Shevii/Achron Shel Pesach-Entire chapter

This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer


Buy me here or on Amazon.com

 

Chapter 15: Shevi’i & Acharon Shel Pesach

 

The Joy:[1]

The Joy of Shevi’i Shel Pesach and Acharon Shel Pesach surpass the joy of all the previous days of Pesach.[2]

Time is precious-Revelation of Atzmus:[3]

The Rebbe Rashab stated: On Shevi’i Shel Pesach Atzmus is revealed. Every person is able to take and receive. Hence, time on this day is very precious. Every moment of one’s time is to be properly utilized.

 

Rosh Hashanah of Mesirus Nefesh:[4]

The Tzemach Tzedek remarked that Shevi’i Shel Pesach is the Rosh Hashanah for Mesirus Nefesh. On this day Nachshon plunged with complete faith into the Red sea. One draws down Mesirus Nefesh on this day for the entire year that follows.

In the future, we will not eat on Shevi’i Shel Pesach:[5]

In the future, we will not eat anything on the last day of Pesach, not even Matzah.[6] It will hence be forbidden to cook on the last day of Pesach, or perform any food related work, just like it is forbidden on Shabbos and Yom Kippur.

Elevation of the sparks:[7]

On the last day of Pesach, we experienced the splitting of the sea and received the spoilage of the Egyptian infantry. Spiritually, this represented the elevation of the sparks.

 

Splitting of the sea in future:[8]

In the future, there too will be a splitting of the river. The river however will split into seven parts and not 12, corresponding to the three forefathers and four foremothers. The difference between the splitting of the reed sea and this river is as follows: The sea represents Malchus of Atzilus which conceals the revelations of Atzilus, just as the sea conceals its creations. It allows the creations to exist and not be nullified to their source. The splitting of the sea represents that Beria gets elevated to Atzilus. When this occurred, all the creations sang because they left their Keilim. This is called Giluiy of Sovev. The sea split to 12 parts corresponding to each tribe in Beria. The splitting of the sea at that time was needed as a preparation for Matan Torah and for there to be a Hamshacha of Elokus from Atzilus below. In the future, however, the river will split to 7 parts in order to have a Hamshacha of Penimyus Hatorah, the level of Eden, from Za of Atik into Atzilus.

 

The Neshamos are born on the 7th day of Pesach:[9]

All souls that are born go through a state of Ibur/gestation within the Sefira Malchus. The souls remain within the Sefira of Malchus for seven months, from Shemini Atzeres, when Mashiv Haruach is recited, until the seventh day of Pesach which is when they are born. Malchus serves the function of developing the soul into a Yeish [a separate entity]. In this level, the soul receives a high revelation of G-dliness for it to become a Yeish.

 

 

Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach:

  1. Eiruv Tavshilin-In years applicable:

Whenever Shevi’i Shel Pesach falls on Erev Shabbos one must do Eiruv Tavshilin on Erev Shevi’i Shel Pesach in order to be allowed to cook on Shevi’i Shel Pesach for Shabbos. See Chapter 10 Halacha 18 for the full details of this subject!

 

  1. Shehechiyanu by Candle lighting and Kiddush:[10]

We do not recite Shehechiyanu during Kiddush [or candle lighting] of Shevi’i or Acharon Shel Pesach.[11]

  1. Maariv:

[The Maariv prayer of Shevi’i and Acharon Shel Pesach follows the same order as that of the first nights of Yom Tov, with exception to that Hallel is not recited after Maariv]. The custom is to recite “Zeman Cheiruseinu” in both Shemoneh Esrei and Kiddush of Shevi’i and Acharon Shel Pesach, just as was said on the first days.[12]

  1. The night of Shevi’i Shel Pesach:[13]

Staying awake the entire night learning:[14]

On the night of Shevi’i Shel Pesach one is to stay awake throughout the night learning. One is to learn until Alos Hashachar. There is special emphasis on being awake throughout the night in addition to the learning.[15]

Kerias Shema:[16] Kerias Shema Sheal Hamita is not recited on the night of Shevi’i Shel Pesach.

 

What to learn?[17]

One does not recite a Tikkun on the night of Shevi’i Shel Pesach.[18] It is proper to learn the Mamar “Hayam Yanos” and “Vehinif” printed in Likkutei Torah.[19] Otherwise, one may learn sections in Nigleh and Chassidus as his heart desires.[20]

 

The morning blessings:

If one did not sleep at night for a period of thirty minutes, the Chabad custom is to recite all the morning blessings [including Al Netilas Yadayim, Elokaiy Neshama and Hamaavir Sheiyna] from after Alos. This however is with exception to Asher Yatzar which may only be said if one went to the bathroom. One may not say these blessing prior to Alos unless one received their corresponding pleasure. See “Awaking like a Jew” Chapter 8 Halacha 7 for further details on this matter.

Is one to recite Birchas Hatorah if he did not sleep at night?[21] One is to recite Birchas Hatorah even if he did not sleep at all the previous night. [There is no need to try to hear the blessing from another person.[22]] However, the blessing may only be said starting from Alos[23], just as is the law regarding Birchas Hashachar.[24] [If, however, one slept at night a standard sleep, then the blessing is recited even prior to Alos, if it is past midnight. If, however, he only slept a temporary sleep it is considered as if he has not slept at all, and thus the blessing may not be recited until Alos.]

 

Is one to avoid marital relations:

There is no requirement to avoid marital relations on Shevi’i or Acharon Shel Pesach.[25] On the contrary, there is a great Mitzvah and obligation for one to do so.[26]

 

Q&A

Which Alos is one to follow with regards to saying Birchas Hatorah?[27]

One is to be stringent in this regard to follow the opinion which states that Alos begins 72 minutes prior to sunrise. One may learn Torah until this time arrives, even though it is past the Alos of other opinions [90 minutes and 120 minutes].

 

May one continue learning past Alos, prior to reciting Birchas Hatorah?

One may not continue learning Torah past Alos [of 72 minutes], and thus he is to stop learning and recite Birchas Hatorah.[28] However, some Poskim[29] are lenient to allow one to continue learning past Alos, prior to saying Birchas Hatorah.

