissolved moisture reaches the heat of Yad Soledes.[153]

Heating chicken and meat that has gravy: Therefore one must be very careful not to heat up roasted or cooked meat or chicken if their gravy which melts from within in them will reach the heat of Yad Soledes due to a Sekilah and Kares prohibition, Heaven Forbid.

Sugar: As well one may not pour from a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes onto sugar, as being that the sugar dissolves it contains a cooking prohibition.[154] [Regarding placing in a Keli Sheiyni-see Q&A!]

Salt: Therefore one may not be lenient regarding our salt that although it is previously cooked, nevertheless since it dissolves upon re-cooking one may not be lenient with it any more then the salt of the old days [which was not previously cooked] based on the difference of opinions mentioned in Shulchan Aruch of which there are opinions which hold that it is forbidden to even place it in a Keli Sheiyni that is Yad Soledes, and one who is stringent is to be blessed.  

 

Summary: Re-heating a previously cooked dry dissolvable solids:

If it  contains congealed fat/oil or substance that will dissolve into liquid then the following are its laws:

In an area where the melted food can become Yad Soledes[155]: A congealed solid which will melt with heat is forbidden to be heated it in any form[156] to the point that it will reach Yad Soledes, even if the food was previously cooked or roasted[157]. It is thus forbidden to place it in any area where it could reach Yad Soledes even if one plans to remove it prior to it reaching that point, as explained in Halacha 4.

In an area where the melted food cannot become Yad Soledes:[158] Then if only a minute amount of the melted substance is recognizable outside of the solid food, such as the fat of meat, and certainly if it is completely absorbed within the solid food and is not individually recognizable at all, then it is permitted. If however there is a lot of recognizable melted substance flowing out of the food then initially, if there is no pressing need to do so, it may not be heated to even below Yad Soledes, even in direct sun light. However in times of need it may be heated to below Yad Soledes in an area where it cannot reach Yad Soledes even if it were to remain there throughout Shabbos. Likewise even it may be placed by a gentile, not in the presence of an ignoramus Jew, on top of a heating surface that will eventually be turned on by a gentile. This allowance applies even if the scenario does not involve great need.

In any event, Bedieved that one went head and melted it to below Yad Soledes without the above allowances it is nevertheless permitted to be eaten on Shabbos.

Examples:[159]

  • One may place butter or margarine onto hot lentils and rice and the like of foods that will absorb the melted butter, if it will not reach the point of Yad Soledes.

One may not place margarine, or fat onto a hot piece of meat [or potato] even if it will not reach Yad Soledes.

 

Q&A

May one melt gravy of congealed chicken, meat or fish near a flame or in the sun?

It may never be melted in an area near the fire which will reach Yad Soledes. If it will not be able to reach Yad Soledes then if there will be a nice amount of melted liquid which is apparent, then it is forbidden. If however it will become absorbed into the food and thus not be very evident, it is permitted.[160]

However there are Poskim[161] which permit melting gravy of meat, chicken, and fish due to that today people are accustomed to eat them even when congealed, and it thus no longer contains a Nolad prohibition.

 

List of items which dissolve and thus have a cooking prohibition even if they were previously cooked:[162]

  • Sugar
  • Salt
  • soup mix
  • baby foods which dissolve
  • butter
  • instant coffee
  • Regarding placing these items in a Keli Sheiyni-See Halacha 14.

 

May one place substances which dissolve and become liquid into a Keli Sheiyni?[163]

  • If the substance is not considered a spice: No, even if the substance has already been previously cooked, as only by a substance which is originally liquid do we say that it does not re-cook in a Keli Sheiyni.[164]
  • If the substance is considered a spice: Then it may be inserted even if it was not previously cooked. See above.

 

9. The laws of a Keli Rishon:

Definition of a Keli Rishon: A Keli Rishon is the original pot of food that was taken off the fire, or off any other heating surface [even if it’s content is no longer Yad Soledes-See D].[165] A Keli Rishon has the ability to cook foods as will be explained.

Solid foods:  According to the understanding of some opinions, the Alter Rebbe rules that a solid piece of food which is Yad Soledes, even if placed into another pot/dish which was never on the fire, is still considered a Keli Rishon. This will be explained in Halacha 11[166]].

A very hot Keli Sheiyni: A Keli Sheiyni which contains very hot water that was poured in from a Keli Rishon is viewed as a Keli Rishon. This will be explained in Halacha 10.[167]

 

A. Precooked/prebaked foods:

Fully cooked dry food which will not dissolve[168]: Dry food which contains no liquid at all is [permitted to be] cooked after having been previously cooked [in liquid] as long as it is fully cooked. This applies even if it completely cooled down. Thus it is allowed to soak it in a hot Keli Rishon [that is off the fire[169]].

Fully cooked dissolvable foods: [According to the Shulchan Aruch[170]] it is even allowed to soak a fully cooked food in a hot Keli Rishon in order so it dissolve there and become a liquid substance[171]. [However according to the Siddur, which is the final ruling, it is forbidden to heat it in a way that it will dissolve and reach a heat of Yad Soledes. Thus one may not even pour from a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes onto sugar, as being that the sugar dissolves it contains a cooking prohibition.[172]]

Placing roasted foods in a Keli Rishon: [173]  By roasted meat one is to be stringent not to place it even into a Keli Sheiyni being that [one is liable for] cooking [a food] that was previously roasted. [See Halacha 7 above]

Placing baked products into a Keli Rishon[174]: It is the custom[175] to initially be careful not to place bread even into a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes, although if one did so then it is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] even [if one placed it] in a Keli Rishon. [See Halacha 7 above]

Precooked liquids: If they cooled off to the point that they are no longer warm enough to be served, they may not be placed in a Keli Rishon-See Halacha 6 above and D/E below.

 

Summary of placing precooked foods into a Keli Rishon.:

Precooked foods may only be placed into a Keli Rishon if all the following four conditions are fulfilled:

  1. The pot is off the fire and
  2. The food was previously fully cooked in liquid as opposed to baked/roasted and
  3. The food is currently dry, or moist but is still warm enough to be served

and

The food is not a dissolvable substance.

 

Q&A

If a food had been soaked in a Keli Rishon before Shabbos may it be placed into a Keli Rishon on Shabbos?

Example: If one placed tea bags in a Keli Rishon pot that was off the fire before Shabbos, may one return those tea bags if dry, to the Keli Rishon on Shabbos.

This matter is disputed amongst Poskim and one is to be stringent.[176]

 

May one reuse a spoon or ladle which had been used to remove soup from the pot? [177]

If the liquid on the spoon or ladle is still warm then it may be reused. If it has cooled down, then it must be dried prior to entering it into the pot, if the food in the pot is still Yad Soledes [110 degrees].

 

B. Uncooked foods:

Uncooked dry food: [178] Any food which has not been [fully] cooked before Shabbos [whether liquid or solid], one may not soak it on Shabbos in hot [liquidly] food that is Yad Soledes, even if it will not dissolve in there at all. If one [transgressed and] soaked it in a Keli Rishon then he is liable for cooking.

Uncooked spices:[179] A Keli Rishon has the ability to cook so long as it remains the heat of Yad Soledes even after one has removed it from the fire. Therefore it is forbidden to place spices into it.

Salt that has not been abstracted through cooking or evaporation:[180] However salt is allowed to be placed inside [a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes] and has been  removed from the fire as salt requires a long amount of cooking similar to ox meat and does not cook unless it is on a fire.

Other opinions[181]: [However] there are opinions which say that salt only requires a slight amount of cooking and is thus forbidden to be placed even in a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes.

The Final Ruling: [182]  One who is strict will be blessed.

Salt that has been abstracted through cooking: [183] [However] all the above refers to salt which has not been [extracted through] cooking, however salt which has been extracted through cooking water is permitted to be placed in a Keli Rishon according to all opinions being that there is no [prohibition to] cook an already cooked [food] that is dry even if it dissolves through this second cooking as was explained above [in Halacha 8. However according to the Siddur foods which dissolve do contain a cooking prohibition and thus one is to be stringent not to place it even into a Keli Sheiyni. This will be brought next.]

Nevertheless [even according to the ruling here in Shulchan Aruch] one who is stringent in this just like by other salt [which is not cooked], will be blessed.

The ruling of the Siddur regarding Salt: One may not be lenient regarding our salt that although it is previously cooked, nevertheless since it dissolves upon re-cooking one may not be lenient with it any more then the salt of the old days [which was not previously cooked] based on the difference of opinions mentioned in Shulchan Aruch of which there are opinions which hold that it is forbidden to even place it in a Keli Sheiyni that is Yad Soledes, and one who is stringent is to be blessed.  

Ox Meat: [184] Ox meat is forbidden to be placed inside a Keli Rishon [even if it is off the fire] as although the meat [itself] will not cook, nevertheless the moisture that is on it will cook. However if [the meat] is completely dry and does not have on it any moisture at all [then it is allowed] to be placed in a Keli Rishon that is off the fire.

 

Summary of placing uncooked food into a Keli Rishon:

Is Biblically forbidden if it will reach Yad Soledes [with exception of dry and lean ox meat as will be explained][185], and should not be done even if the food in the pot is not Yad Soledes.[186]

Salt[187]: Even if it was previously cooked it is not to be placed in a Keli Rishon if it will dissolve. [If it will not dissolve then it is proper to nevertheless be stringent.[188]]

Ox meat: Even if raw is allowed to be placed even in a Yad Soledes Keli Rishon, if the meat is completely dry[189] [and does not contain any fat. If contains fat is forbidden even if was precooked and is dry.[190]]

 

C.  If one transgressed and placed spices into a Keli Rishon:[191]

If one transgressed and placed salt even in Keli Rishon, even if it is on the fire, in which case he transgressed a prohibition [according to all], nevertheless the food is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] as the salt is nullified against the food.

Other Opinions: [However] there are opinions which argue and prohibit the food until after Shabbos.

 

Summary-If one transgressed and placed uncooked food into a Keli Rishon:

If the food reached Yad Soledes then it if forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos, with exception to spices added to a Keli Rishon dish, in which case the dish may be eaten even though it was Yad Soledes, and even if the pot was on the fire. However there are opinions which argue and prohibit even by spices.

 

D. If the Keli Rishon is no longer Yad Soledes: [192]

It is proper[193] to abstain from placing spices in a Keli Rishon even if it is no longer Yad Soledes, in order to distance [oneself] and make a fence around the matter [so that one not come to transgress the prohibition of placing spices when it is Yad Soledes]. [For opinion of M”B see footnote[194]]

 

E. Pouring water into a Keli Rishon[195]

A small amount of water: It is forbidden to pour cold water, even a small amount, into hot water that is Yad Soledes that is in a Keli Rishon.

A large amount of water: [However] if there is so much cold water [being entered into the Keli Rishon] that it is impossible [for the Keli Rishon] to heat it up until it reaches Yad Soledes, and rather it will only thaw its coldness, then it is allowed [to pour it] even into a Keli Rishon as long as it is not on the fire. [See footnote for ruling of Beis Yosef[196]] [See Q&A]

Placing a bottle of water into a Keli Rishon in order to thaw it down[197] It is forbidden to place it into a Keli Rishon even only in order to thaw out the coldness, due to a decree that one may forget and leave [the bottle] there until it [reaches] Yad Soledes [which is considered to have cooked the water]. [See Q&A regarding if the Keli Rishon is no longer Yad Soledes]

 

Q&A

Must one pour the cold water into the Keli Rishon in one splash, or may one pour it in continuously, until enough water enters for the Keli Rishon to be under Yad Soledes?[198]

Some Poskim[199] rule that one must pour the entire amount into the Keli Rishon in one splash, as otherwise the small amount that is poured in first will get cooked in the interim.

Others[200] however hold that so long as one is continuously pouring water into it without any break at all in the stream, then even if it will take some time until the suffice amount of water needed to cool the pot will enter, nevertheless it is allowed, as it takes time liquid to cook.

 

May one place a bottle of liquid in a Keli Rishon that is no longer Yad Soledes in order to thaw it down?

Yes as even placing it in a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes is only forbidden due to that one may come to forget and leave it there until it becomes Yad Soledes.[201]

 

F. Placing cold water into an empty Keli Rishon[202]

A small amount of water: A kettle from which one has removed hot water is forbidden to place in it a small amount of cold water being that [the kettle] is able to heat it up to Yad Soledes.

A large amount of water: However it is allowed to place in it a large amount of cold water in order to warm it up.

The reason that doing so does not involve the prohibition of Tikkun Keli: Now, although through placing cold water into it one forges and strengthens [the kettle] and it is thus found that he has fixed a vessel, as this is the method used by copper and steel smiths being that they place hot steel and copper into cold water in order so it hardens and strengthens, and this is [considered] the finishing act done by the blacksmith, as fire stretches the metal and brings it close to shattering while water strengthens it. Nevertheless, since [here] one does not intend to fix the vessel, and rather only [intends] to warm up the water, it is allowed [to place water into it], as [in this case the forging of the kettle] is not inevitable [when one places cold water in it] as before one forges a vessel it is heated to a very high [temperature], while here it is possible that the [kettle] will not reach [this high temperature which is required for] its forging, due to the water [that was placed into it] preventing it from heating up so much.

 

Summary of E-F: Placing cold water into a  Keli Rishon:

Water/liquids[203]: It is permitted to simultaneously place a large amount of cold water into a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes [that is off the fire] so long as there is so much cold water being added that the water will not become Yad Soledes. However if there is only a minute amount of water being added to the point that it will reach Yad Soledes, it is forbidden. The above applies whether or not there is food currently inside the Keli Rishon.[204]

A bottle of water/liquids: Is forbidden to be placed even if one plans to remove it prior to reaching Yad Soledes.

