Placing food on or near a fire

1. Placing/Returning food on a Tanur/Kupach oven; or a Kirah oven fueled with wood whose fire was not covered:[1]

Note: Regarding the logistics behind the Tanur, Kupach, and Kirah oven-See “The Laws of Shehiyah” Chapter 1 Halacha 3.

A Tanur Oven: A Tanur which was fueled even with straw or twigs, and even if its coals were swept or covered, which one left food on it in one of the permitted ways explained in the laws of Shehiyah [either the food was half cooked or meat was completely raw before Shabbos] then [nevertheless, in a case that one removed it], it is forbidden to return the pot on Shabbos even if the pot is still in ones hands and he had intention to return it, and even if any further cooking of the food will make it condense in a way that is damaging to the food.

The Kupach  oven; and Kirah oven whose fire is not covered: Similar [to the laws of a Tanur] is also the law for a Kupach which was fueled with olive waste or wood [even if its coals were swept or covered] being that [a Kupach fueled with olive waste or wood] has the same laws as a Kirah which was fueled with olive waste or wood which was not swept or covered, in which case it is forbidden to return a pot onto it on Shabbos in any situation[2].

The reason for why one may not return a pot onto the above ovens in any situation is due: to a Rabbinical decree as, [if one were allowed to do so] he may come to stoke the coals. Now, even though with regards to leaving a pot from before Shabbos [even on a Tanur and Kupach] we are not worried that one will come to stoke the coals in a case that further cooking of the food will make it condense in a way damaging to it, nevertheless here with regards to returning the pot onto these ovens on Shabbos we are more stringent.[3]

Returning pots onto stoves:[4] Those ovens which do not have a hollow inside, but are flat, and their inside and outside are one piece[5], it is permitted to return to them [if their fire is covered, just like by a Kirah oven, which will be explained next].

 Placing food next to a Tanur and Kupach oven: See below

 

Summary-Placing/Returning foods onto a Tanur, Kupach, or uncovered Kirah

It is always forbidden to place/return a food on top of a Tanur oven; a Kupach oven fueled with olive waste or wood; or a Kirah oven fueled with olive waste or wood which its coals were not removed or covered. This is due to the worry that if this were allowed one may come to stoke the coals.

 

Practical Q&A

May one ever place or return a cooked food to an uncovered fire of a stove top on Shabbos?

No.[6]

 

2. Placing/Returning food onto a Kirah oven whose coals have been covered:

A. The following 6 conditions are required to be allowed to return a pot onto a Kirah oven on Shabbos:

Condition 1-Fueled with twigs or is Gerufah or Ketuma[7]: A Kirah which was fueled with straw or twigs, or even with olive waste or wood but its coals were removed or covered[8], [then if] one took a pot off from the fire, whether from before Shabbos or whether after Shabbos had already begun, and he now wants to return the pot to the fire on Shabbos, then if…..

Condition 2-Pot is in ones hand:[9]  …the pot is still in one’s hand, meaning that one did not remove it from his hand from when it was taken off the oven until now when he wants to return it, and …..

Condition 3-Did not enter food into a different pot:[10] …one did not remove the food from it into another pot, and rather he wants to return the food while it is in the same pot which was originally on the Kirah[11] [See Q&A], and

Condition 4-Had intent to return:[12] When one originally removed the pot from the Kirah he had intention to return it later [See Q&A] and

Condition 5- Food does not contain a cooking prohibition[13]:  The food [being returned to the oven] is fully cooked in accordance to all the definitions of fully cooked explained in Chapter 318[14] , although even if further cooking will still make it condense in a way beneficial to the food it is still allowed [See Q&A], and

Condition 6-Food is still warm[15]: The food, even if it contains no liquid, has not yet completely cooled down, [meaning that it can still be eaten due to its heat even though it is no longer Yad Soledes[16]]. [See Q&A] [If all the above conditions are fulfilled] then it is permitted for him to return the pot [onto the Kirah] on Shabbos. [See next Halacha for the reasons behind the conditions.]


B. The reason behind the conditions [See Q&A
]:

The fire must be covered because: [17] it is a Rabbinical decree made because [if one were allowed to do so] he may come to stoke the coals

The food must be fully cooked:[18]As otherwise this involves a Biblical transgression of cooking.

It is required that the food was not transferred to another pot and the pot was never put down in the interim and one had intention to return the pot to the flame and has not fully cooled down[19]: because without the fulfillment of these conditions the original stay of the pot on the fire has been nullified and thus now when he wants to return it to the fire it as if he is originally starting to place it on the fire on Shabbos, in which case it is forbidden to be done as the Sages prohibited the placing of food on a Kirah which is in an area that is common to cook on, being that it appears like one is initially cooking the food on Shabbos.