What is the law if one recited the blessing prior to Alos?[30]

The blessing must be repeated after Alos.[31] However, there are Poskim[32] who rule one is not to repeat the blessing a second time, and is rather to hear it from another person or have in mind to fulfill his obligation within prayer.

  1. Day of Shevi’i Shel Pesach:

Kerias Torah:

The Torah reading:[33] On the seventh day of Pesach, two Torah scrolls are removed from the ark. From the first scroll, the portion of Beshalach regarding Kerias Yam Suf is read until the end of the Shirah, until the words “Ani Hashem Rofecha”.

Standing for Shirah:[34] One is to stand during the reading of the Shirah.

The Maftir:[35] The Maftir is read from the verse of Vihikravtem, just as on Chol Hamoed.

The Haftorah:[36] The Haftorah is read from Shmuel[37] [discussing the song of David] “Vayidaber David Es Divrei Hashirah Hazos etc”.[38]

Yizkor in Eretz Yisrael:[39]

It is an Ashkenazi[40] custom to recite Yizkor on the last days of the three festivals. In Eretz Yisrael, the custom is to recite Yizkor on Shevi’i Shel Pesach, after the Torah reading. In the Diaspora, the custom is to recite Yizkor on Acharon Shel Pesach, after the Torah reading.

No Minyan:[41] Yizkor may be recited even if a Minyan is not present.

Who remains in Shul?[42] All those with a parent who has passed away remain in the Shul. Those whom both of their parents are alive are to leave the Shul.[43]

Candle:[44] It is not the Chabad custom to light a candle for Yizkor. The Rebbe and Rebbe Rayatz did not light Yizkor candles.[45] Nonetheless, many are accustomed to do so.

When to light:[46] The Yartzite candle is to be lit before Yom Tov.[47] One who did not do so before Yom Tov may light it on Yom Tov inside an active Shul, in the room where the prayer takes place.[48] However, one may not light the candle in one’s home on Yom Tov.[49] However, there are opinions[50] who allow lighting it even at home.[51]

Aliyah:[52] It is not the custom to be particular to receive an Aliyah on the day of Yizkor.

How to mention the name:[53] One is to mention the name of the Niftar together with the name of his mother during Yizkor, such as Eliezer Ben Bashe Leah. One does not mention his father’s name.

Mentioning the Rebbeim:[54] It is customary amongst Chassidim to mention the name of the Rebbeim that they were Chassidim of in Yizkor. This has an effect on the Chassid saying it.

Mentioning men and women separately:[55] Men and women are to be mentioned separately in Yizkor.

Holding on to the Eitz Chaim:[56] The Chabad custom is to take hold of the Eitz Chaim while reciting Yizkor.[57] This was the custom of the Rebbe Rayatz.  

Charity:[58] One is to pledge charity during Yizkor on behalf of the soul of the deceased.

 

Yizkor during the first year of Aveilus:[59]

When Yizkor is taking place during the first year of Aveilus, the mourner remains in Shul for Yizkor, although he does not recite anything while there. He is not to recite the Yizkor even quietly.[60]

After 12 months in a leap year:[61] One who is still prior to the first Yartzite, but is past 12 months of mourning, is to remain in Shul and recite Yizkor regularly.

If the mourner needs to say Yizkor for another parent who is past the 1st year: If one is within the year of one parent and past the year for another parent, then only the parent’s name that is past the year is to be mentioned in Yizkor.

 

Av Harachamim:[62]

In the Diaspora, Av Harachamim is not recited on Shevi’i Shel Pesach. In Eretz Yisrael it is optional to recite it.

Tahalucha:[63]

On Shevi’i Shel Pesach, the Rebbe accustomed the Chassidim to walk to different Shuls, both close and far, and tell them Divrei Torah and rejoice with them for Simchas Yom Tov.

 

  1. Shevi’i Shel Pesach that coincides with Erev Shabbos:

Shnayim Mikra: In Eretz Yisrael, one is to recite Shnayim Mikra past midday on Shevi’i Shel Pesach.

Seudas Moshiach: In Eretz Yisrael, one is initially to begin eating Moshiach Seuda prior to the 10th hour of day.[64] One must complete the meal before sunset, although may recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset.[65]

Hodu before Mincha:[66] Prior to Mincha, Hodu is omitted although Patach Eliyahu is recited.

 

May one cook Gebrochts on Friday Shevi’i Shel Pesach for the sake of eating it on Shabbos?

See Halacha 8 in Q&A!

 

The Seder in Eretz Yisrael when Shevi’i Shel Pesach falls on Friday

May one eat Kitniyos on Shabbos which follows the last day of Yom Tov in Eretz Yisrael?[67]

It is permitted to eat edible Kitniyos on Shabbos which follows the last day of Pesach.[68] Thus, one may buy Chumus and Techina which are Kosher for Pesach during Chol Hamoed and eat it that Shabbos.

May one cook the Kitniyos on Friday which is Yom Tov?[69] Some Poskim[70] rule this is permitted to do so.[71] Other Poskim[72] rule it is forbidden to do so.[73]

 

May one eat Chametz that was sold to the gentile on Shabbos which follows the last day of Pesach?

From the letter of the law one may do so.[74] However, the custom is not to do so due to various reasons.