 

General Q&A

May one remove a pot from the stove using a damp cloth or mitten?[205]

No, as doing so will cook the liquid. [Thus as a precaution it is forbidden even if one plans to remove the cloth prior to it reaching Yad Soledes].

 

Must the spoon used to remove food from a Keli Rishon be dry?[206]

Yes. Furthermore even if one wants to reuse the same spoon to remove food from the Keli Rishon, such as one who used a ladle to remove soup and then placed the ladle down and now wants to take more soup, then if the liquid on the ladle has cooled down one must dry it prior to using it.

 

When replacing a cover onto a Keli Rishon must one make sure that the inner side of the cover is dry from the perspiration that it received during cooking?[207]

If the liquid on the inside of the cover has cooled off then one must dry it prior to placing it back on the pot.

 

Q&A on definition of a Keli Rishon

Is a boiler which has heating coils inside of its vessel, such as certain water boilers, considered like a Keli Rishon?[208]

Yes.[209]

 

If water is poured into a vessel from a Keli Rishon while the Keli Rishon is still on the fire, is the water still considered like a Keli Sheiyni?

Is the water of a boiler which has a spout with which to pour out the water considered a Keli Rishon or Keli Sheiyni once it is poured out into a cup?

Yes, the water is considered a Keli Sheiyni, despite it having been still attached to its source of heat while entering into the cup.[210]

 

If one poured the food of a Keli Rishon into another pot which is hot due to having been heated over a fire, does that food still have the status of a Keli Rishon?

Yes.[211]

 

If one poured food from a Keli Sheiyni back into a hot Keli Rishon does it still retain the status of a Keli Sheiyni?[212]

If there is only a small amount of food being placed back into the Keli Rishon, to the point that the food becomes further heated by the Keli Rishon, then the food returns to being a Keli Rishon.

However if a large amount of food is being poured into it, then even if the Keli Rishon is still hot to the point of Yad Soledes, it retains its Keli Sheiyni status.

 

Q&A on opening and closing the hot water of sinks and the like:

May one open the hot water tab on Shabbos?[213]

So long as the water in the boiler is still Yad Soledes, then even if the boiler is no longer on, it is forbidden to open the tab as turning on the hot water automatically enters cold water into the boiler. [214] [Furthermore those which have a type of boiler which automatically heats the water as it is turned on, they are forbidden to do so as in addition to cooking the newly entered cold water, they are also lighting a flame.]

 

May one open the hot water if one knows for certain that the water in the boiler is no longer Yad Soledes?[215]

This is allowed only if one knows for certain that the heating system will not turn on later on Shabbos and heat the new cold water added into the boiler. Regarding a solar heated boiler in which the sun will heat the new water on Shabbos, then from the letter of the law if the water is no longer Yad Soledes one may open the faucet, although it is proper to avoid doing so.

 

May one ask a gentile to open the hot water tab? [216]

Example: The Mikveh water is too cold for immersion; may one ask a gentile to open the hot water?

Yes, one may ask a gentile to do so [even if the heating system of the boiler is turned on in the process].[217]

 

May one open the hot water if he closed the pipes, thus not allowing any cold water to enter into the boiler?[218]

Yes, this is allowed even if the water is Yad Soledes as no water can enter it. [However one must take care not to let the water hit the sink unless the sink is dry, as otherwise it will cook the water remaining in the sink which is forbidden.]

 

May one leave the hot faucet open from Erev Shabbos?[219]

Yes [although he may not use that water to wash with if it has been warmed up on Shabbos[220]]

 

May one further open the faucet on Shabbos when left open before Shabbos?[221]

No.

 

May one close a faucet of hot water that was left open before Shabbos or was accidentally opened on Shabbos?[222]

No, this may not be done unless a) The heating system is not on [and will not turn on at a later point], and b) there is no hot water left in the boiler. However if there are only a few drops coming out from the faucet and one wants to close it to save those drops then seemingly it is allowed in all cases that doing so will not cause the heating system to turn off.

 

May one ask a gentile to close the hot water faucet that was left open?[223]

Yes, this is allowed even in a case that doing so will shut off the heating system.

 

If the hot water tab is open may one open the cold water into order to cool it down?[224]

This is only allowed if he opens enough cold water that when it mixes with the hot water it will not reach Yad Soledes.


10. Very hot water of a Keli Sheiyni has the same status as a Keli Rishon:[225]

A bathtub that is filled with hot water, even though it’s [water is considered] a Keli Sheiyni, [nevertheless] it is forbidden to pour cold water [or any other uncooked food] into it [just like a Keli Rishon].

The reason for this is: because since the hot water in it is meant for washing it can be assumed that it is very hot and [will thus] cook the cold [water] which gets mixed into it.[226]

Placing a cold bottle of liquid into a hot bathtub:[227] [Furthermore] it is forbidden to place [a bottle] even into a bathtub that had drawn into it the hot springs of Tiberius directly from the spring, [such as one channeled the spring water into the tub], because it [a tub] is Rabbinically considered like a Keli Rishon. Rather one should enter water from the tub into a second vessel and then place [the bottle] into it.

 

Summary- A very hot Keli Sheiyni:

A Keli Sheiyni which contains very hot water that was poured in it from a Keli Rishon is considered like a Keli Rishon.[228]

 

Q&A on a very hot Keli Sheiyni:

What is the definition of a very hot Keli Sheiyni which has the status of a Keli Rishon?

If the Keli Sheiyni is much hotter than Yad Soledes Bo it retains the status of a Keli Rishon.[229]

 

Is the prohibition to pour cold liquids into a very hot Keli Sheiyni only with regards to water or is it also with regards to other liquids such as milk?[230]

Some Poskim[231] limit this prohibition only to water, however other liquids such as milk may be placed into a very hot Keli Sheiyni. Others[232] argue on this differentiation and prohibit all liquids from being entered.


May one pour from a very hot Keli Sheiyni onto a food?[233]

Yes, as although with regards to placing food in it, it has the status of a Keli Rishon, nevertheless with regards to pouring, it has the same laws as pouring from a Keli Sheiyni.[234]

 

What is the law of a very hot Keli Shelishi?[235]

Has the same status as any Keli Shelishi.

 

May one pour cold water into a very hot Mikveh?[236]

No.[237] This applies even if the Mikveh is no longer being heated. It certainly applies if the heating coils in the Mikveh are on in which case the Mikveh has a pure Keli Rishon status even if it were not to be very hot. Furthermore, in such a case that the coils are still heating it is forbidden to even pour into it simultaneously enough water to make the entire mixture below Yad Soledes.

 

May one remove the plug of a Mikveh which attaches it to the rainwater?[238]

If the Mikveh is very hot past Yad Soledes or has heating coils in it then it is forbidden to be done.


Must one who enters into a very hot Mikveh on Shabbos verify that his feet are dry prior to entering?[239]

No.[240]

 

Does a thermos have the status of a Keli Rishon or Keli Sheiyni?[241]

If the water is very hot then it has the status of a Keli Rishon in terms of entering foods or liquids into it. If it is not very hot then this matter is disputed in the Poskim. According to all pouring from it has the status of pouring from a Keli Sheiyni even if the water is very hot.

 

11.  A Davar Gush-Placing a solid substance onto a food or liquid and vice versa:

Placing hot roast into cold gravy: [242] It is forbidden to place a piece of hot meat which is Yad Soledes into cold [liquid] gravy.

The reason for this is: because since [the meat] does not actually mix into the gravy, it thus cooks the outer layer that surrounds [the gravy] prior to the gravy having a chance to overpower it and cool it down.

Placing garlic and oil on a hot roast[243]: It is forbidden to spread oil and garlic on a [piece of] roast while it is still hot to the point of Yad Soledes, even if it had been roasted from before Shabbos, as nevertheless [this will cause] the oil and garlic to cook.

  • Regarding if the above laws apply even if the meat has been placed into a Keli Sheiyni or Shelishi-See Q&A

 

Summary of  hot solid foods

According to the understanding of some opinions in the above stated Halachas, the Alter Rebbe rules that a solid piece of food which is Yad Soledes, even if placed into another pot/dish which was never on the fire is still considered a Keli Rishon and thus retains all the laws explained above in Halacha 9. See Q&A 2 for a thorough discussion on this topic!

 

Q&A on a Davar Gush

What is the definition of a Davar Gush/ Solid food?[244]

Any food which is not able to flow is considered a Davar Gush. Thus rice and the like which are cooked and do not flow when poured out but rather simply fall are considered a Davar Gush.

 

Is a Davar Gush always considered a Keli Rishon even when placed into another vessel?[245]

This matter is disputed amongst Poskim. Some hold[246] that any Davar Gush that is Yad Soledes retains the same laws as does a Keli Rishon [that one may not place any uncooked food on it] even if it has now been placed in its 10th vessel. This applies until the food reaches less than Yad Soledes. Others hold[247] such foods receive the same laws as do liquidly foods of which the ruling is that it becomes less stringent in a Keli Sheiyni and is totally permitted in a Keli Shelishi.

Practically: Rav Farkash rules that one may be lenient in this.[248] However other Poskim[249] rule to be stringent.

Ramifications:

  • According to the stringent opinions it is forbidden to place oil, and the like on a Yad Soledes potato even if it has been placed in a Keli Shelishi or further. According to the lenient opinion, in a Keli Shelishi it is allowed.
  • When placing a piece of Yad Soledes Kugal on a plate with pickles, then even if the plate is a Keli Shelishi, one must beware that they do not touch each other according to the stringent opinion, although there are some which are lenient in this case.[250]

 

When a Davar Gush is picked up with a fork from a Keli Rishon does it now have the status of a Keli Sheiyni according to the lenient opinion?[251]

No. According to all it retains a Keli Rishon status until placed into an actual vessel, in which case according to the lenient opinions it has the status of a Keli Sheiyni. Thus when placing a piece of Yad Soledes kugal onto a plate with pickles then even according to the lenient opinion above, if the kugel was removed from the Keli Rishon with a fork the Kugel is only considered a Keli Sheiyni, and one must thus beware that they do not touch each other.

 

If a Davar Gush was placed into soup that is in a Keli Sheiyni, does it receive a Keli Sheiyni status even according to the stringent opinion?[252]

Yes, as the liquid which now surrounds the Davar Gush cools it off and gives it the status of a Keli Sheiyni according to all.[253]

 

May one place ketchup onto a Yad Soledes Davar Gush which was placed in a Keli Shelishi[254] even according to the stringent opinion?[255]

Yes[256]

 

May one place butter or margarine on a Yad Soledes Davar Gush that has been placed in a Keli Shelishi even according to the stringent opinion?[257]

Yes, [as it contains the same dynamics as ketchup being that they too are precooked.] However, when doing so one must beware not to transgress the Nolad prohibition. It thus may not be done if enough of an amount is being melted that it will flow off the food and be recognizable, as explained in Halacha 8.

 

Is a solid piece of food that is placed together with liquid into a second vessel still considered a Keli Rishon [according to the stringent opinions], such as for example, soup that has solid pieces which are poured into a bowl?[258]

All the food is considered a Keli Sheiyni being that the liquid gets cooled off by the walls of the second vessel which in turn then cools off the solid.

 

12.  Iruiy Keli Rishon/Pouring from a Keli Rishon onto uncooked food:

Definition[259]: The pouring of the content of a Keli Rishon that is Yad Soledes onto a food or liquid.

Pouring onto spices:[260] It is forbidden to place spices in a plate and pour onto them from [the content of] a Keli Rishon which is Yad Soledes, being that the pouring from a Keli Rishon cooks the outer layer [of the food that it is poured on].

If one transgressed and poured it:[261] If one [transgressed and] poured it, then the outer layer is forbidden being that it was cooked on Shabbos.

Pouring onto cold water:[262]  One is allowed to transfer hot water from a Keli Rishon onto cold water. [See Q&A]

The reason for why one may pour from a Keli Rishon into cold water is: [263] because [the Sages] only said that the pouring of [the content of] a Keli Rishon cooks when pouring hot [liquid] onto spices and the like being that the hot [liquid] does not literally get absorbed into the food and rather hits it [from the outside] with its stream and thus cooks it. However [when] water [is poured into] water it mixes and [thus] the stream does not have the ability to cook the water that is underneath it, and rather the water that is underneath it  overpowers it and cools off the upper water [that was poured onto it].

Placing a Davar Gush onto cold water: [264] It is forbidden to place a piece of hot meat which is Yad Soledes into cold [liquid] gravy.

The reason for this is: because since [the meat] does not actually mix into the gravy, it thus cooks the outer layer that surrounds [the gravy] prior to the gravy having a chance to overpower it and cool it down.

Regarding pouring onto pre-cooked foods, this would have the same law as placing them into a Keli Rishon as explained above in Halacha 7 and 9A, See there! [Regarding pouring onto precooked liquids which have cooled down-See Q&A]

 

Summary-Iruiy Keli Rishon:

Onto water/liquid[265]: One is allowed to pour hot Keli Rishon liquid onto cold water. [see Q&A] However a Keli Rishon solid [Davar gush] may not be placed into any cold liquid.

Onto spices and other uncooked foods[266]: Has the same laws as a Keli Rishon itself, and is thus forbidden, [with exception to dry, lean ox meat as explained there].

If one transgressed[267]: The outer layer of the food is forbidden to be eaten on Shabbos.

Pouring onto pre-cooked foods: Has the same laws as placing it into a Keli Rishon.