However when the pot was originally already on the fire and one is simply returning it there without having put it down or changed pots, then it does not appear like one is initially cooking it now on Shabbos and is thus allowed.

[See footnote for other opinions[20]]


C. Placing a pot inside an oven on Shabbos:[21]

All the above [cases mentioned of which it is allowed to return the pot to the Kirah only apply] when he returns the pot onto the opening of the Kirah on its top, meaning that the walls of the pot protrude a little bit above the walls of the Kirah. However to return it into the oven itself, even with regards to our ovens [which open from the side and not from their top, and thus by our ovens the only place to return it is to inside the oven] is forbidden in all cases even if it was fueled with straw or twigs and [its coals] were swept or covered and the pot is still in ones hand and one had intention to return it. [22] [See Q&A]

 

D. Other opinions-Some are lenient to require only three conditions and to allow returning a pot to an oven:[23]

The custom of those times was to be lenient to return the pot into our modern day ovens, which have the same laws as returning a pot into the inside of a Kirah. Furthermore they were even lenient to permit to return the pot even after one removed the pot from his hand and placed it on the ground, staying there for a long time, and even if when one had removed it from the Kirah, one did not have intention to return it, and even if he had placed the food into a different pot.

The basis behind the lenient custom is:[24] because there are opinions which say that the Sages did not require one [upon removing the pot] to have intention to return it and for it to be kept it in his hand [until he returns it]. This is with exception to the case of when one removes the pot before Shabbos and now wants to return it on Shabbos, in which case [the Sages said that] if one did not have intention to return it, or he [did but] had already removed it from his hand, then [it is forbidden for him to return it because] it is considered like he is initially placing it on the Kirah on Shabbos, as when Shabbos first began the pot was not on the Kirah at all. However when one removes the pot from the Kirah after Shabbos has already begun, then since when Shabbos first began the pot was on the Kirah, it therefore does not appear like one is initially placing it [on the Kirah] on Shabbos, even if [when one removed it from the oven] he did not have intention to return it, and even if he already removed the pot from his hand and had emptied its food into another pot [prior to returning it]. [Thus since when the pot was removed after Shabbos has already begun it does not appear anymore like he is initially placing it on the oven on Shabbos if he is coming to return it there,] therefore it is permitted to return it [to a Kirah] if it was fueled with straw or twigs or if it was [fueled with olive waste or wood but its coals were] swept or covered and the food is fully cooked and has not completely cooled down. It is based on this opinion that the world relies on to be furthermore lenient to say that even when the Sages prohibited to return the pot to the inside of the oven, it was only prohibited when one removed the pot from before Shabbos and it was in his hand until after Shabbos had begun [in which case he may return it on top of the Kirah, if the other conditions are fulfilled, but not inside the Kirah].

The Final Ruling[25]: One need not protest against those which are accustomed to follow the above leniencies although every person should be stringent on himself[26] to not return the pot to the inside of a Kirah or Tanur[27] even if one removed it from there after Shabbos had begun, [and] even if he had intention to return it, and it is still in his hands. As well, even concerning [the leniencies to] return the pot onto the Kirah [even] if [upon removing it] he did not have intention to return it or [even] if he already removed it from his hand or [even] if he placed the food into another pot, it is proper[28] to be stringent [see note[29]], being that most opinions say that even regarding these matters there is no difference if one removed the pot from before Shabbos or from after Shabbos had already begun. [Thus the requirement of the Sages regarding intention, having it still in ones hands and having it in the same pot, applies equally to both scenarios].

 

E. Returning the pot onto a different fire:[30] 

When the above conditions are fulfilled then it is permitted to return it to even a different Kirah than the Kirah which it was originally removed from, even if this second Kirah is hotter than the original one.

 

F. If the pot was insulated but not over a fire before Shabbos, may it be placed over a fire on Shabbos?[31]

If to begin with the pot was insulated in a [proper] form [of insulation] as is explained in chapter 257, and on Shabbos he wants to remove its insulating content from [around] the pot and to then place the pot on an oven, this is forbidden to be done. As it is considered like he is now initially placing the pot on the oven [which as explained above was prohibited by the sages because it appears like one is cooking].

 

Summary:

This is forbidden to be done, as it’s considered like he is now initially placing the pot on the oven which as explained above was prohibited by the sages because it appears like one is cooking.