 

 

  1. Moshiach’s Seudah:

The Baal Shem Tov was accustomed to eating three meals on the last day of Pesach. This third meal was referred to as Moshiach’s Seudah[75], as on this day shines a revelation of Moshiach.[76] This concept is relevant to everyone of the generation.[77]

When is it celebrated? One celebrates Moshiach’s Seudah on the last day of Pesach as the third meal of the day, after Mincha.[78] In Eretz Yisrael, it is celebrated on Shevi’i Shel Pesach, while in the Diaspora it is celebrated on Acharon Shel Pesach. In Eretz Yisrael, when Shevi’i Shel Pesach coincides with Erev Shabbos, one is to celebrate Moshiach’s Seudah on Erev Shabbos prior to the 10th hour of the day[79], making sure to complete the meal before sunset, although one may recite Birchas Hamazon after sunset.[80] In Eretz Yisrael, one is likewise to continue the celebration on Shabbos day [through making another Moshiach’s Seudah that next day].[81] Everyone must participate in the Seudah and is not to set himself apart from the community.[82]

The Menu: One is to drink four cups of wine.[83] Upon drinking each cup, one is to have in mind their connection to the future redemption.[84] One who drank without this intent is to re-drink that cup of wine.[85]

Niggunim of the Rebbeim: The custom is to sing Niggunim of each one of the Chabad Rebbeim.[86] Likewise, the Niggun of the Shpola Zeida is sung.[87]

Moshiach Tantz:[88] It was customary at the Seudas Moshiach of the Rebbe Rayatz to perform a dance called “Moshiach’s Tantz”. This was likewise performed by the Rebbe in 1951.[89]

 

 

Q&A

Is one required to have Lechem Mishneh by Seudas Moshiach?

Some Poskim[90] rule one is required to have Lechem Mishneh during every meal of Yom Tov, even in one’s third or fourth meal, just as is the law by Shabbos.[91] [Practically, it is proper to be stringent in this matter.]

 

  1. Acharon Shel Pesach in the Diaspora

Matzah Shruya/Gebrochts:[92]

On the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora, one who is lenient to eat Matzah cooked with water/liquids for the purpose of Yom Tov joy, is not losing out on keeping of the above-mentioned stringencies of the Arizal. [Practically, the Chabad custom is to be particular to eat Gebrochts on the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora.[93]] This can be fulfilled by simply dipping the Matzah in liquid that contains water and eat it, although the custom is to cook Kneidlach. One may cook and eat the Gebrochts in his regular Pesach vessels, which will be used next year for Pesach. The vessels do not need to be Kashered next year for Pesach use.[94]

 

 

Q&A

May one cook Gebrochts on Friday Shevi’i Shel Pesach for the sake of eating it on Shabbos?

Some Poskim[95] rule it is permitted to do so, and so is the custom of some.[96] However, if one treats Gebrochts as if it is forbidden from the letter of the law, then some Poskim[97] rule one may not cook it on Shevi’i Shel Pesach, and so is the custom of others.[98] [Practically, it is best to avoid cooking it on Yom Tov, and rather it is to be cooked on Erev Yom Tov, taking care to designate these utensils only for Gebrochts and not to reuse them anymore that Pesach.]

 

May one cook Gebrochts/Kitniyos during Chol Hamoed Pesach for the sake of eating it on Shabbos that is after Shevi’i Shel Pesach?

Yes.[99]

 

 

The custom of the Rebbeim:[100]

The Chabad Rebbeim were scrupulous on the last day of Pesach to dip their Matzahs in liquids, and eat it with every foods; fish, meat, and especially soup. Even those foods which throughout the year are not normally eaten with bread, they would eat with their Matzah.

 

Sparks of Chassidus:[101]

The reason we are so particular against wetting the Matzah is because Chametz represents ego/Yeishus and on Pesach we need to avoid ego entirely. However, by the last night of Pesach in the Diaspora we have reached enough refinement to be able to handle, and even refine, a food that could come to ego. Accordingly, one should be particular to eat it, in order to refine and elevate it.

 

The Torah reading:[102]

On the seventh day of Pesach, two Torah scrolls are removed from the ark. From the first scroll, the portion of Kol Bechor is read.

The Maftir:[103] The Maftir is read from the verse of Vihikravtem, just as on Chol Hamoed.

Haftorah:[104] On the 8th day in the Diaspora the Haftorah of “Od Hayom Binoav Laamod” is read from Yishayahu. The reason for this is because it commemorates the fall of Sancheirev.[105]

Yizkor: Yizkor is recited on this day. See Halacha 5B!

 

Moshiach’s Seuda:

See Halacha 7!

 

If one’s meal [i.e. Seudas Moshiach] on the last day of Pesach continues past nightfall, may one eat Chametz during this meal?[106]

One whose meal on the last day of Pesach continued into Motzei Yom Tov, until after Tzeis Hakochavim, may eat Chametz[107] during his meal [prior to Birchas Hamazon[108]]. This applies even if one did not yet Daven Maariv or recite Havdalah at all [and did not even say Baruch Hamavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol[109]].[110] [In such a case, one is nevertheless to recite Yaaleh Veyavo and Chag Hamatzos Hazeh within his Birchas Hamazon.[111]]

 

Sparks of Chassidus:[112]

As Pesach reaches a close, our souls gain the ability to refine even course matters such as Gebrochts and Chametz. It is for this reason that on the last day of Pesach in the Diaspora one eats Gebrochts, as the soul now has the ability, and obligation, to refine this food, even though it has a suspicion of Chametz. When Motzei Yom Tov has arrived, one has ability to now refine even actual Chametz, and nevertheless still recite in Birchas Hamazon Chag Hamatzos Hazeh.

 

  1. Havdalah on Motzei Pesach:

The order of Havdalah follows the same order as any Motzei Yom Tov, or Motzei Shabbos if Yom Tov fell on Shabbos]. See Chapter 13 Halacha 11!

Beer:[113]  It is accustomed to be lenient to make Havdalah over beer on Motzei Pesach even if one has much wine at home available.[114] Nevertheless, if the beer is not currently beloved to the person, it is better to make Havdalah over wine even on Motzei Pesach. Furthermore, the above allowance only applies in those areas that beer is considered a significant drink. [The Chabad custom is not to make Havdalah on beer on Motzei Pesach.[115]]

  1. May one eat Chametz after Pesach prior to the conclusion of the return sale

One may begin eating Chametz immediately after the conclusion of Pesach, even though it is prior to the return sale of the Chametz taking place with the gentile. See Chapter 5 Halacha 7 for the full details on this matter!

__________________________________________________________________

[1] Sefer Haminhagim p. 83 [English]; Sefer Hasichos 5700 p. 71

[2] The reason: As this day is connected to the complete and final redemption.