 

Q&A

May one pour from a Keli Rishon onto the outside walls of a vessel which contains food?[268]

So long as the food in there is permitted to be placed into a Keli Sheiyni [it is either a liquid or a spice, as will be explained] then it is allowed, as the walls of the pot take the place of the peel worth that the heat of the pouring is able to cook.

 

If the stream being poured from the Keli Rishon is not attached to its source by the time it hits the food is it still considered like the pouring of a Keli Rishon?[269]

No. It is only considered the pouring of a Keli Rishon if by the time it makes contact with the food the stream is still attached to its source.[270]

 

Is hot water which comes from the sink considered the pouring of a Keli Rishon?[271]

Yes[272]. This applies even if the boiler from which the water is coming from is no longer on, so long as the water in the boiler is still Yad Soledes[273].

 

If one pours from a Keli Rishon onto the inner walls of a pot of food, having it flow from the wall of the pot onto the food, does that water still have the status of the pouring of a Keli Rishon?[274]

If by the time the stream reaches the food it is no longer attached to the content of the Keli Rishon then it has the status of a Keli Sheiyni. If it remains still attached then it has the status of the pouring of a Keli Rishon.

 

May one pour from a Keli Rishon onto a food which had already been poured on from a Keli Rishon from before Shabbos?[275]

No.[276]


If the food being poured on was previously soaked in a Keli Rishon may one pour a Keli Rishon onto it?[277]

There is an opinion which is stringent even in this case although seemingly in a time of need one may be lenient.

 

May one pour from a very hot Keli Sheiyni onto a food?[278]

Yes, as although with regards to placing food in it, it has the status of a Keli Rishon, nevertheless with regards to pouring, it has the same laws as pouring from a Keli Sheiyni.[279]

 

May one pour hot water from the urn into his tradition soup?

No.

 

Q&A on pouring liquid/food from a Keli Rishon onto cold water

Is there any maximum amount of Keli Rishon water that is allowed to be poured onto the cold water?

According to Admur in 318/ 20 there is no differentiation regarding the amount of hot water being poured or the amount of cold water one is pouring into.[280] The reason for this is because the hot water mixes in right away into the cold water and thus does not have the time to cook even a Kelipa of it.

Other Poskim[281] however hold that one may only pour hot water to the ratio that the cold water will not reach Yad Soledes.

The final Ruling: By liquids which have been previously cooked, such as precooked milk or tea essence [which contains no leaves], from the letter of the law is allowed, although it is proper to be stringent[282]. However by an uncooked liquid, such as uncooked milk one must be stringent like the second opinion.[283]

 

Must one dry his cup prior to pouring water from a Keli Rishon into it?[284]

If the drops in the cup is not liquid that has been previously cooked: The custom is to verify that any utensil which one plans to pour water into from a Keli Rishon, be dry prior to pouring. There are however Poskim[285] which suffice one to shake the drops out from the cup, as opposed to fully drying it, as they rule the remaining drops are considered irrelevant. Practically although one who is lenient has upon whom to rely, nevertheless one should try whenever possible to be stringent.

If the drops in the cup is from liquid that has been previously cooked: Then even if these drops are fully cold one may pour from the Keli Rishon onto them according to all. Thus a set cup which is being used as a Keli Sheiyni, to pour from it onto tea and coffee, does not have to be dried before each person pours the water from the Keli Rishon into it.

Note: When drying ones cup one may not use a cloth due to chance that one may come to squeeze liquid from it. Rather ones finger is to be used.

 

May one pour from a Keli Rishon onto water even if the Keli Rishon is still on the fire?[286]

Yes, although the Minchas Yitzchak rules stringently in this. Thus according to the Minchas Yitzchak one may not open the hot water tab and have it pour into cold water.

 

May one pour from a Keli Rishon onto oil?

The Ketzos Hashulchan[287] writes that this is forbidden being that water does not mix well into oil and will thus cook the oil.[288]

 

May one pour hot water onto a plate which has fat smeared on it, such as to rinse it off?[289]

No, as doing so melts the fat and is prohibited due to Molid.

 

May one place a Davar Gush Keli Rishon into a large amount of water?[290]

No, as it will cook the surrounding area of the water.

 

May one place a Keli Rishon Davar Gush on a slightly wet plate?[291]

No, as it will cook the liquid. Thus one must make sure the plate is dry. Thus if there is oil on ones plate one may not place any food on it from a Keli Rishon.

 

May one pour soup into a wet bowl taken from the drain?

One may use a ladle to pour soup into the bowl.[292] However if the ladle being used has remained for some time within the soup then it is best to dry the bowl prior to doing so.[293]


May one pour a second serving of soup into his bowl which contains leftovers?

Yes.[294]

 

May one place a hot piece of food on his plate if his plate contains leftovers foods?

No, unless the food being placed on his plate has been placed in a Keli Sheiyni, and is not a Davar Gush according to those which are stringent in regards to it.[295] One is thus required to clean the plate prior to placing food on it.  It is very common to occur that the lower plate of the main dish holds crumbs and other leftovers, and thus may not have Keli Rishon foods placed on them. Caution are must be taken in this matter.

 

May one place a hot egg from a Keli Rishon into a cup of water to cool it down?[296]

No, as explained above.


May one place a Keli Rishon vessel/pot in cold water in order to cool off the vessel/pot?[297]

No, just like was explained by a Davar Gush.

 

May one place a Keli Rishon pot onto a wet surface/counter/towel?[298]

No.

 

May one place a hot pot which has been emptied of its food into a sink filled with water?[299]

Only if there is so much water in the sink that it will not be able to become Yad Soledes through placing the pot there.

 

May one pour cold water into a hot Keli Rishon pot which has been emptied of its food?[300]

This is only allowed if he pours so much water into it that it will not be able to become Yad Soledes. This entire amount of water must be placed in simultaneously.

 

May one remove a pot from the fire using a wet towel.[301]

No.

 

May one rinse off a hot Keli Rishon egg under a faucet of cold water?[302]

Yes, as the water moves so rapidly off the egg, being that the egg is smooth, that it does not have time to cook.

 

May one rinse a hot piece of meat under a faucet of cold water?[303]

If the meat is a Keli Rishon then according to all one may not do so as the liquid enters into the crevices of the meat and gets cooked. However if the meat has been placed in a Keli Sheiyni then this would be dependent on the dispute regarding whether or not a Davar Gush can still cook in a Keli Sheiyni.

 

13. The Laws of a Keli Sheiyni

A. A very hot Keli Sheiyni:

The laws below only apply to a Keli Sheiyni which is not very hot. The laws of a very hot Keli Sheiyni have already been explained in Halacha 10 above.

 

B. Placing cooked food into a Keli Sheiyni:[304]

By cooked [meat and other foods] there is no need to be stringent at all, even regarding [placing it] into a Keli Rishon, as according to all opinions there is no [prohibition in] cooking [an] already cooked [food] that is dry. [In a Keli Sheiyni it is permitted to place cooked food even if the food is wet. Regarding entering previously cooked congealed food which will melt-See Q&A.]

If the food was baked or roasted: Baked or roasted foods may not be entered into a liquid Keli Sheiyni as explained above in Halacha 7, see there!

 

C. Uncooked foods:

First Opinion: [305] Solid foods that have not been [fully] cooked before Shabbos, are Rabbinically forbidden to be soaked in a Keli Sheiyni[306] being that it appears like cooking.

Second Opinion: [307] There are opinions which allow any food, [even] if it has not yet cooked, to soak in a Keli Sheiyni [even if the Keli Sheiyni] is Yad Soledes.

Third Opinion: [308] There is an opinion which questions and suspects [that there is] a sin offering liability [involved]  [in cooking] in a Keli Sheiyni that is Yad Soledes, being that there are delicate foods that cook even in a Keli Sheiyni and we are not experts [as to which foods are delicate and which are not], and [thus] perhaps food such as  bread is also considered delicate in this regard and it cooks in a Keli Sheiyni which is Yad Soledes [and one is thus liable][309]. This doubt as well applies by other foods.

The Final Ruling regarding what may be placed in a Keli Sheiyni: [310]  One should be stringent regarding all [uncooked foods and thus avoid placing them in a Keli Sheiyni] with exception to spices which the Sages explicitly permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni, as well as water and oil and other liquids[311] as will be explained.  [As well even by those foods which a Keli Sheiyni does not have the ability to cook, one is nonetheless to be stringent like the first opinion mentioned above, to prohibit placing it in a Keli Sheiyni due to that it appears like cooking[312]. This too however is with exception to spices and liquids.]

Onions and Garlic:[313] Any food that is made to give taste to a dish, such as garlic or onions, are considered like spices and are allowed to be placed into a Keli Sheiyni even if it is [the heat of] Yad Soledes.[314]

Other Opinions by onions: [315]  [However] there is an opinion[316] which questions regarding onions that perhaps it too cooks in a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is [the heat of] Yad Soledes.

The Final Ruling by onions: [317]   The custom is to be lenient.[318]

Salt: See Halacha 9!

Pouring liquids into a Keli Sheiyni: It is allowed to pour cold water, even of a small amount, into hot water that is Yad Soledes which is in a Keli Sheiyni. [319]  The same applies for oil and other liquids.[320]

Placing a bottle of cold water into a Keli Sheiyni:[321] It is permitted to place a bottle of water or of other cold liquids into a Keli Sheiyni which has hot water. ([Furthermore, it is even allowed] to insulate it completely inside [the hot water], being that it is permitted to insulate a cold item in a material that does not add heat, as explained in chapter 257 [Halacha 9][322] and hot water [that is off a fire] is considered an item that does not add heat as explained in chapter 258 [in the Kuntrus Achron there])

The reason for why a Keli Sheiyni does not cook spices as opposed to a Keli Rishon is:[323] because the heat of a Keli Sheiyni does not have the strength to cook. [Furthermore] even according to those opinions which are stringent regarding a Keli Sheiyni within the Dietary laws of Kashrus[324], being that they hold that [the heat of a food in a Keli Sheiyni] has the ability to absorb and to give off [taste to another food which comes into contact with it] so long as it is Yad Soledes, nevertheless [here they also agree that one may place spices in a Keli Sheiyni] being that it does not have the strength to [actually] cook even when it is Yad Soledes[325].

It is not similar to a Keli Rishon which has the ability to cook so long as it is Yad Soledes, being that a Keli Rishon [receives this ability] due to its standing (near the fire) on the fire [which causes] its walls to become hot and [have the ability to] retain heat for a long time. Therefore [the Sages] considered [that it has the ability to cook] so long as it is Yad Soledes. This is opposed to a Keli Sheiyni which its walls are not hot and [the food] thus continuously cools off [and hence the Sages do not consider that it ever has the ability to cook].

The reason why placing spices in a Keli Sheiyni does not appear like cooking, and is thus permitted even according to the first opinion mentioned above: [326] [Placing a raw dish into a Keli Sheiyni] is not similar to placing raw spices, which is allowed [to be placed] in a Keli Sheiyni, being that spices are made to flavor the dish and it [thus] does not appear like cooking [and is thus not forbidden even according to the first opinion stated above].

Placing roasted meat in a Keli Sheiyni: [327] Even by roasted meat one is to be stringent [not to place it in a Keli Sheiyni] being that [one is liable for] cooking [a food] that was previously roasted. [See Halacha 5 above]

Placing bread into a Keli Sheiyni[328]: It is the custom to initially be careful like the third opinion to not place bread even into a Keli Sheiyni so long as it is Yad Soledes[329], although if one did so then it is permitted [to be eaten on Shabbos] even [if one placed it] in a Keli Rishon. [See Halacha 5 above]

 

Summary-A Keli Sheiyni:

Definition: A vessel containing a liquidly food which is Yad Soledes which was poured from a vessel that was on the fire. [According to some if the food is a solid, such as a piece of meat, then it has the same laws as a Keli Rishon.[330]]

If the Keli Sheiyni is very hot due to being filled with very hot water from a Keli Rishon then it has the same laws as a Keli Rishon.

Cooked foods: All foods which have been previously cooked in liquid are permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni even if the food is wet. Regarding entering previously cooked congealed food which will melt-See Q&A.]

Roasted/fried/baked foods: See above “reheating a cooked solid”. Any food which was explained to have a cooking prohibition is with regards to these laws considered uncooked, and thus one is to follow the rulings which apply here to uncooked foods.

Water/liquids and oils[331]: Are permitted to be placed into a Keli Sheiyni, even if it will reach Yad Soledes.

A bottle of liquid:[332] If the liquid is cold then it may be submerged completely within the water. [If the bottle is hot then part of it must stick out from the water.[333]

Uncooked Spices:[334] Are permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni. Onions and garlic, as well as any other food which is meant to give taste is defined as a spice.

Salt[335]: If the salt will dissolve then, even if previously cooked, one who avoids placing it in a Keli Sheiyni is blessed.[336] [If the salt will not dissolve, such as when placing it on a hot dry solid that has entered a Keli Sheiyni, then it is permitted[337].]

Other uncooked foods[338]: Are forbidden [some say Rabbinically, others say perhaps even Biblically].


In short: The following foods may be placed in a Keli Sheiyni. All other foods are forbidden to be placed:

  1. Spices
  2. Liquid
  3. Previously fully cooked [as opposed to baked or roasted] foods [that do not dissolve].

 

Q&A

If the vessel which one is pouring into is hot, is it considered a Keli Sheiyni?[339]

Example 1: If one poured boiling water into a glass cup and then emptied the cup and poured boiling water into it a second time is that water still considered a Keli Sheiyni?