 

G. If the pot was in the oven before Shabbos may it be insulated on Shabbos? [32] 

If the pot was in the Kirah and on Shabbos one comes to take it out from the Kirah and insulate it, even if he wants to use a [form of insulation, such as] pillows or blankets or other clothing, which does not add heat but just retains the heat, it is [nevertheless] forbidden, as it is considered like one is insulating the pot now on Shabbos for its first time, which is forbidden [to be done] even if the insulation does not add heat,  as will be explained in chapter 257.

 

Returning the pot  on a fire by an area that is Yad Soledes:

  • Kirah/Today’s stoves and electric plates:

    The following conditions must always be fulfilled under all circumstances according to all opinions:

    1. Food is fully cooked.
    2. Food has not fully cooled down.

If it is fueled with olive waste or wood, then its coals have been removed or covered. Thus by today’s stoves and adjustable electric plates it is only allowed if the flame/plate is covered.

 

The following other conditions must be fulfilled in a circumstance that the food was removed from the fire before Shabbos began, however it is disputed if they need to be fulfilled in a circumstance that the food had been on the fire after Shabbos had already begun, and only then was it removed from the fire:

  • The Tanur oven:

    The Tanur oven may never have any food returned to it on Shabbos.

     

  • The Kupach Oven:

If fueled with wood or olive waste, it has the same law as a Tanur. If fueled with twigs and straw, it has the same law as a Kirah.

 

Practical Q&A

Is food which is cooked to the point that further cooking will damage it, allowed to be initially placed on a Kirah fire on Shabbos?[34]

No.[35] However some Poskim[36]  learn one may be lenient in a time of great need.

 

Q&A on the condition that the  fire needs to be covered:

Is an electric plate which does not have adjustable settings of heat considered to be “covered” also with regards to Chazara? [37]

Yes it is considered as if it is covered. However if the electric device is attached to a timer which turns on and off constantly on Shabbos[38], then seemingly even if the electrical device itself contains no adjustable temperatures it has the same status as an electric device that does, and hence must be covered to allow Chazara.[39]

 

What are the laws of a crock pot with regards to having its heat covered in regards to Chazara?[40]

If it has adjustable settings it must be covered, as explained above by Shehiyah. If it does not have adjustable settings, then it does not need to be covered, although all the other requirements apply.

 

If when one removed the pot there was no covering on the fire, may he now place a covering on it?[41]

Yes.

 

If when one removed the food from the flame, the covering [blech] fell off, may one still return it to the flame if the other conditions are fulfilled?[42]

Ideally it is allowed to return the pot to the flame, although it is proper to return the cover/Blech to the flame prior to returning the pot.[43]

 

Q&A on the condition of requiring intention to return the pot:

If the pot was removed with intention to return only after it has cooled down, may it still be returned?[44]

No, even if one latter changes his mind to return it while still hot.

 

If the pot fell off the fire on its own, may it be returned?[45]

Yes. Even though there was no intention here to return the pot, being that it fell on its own, nevertheless it may be returned as long as the other conditions are met.

 

If one removed someone else’s pot against their knowledge, without intention to return it, may it nevertheless be returned?[46]

Yes, as long as the other conditions are fulfilled. If one placed it down in the interim, see answer below. However there are opinions which say that it should be placed, if possible, on a pot that is over the fire, even if the pot is empty.

 

If one removed the wrong pot, without intention to return it, may it nevertheless be returned?[47]

Yes, as long as the other conditions are fulfilled. However regarding if one already placed it down, see below 12. However there are opinions which say it should be placed, if possible, over a pot that is on the fire. This is allowed even if the pot is empty.

 

If one’s fire extinguished, may the pots be transferred to a different flame?[48]

Yes, as long as all the conditions of Chazara are fulfilled. If one does not have a covered fire available, then he may now cover it with a blech. If when this first occurred one did not want to place it on another flame, it is considered like he removed it without intention to return, even though he did not yet remove the pot from its place.

 

Q&A on the condition to hold on to the pot:

May one place the pot down on a table if he will still leave his hand on the handle?[49]

If the pot is heavy then one may use a table as support in a way that if he were to let go of the pot, the pot would fall to the ground.[50] One should not be lenient to place it completely on the table.[51] However there are Poskim[52] which rule one may place the pot on the table so long as he remains holding on to it.

Returning to electric plate: If one is coming to return the food to an electric plate that does not have heat variations, then if the pot is heavy one may be lenient to place the pot down on a table so long as he remains holding on to it.