[3] Sefer Hasichos 1938 p. 270

[4] Likkutei Dibburim 3 23:66 in name of Tzemach Tzedek

[5] Likkutei Torah Tzav p. 14d; Siddur Im Dach Shaar Chag Hamatzos p. 289

[6] The proof: This is learned from the verse which states regarding the last day of Pesach that it is an Atzeres for Hashem. Now, by the other Yomim Tovim, the Torah states that they are an “Atzeres for you” which the Talmud uses to teach us that one is to dedicate half the Yom Tov for himself and half for Hashem. However, on the last day of Pesach it only says Atzeres for Hashem, which implies that we are not to dedicate any time for ourselves. In truth, this verse is speaking of the future, that in the future the last day of Pesach will be totally dedicated to Hashem, and we will not even eat or drink on this day. This can also be learned from the fact the verse states that “for six days one is to eat Matzah” and not for seven days, as in truth, in the future, we will not eat Matzah on the 7th day. [Likkutei Torah ibid]

[7] Likkutei Torah Tzav p. 14d

[8] Likkutei Torah Tzav p. 117; Siddur Im Dach Shaar Chag Hamatzos p. 289

[9] Likkutei Torah Tzav 16b

[10] Admur 490:12; Michaber 49:7; Sukkah 47a

Discussing Shehechiyanu: The Rebbeim made a point of discussing the idea of omitting Shehechiyanu on Shevi’i Shel Pesach, hence implying a connection, at least through Torah, of Shehechiyanu to the day. [Otzer p. 218 based on Sichas 1983 Acharon Shel Pesach]

[11] The reason: As Shehechiyanu was already recited on the first two nights of Pesach. [Admur ibid; See Likkutei Sichos 37:14]

[12] Admur 490:12; Rama 490:7; Minhagim Tirna; Maharil p. 144

[13] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 214

[14] Sefer Haminhagim p. 83 [English]; Hayom Yom p. 47;214 Sefer Hasichos 1938 p. 270; 1939 p. 327; Yesod Veshoresh Haavoda that so was custom of Chassidim Harishonim; See Minhag Yisrael Torah p. 331-332

Acharon Shel Pesach: The Rebbe Rashab and other great Chassidim, like Hillel Paritcher, were accustomed to stay awake also throughout the night of Acharon Shel Pesach. [Sefer Hasichos 1938 p. 236 and 276; Otzer p. 215]

When the Rebbe Rayatz began staying up: The Rebbe Rayatz started staying awake throughout Shevi’i Shel Pesach at age 9. [Otzer p. 215

[15] See Sefer Hasichos 1937 p. 234; Hamelech Bemesibo 2:132

[16] Sefer Hasichos 1942 p. 100

[17] Otzer p.215

[18] Reshimos 5:22

Other customs: Some are accustomed to reciting a Tikkun on the night of Shevi’i Shel Pesach. [Mishmeres Shalom 37a]

[19] Sefer Hasichos 1944 p. 100

[20] Sichas Pesach 1949 brought in Sefer Hamamrim 1950 p. 187

[21] Siddur; 47:7 [if no one is available]; and so rules: M”A 47:12; Elya Raba 47:9; Birkeiy Yosef 46:12; Mor Uketzia 47; Aruch Hashulchan 47:23; Kaf Hachaim 47:26; Soles Belula 47:4; Chayeh Adam 9:9; Derech Chaim; Mateh Yehuda 47:16; Ketzos Hashulchan 5:8; Birchas Habayis 34:8;  Heishiv Moshe 2; Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:16.

Background from Shulchan Aruch 47:7:

If one was awake the entire night, according to one opinion [mentioned in Background of previous Halacha] a blessing is not to be said in the morning, so long as one has not removed his mind from learning Torah. However according to another opinion there which equates Birchas Hatorah to Birchas Hashachar, one is required to recite the blessing after Alos just as is the law with Birchas Hashachar, that the blessings are to be recited after Alos even if one did not receive their corresponding benefits. In conclusion Admur in the Shulchan Aruch rules that one who desires to avoid doubt [of saying a blessing in vain], if possible, is to hear Birchas Hatorah from another person, having in mind to fulfill his obligation. Nevertheless, one who is unable to do so may say the blessing himself [as the custom is like the view mentioned above]. [ibid; and so rules Chayeh Adam ibid] Thus in the Shulchan Aruch Admur suspects for the first opinion, even though the second opinion is the main Halachic ruling. However, in the Siddur, Admur plainly rules like the second opinion, that one may say the blessing himself, making no mention of the dissenting opinion. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; Glosses of R. Raskin on Siddur footnote 134] Hence according to the Siddur there is no need to hear the blessing from another person. [Shvil Hachaim 4:5; Piskeiy Teshuvos 47 footnote 135] Seemingly this is due to the fact that the Arizal held that Birchas Hatorah is to be recited even if one did not sleep at night. [Peri Eitz Chaim 4]

Other Opinions: The M”B 47:28 rules that one may not say the blessing himself and rather one is to hear the blessings from another person who slept, or is to have in mind to fulfill his obligation in Birchas Shema.

The law if one slept during the day a Shinas Keva: Rav Akiva Eiger rules that if one slept a set sleep during the day then according to all he is obligated to recite the blessing in the morning upon Alos. [M”B 47:28; See Levushei Mordechai 1:19] Likewise, if one went to sleep in the morning after staying awake all night then he may recite the blessing after awakening according to all. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:16]

[22] Shvil Hachaim 4:5; See previous footnote that this is disputed between the Siddur and Shulchan Aruch, and we rule like the Siddur. Vetzaruch Iyun why the Nesiv Hachaim [on the Derech Chaim 4:5] who brings instances that Admur argues on the Derech Chaim does not make mention of the fact that according to the Siddur one may say the blessing himself. Perhaps he learned that the Siddurs omitting of the dissenting opinion is not really a proof that Admur retracted his suspicion for the opinion in Shulchan Aruch. To note that in the Shevil Hachaim (by Rav Avraham Chaim Naah), which is a supplement to the Nesiv Hachaim, he does make note of this point that according to Admur one does not need to hear the blessing from another, however his proof is not from the Siddur but from the 59:4 which states that by the morning blessings one never fulfills his obligation through hearing another person saying them unless there is a Minyan present. This is a wonderment being that according to this view of 59:4, that it is also referring to the Torah blessing, there is an explicit contradiction between the ruling here in 47:7 and that in 59:4. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol!