Example 2: One left an empty cup near the Shabbos electric plate and the cup became hot. One then poured hot water into the cup is the water considered a Keli Sheiyni?

The Law: Liquid foods placed into a second vessel are always considered a Keli Sheiyni unless the vessel has been heated near a fire.[340] Thus in example 1 although the cup is still very hot the water becomes a Keli Sheiyni. In example 2 since the vessel was heated near a flame, the water remains a Keli Rishon.

 

What is the definition of a spice?[341]

Any food which is a) used to spice other dishes and b) is not made to eat on its own is defined as a spice.[342]

 

Are spices which were not around in the times of the Sages considered spices regarding the leniency to place them in a Keli Sheiyni?

Some[343] have questioned whether spices which were not around at the time of the Sages are permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni. However from other Poskim it seems that so long as the item is considered a spice it has all the laws of spices and is permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni.[344]

 

Are spices which are questionable whether they were used as spices in the times of the Sages considered spices regarding the leniency to place them in a Keli Sheiyni?[345]

Has the same ruling as above question that some have questioned its status while from other Poskim it seems that it has the full status of a Keli Sheiyni.

 

May one place substances which dissolve and become liquid into a Keli Sheiyni?[346]

If the substance is not considered a spice: No. This applies even if the substance has already been previously cooked, as only by a substance which is originally liquid do we say that it does not re-cook in a Keli Sheiyni.[347] 

If the substance is considered a spice: Then it may be placed in even if not previously cooked.

 

A list of foods which are and are not considered spices:

  • Lemon: Some[348] have questioned whether slices of lemons are considered like spices which are permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni being that they were not around in the time of the Sages. However from other Poskim it seems that so long as lemons are only used to spice foods then they have all the laws of spices and are permitted to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni.[349] Lemon juice is always allowed to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni as it is a liquid.
  • Crushed Spices[350]: There are Poskim[351] which rule that the crushed spices which we use today do not have the spice leniency to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni being that since they have been ground small they are more easily cooked. Despite their fears, from the letter of the law it is allowed[352] although one who wishes to be stringent like their words may do so.
  • Tea bags:[353] Some[354] write that from the letter of the law tea bags have the status of spices which are allowed to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni. However the custom is to be stringent like those opinions which forbid it. Regarding pouring onto it from a Keli Sheiyni, see “Iruiy Keli Sheiyni” and Q&A there.
  • Herbal tea[355]: Herbs which are placed in hot water to make tea certainly do not have the status of spices.
  • Sugar[356]: Has the status of spices and may be placed in a Keli Sheiyni.[357] [It however may not be placed in a Keli Rishon, or even poured on from a Keli Rishon, even though sugar has been previously cooked].
  • Turkish Coffee and Cocoa[358]: Do not have the status of spices being that they are eaten on their own and are not placed to spice another dish. Thus they may not be entered into a Keli Sheiyni which is Yad Soledes.[359]
  • Instant coffee[360]:Some have written[361] that it has the status of spices and is thus allowed, although being that their reasoning is not explained one should be stringent.[362] In any event it is best to make instant coffee essence from before Shabbos in order to avoid a possible prohibition of Molid. If one did not do so then he is to follow as said above. [See “The Laws of Nolad” where this matter is discussed.]
  • Mint leaves[363]: Is disputed whether they have the status of spices or not.[364]

 

Are precooked liquids which have cooled off allowed to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni?[365]

Yes.[366]

 

May one place a very small amount of cold water into a large amount of hot water that is in a Keli Sheiyni?[367]

Yes.[368]

 

When using a spoon/ladle to remove food from a Keli Sheiyni must that spoon be dry?

No. As it is permitted to enter liquid into a Keli Sheiyni, as well as that any food that is stuck to the spoon has been previously cooked, and thus too may be entered into a Keli Sheiyni.


Is placing spices and liquids in a Keli Sheiyni allowed even if they will become Yad Soledes?[369]

Yes.[370]

 

If a food had soaked in a Keli Rishon before Shabbos may it be placed in a Keli Sheiyni on Shabbos?[371]

This is only allowed if the placing of it into the Keli Sheiyni will not cook it any further than the amount it had been previously cooked in the Keli Rishon, and it is thus only being placed into the Keli Sheiyni in order to warm up.[372] However there are opinions[373] which learn that even if the Keli Sheiyni will not warm it any further, nevertheless, one should be stringent not to place it in being that it appears like one is cooking it on Shabbos.[374]

 

If food was poured on from a Keli Rishon or soaked in a Keli Sheiyni before Shabbos may it be placed in a  Keli Sheiyni on Shabbos?[375]

This may not be done.[376]

 

What is the law of a food which is removed with a ladle from a Keli Sheiyni?[377]

The food in the ladle has the status of a Keli Shelishi even if the ladle remained for some time in the Keli Sheiyni. However there are opinions which are stringent.

 

May one place a Keli Sheiyni vessel into cold water in order to cool it down.

Yes, even if the vessel contains a Davar Gush that is Yad Soledes.

 

May one place honey into a Keli Sheiyni?[378]

Liquid honey is considered a liquid and thus can be placed in a Keli Sheiyni. However congealed honey may not be placed in a Keli Sheiyni being that it is viewed as a solid.

 

May one place milk into a Keli Sheiyni?

Yes.[379]

 

May one place ketchup in a Keli Sheiyni?[380]

Yes, as it has been previously cooked.

 

What is the law if one placed an uncooked food into a Keli Sheiyni?

Some Poskim[381] rule the food is permitted to be eaten.

 

14.  Iruiy Keli Sheiyni [pouring from a Keli Sheiyni onto uncooked foods]:[382]

It is permitted to pour from a Keli Sheiyni that is Yad Soledes onto any food [even if it] has not been [previously] cooked.

Pouring on foods which are very lightly cooked: [383] [This allowance to pour from a Keli Sheiyni is] with exception [to pouring onto] the type of fish called “Little Tunny” (Euthynnus alletteratus)[384], and aged salted food such as salted meat or fish from the previous year, [being] that they only require a slight amount of cooking and this pouring [from a hot Keli Sheiyni] finishes the act of its cooking, and one is [thus] liable on it for [the] cooking [prohibition]. Nevertheless it is allowed to soak it and wash it in cold water.
The same applies for any [food] that is hard which one did not [previously] cook and can become edible through soaking or washing it in hot water, then if one soaked it even in a Keli Sheiyni, or rinsed it even with the pouring of a Keli Sheiyni and it [then] became edible, one is liable for cooking.
Similarly any [food] which was not [yet] cooked, and is very salty and is not edible until one soaks it or rinses it in hot water, then if one soaks it or rinses it in hot water he is liable.

However it is permitted to soak and wash it in cold water even if it becomes edible through doing so, being that it is permitted to turn inedible items into food on Shabbos.

 

Summary-Iruiy Keli Sheiyni:

The Definition of Iruiy Keli Sheiyni[385]: The pouring of the content of a Keli Sheiyni, onto a food or liquid is defined as Iruiy Keli Sheiyni

Its law:[386]  It is permitted to pour from a Keli Sheiyni onto all foods, even if the Keli Sheiyni is Yad Soledes, and even if the food which it is being poured on is completely raw. This however is with exception to foods which need very light cooking to become ready in which case if the pouring of a Keli Sheiyni will cook them enough to be eaten it is forbidden. This includes the following foods:

  1. Little Tunny
  2. An aged salted food, such as salted aged fish or meat.
  3. A food which is very salty and cannot be eaten in its current state.
  • It is however permitted to soak or rinse these foods in cold water, even if doing so will make them become edible.

 

Q&A

If the Keli Sheiyni is no longer Yad Soledes may it be poured onto the light foods?

Yes.[387]

 

May one pour from a Yad Soledes Keli Sheiyni onto herring?[388]

No as it is considered a lightly cooked food.

 

Are foods other than those listed above forbidden to be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni if one sees that they cook through pouring on them?[389]

Yes.

 

Examples of lightly cooked foods:[390]

  • Quaker: May not be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni. [Furthermore even with cold water it may only be done in a fashion that does not transgress the laws of kneading- see “The Laws of Kneading”!]
  • Raw eggs: May not be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni.
  • Tea: According to those which hold that it is not considered like a spice then there is a dispute on this matter. See footnote.[391] However according to those which rule that it is considered a spice then certainly this is permitted. See above Halacha 13.

 

If one poured from a Keli Sheiyni on to the light foods before Shabbos may he redo this on Shabbos?[392]

Yes. He may even soak it in a Keli Sheiyni.

 

May one pour from a Keli Sheiyni onto foods which will dissolve?[393]

Yes.

 

A Keli Shelishi:[394]

Definition: A vessel which contains the content of a food which was poured from a Keli Sheiyni.

Its law: The concept of a Keli Shelishi is not mentioned in the Shulchan Aruch. The later codifiers discuss whether or not a Keli Shelishi has the same status as a Keli Sheiyni, and is thus only permitted with liquids and spices. The custom is like the lenient opinions[395] which hold that it is allowed to place into it all foods which are allowed to be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni. However since there are opinions[396] which are stringent by a Keli Shelishi, therefore when applicable one should rather pour onto the foods from a Keli Sheiyni than to place them into a Keli Shelishi, being that the pouring of a Keli Sheiyni is explicitly permitted by all.

According to all, those foods which are forbidden to be poured on from a Keli Sheiyni may not be entered into a Keli Shelishi.

 

May one place tea in a Keli Shelishi?[397]

Yes.[398]

 

The Status of a Ladle

What is the law of a food which is removed with a ladle from a Keli Rishon?[400] and practically one should be stringent to consider it like Iruiy Keli Rishon. If the ladle was removed immediately after being inserted into the Keli Rishon then it has the status of the pouring of a Keli Sheiyni.

If the food was poured from the ladle into an empty vessel, does that vessel have the status of a Keli Shelishi? According to all, the bowl has the status of a Keli Shelishi.[401]

 

15. Opening the oven on Shabbos when there are still burning coals inside of it? [402] 

In a case that one knows there are fiery coals in the oven, then it is forbidden to open it through a Jew, being that [this will cause] the wind to enter it and light up the coals.

Now, even though one has no intention to light them up, nevertheless [it is forbidden to open the oven] as [by opening the oven] it is inevitable[403] [for the coals not to light up in the wind].

Nevertheless it is permitted to do so through a gentile, being that any prohibition which occurs inevitably [when a permitted action is done], does not carry with it a prohibition to tell a gentile to do so for him, as was explained in 253 [Halacha 10].
Closing the oven on Shabbos when there are still coals burning in it: Similarly if one wants to return and close the oven with a sheet of wood, then if it has fiery coals inside it, it is forbidden to close it through a Jew, as the wind blows through a small crack [that is in the area that has been closed]. This is similar to blowing [on the coals] as it lights up the coals even more so then if the oven had been left open. However through a gentile this is permitted [to be done].

It is even permitted for a Jew to close it as long as he does not close it completely, and as long as he leaves much of it open. However if he [only] leaves it a little bit open, then certainly the wind will blow inside it and is forbidden to be done.

 

Q&A

On Shabbos may one open an oven which works on thermostat?[404]

This is only permitted when the oven is currently on, or one left the door partially open from before Shabbos[405] in a way that cold air can enter it, and thus by further opening the oven he is not causing a new action.

However if the flame is not currently on and the door of the oven is closed it is forbidden to open it. This is forbidden as doing so will enter cold air inside and cause the flame to turn on sooner than expected due to the drop in the temperature of the oven.[406]

Closing the oven door if the food is not fully cooked: Is forbidden.[407]

 

16. Issur which fell into one’s food on Shabbos:[408]

It is forbidden to nullify a non-Kosher food within Kosher food on Shabbos, even in those cases that doing so is allowed during the week.[409] It is however permitted to measure whether a food has sixty times against the forbidden food.[410] Likewise a Rav may Pasken in whether a food is Kosher or Treif.[411]

 

General Q&A

Q&A on covering a pot of food that is on the fire or that is not fully cooked:

May one place a cover onto a pot of food that is on the fire?[412]

If the food is fully cooked one may place the cover onto the pot.[413] However if the pot is not currently boiling and placing back the cover will cause it to re-boil, then there is room to be stringent, although one who is lenient certainly has upon whom to rely.[414]

If however the food is not fully cooked placing the cover on the pot is forbidden according to all.[415] Even when the food is fully cooked one must beware not to return the cover to the pot if the cover is wet [which is very common due to vapor] unless the moisture of the cover is still hot, or one dries the cover.[416]

                                                                    

May one remove a cover from a food that is on the fire and then place it back on?

One may remove the cover in all cases even if the food is not fully cooked. Returning the cover back onto the pot follows the same laws as the previous answer. One must especially beware not to return the cover to the pot if the cover is wet [which is very common due to vapor] unless the moisture of the cover is still hot, or one dries the cover.[417]


May one place a cloth or the like on a pot that is on the fire and insulate the pot in a way that does not pose a Hatmanah prohibition?[418]

If the food is fully cooked this may be done[419]. If the food is not fully cooked doing so contains the cooking prohibition being that it hastens the cooking.[420]

 

May one return a cover back onto a pot of non fully cooked food that is off the fire ?[421]

Yes, as it merely guards the heat as opposed to helps further cook the food.[422] However there are Poskim[423] which forbid this due to cooking.

 

May one place a cloth or the like on a pot of non fully cooked food that is off the fire?[424]

According to Admur it is permitted to place it on the side of the pot. According to the Mishneh Berurah it is forbidden.

 

May one move a pot of food that is on the blech to a hotter spot?[425]

If the food is not fully cooked it is prohibited.

If the food is fully cooked: See the laws of Chazara.

 

Q&A which relate to electrical heating systems:

May one open or close the windows of his house if this will cause the air conditioner or heater to turn on or off earlier than expected?[426] 

Yes[427], however a Baal Nefesh should make sure that a single window is always left open.[428]

 

May one open the door of his fridge if it will cause the motor to turn on or last longer?[429]

It is best to only open the fridge while the motor is on. While the motor is off  one should be stringent against doing so being that it will cause the motor to turn on sooner[430].

The scrupulous are stringent to attach a timer to the fridge and only open it while it is off, on the timer. This thus prevents any problem of starting up or continuing the motor.[431]

Asking a child to open the fridge: Many are accustomed to allow a child to open the fridge when the fridge is off.[432] However some Poskim[433] have ruled against even having a child do so.

Shabbos Fridges: Today there are special Shabbos fridge settings that come with fridges which effect that on Shabbos the fridge does not work on temperature basis but on time basis. Such a fridge which had its Shabbos setting turned on before Shabbos may be opened even when the fridge is off.

 

May an electric water urn be used for Shabbos?[434]

The water is constantly heated based on a thermostat:  May not be used on Shabbos as the amount of water that is in the pot effects when the heat will turn on and off. It is thus forbidden to remove water from it on Shabbos[435] [even when the heat is on, as nevertheless this will cause the heat to turn off earlier than expected].  

The water is not heated based on thermostat: May be used on Shabbos on condition that the water is fully cooked [Yad Soledes] and was at least 1/3-1/2 cooked before Shabbos. [See Removing food Q&A 7]

An urn which has its valve on its bottom in a way that it is possible to remove all the water from inside: Is forbidden to be used due to suspicion that the water may completely finish and one may come to add more water in order to prevent the urn from burning up.[436] However if the following conditions are met it is allowed: a) The urn simply insulates the heat of the water and does not further heat it. B) There is a transparent measuring area which tells one how much water is left in the urn.

May urns with a transparent water level measurer be used on Shabbos? Some Poskim[437] require one to block water from entering into the water level tube.[438]

 

May one adjust the timer of a Shabbos clock on Shabbos?[439]

It is permitted to delay the change of whatever is the current status of the timer. Thus if the electricity is now on it is permitted to adjust it that it turn off at a later time than originally set for. Similarly if it is now off it is permitted to adjust it that it turn on at a later time then originally set for. It is however absolutely forbidden to cause the change of action to occur sooner than was set for, whether to have it turn off earlier or turn on earlier.

 

May one adjust the temperature of a heater?[440]

While the heater is off it is permitted to adjust the temperature to have it be heated to a lower temperature than it was originally set for.[441]  [Likewise it is permitted to lower the set temperature for when the heater will turn on[442] while the heater is off.[443]] While the heater is on it is completely forbidden to lower the temperature to have it heated to a lower temperature than it was originally set for.

To higher the temperature is not to be done at all, even while the heater is on, by gas/water run heaters[444]. However by electric heaters, the heater may be adjusted to reach a higher temperature [however not for it to turn on at an even higher temperature of the house.]

 

May one add water to a humidifier or vaporizer on Shabbos?[445]

Some Poskim[446] rule it is forbidden to add water to any vaporizer or humidifier.[447]

Other Poskim[448] rule it is permitted to add water to a vaporizer if certain conditions are met.[449] The following is the law of cold and hot humidifiers according to these Poskim that are lenient:

Cold humidifier: If the humidifier expels only cold air according to this opinion it is permitted to add water to it if the following conditions are met: 1. The machine is still on and will not turn on due to the added water. 2. No lights in the machine will turn on or off due to the added water. 3. The lights in the house will not decrease their quality of light due to this.[450] 4. One may not remove any part of the humidifier in order to enter the water if doing so causes the humidifier to shut off until the part is reinserted.[451]

Hot humidifier: If the humidifier expels hot air it is forbidden to add water to it on Shabbos due to the cooking prohibition. However it is permitted to add hot water directly from an urn into the humidifier, fulfilling all the Chazara conditions[452], and provided that all the above mentioned conditions [of a cold humidifier] are fulfilled. Likewise this may only be done if the water that remains in the container is already cooked.[453]

 

May one add water to an air cooler on Shabbos?[454]

This has the same ruling as a cold humidifier mentioned above.[455]

 

Summary of preparing coffee, tea, soup mix, baby formula on Shabbos:[456]

Coffee: Pour the hot water from the Keli Rishon into a dry cup, [unless the cup has water in it which was precooked in which case one need not dry it even if it is now cold] and then pour that water into another cup which contains in it sugar and coffee. With regards to instant coffee it is best to make it from before Shabbos in order to avoid any suspicion of Molid. Although from the letter of the law this may too be done on Shabbos in the above way. [The milk may be poured either into the water which is in first cup which is considered the Keli Sheiyni, or into the third cup.]

Tea bags: Same as coffee [with Iruiy Keli Sheiyni], although with regards to removing the tea bag since doing so is questionable if it contains a Borer prohibition, therefore one should remove it using a spoon or pour it out. However one may not pour out the liquid from the tea bag. [See “The Laws of Borer”]

Tea essence made before Shabbos: May be placed into a Keli Sheiyni, and if still warm may even placed into a Keli Rishon if it was cooked on the fire from before Shabbos [as opposed to merely placed in hot water].

Entering lemon slices into tea:  One who is stringent to not do so at all on Shabbos, even in cold water, have what to suspect for.[457] However those which are lenient in this also have upon whom to rely and thus may do so even in a Keli Sheiyni. However even they should be careful not to squeeze any juice out of the lemon, into the tea, within the process of doing so.[458]

Squeezing lemon into ones tea: Is forbidden due to the Mifarek prohibition. [see chapter 320]

Pouring lemon juice into ones tea: Is allowed in a Keli Sheiyni.

Making soup using soup mix: Same as coffee [i.e. may only be made with Iruiy Keli Sheiyni].[459]

Placing dehydrated vegetables into hot food: Is allowed even in a Keli Rishon [that is off the fire] being that they are precooked in water or smoked. However if one knows that they are only partially cooked or not cooked at all in water, then they may only be placed in a Keli Shelishi or poured on from a Keli Sheiyni.

Making mashed potatoes using potato puree: With regards to cooking has the same laws as dehydrated vegetables. However to make it into a thick batter is forbidden due to the kneading prohibition, and even a thin batter may only be made in ways to be explained below with regards to baby formula. See “The Laws of Kneading” for further information.

Baby formula/Materna: With regards to the laws of cooking it has the same laws as making soup mix. [This is with exception to if it contains Quaker in which case if it was not precooked then it may not be mixed with water so long as it is still Yad Soledes]. In addition by all formulas one must avoid transgressing the kneading prohibition. If made into a very liquidly form, then it has no kneading restrictions involved and may be done even initially. If made into a semi thick liquid, then it may only be done with an irregularity, such as to make it in the opposite manner that it is usually made [I.e. if one first places in the formula then now one first places in the water] as well as that one is to mix it in a different manner than usual. Thus if one mixes it by shaking the bottle up and down he is to now shake it by swirling the bottle from side to side and the like. It is absolutely forbidden to make a thick formula.

Baby cereals: If they were precooked [in water or smoked] in manufacturing then it may be placed even in a Keli Rishon. If not then it follows the same laws as soup mix. [This is with exception to if it contains Quaker in which case if it was not precooked then it may not be mixed with water so long as it is still Yad Soledes].In all cases one must avoid the kneading prohibition as explained with regards to baby formula.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________


[1] 318/7

[2] 318/24

[3] 318/10

[4] 318/10

[5] 318/29

[6] 318/9

[7] 318/11

[8] 318/24

[9] 318/7

[10] In 318/7 Admur implies one is only liable if one heats the food to Ben Drusaiy. In 318/9;11;24;29 Admur implies that one is liable even if cooked to Yad Soledes. Vetzaruch Iyun. Perhaps however one can explain that for food [solids] the liability for a Chatas offering only applies if one cooked a food to Ben Drusaiy while the Biblical prohibition applies once it is heated to Yad Soledes, as at that point it begins to cook. However for liquids the liability for a Chatas offering is when it is Yad Soledes. This can also be seen within the wording of the different cases mentioned, that Admur never states by solids that there is liability when heated to Yad Soledes and rather only mentions that it is forbidden. Perhaps the reason behind the differentiation between food and liquid is because the liability is with regards to cooking the food to the point that it is considered cooked enough to eat, as only then has the food truly benefited from the cooking. Hence by solids this amount is Ben Drusaiy, while by liquids it is Yad Soledes.

[11] 318/10

[12] 318/24

[13] 318/7

[14] Magen Avraham 318/36-37, brought in Sheivet Haleivi 8/57

[15] Meaning that although in general we rule that whenever something inevitably occurs it remains Biblically forbidden, nevertheless here all agree that intent is needed to make it a Biblical Melacha, and thus without intent it remains a Rabbinical prohibition, and is allowed when the inevitable act is not wanted. [based on Magen Avraham ibid]

[16] Shut Sheivet Haleivi 8/57, brought in Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 27

[17] As a) one has no intent to weld the plastic and b) being that one has no intent to weld it, softening it is not even defined as a Melacha, and in such a case even an inevitable occurrence [Pesik Reishei] is permitted, as explained in previous question. [Sheivet Haleivi Ibid]

[18] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 27

[19] Meaning that if the item melted due to Yad Soledes heat, one is liable even if the item itself did not become Yad Soledes. If however also the heat was less than Yad Soledes one is not liable.

[20] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 27-31

[21] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 63

[22] So rules Shut Shoel Umeishiv 2/20 based on that one is hardening a soft substance; Kaf Hachayim [78] rules it is forbidden based on that he considers this like Afiyah after Bishul. Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 179 rules like these opinions that toasting bread is forbidden. Har Tzevi “Ofeh” p.262 suggests that perhaps it would be forbidden due to Makeh Bepatish, although he rejects the logic of saying that one is hardening a soft item. SSH”K 1/62

[23] Daas Torah 318/5

[24] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 188

[25] 318/7

[26] 318/8

[27] 318/7

[28] 318/8

[29] 318/24

[30] This has been discussed amongst the Poskim and their final ruling is that it is considered like heat of a fire. [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 25]

[31] Shabbos Kehalacha  Vol. 1 p. 261

[32] 318/7

[33] Halacha 7

[34] 318/29

[35] 318/14

[36] Tzaruch Iyun why Admur mentions that the lower pot is insulated? Perhaps this is because if the lower pot were not covered with insulation, it would be able to further heat, and further cook the upper pot and hence be forbidden. However when there is a cloth insulation separating, it will never be able to further cook it.

[37] 318/15

[38] Tzaruch Iyun on the novelty in this additional statement.

[39] 318/14

[40] 318/24

[41] Halacha 24

[42] Halacha 14 and 15

[43] Tosefus Yesheinim Shabbos 37b; and so explains Shabbos Kehalacha 4/19 in Admur.

[44] Halacha 24 and 29

[45] Halacha 14-15

[46] Halacha 15

[47] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 210

As perhaps here one can say one not come to forget to remove it prior to it reaching that point.

[48] Magen Avraham 318/37, M”B 318/91. Vetzaruch Iyun why no mention of this is made in Admur.

[49] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 210

[50] Some, based on the above answer, have ruled that here too it is allowed being that one will not come to forget to remove the bottle since he does not want it to become Yad Soledes and burn the child. However practically one should not be lenient to do so being that no damage will come about if one heats it too much as it can always be cooled off. Thus one may come to forget to remove it. [This can also be understood from the ruling that even when the Keli Rishon is not Yad Soledes one may not place food in it, hence certainly when it is Yad Soledes even though one for sure will remove it before it reaches Yad Soledes should this be forbidden.]

[51] 318/30

[52] Regarding the reason behind the prohibition to stir even fully cooked food that is on the fire some explain this to be due a Rabbinical decree that it appears like one is cooking. Others [Kol Bo] explain this to be a Biblical form of cooking, being that they hold that any act which contains “Darkei Habishul” contains the Biblical cooking prohibition. The majority of opinions however hold that it is only Rabbinical and they are puzzled by those which write that it is Biblical.

[53] 318/30

[54] 318/30

[55] Thus one who wishes to remove food from a pot and then have the remainder remain on the fire must first remove the pot from the fire and then take the food out. [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 228]

[56] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 219

[57] As we only find that removing with a spoon or the like was prohibited. The reason for this is because when pouring out the content it leaves the status of a Keli Rishon.

[58] As we do not find that mixing is prohibited in a Keli Sheiyni.

[59] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 220

[60] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 223

[61] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 220

[62] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 224

[63] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 224 and 228

[64] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 126

[65] The Peri Megadim leaves this question in doubt and thus one should be stringent.

[66] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 226

[67] Ketzos Hashulchan 124/10; Igros Moshe 4/74

[68] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 222-223; See also Piskeiy Teshuvos 253/24; SSH”K 1/16

[69] So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 10 based on Admur 253 which omits the ruling of the Michaber 253/4, and based on Admur 253 Kuntrus Achron 11.

Other Opinions: The Michaber 253/4 rules one must protest against those that add water to food that is on the fire to prevent it from burning. The Taz and M”A there explain the reason to be because perhaps one of them is not Yad Soledes. However the Kol Bo explains the reason is because this is considered Meigis and is Biblically forbidden. Admur omitted this entire ruling of the Michaber and hence he certainly does not hold of this ruling of the Kol Bo. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid]

[70] So rules Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 1 footnote 42

[71] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1  p. 230

[72] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 2220-221

[73] Igros Moshe; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 219

[74] 318/9

[75] Approximately 110 Fahrenheit. The amount of heat that one would remove his hand from there upon touching.