[23] Yair Hayom versus Alos: In the Siddur and Shulchan Aruch 47:7; 47:9 Admur uses the term Yair Hayom while in the Siddur regarding Birchas Hashachar the term “Alos” is used. Vetzaruch Iyun as to whether there is a difference between Yair Hayom and Alos. Seemingly there is no difference as Admur states that one may say the blessings starting from Alos [Siddur] and Yair Hayom [Siddur by Birchas Hatorah] and if there were a difference this would create a contradiction in Admur in the Siddur. Nevertheless it remains to be understood why Admur uses different terms each time. See glosses of Rav Raskin on Siddur p. 16 and 22 

[24] See Awaking like a Jew Chapter 8 Halacha 7; So rules also Halef Lecha Shlomo 33; Kaf Hachaim 47:29 [unlike his ruling in 46:49 regarding Birchas Hashachar that it may be said from midnight.]

[25] Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Chag Hamatzos 8; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos p. 86; Or Tzadikim 32:5; Moreh Baetzbah 7:218; Kaf Hachaim 240:5; However, see Or Tzaddikim 27:11 that lists the 7th of Pesach as one of the nights that Zivug is to be avoided. Vetzaruch Iyun Gadol. Perhaps this is hinted to in the words of the Chida in Moreh Baetzbah 218 “according to the true writings of the Arizal”, hence implying that there are sources that state that it is to be avoided.

The reason: The only reason that marital relations is abstained from on the first night of Pesach is because the sublime affect of Zivug is performed by Hashem automatically on Pesach even without a physical Zivug occurring below, hence leaving no need for it to be performed on the first night of Pesach. However, on the later nights the Divine unification effected by Zivug is not automatic. [Peri Eitz Chaim ibid]

[26] Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos p. 86; Moreh Baetzbah 7:218; Kaf Hachaim 490:61

The reason: As on this night, all the souls are born after a seven-month gestation period within Malchus of Atzilus.

[27] Rav A”C Naah in Shiureiy Tziyon 37 “One needs initially to be stringent like all opinions”; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 47/16; Upashut!

[28] Kaf Hachaim 494:12; Ashel Avraham Butchach 46; Poskim brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 47 footnote 139; and so rules Shevach Hamoadim [page 240] and Luach Kolel Chabad. So is clearly implied from Admur in Siddur that rules it is forbidden to learn prior to the blessing despite the fact that he rules Birchas Hatorah is like Birchas Hashachar. This clearly disputes the ruling of the Mahrshag and Rav Raskin brought in next footnote.

[29] Mahrashag 1:62; Minhag Yisrael Torah Hi 47:1; Poskim brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 47 footnote 141; and so concludes Rav Raskin in his glosses on Siddur footnote 135 [however there are many questions on his explanation there as brought in previous footnote]; See Hiskashrus Shavuos and Sukkos  which debates this matter.

[30] Kaf Hachaim 47:29; Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:16

[31] Kaf Hachaim 47:29; and so is implied from Admur in Siddur and 47:7 as according to all opinions prior to Alos he is not yet obligated to say the blessing and the first blessing was hence a blessing in vain.

[32] Bitzel Hachochma 5:168; Piskeiy Teshuvos 47:16 footnote 144

[33] Admur 490:8-9

[34] Sefer Haminhagim p. 83

Standing facing the Sefer Torah: It is recorded in Reshimos 5 p. 25 in the name of the Rebbe Rayatz that the Rebbe Rashab would stand facing the Sefer Torah during the reading of Shira and Aseres Hadibros. This was likewise the custom of the Rebbe. However, it is not recorded in Hayom Yom to face the Torah when standing for Shirah, in contrast to Aseres Hadibros of which it is recorded. [Otzer p. 216]

[35] Admur 490:13; Michaber 490:6

[36] Admur 490:13; Michaber 490:8

[37] 2:22:1-51

[38] The reason: The reason for why this Haftorah is read is because this song is similar to the song of the sea that was read in the Torah reading. Likewise, it discusses the exodus from Egypt in the verse “Vayishlach Chitzim” and “Vayiru Afikei Yom”. [Admur ibid]

[39] The custom of Yizkor on Yom Tov is first mentioned in 621:14 regarding Yom Kippur; Regarding other Yomim Tovim: Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 2 78:4 that so is custom even though there is no known source for this in Poskim [See there footnote 11]; The following Poskim mention the custom of reciting Yizkor on Yom Tov: P”M 547 A”A 2; Kav Hayashar 86; Yalkut Hagershoni 621:2; Betzel Hachochmah 4:119

[40] Sefaradi communities do not recite Yizkor.

[41] Gesher Hachaim 31:6

[42] Shaarei Ephraim 10:32

[43] The reason: This is due to Ayin Hara.

[44] Hamelech Bemisibo 1:321 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:250]; However in Luach Kolel Chabad it says to light it.

[45] Heard from Rav Leibel Groner

[46] See Admur 514:14; Biur Halacha 514 “Ner”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 514:14

[47] Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 70; See SSH”K 13 footnote 27

[48] Biur Halacha ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

The reason: As one may light any candle in Shul as it is considered a Neir Shel Mitzvah. [514:14]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule one may never light a Yartzite candle on Yom Tov, even in Shul. [Daas Torah 514 in name of Imrei Eish] Some rule one may only do so through a gentile. [Kitzur SHU”A 98:1]

[49] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

The reason: As it does not add any light to the house even at night being that we have electricity. Thus, it may not be lit as it is considered a light that serves no purpose which is forbidden to be lit on Yom Tov. [514:13]

[50] Biur Halacha 514 “Neir”

[51] Initially one is to light it near one’s dining room table, thus giving it a use. However, if this is not possible, then one may light it in any area as it is considered a Ner Shel Mitzvah. [ibid]

[52] Igros Kodesh 3:220 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:250]

[53] Kaf Hachaim 284:37 based on Zohar; Siddur Torah Or; Hamelech Bemisibo 2:166; Igros Kodesh Miluim, [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:251]; Mishnas Sachir 2:233 that so is the custom in Ungarin; See Divrei Torah Munkatch 2:90; Nitei Gavriel 79:14 in name of Poskim

Other customs: Some are accustomed to mention the name of the father by Yizkor. [See Zohar brought in Hamelech Bemisibo ibid; Mishnas Sachir 2:233 that so is the custom in Poland; Nitei Gavriel 79:14 in name of Poskim and that so is the custom]

[54] Toras Menachem 46:343 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:252]

[55] Nitei Gavriel Aveilus 79:13

[56] Igros Kodesh 3:220 [printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:251]; Hamelech Bemisibo 1:309; Otzer Minhagei Chabad Yom Kippur p. 222

[57] This is learned from a play on words “Eitz Chaim Hi Lamachazikim Ba”, that one is to hold on to the Eitz Chaim for long life. [Hamelech Bemisibo ibid]

[58] See Admur 621:14

[59] Sefer Haminhagim p. 125 [English]

[60] So is the final ruling of the Rebbe in Sefer Haminhagim ibid, unlike Igros Kodesh 3:7 [printed Shulchan Menachem 5:308] in which the Rebbe directs to recite the Yizkor silently

[61] Directive of Rebbe Rashab to Rav Yaakov Landau brought in Otzer Minhagei Chabad Yom Kippur 195

[62] Otzer p. 220 based on Reshimos Acharon Shel Pesach 1942 in name of the grandson of the Rebbe Rayatz

[63] See Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 218

[64] Admur 529:2; To note, however, that by the Rebbe there were times that the Yom Tov Farbrengen even initially began past the 10th hour of the day of Erev Shabbos.

[65] Admur 271:9-11

The reason: As if one does not recite Birchas Hamazon before sunset he will be required to begin the next meal and perform Pores Mapa [271:12 and so is implied from end of 271:11] and the performance of Pores Mapa enters one into dispute. Thus, one who is meticulous is to avoid it all together. [271:11] The following is the dispute involved: It is disputed whether one has to say another blessing of Hamotzi on the bread that he eats after Kiddush. Some say the saying of Kiddush over wine is considered an interval between the previous blessing of Hamotzi and the bread. Others hold it is not considered an interval and hence a new blessing is not to be said over the bread eaten after Kiddush. Practically we rule leniently when it comes to a questionable blessing. However, it is best to avoid the situation all together when possible. [Admur ibid]

[66] Siddur Admur

[67] See Admur 310:4; Yechaveh Daas 2:64; So is apparent from all the early and late Achronim mentioned in Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 who do not mention it as being Muktzah.

Other Opinions: The Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 brings that according to some opinions Kitniyos is Muktzah on the Shabbos directly following Pesach being that it was set aside by Bein Hashmashos from being eaten.

[68] The reason it is not Muktza: 1) Edible Kitniyos is not Muktza on this Shabbos, despite it being inedible during Bein Hashmashos, as it is similar to a cow which was slaughtered, that as soon as its prohibition leaves it is permitted, and only by those things which were pushed away with one’s hands and thus became Muktzah [such as candles/esrog/dried grapes] do they remain Muktzah even after their reason of Muktzah has left. [Admur ibid; M”B 318:8] 2) An item which was Muktzah on Bein Hashmashos because of the previous day does not remain Muktzah for the rest of Shabbos. [Michaber 665:1] 3) Even on Yom Tov itself Kitniyos is not Muktzah as it is edible for Sephardim, and is hence similar to wine of a Nazir.

[69] See Minchas Yitzchak 7:33 for a thorough analyses on this topic

[70] Birkeiy Yosef; Sdei Chemed Chametz Umatzah 6:6; Luach Rav Tuchinsky

[71] The reason: As the Kitniyos is available for Sefaradi guests to eat. This is similar to Challah in the Diaspora which may be baked on Yom Tov if there is a Tahor Kohen available. [Admur 467:20-21]

[72] Kneses Hagedola 62; Minchas Yitzchak ibid and other Poskim mentioned there

[73] The reason: 1) As it is similar to a person fasting who is forbidden in cooking anything even for others. 2) As one may come to eat it.

[74] Yechaveh Daas 2:64; Rav Avraham Chaim Naah in Hamodia [Yagdil Torah Yerushalayim 6/2610] that one may eat from the Chametz even before the sale.

[75] Sefer Haminhagim p. 84 [English]; Likkutei Sichos 4:1298; In Sichas 5702 p. 109-110 the Rebbe Rayatz referred to the meal as Seudas Acharon Shel Pesach, and not as Seudas Moshiach. However, in Sefer Hasichos 5700 p. 75 the Rebbe Rayatz brings in the name of his father, in the name of the Rebbe Maharash that it was called Seudas Moshiach. See also Sefer Hasichos 1703 p. 118; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 229-230

[76] Sefer Haminhagim ibid; Hayom Yom p. 47

The reason: The reason this day contains a revelation of Moshiach is because on Shevi’i Shel Pesach the souls are born, and Moshiach will only come after all the souls have descended into this world. [Sichas 1938 p. 275]

[77] Hisvadyus 5748, page 171

[78] Sefer Haminhagim p. 83

[79] Admur 529:2; To note, however, that by the Rebbe there were times that the Yom Tov Farbrengen even initially began past the 10th hour of the day of Erev Shabbos.