[76] This is the opinion of the Michaber. According to this opinion even if the water is still Yad Soledes but had been placed into a Keli Sheiyni, it is prohibited to further heat it. [Peri Megadim, brought in Biur Halacha. Shabbos Kehalacha p. 139]

[77] Rashba/Ran/Magid Mishneh

[78] Vetzaruch Iyun as there the Alter Rebbe rules in parentheses that even if a Jew himself heats up liquid food it is allowed to be eaten being that there are opinions which permit this even initially.

[79] 253/25

[80]  Meaning the above allowance applies even if the Jew himself placed it there, and certainly if a gentile placed it there based on his command. However Tzaruch Iyun from Chapter 318/9 that the Alter Rebbe rules that the custom is that if a Jew himself heats up near liquid food which has fully cooled down, that it is prohibited even after the fact. Perhaps however here the Alter Rebbe is mentioning the letter of the law,  that it is permitted, while there he is mentioning the custom, which is to be stringent.

[81] However to place such food on an oven is forbidden according to all being that the food in this case has completely cooled down, and thus would be prohibited after the fact.

[82] 318/14

[83] 318/ 9

[84] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 195

[85] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 195-198

[86] So rules Igros Moshe 4/74 based on Admur Halacha 9 that it is permitted to boil it; Az Nidbaru 9/14 seemingly retracting his ruling in Bris Olam; Olas Shabbos 12; Shevisas Shabbos 18.  

[87] The Tehila Ledavid leaves this in doubt, as well as Rav SZ”A in SSH”K footnote 96. The Igleiy Tal in Hashmatos rules that it is forbidden to further heat it. This retracts from his ruling in the “Ofeh” in Iglei Tal. The Sheivet Haleivi 7/42 and Minchas Yitzchak 10/28 lean to be stringent.

[88] 84

[89] The Rama [318/4] rules that it is only forbidden in a case of “condensing in a beneficial way for the owner”. However the Michaber rules that it is forbidden even in a case of “condensing in a damaging way”. The Taz rules like the Rama. The Bach and M”B rules like the Michaber and so is evident from the Admur, from the fact that he does not make mention of any differentiation..

[90] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 147

[91] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 147

[92] So rules Igros Moshe 4/74.

[93] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 95 and p. 144, p. 147

[94] So rules Igros Moshe 4/74. However Rav SZ”A rules that ketchup has the status of Yaveish being that it derives from tomato paste, and something which was originally a solid remains a solid even when its turned into a flowing paste. [Shabbos Kehalacha p. 147]

[95] such as by placing it into a Keli Sheiyni.

[96] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 141

[97] So rules Rav Akivah Eiger [253] , Avnei Nezer [129] and Tehila Ledavid.

[98] 318/12

[99] 318/11

[100] Yireim

[101] This follows the explanation that in this part of the text Admur is not giving a final ruling but is rather quoting the ramifications of the first opinion. This matter will be explained in further footnotes.

[102] Regarding why by meat Admur says that one is to be stringent while by bread he simply says “the custom is”  the Chidushim and Biurim Kolel Tzemach Tzedek learn that the ruling regarding roasted meat was all in accordance to the stringent opinion which holds that there is always a cooking prohibition after roasting, however in accordance to the final ruling which takes into account the lenient opinion, this is simply a custom.

[103] To note that Admur omitted the case of roasted meat here in the custom. Some suggest this is because Admur only rules by bread which is more of a light food that one must be stringent by a Keli Sheiyni, however by roast there is no need to be stringent as requires the 1st opinion.

[104] 318/13

[105] 318/13

[106] 318/15; This refers even to a food that was cooked in liquids as is understood from the wording there and from the contrast to the wording in 318/24 and so rules Tehila Ledavid 318/24 that there is no prohibition of roasting after cooking when there is a pot interfering. See Shabbos Kehalacha 3/24 Biurim 18. Piskeiy Teshuvos 318/14.

Other Opinions: The M”B 318/41 rules it is forbidden to place a cooked dry food n top of a pot and the like due to the prohibition of roasting after cooking. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 318/14]

[107] Halacha 11

[108] Halacha 12

[109] Halacha 13

[110] Halacha 13

[111] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 24 and p. 142.

[112] 613/14

[113] Based on Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 37, although there he leaves this with a Tzaruch Iyun.

[114] So rules the Divreiy Nechemiah. However the Minchas Kohen as well as other Poskim argue on this and hold that we follow majority.

[115] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 145

[116] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 200

[117] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 159-167

[118] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 164

[119] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 159-161

[120] Such as an egg. [Shabbos Kehalacha p. 166]

[121] The Ketzos Hashulchan [124/54] brings the Peri Megadim which questions whether it is considered like roasted or cooked, and concludes based on this Per Megadim that it is forbidden to cook an item that was fried, and thus soup nuggets which are fried may not be placed into soup from a Keli Sheiyni. Rav Farkash however disputes this ruling based on Admur in Seder Birchas Hanehnin which clearly defines fried as cooked and not baked. The Ketzos Hashulchan however challenges this source explaining that a) By a Biblical prohibition Admur agrees that one must be stringent to consider it as roasted, and it was only regarding blessings that he was lenient. B) Admur never meant that it is considered like actually cooked but rather that regarding the laws of bread it is not considered bread. Rav SZ”A rules in SSH”K that it is considered like cooked. [1 note 182]

[122] See Shabbos Kehalacha p. 166

[123] So rules the Peri Megadim, brought in Biur Halacha, although the M”B himself argues there on the Peri Megadim and holds that it does have a cooking prohibition. The Igleiy Tal however rules like the Peri Megadim. The Ketzos Hashulchan 124/54 rules like the Peri Megadim based on the Igleiy Tal, and so rules also Rav Farkash [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 171]

[124] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 178

[125] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 174-176; See Tehila Ledavid 318/24 which explicitly differentiates between placing food on top of a pot which is allowed and placing it directly across a fire which is not allowed and so is implied from Admur 318/15 in his wording which contrasts his ruling in 318/24.

Other Opinions: The M”B 318/41 rules it is forbidden to place a cooked dry food n top of a pot and the like due to the prohibition of roasting after cooking. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 318/14]

[126] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 162

[127] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 177

[128] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 179

[129] The Peri Megadim and Minchas Chinuch discuss this question and although they seem to lean towards permitting it to be done, they remain with doubt.

[130] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 180

[131] However the Igros Moshe argues on this and rules that a microwave is not considered solar heating but is like heating with a flame.

[132] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 181

[133] As hot dogs are previously cooked.

[134] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 167

[135] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 169

[136] 318/31

[137] 318/11

[138] This follows the ruling of the Magen Avraham which argues on the Levush which holds that it is forbidden when it dissolves.

[139] 318/25

[140] 318/25

[141] 318/26

[142] 318/26

[143] 318/11

[144] This follows the ruling of the Magen Avraham which argues on the Levush which holds that it is forbidden when it dissolves.

[145] 318/26

[146] 318/25

[147] 318/25

[148] 318/25

[149] 318/27

[150] 318/27

[151] 318/28

[152] 318/28

[153] This opinion is based on the opinion of the Levush, of which likewise rules the Taz, as opposed to the opinion of the Magen Avraham, as was ruled above in Shulchan Aruch. They argue on the Levush and holds that a solid which dissolves is viewed as a solid and not as a liquid.

The Mishneh Berurah rules like the Magen Avraham although concludes that it is proper to avoid placing the food in a Keli Rishon or pouring onto it from a Keli Rishon. So rules SS”K and Kitzur SHU”A. However regarding a Keli Sheiyni they are lenient if the food has been previously cooked. See Q&A by Keli Sheiyni for the ruling according to Admur.

Regarding butter: According to all opinions it has a cooking prohibition even if previously cooked. [So rules Rav SZ”A. Shabbos Kehalacha p. 143]

[154] However the M”B 71 rules that it is permitted to place sugar into a Keli Rishon although it is proper to Lechatchilah beware from placing or pouring on it from a Keli Rishon.

[155] Following the ruling of the Siddur as opposed to that of the Shulchan Aruch Halacha 11 which holds that the dissolving of a pre-cooked solid to Yad Soledes has the same laws as it does when heating to below Yad Soledes, [albeit taking into account the conditions explained above in how one may re-cook it.]

[156] Other than through direct sun heat or to heat it with pouring from a Keli Sheiyni and placing into a Keli Shelishi in which case it has the same laws as a melted food heated to less than Yad Soledes. Regarding placing it into a Keli Sheiyni-See Q&A!

[157] I.e. with or without liquid

[158] Halacha 25-27

[159] Halacha 28

[160] Based on a 318/25-27. So rules Rav Farkash in Shabbos Kehalacha 4/14 without bringing any lenient opinion.

[161] Bris Olam 71; SSH”K 1/38 in name of Rav SZ”A; Az Nidbaru 3/8

[162] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 151

[163] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 56 and 152-153

[164] However there are opinions which learn that this is allowed even according to Admur. [Meor Hashabbos] This dispute is dependent on how one learns the ruling of Admur in the Siddur regarding dissolvable foods. Admur rules that sugar is only forbidden to pour from a Keli Rishon, hence implying that it is permitted to be placed into a Keli Sheiyni. On the other hand he rules that salt may not even be placed into a Keli Sheiyni. Some want to learn that the salt case is an exception and really all dissolvable items may be placed in a Keli Sheiyni, being that all liquids are permitted in a Keli Sheiyni. Rav Farkash however learns that the sugar case is the exception as sugar is defined as a spice, hence whether one views it in its solid state or liquid state it may entered in to a Keli Sheiyni even if not previously cooked. However salt and all other dissolvable products which are not defined as a spice would be forbidden to placed into a Keli Sheiyni, for the reason that we don’t view them as a true liquid. [ibid]

According to the Mishneh Berurah it is completely allowed in a Keli Sheiyni.

[165] 318/17

[166] 318/20 and 31. See Q&A below

[167] 318/20

[168] 318/11

[169] As placing a food into a pot that is on a fire, or even on a blech is forbidden due to the Chazarah prohibition, as explained in “The Laws of Chazarah”.

[170] 318/11

[171] This follows the ruling of the Magen Avraham which argues on the Levush which holds that it is forbidden when it dissolves.

[172] Siddur. If the food will melt through placing it into a Keli Rishon then this is forbidden to be done, based on the ruling of the Siddur, as explained in Halacha 8 above-see there!

Other Opinions: However the M”B 318/71 rules that it is permitted to place sugar into a Keli Rishon although it is proper to Lechatchilah beware from placing or pouring on it from a Keli Rishon.

[173] 318/12

[174] 318/12

[175] Regarding why by meat Admur says that one is to be stringent while by bread he simply says “the custom is”  the Chidushim and Biurim Kolel Tzemach Tzedek learn that the ruling regarding roasted meat was all in accordance to the stringent opinion which holds that there is always a cooking prohibition after roasting, however in accordance to the final ruling which takes into account the lenient opinion, then this is simply a custom.

[176] The M”B [318/31] brings down that this matter is disputed in the Poskim. The Peri Megadim rules that one should be stringent in all cases, even if the food is easily cooked.

[177] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 117

[178] 318/11

[179] 318/17

[180] 318/17 as rules Michaber 318/9. Such as blocks of salt that can be found in the dead sea and in other areas around the world. However  salts, including sea salt, that is abstracted through evaporating water which thus cooks the water in the process is discussed in the next Halacha.

[181] 318/17

[182] 318/17

[183] 318/18

[184] 318/17

[185] 318/11

[186] 318/17

[187] Following the ruling of the Siddur, as opposed to that of the Shulchan Aruch [Halacha 18-19] which rules that even if he salt has not been previously cooked then it is allowed to be placed in a Keli Rishon although one who refrains from doing so is blessed. According to both Siddur and Shulchan Aruch it is blessed for one to be stringent.

[188] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 158

[189] 318/17

[190] Following the ruling in the Siddur.

[191] 318/17

[192] 318/17, This follows the opinion of the M”A 318/28, taken from the Yerushalmi.

[193] Lit. good

[194] However the M”B [64] rules that once the Keli Rishon is no longer Yad Soledes then one may place any food in it [that does not contain a Molid prohibition]. 

[195] 318/22

[196] This follows the ruling of the Rama. However according to the Beis Yosef/Sefaradim it is forbidden in all cases to pour cold water into a Keli Rishon.

[197] 318/23

[198] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 210

[199] M”B [83] and Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 28

[200] Shevisas Shabbos and Pnei Yehoshua

[201] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 34, brought in Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 209

[202] 318/21

[203] 318/22

[204] 318/21

[205] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 284

[206] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 117

[207] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 118

[208] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 21

[209] So rules Rav Farkash, and other Poskim of today with regards to removing water from a boiler or hot Mikvah. Now, although there is room to say that once the boiler has been turned off the water has the status of a Keli Sheiyni as since the walls of the vessel were never heated from under therefore they have the same logistics as that of a Keli Sheiyni which its walls have not been heated due to a fire and therefore continuously cool down. Nevertheless this differentiation is not accurate being that nevertheless here the walls were continuously heated by the fire through the heated water while by a Keli Sheiyni the walls are not continuously heated.