[80] Admur 271:9-11

The reason: As if one does not recite Birchas Hamazon before sunset he will be required to begin the next meal and perform Pores Mapa [271:12 and so is implied from end of 271:11] and the performance of Pores Mapa enters one into dispute. Thus, one who is meticulous is to avoid it all together. [271:11] The following is the dispute involved: It is disputed whether one has to say another blessing of Hamotzi on the bread that he eats after Kiddush. Some say the saying of Kiddush over wine is considered an interval between the previous blessing of Hamotzi and the bread. Others hold it is not considered an interval and hence a new blessing is not to be said over the bread eaten after Kiddush. Practically we rule leniently when it comes to a questionable blessing. However, it is best to avoid the situation all together when possible. [Admur ibid]

[81] Hisvadyus 1988 p. 76

[82] Hisvadyus 5749 page 57

[83] This custom began in 1906 as a directive of the Rebbe Rashab to the students of Tomchei Temimim on Acharon Shel Pesach of that year drink 4 cups of wine during this meal. [Hayom Yom Mamar Vehichrim 5749] Although this custom was originally viewed as one-time occurrence related to that year, it became widespread in later years during the Rebbe’s Nessius, as the Rebbe requested for each person to fulfill it. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 232]

[84] In 1906 the Rebbe Rashab stated that the 4 cups drank on the first night of Pesach correspond to Moshe Rabbeinu, while the 4 cups of Acharon Shel Pesach correspond to Moshiach. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 232]

[85] Mamar “Vehichrim” Melukat 3 p. 188

[86] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 231

[87] Sichas 1944 p. 116;

The reason: The Shpolo Zeida was involved in redeeming captives. So too on Pesach we have all been redeemed. [See Otzer p. 237]

[88] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 237

[89] Hisvadyus 3 p. 62

[90] Kaf Hachaim 529:21; SSH”K 55:1-2 and footnote 6; Piskeiy Teshuvos 274:1; Likkutei Sichos 36 p. 78 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 2 p. 75]

The law by Shabbos: In Rama 291:4 and Admur 291:7 a dispute is recorded regarding whether one is obligated to perform Lechem Mishneh each time he has a meal on Shabbos. Some Poskim [Maggid Mishneh; Abudarham] rule one is obligated to perfor4m Lechem Mishneh by every meal of Shabbos, even if he is eating a fourth meal. Others however rule there is never a requirement to have Lechem Mishneh by other meals, even on Shabbos. The Rama and Admur conclude that although the custom is to be lenient nevertheless every person is to be stringent to take Lechem Mishneh. The above Poskim extend this law also to Yom Tov.

Difficulty with above ruling: The above ruling of the Rama has not been recorded in Shulchan Aruch or any of its commentators to apply also to Yom Tov. Likewise, the Rama and Admur [and all other Poskim who record this ruling] specifically write that this law applies to all the meals of “Shabbos”. If this law extends likewise to Yom Tov then why did they specify Shabbos in their ruling? This is especially in light of the fact that it is plainly evident to all that the law is dealing with Shabbos. Hence perhaps it is coming to exclude Yom Tov. Vetzaruch Iyun!

The Rebbe in Likkutei Sichos: In Likkutei Sichos ibid the Rebbe clearly writes that according to the opinion that requires Lechem Mishneh by each meal it applies equally to Yom Tov. Likewise, according to the reason of Betzias Hapas [see next footnote], which applies by Yom Tov, one requires Lechem Mishneh by every meal. [Nevertheless, it remains questionable as to whether the Rebbe’s intent is to rule this way practically regarding Yom Tov, as even regarding Shabbos a dispute is recorded regarding this matter, and perhaps the purpose of the Sichah was to explain the background of the matter]

[91] The reason: In Likkutei Sichos ibid the Rebbe explains that there are two reasons behind Lechem Mishnah; one is due to the obligation of the Shabbos and Yom Tov meal and another is due to the laws of Betzias Hapas. This means that due to the importance of Shabbos and Yom Tov not only is one to say Hamotzi on a Shaleim, as is the ruling even during the week, but one is to have two Shleimus. Now, this law of Betzius Hapas applies to all meals that one has on Shabbos and Yom Tov and is not limited to the meals of obligation. This is one of the practical ramifications between the two reasons behind Lechem Mishneh.

[92] Shut of Admur 6

[93] Sefer Hasichos 5702 p. 105; Haggadah of Rebbe by Shulchan Orach: “We are Mehadeir to dip”; Hisvadyus 5758, page 171; Likkutei Sichos 22 p. 30, printed in Shulchan Menachem 2:354; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 224-226

[94] Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 224-225 in name of Rav Yaakov Landau who witnessed this done in the house of the Rebbe Rashab.

[95] All Poskim who permit cooking Kitniyos; Minchas Yitzchak 7:33; Chazon Ish 49:15-16 [See however Chazon Ish ibid that if this matter is held as forbidden from the letter of the law then it is forbidden to cook on Yom Tov.]; Nitei Gavriel 3 19:9; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 255; Hiskashrus 39 p. 24 footnote 10; Rabbi Leibel Groner records that one year in which Shevi’i Shel Pesach fell on Erev Shabbos the Rebbe stated with dissatisfaction that Kneidlach were not made on Erev Shabbos to be served on Acharon Shel Pesach in his home. [Hiskashrus 45 p. 24; Otzer Minhagei Chabad p. 225]

[96] The reason: As the refraining of eating Gebrochts on Pesach is merely a stringency and is not forbidden from the letter of the law, and it is thus not truly inedible on Pesach. Therefore, it is permitted to do so even according to those Poskim who rule that one may not cook Kitniyos on Yom Tov for the sake of Shabbos in Eretz Yisrael. [Poskim ibid]

[97] Chazon Ish 49:16 that if this matter is held as forbidden from the letter of the law then it is forbidden to cook on Yom Tov just like the Poskim who rule it is forbidden to cook Kitniyos on Yom Tov; Rav Levi Bistritzky in Kovetz Tiferes Limelech and Shut Ara Degalil concludes that according to Admur one may not cook Gebrochts on Shevi’i Shel Pesach; Rav Eliyahu Landau Shlita related to me that his father never allowed Gebrochts to be cooked on Shevi’i Shel Pesach even if years such as the above.

[98] The reason: As some Poskim rule one may not cook Kitniyos on Yom Tov for Shabbos and seemingly the same would apply to Gebrochts if it is held as an actual prohibition.

The Chabad custom: Rabbi Leibel Groner records that one year in which Shevi’i Shel Pesach fell on Erev Shabbos the Rebbe stated with dissatisfaction that Kneidlach were not beforehand to be served on Acharon Shel Pesach in his home. [Otzer Minhagei Chabad ibid] It however makes no reference as to when in the Rebbe’s opinion the Kneidlach should have been made, before Yom Tov, or even on Yom Tov itself. Upon asking Rabbi Groner as to when the Gebrochts should be made he replied “If I remember correctly we make the Kneidlach on שביעי של פסח. It should be done much before lighting the Shabbos candles.” Thus, clearly Rabbi Groner did not receive a clear instruction from this story as to when the Gebrochts should be made, as otherwise there would be no room for his uncertainty. Rabbi Eli Landau told me that in his home they would not cook Gebrochts on Yom Tov for the sake of Shabbos even in such a year.

[99] The reason it is not prohibited due to the prohibition of cooking on the Moed for after the Moed: As one may even cook on Yom Tov for the sake of Shabbos, and the Sages only required Eiruv Tavshilin on Yom Tov to cook for Shabbos and not on Chol Hamoed to cook for Shabbos. Now, although earlier we brought that according to some Poskim one may not cook Kitniyos on Yom Tov for the sake of Shabbos, and the same would apply to Gebrochts according to those who hold it is forbidden and not just a stringency, nevertheless, seemingly regarding Chol Hameod even these Poskim would be lenient as a) cooking on Chol Hamoed for after the Moed is only a Rabbinical prohibition; b) Cooking for Shabbos is a Tzorech Mitzvah that cannot be done another time.

The reason why there is no prohibition in making Gebrochts: Seemingly, the stringency of Gebrochts is only with regards to eating and not to owning. We do not find any source for prohibiting wetting Matzah over Pesach if one does not plan to eat it. Hence, we do not avoid washing the floor or the table over Pesach even though there is certainly a crumb of Matzah to be found there. A similar difference between eating and owning can be found in the following areas: 1) One may not eat any amount of Chametz, although one may Biblically own less than a Kezayis of Chametz. 2) One may not eat Kitniyos although one may own it.  There are many examples of cases brought in 442 and 447 of mixtures that may not be eaten but may be owned. Thus, unless one has explicitly received otherwise in his tradition, we cannot simply assume that the avoidance of Gebrochts includes not owning it over Pesach.

[100] Hisvadyus 5758, page 171; Likkutei Sichos 22 p. 30

[101] Likkutei Sichos 22 p. 30

[102] Admur 490:8

[103] Admur 490:13; Michaber 490:6

[104] Admur 490:13

[105] The Rebbe explains that in truth this event happened on the 1st day of Pesach, and it is thus difficult to accept as the reason for why it is read on the last day of Pesach. The Rebbe thus rather explains that the last day of Pesach is connected with the final redemption which is discussed in the Haftorah.

[106] Admur 491:3; M”A 491:1 [Begins with Tzaruch Iyun, although gives reason to conclude that it is Mutar]; Chok Yaakov 491:1 [concludes like suggestion on M”A ibid]; Elya Raba 491:1; Chok Yosef 491:1; Shulchan Gavoa 491:1; Poskim in Kaf Hachaim 491:7; See Likkutei Sichos 22:36 footnote 62-64

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one may not eat Chametz prior to reciting Havdalah. [P”M 491 A”A 1; See Kaf Hachaim ibid] Other Poskim rule that while one may rely on the Poskim ibid to eat Chametz prior to Havdalah, one may not eat Chametz prior to reciting Birchas Hamazon, being that this will create a contradiction to his recital of Yaaleh Veyavo in Birchas Hamazon, as how can he say Chag Hamatzos Hazeh if he ate Chametz. [M”B 491:1; See Kaf Hachaim 491:8 and Likkutei Sichos ibid who negates this understanding, as it is forbidden to eat after Birchas Hamazon, prior to Havdalah, and hence the only case in which the Poskim ibid can possibly allow eating Chametz is if one did not yet say Havdalah!]

[107] Such as Chametz sold to a gentile. See Halacha 10 that there is no issue with eating the Chametz prior to the return sale.

[108] Pashut, as explained in previous footnote; Kaf Hachaim 491:8 that so is implied from Setimas Haposkim; Likkutei Sichos ibid; See other opinions in previous footnote and the reason for their negation!

[109] So is implied from the wording of Admur “and did not yet say Havdalah at all

[110] The reason: As the prohibition against eating Chametz on Pesach is not dependent on Havdalah at all, and since Tzeis Hakochavim has arrived, it is considered night for all matters, and the holiness of Yom Tov has already dissipated. The fact that one is prohibited from doing Melacha prior to Havdalah is not due to the holiness of the Yom Tov, but rather due to a Rabbinical prohibition due to reasons explained in 299:15. (Now, although there is a Mitzvah to add onto the Holiness of Yom Tov, this is only with regards to not doing Melacha during the additional time of Yom Tov, as this Mitzvah is learned from the verse “Tishbisu Shabatchem”, as explained in 261:4.) However, regarding other matters which are dependent on the holiness of the day, such as the Mitzvah of Mikra Kodesh, see chapter 529, there is no need to add from the weekday to the Yom Tov. Accordingly, certainly the eating of Chametz, which is not dependent at all on the holiness of the day, as even during Chol Hamoed one is prohibited from eating Chametz, [is permitted to be eaten during the period of Tosefes Yom Tov]. [Admur ibid]

[111] Implication of M”B ibid; Kaf Hachaim 491:8 in name of Poskim; Likkutei Sichos ibid

[112] Likkutei Sichos ibid

[113] Admur 296:10; Rama 296:2

[114] As at that time the beer is more beloved to a person than is wine. [ibid]

Other Opinions: Some Poskim rule based on Kabala that one is to always say Havdalah over wine rather than other beverages even if the beer is more beloved. [Kaf Hachaim 296:26]

[115] Otzer Minhagei Chabad Pesach p. 238

Was this article helpful?

Related Articles

Leave A Comment?