[210] It is possible to learn that the water still has the status of a Keli Rishon being that the water while being poured was still on the fire and thus can be considered to have been cooked in that vessel. This understanding can be derived from the explanation of the Peri Megadim [A.A. 33] as to why in the bathtub case the water is still considered a Keli Rishon. Nevertheless this argument is not accepted by Poskim as a) By the bathtub case the spring water constantly passes through the tub and thus heated up the walls of the tub. And b) If this deduction were correct then the Poskim should have mentioned it explicitly. The following Poskim rule leniently: Rav Farkash [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 22], Minchas Yitzchak [4/46], Rav Aurbach in SSH”K 1

[211] P”M 253 A”A 20, Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 33

[212] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 33

[213] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 27

[214] As by doing so cold water will be caused to enter into the boiler, and the boiler is defined as a Keli Rishon.

[215] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 129

[216] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 70

[217] As the adding of the hot water into cold water is allowed, as will be explained in “Iruiy Keli Rishon”, and the adding of the cold water to the boiler is a mere Pesik Reisha which the gentile has no intent to do which is permitted to be done by a gentile, as explained in chapter 253.

[218] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 129

[219] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 127

[220] 326/4

[221] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 127

[222] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 127

[223] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 128

[224] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 128

[225] 318/20

[226] According to this reasoning any Keli Sheiyni which is very hot has the same status as a Keli Rishon. So rules Tzemach Tzedek as explained in Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 31. [To note that Rav Farkash writes merely that it is proper to be stringent in this [Shabbos Kehalacha 1/38 and 2/4] while from Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan it is evident that they plainly rule this way.]

The M”B also explains this to be the reasoning behind the bath prohibition. However other Poskim [Machatzis Hashekel, based on Rashi] learn that the bath tub case is an exception and was only made forbidden due to a decree that one may come to heat up also in a Keli Rishon. Hence according to them a very hot Keli Sheiyni would have the status of a Keli Sheiyni. [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 66]

[227] 318/23

[228] So is understood from Admur’s reason mentioned above regarding a hot bath tub, and so rules Tzemach Tzedek as explained in Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 31. [To note that Rav Farkash writes merely that it is proper to be stringent in this [Shabbos Kehalacha 1/38 and 2/4] while from Tzemach Tzedek and Ketzos Hashulchan it is evident that this is the way they rule.]

[229] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 25

[230] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 77

[231] The Ketzos Hashulchan [124 footnote 32] suggests that perhaps the stringency of a very hot Keli Sheiyni is only with regards to pouring cold water into it. However milk may be placed into it.

[232] Rav Farkash rules that there is no difference between liquids and hence all liquids are forbidden.

[233] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 68

[234] So is apparent from Tzemach Tzedek from fact he allowed one to pour from such a Keli Sheiyni onto food. So rules also Igros Moshe, Sheivet Haleivi, Chazon Ish, Minchas Yitzchak.

[235] See above footnotes

[236] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 68

[237] As this is the exact case of the bathtub in which it was prohibited in.

[238] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 70

[239] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 70

[240] See Nishmas Hashabbos chapter 57

[241] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 78

[242] 318/20

[243] 318/31

[244] Shach Yorah Deah 105/8, Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p 24

[245] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 88-91

[246] The Shach in Yorah Deah 105/8 rule that a Davar Gush has the ability to absorb taste into other foods even when in a Keli Sheiyni. So brings Magen Avraham 318/45, although the Tzemach Tzedek explains that the Magen Avraham himself does not hold of this opinion as the final Halacha. Nevertheless the Peri Megadim seems to rule to be stringent in this Lechatchilah and so rules the M”B [318/45] and Ketzos Hashulchan [124 footnote 15 and 39] and so appears to be the opinion of the Igros Moshe regarding practicality.

[247] Rama 94/7; Peri Megadim; Chovas Daas; Chasam Sofer; Aruch Hashulchan; Igros Moshe seems to be lenient from the letter of the law; Tzemach Tzedek, and so seems to be the opinion of Admur from the fact that in Halacha 31 he omit’s the novelty of the Magen Avraham which is that even in a Keli Sheiyni the roast may not have garlic placed on it, and Admur omit’s the Keli Sheiyni ruling.

[248] In accordance to Admur, however the M”B rules clearly that one is to initially be stringent unless it is a time of need.

[249] M”B [318/45] and Ketzos Hashulchan [124 footnote 15 and 39]

[250] Rav SHZ”A, based on that one does not intend on doing so and it is anyways only a doubt if it has the status of a Keli Rishon.

[251] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 92

[252] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 92

[253] So rules the Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 39, based on Admur in Kuntrus Achron in 253 and Peri Megadim. However the Darkei Teshuvah rules stringently in this.

[254] The Igros Moshe allows this even in a Keli Sheiyni, however Rav Farkash only permits it in a Keli Shelishi and asks on Igros Moshe that ketchup is not a liquid. Vetzaruch Iyun as the Igros Moshe rules that it is a liquid. Furthermore if viewed as a solid it is certainly permitted as it was previously cooked.

[255] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 95

[256] This may be done according to all as ketchup is a precooked liquid which has cooled and thus it itself is disputed whether it contains a cooking prohibition in reheating. Thus since a Davar gush also is disputed whether it cooks in a Keli Shelishi, therefore one may be lenient. So rules Igros Moshe

[257] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 96

[258] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p 24

[259] 318/19

[260] 318/19

[261] 318/19

[262] 318/20

[263] 318/20

[264] 318/20

[265] Halacha 20

[266] Halacha 19

[267] Halacha 19

[268] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 34-35

[269] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 36

[270] Based on Rama and others. However there are others which are stringent in this matter even if the stream has become detached.

[271] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 36

[272] So rules Minchas Yitzchak in various Teshuvos [4/46]. He explains there that although the water does not come directly from boiler to the food and rather bypasses at times a long and cold pipe which draws it, nevertheless since throughout its journey it remains attached to the water in the boiler [Keli Rishon] therefore it retains the status of the pouring of a Keli Rishon.

[273] So rules the Minchas Yitzchak explicitly. Although there are those [SSH”K 1 footnote 122] which have written/ruled in the name of the Minchas Yitzchak that if the boiler is no longer on then it has the status of a  Keli Sheiyni if the pipes were cold.

[274] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 37, based on M”B [318/74] and Rav Akiva Eiger

[275] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 38

[276] As the more one pours on it the more it cooks. So rules Tehila Ledavid [318/19] and Ketzos Hashulchan [134 footnote 31] and other Poskim. So is implied also from Minchas Yitzchak [4/46]. However the M”B [318/39] leans to be lenient in this although concludes that it is best to be stringent. The Igros Moshe [1/42] rules that it is completely permitted and there is no need to be stringent.

[277] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 38

[278] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 68

[279] So is apparent from Tzemach Tzedek from fact he allowed one to pour from such a Keli Sheiyni onto food. So rules also Igros Moshe, Sheivet Haleivi, Chazon Ish, Minchas Yitzchak.

[280] So rules Tehila Ledavid and Tzemach Tzedek in their understanding of Michaber/Admur. As well so rules the Eliyahu Rabah and Peri Megadim in Yoreh Deah 68. This follows the ruling of the Rif and Ran which hold that even to pour onto a small amount of cold water is allowed.

[281] Magen Avraham 35, M”B 78 based on the opinion of Tosafus that pouring on a minute amount of cold water is forbidden.

[282] So rules Tzemach Tzedek, brought in Ketzos Hashulchan 124/12, that one may be lenient from the letter of the law being that cooking a cold precooked liquid is itself a dispute and thus by a double dispute one may be lenient, although nevertheless it is proper to be stringent.

[283] So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 124/12

[284] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 116

[285] Sheivet Haleivi 7/42-2; Mishneh Halachos 6/67

[286] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 114

[287] 124 footnote 30

[288] Rav Farkash [Vol. 1 p. 114] leans to argue on this on the basis that no Poskim have ever mentioned such a differentiation.

[289] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 130

[290] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 119

[291] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 119

[292] As the ladle is defined as a Keli Sheiyni.

[293] However from the letter of the law seemingly it is allowed, as it is only a stringency to avoid pouring liquids from a Keli Rishon into water, and a ladle which has remained in a Keli Rishon is itself a dispute as to its status. However perhaps one can say that only plain liquids were allowed to be poured onto water, however liquids which contain solids, such as soup, is not allowed, and hence one is to be stringent. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[294] As even if the ladle has remained a long time within the Keli Rishon, its pouring is defined as Iruiy Keli Rishon, which is permitted to be poured onto pre-cooked liquids, as explained above.

[295] Thus by schnitzel, even if the schnitzel has been transferred to a second dish, it would still be forbidden to be placed on the dish, according to those stringent by a Davar Gush.

[296] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 119

[297] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 120

[298] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 121

[299] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 122

[300] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 122

[301] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 121

[302] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 120

[303] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 120

[304] 318/12

[305] 318/11; 1st opinion in Tosfus Shabbos 39a

[306] A vessel that contains food that was poured into it from a pot which was on the fire,

[307] 318/11; 2nd opinion in Tosafus Shabbos 39a

[308] 318/12; brought in Taz

[309] It appears that the reason that this opinion is brought here [318/12] and not in the previous Halacha [318/11] is because in truth there is no ramification in the cases discussed in the previous Halacha as either way it is Rabbinically forbidden to place uncooked foods in a Keli Sheiyni. However here when discussing placing a pre roasted or baked food into a Keli Sheiyni this opinion needs to be brought up being that otherwise there is room to rule that placing it in a Keli Sheiyni, which is only a Rabbinical prohibition should be allowed here being that there is a dispute as to whether there is cooking after roasting, and following the rule that by a doubt in a Rabbinical prohibition we are lenient. However once this latter opinion has been brought then the idea of a Keli Sheiyni is as well a Biblical prohibition, and thus this doubt is now a doubt in a Biblical prohibition of which the rule is that one is to be stringent, as rules Admur as the final Halacha. However see next note.

[310] 318/12

[311] The reason for the leniency by liquids is because since the liquids mix well with the food in the Keli Sheiyni it therefore does not appear like cooking, and rather appears like one is simply cooling off the Keli Sheiyni. [Peri Megadim AA 32] As well we must say that the Sages received tradition that liquids definitely do not cook in a Keli Sheiyni.

Other opinions: SSH”K [1 footnote 151] deduces from M”B that milk and other liquids are not allowed in a Keli Sheiyni. The Minchas Yitzchak [127/5] rules however that they are allowed, and hence placing milk in a Keli Sheiyni is allowed.

[312] 318/11

[313] 318/11

[314] So rules Magen Avraham

[315] 318/11

[316] Taz  14

[317] 318/11

[318] So rules also Aruch Hashulchan 44. However the Mishneh Berurah [45 ] rules stringently by onions and garlic to not allow them to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni. So rules also Igros Moshe [4/74]

[319] 318/22

[320] 318/12

[321] 318/23

[322] There it is explained that there is no insulation prohibition to insulate an item that is cold in order to thaw down its coldness. However to add heat to it is forbidden as explained in Mahadura Basra for chapter 259; p. 878 in new Shulchan Aruch. [See The Laws of Hatmana chapter 2 Halacha 5E]

[323] 318/19

[324] This refers to when non-kosher food in Keli Sheiyni had Kosher food placed inside it or vice versa, in which case there are opinions that hold that the entire Kosher food is forbidden [Taz and Rashal in Yorah Deah Chapter 105] while others hold that that the outer layer of it is forbidden. [Michaber/Rama/Shach in chapter 105 in their Lechatchilah opinion].

[325] Meaning although they hold that it can give and receive taste, nevertheless they are all in agreement that it does not have the ability to actually cook.

[326] 318/11

[327] 318/12

[328] 318/12

[329] Q. What novelty is being said here after having already ruled above that one is to be stringent by roasted meat. Furthermore why does Admur here mention that it is a custom while above ruled that one must be stringent? Furthermore why didn’t Admur bring this latter opinion prior to stating the final ruling that it said above. Vetzaruch Iyun. To note that the Chidushim and Biurim Kolel Tzemach Tzedek learn that the previous “final ruling” was all in accordance to the stringent opinion, while here is the actual final ruling, and according to this only by bread are we stringent due to concerns of cooking as opposed to other foods and it is due to this also that onions are allowed to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni being that we do not accept the stringent opinion for all foods. However Rav Farkash argues on their ruling stating that the above “Final”.   

[330] Based on 318/20 and 31. See Q&A below

[331] 318/12 and 22

[332] 318/23

[333] See Laws of Hatmanah Chapter 2 Q&A 5

[334] 318/11-12

[335] Following the ruling in Siddur, [and Shulchan Aruch Halacha 18]

[336] Vetzaruch Iyun from Rav Farkash [Vol. 1 p. 156] who writes: If the salt will dissolve in the food then it is forbidden to place it in a Keli Sheiyni. Admur simply writes that one who is stringent is blessed and does not mention a strict prohibition.

[337] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 158

[338] Halacha 11-12

[339] See P”M 253 A”A 20; Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 33

[340] As stated explicitly in Admur 318/19 that a vessel is only considered a Keli Rishon if it was on the fire or near the fire.

[341] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 47

[342] So writes Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 14

[343] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 14, Igros Moshe [74] rules that it is not like spices, and so too rules Rav SZ”A.

[344] Yeshuos Chachma, Chazon Ish. Rav Farkash brings proofs that whether or not a certain spice was around back in the times of the sages does not affect their status and so long as we see that they are used as a spice they are allowed to be placed in a Keli Sheiyni.

[345] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 48

[346] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 56 and 152-153

[347] However there are opinions which learn that this is allowed even according to Admur. [Meor Hashabbos] This dispute is dependent on how to learn the ruling of Admur in the Siddur regarding dissolvable foods. Admur rules that sugar is only forbidden to pour from a Keli Rishon, hence implying that it is permitted to be placed into a Keli Sheiyni. On the other hand he rules that salt may not even be placed into a Keli Sheiyni. Some want to learn that the salt case is an exception and really all dissolvable items may be placed in a Keli Sheiyni, being that all liquids are permitted in a Keli Sheiyni. Rav Farkash however learns that the sugar case is the exception as sugar is defined as a spice, hence whether one views it in its solid state or liquid state it may be entered in to a Keli Sheiyni even if not previously cooked. However salt and all other dissolvable products which are not defined as a spice would be forbidden to placed into a Keli Sheiyni, for the reason that we don’t view them as a true liquid. [ibid]

According to the Mishneh Berurah it is completely allowed in a Keli Sheiyni.

[348] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 14, Igros Moshe [74] rules that it is not like spices, and so too rules Rav SZ”A.

[349] Yeshuos Chachma, Chazon Ish. Rav Farkash brings proofs that whether or not a certain spice was around back in the times of the sages does not affect their status and so long as we see that they are used as a spice they are allowed to be placed in a  Keli Sheiyni.

[350] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 49

[351] Rav SZ”A brought in SSH”K 1 footnote 152

[352] Rav Farkash writes in length why their suspicions do not apply and thus rules as above.

[353] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 51-52

[354] So proves Rav Farkash from the Tzemach Tzedek. However the Ketzos Hashulchan 124/7 rules like the M”B [318/39] that tea leaves are forbidden to enter into a Keli Sheiyni

[355] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 51-52

[356] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 53

[357] So is evident from the ruling of Admur in the Siddur that one only need beware from placing water of a Keli Rishon onto sugar and not from a Keli Sheiyni.

[358] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 54

[359] However the Igros Moshe writes that they certainly have the status of spices and he wonders at those which are stringent. Nevertheless he concludes that one should not be lenient to place it in a Keli Sheiyni.

[360] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 54

[361] Rav SZ”A in SSH”K 1 footnote 135

[362] As although it is processed nevertheless according to Admur there is Bishul Achar Bishul when a Davar Yaveish turns into Lach. So rules also Sheivet Haleivi. However according to the M”B it is permitted to place instant coffee in a Keli Sheiyni being that he does not hold of a prohibition in melting a Davar Yaveish which was previously cooked.

[363] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 55

[364] Yechavah Daas [Rav Ovadiah] rules that it has the status of spices and so is the custom to be lenient, although the SSH”K rules stringently.

[365] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 58

[366] Although the Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 38 innovates that this should be forbidden being once it has been cooked it is more easily cooked in a Keli Sheiyni, nevertheless he himself concludes that the custom is to be lenient based on the fact that all the Poskim have written to place tea essence into a Keli Sheiyni and were not worried of the above.

[367] Shabbos Kehalacha Vo. 1 p. 59

[368] So rules Tehila Ledavid based on Admur Halacha 22

[369] Shabbos Kehalacha Vo. 1 p. 59

[370] So rules M”B, Tehila Ledavid, Rav SZ”A, Shevisas Shabbos. Although there are Poskim which forbid this.

[371] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 64

[372] So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 23 that even according to the M”B [31] which allows it to be placed into a Keli Sheiyni this is only allowed if it will not further cook the food.

[373] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 23 in his explanation of the Magen Avraham.

[374] Rav Farkash plainly rules like the opinion which permits this in a case that it will not be further cooked, and brings the Levusheiy Serud which interprets the Magen Avraham to only be referring to placing the presoaked food into a Keli Rishon.

[375] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 64

[376] The Tehila Ledavid writes that this is possibly forbidden. Rav Farkash proves this to be the case based on the fact that pouring on a food does not always fully cook it.

[377] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 87

[378] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 267

[379] Other opinions: SSH”K [1 footnote 151] deduces from M”B that milk and other liquids are not allowed in a Keli Sheiyni. The Minchas Yitzchak [127/5] rules however that they are allowed, and hence placing milk in a Keli Sheiyni is allowed.

[380] Igros Moshe ibid

[381] Biur Halacha 318 “Asur Litein”

[382] 318/11

[383] 318/11

[384] Little Tunny is a small [385] 318/19

[386] 318/11

[387] So is implied from Admur which writes “It is permitted to pour from a Keli Sheiyni that is Yad Soledes onto any food [even if it] has not been [previously] cooked, with exception to pouring onto the type of fish called “Little Tunny” ……..” So rules Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 24, SSH”K [1 footnote 168]. The M”B however in Biur Halacha 318 “Hi Gmar Melacha” leaves this matter in question, and so implies the Oatzros Shabbos [1/19] to be the opinion of Rav Yonason Eibashitz that it is forbidden by even less than Yad Soledes.

[388] Taz 318/5; and so rules Mishneh Berurah 318/36 brought also in Ketzos Hashulchan 124/24. Nevertheless from the ruling of the M”A [and so rules Admur here] it is implied that herring should be allowed [as suggests the Ketzos Hashulchan] being that it is edible without needing to pour hot water on it. Nevertheless due to other reasons [that it is similar to the very salted fish] the M”B rules to be stringent and so concludes the Ketzos Hashulchan.

[389] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 73

[390] Shabbos Kehalacha p. 73

[391] The M”B [318/39] rules that this is possibly Biblically forbidden due to that the leaves can cook very easily. So rules also plainly the Aruch Hashulchan [318/28] that even to place tea in a Keli Shelishi is forbidden. However many Poskim [Peri Megadim 325, Minchas Baruch, Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 21, Igros Moshe 4/74-15; and many Melaktim today] rule that it is allowed.

[392] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 77

[393] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 157

[394] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 80-82

[395] So rules Peri Megadim, of which the M”B quotes in a number of places; Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 52; Nimukei Orach Chayim regarding salt; the Igros Moshe [4/74]; Sheivet Haleivi 7/42; and many other Poskim.

[396] So rules the Yereim, Shevisas Shabbos based on Chasam Sofer, Chazon Ish 51/17.

[397] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 83

[398] So rules Igros Moshe. However the Aruch Hashulchan ibid rules that it is forbidden as we see that it cooks.

[399] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 84-86; See Admur 451/28; Shach 107/7; Taz 92/30

[400] The Ketzos Hashulchan rules based on Admur that it has the status of an Iruiy Keli Sheiyni. However from the Tzemach Tzedek it is evident that it has the status of Iruiy Keli Rishon.

[401] Minchas Yitzchak 5/127

[402] 259/7

[403]  Lit. “Can one cut off its head and it will not die”

[404] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 239

[405] The source of this ruling [Minchas Yitzchak] is discussing a case that due to this the oven is always left on, and not when the oven is now off.

[406] So rules Rav Wosner, Bear Moshe, Mishneh Halachos. However the Igros Moshe [4/74] rules on this leniently on the basis that it is not definite that the opening of the oven will cause the flame to turn on.

[407] 259/7

[408] 323/10

[409] Such as by a mixture a Yaveish Beyaveish in which there is majority Heter, one may not add more Heter so there be 60x versus the Issur. [M”B 323/37] However in other cases, such as an Issur fell into a pot accidently, it is forbidden to add more Heter even during the week, even by a Rabbinical prohibition, as rules the Rama in 99/6.

[410] This applies even if the mixture occurred before Shabbos. [ibid]

[411] This is not considered as if one is fixing the food, as the Rav is merely revealing to the asker that the food is fixed. [ibid]

[412] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 230-232

[413] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 10; Shabbos Kehalacha 5/16; See Admur 254/4; 257/8;  Igros Moshe 4/74-10 rules that this question depends on the reason behind Meigis, and that according to the reason that it is due to decree that one may come to do so even by uncooked food, then here to it would be forbidden. However according to the other reasons it would be allowed. The Shevisas Shabbos [Mevashel 81] plainly rules that it is forbidden. His opinion will be explained in the next footnote.

[414] The Shevisas Shabbos rules that covering even a fully cooked food that is on the fire is forbidden due to “Meigis” mixing. The Ketzos Hashulchan [ibid] however limits this ruling only to a case that covering the pot will cause it to re-boil, as only in such a case is there mixing taking place. Practically the Ketzos Hashulchan leaves this matter in question [even in a case that covering will cause it to re-boil], although leans to be lenient. Rav Farkash in Shabbos Kehalacha [5/16] rules one may be lenient in all cases.

[415] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 10

Doing so contains the cooking prohibition being that it hastens the cooking.

[416] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 285

[417] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 285

[418] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 230-234

[419] 254/4; 257/8; 318/14

[420] Ketzos Hashulchan 124 footnote 10

[421] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 230-234

[422] Admur in 257/8 and 318/14

[423] Biur Halacha 257 “Lo Nisbashel”

[424] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 230-234

[425] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 135

[426] Minchas Yitzchak 3/24, brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 326/9

[427] As besides for the possibility that it is a Psik Reisha which is done indirectly [Grama] and one has no benefit of may be done on Shabbos, here it is not even a case of a Pseik Reisha being that one does not know upon opening the door if the heat/air is on or off.  [Minchas Yitzchak ibid]

[428] Minchas Yitzchak 3/24-18

[429] Minchas Yitzchak 2/17; 3/24-14

[430] Nevertheless this itself is not simple that it is forbidden being that possibly a Psik Reisha which is done indirectly and one has no benefit of may be done on Shabbos. See Minchas Yitzchak ibid which discusses the different sides to the matter

[431] Minchas Yitzchak ibid

[432] Brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 320 footnote 20

[433] Az Nidbaru 2/36

[434] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 240

[435] So rules Minchas Yitzchak 5/91 and other Poskim

[436] SSH”K 1/40

[437] So rules Rav Asher Lemel Cohen; and the Machon for Halachic technology

[438] The reason for this is because they suspect the water in the tube does not become hot and when one releases water from the urn some of that water in tube consequently enters the urn of hot water and cooks.

[439] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 p. 253 based on ruling of RSZ”A brought in SSH”K 23 footnote 73.

However the Igros Moshe [Orach Chayim 4/91] plainly rules that all adjusting of Shabbos clocks are forbidden, whether to make the light turn on earlier or later. He does not give any reason behind his explanation.

[440] Piskeiy Teshuvos 326/9; SSH”K 23/20

[441] As by doing so one is causing the heater to last for less time when it is anyways not even yet on.

[442] Meaning one may adjust to have it turn on only later when the house reaches a lower temperature than was set for from before Shabbos.

[443] As one simply delays it from turning on when it was supposed to.

[444] As there is suspicion that this will cause some of the water to get heated to Yad Soledes as opposed to if it was left at its current temperature.

[445] See Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 6/21-22; Piskeiy Teshuvos 318/28; Minchas Yitzchak 7/21; 8/28;

The possible issues involved in adding water to a vaporizer:

  1. Cooking
  2. Zoreh
  3. Nolad
  4. Increasing or decreasing current of electricity [problem of Molid or Kibuiy of the lights which have their current diminished]
  5. Causing light on machine to turn on or off.

[446] Minchas Yitzchak 7/21

[447] The Minchas Yitzchak ibid forbids adding even cooked hot water to a hot vaporizer being that in his opinion this is considered cooking. Likewise he leans to forbid even cold vaporizers due to Nolad and possibly causing change of current in electricity.

[448] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 6/21-22; Hilchos Shabbos Zoreh footnote 64 in name of Rav Moshe Feinstien allows doing so for an ill person; Beir Moshe 6/52 allows doing so through a gentile for the sake of an ill person; Shalmei Yehuda 2/14 in name of Rav SZ”A permits doing so for the sake of an ill person.

[449] According to them there is no problem of increasing or decreasing the electricity as what Melacha is there involved in making a greater current of electricity. Likewise the electric current does not decrees the quality if the lights in the house due to a mere amount of added electricity. If however adding more water to the machine takes a lot of electricity then even in their opinion it would be forbidden to add more water if it causes the quality of light in the house to diminish. [Shabbos Kehalacha ibid footnote 33]

[450] See previous footnote

[451] Hilchos Shabbos Zoreh footnote 64 in name of Rav Moshe Feinstien and Shalmei Yehuda 2/14 in name of Rav SZ”A permit adding water only through a water hole and do not allow one to remove any parts to enter the water. Vetzaruch Iyun as the logic of this ruling. Seemingly those machines that they referred to would shut off when the water container was removed and hence if removing the container will not hut off the machine then it is allowed to be done. [Shabbos Kehalacha ibid footnote 33]

[452] Thus one must pour the water directly from an urn without removing it with a utensil. [Shabbos Kehalacha ibid]

[453] Otherwise adding removing it and then reinserting it is considered cooking the water. [Shabbos Kehalacha ibid] Likewise one may not pour from a Keli Rishon on to such water. [Shalmeiu Yehuda ibid; However see Shabbos Kehalacha ibid Biurim 6]

[454] Piskeiy Teshuvos 318 footnote 85

[455] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid concludes that he heard from many great Moreh Horaas that they permit adding water to an air cooler on Shabbos.

[456] Based on Shabbos Kehalacha chapter 7

[457] The Minchas Yitzchak [4/99] compares doing so to placing whole grapes into wine on Shabbos so they break and seep out juice, which according to Admur is not to be done initially. [Although the Minchas Yitzchak himself rules that it is allowed.]

[458] Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 2 p. 408. As the custom today is to prohibit squeezing lemon into liquids, as will be explained in The Laws of Squeezing Halacha 3 Q&A there.

[459] So is the opinion of Admur in the Siddur. However according to the M”B [and Admur in the SH”A] it may be placed in a Keli Sheiyni unless one has knowledge that this specific soup mix had not been precooked during the manufacturing, in which case according to all it would only be allowed with Iruiy Keli Sheiyni.

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