 

What is the law if one went ahead and placed the pot down on the counter, table and the like?[53]

Floor, counter, table: It may not be returned to the fire.

Bed, chair, bench:

  1. Removed pot with intention to return it.
  2. Did not let the pot go from ones hand from when he had removed it.
  3. Did not remove the food into a different pot.

The Final Ruling: One is Lechatchilah[33] to be stringent to require these three conditions even when the pot was removed after Shabbos had already begun. However those which are accustomed to be lenient to not require these three conditions when the food was removed after Shabbos had begun need not be protested.

Returning food to a different stove:

Whenever the above six conditions are fulfilled one may even return the pot onto a different stove than he had originally removed it from even if the fire on the later stove is higher.

Returning food into an oven:

One is never allowed to Lechatchilah place the food inside an oven even if all the conditions are fulfilled. However those which are lenient to do so need not be protested. [See Q&A regarding today’s ovens]

 

  • If one let go of the pot: It may only be returned to an electric plate which does not have variations of heat settings. However by a time of great need, such as it is greatly needed for Oneg Shabbos then it may be returned even to a blech, as long as the all the other requirements of Chazara are fulfilled.
  • If one still held on to the pot while it was placed on the chair etc., then it may be returned as long as the other conditions are fulfilled.
  • According to the Michaber placing it on a bench or chair does not pose a problem and it is only a problem when it is placed on a table or floor.

One removed the wrong pot: If one had removed the wrong pot on Shabbos from the stove and only realized after putting it down on a chair and the like, then it may be returned in time of need for the sake of Oneg Shabbos, onto even a blech, as long as the other conditions [other than intention] are fulfilled.

However if one put the pot down on a table, it has the same laws as if it was removed intentionally.

 

What is the law if one left a pot on the stove on Erev Shabbos and on Shabbos he noticed that he forgot to turn on the flame, may the pot be transferred onto a flame?[54]

Yes, as long as the other conditions are fulfilled.

 

Q&A on the condition to not pour the food into another pot:

If one poured the food into another pot and then placed it back into the original pot, is it permitted to be returned?[55]

It may not be returned according to Ashkenazi opinions.[56] However according to the Michaber it is always allowed as long as the other conditions are fulfilled.

 

May one transfer food from a pot that is on a fire into another pot that is on a fire if all the Chazara conditions are fulfilled?[57]

    • Example: Such as to pour hot water from the boiler into ones Chulent, or to place a piece of meat from one pot into another pot. [See Q&A 19 for full details!]

The Law: This is allowed if one does not place the water or meat into any vessel between removing it from the first pot and then placing it into the second pot. Thus one may not pour the water into a cup and then place it into the chulent, but rather must pour it directly from the boiler into the chulent. [One does not have to remove the chulent pot from the fire in order to do this, and may thus pour the water in slowly while the pot is still on the fire.]

One may remove the food from the first pot [while off the fire] using a fork or spoon as long as he leaves the spoon inside the pot for some time so the spoon or fork can become very hot, and thus have the status of a Keli Rishon. He may then remove the spoon and place the food into the second pot. [It is forbidden to place the spoon or fork into the first pot while it is still on the fire. If however the first pot contains only water then it is permitted to place a spoon into it while on the fire so long as one does not mix it while doing so.[58]]

 

Q&A on the condition that the food may not have completely cooled down:

How warm must the food still be for one to be allowed to return it to the fire?[59]

It must be warm enough that majority of people which only eat this type of food while hot, would still currently eat it. This applies even though that initially they would eat the food on a hotter temperature. However if the food is not hot enough that majority of people would still eat it, then it is Halachicly considered to have cooled down even if it is still warm.

According to the Michaber if it is less then Yad Soledes [110 Fahrenheit] it is considered cooled down and is forbidden to return.

 

Q&A on returning foods into an oven:

Is it permitted to return food into our modern day ovens if the Chazara conditions are fulfilled?[60]

Some Poskim[61] rule it is permitted to return food into our modern day ovens. Others[62] however rule it remains forbidden as states the ruling in Shulchan Aruch.

Practically: Those which are lenient should place on the floor of the oven an empty upside down pot[63]. On top of this pot they are to return the food.

  • According to all, the oven must be properly covered in its inside walls as was explained in “The Laws of Shehiyah”.

 

Does a crock pot have the status of a stove or an oven in regards to Chazara?[64]

Returning food into the crock-pot is similar to returning it to an oven. Thus seemingly whether this is allowed or not is dependent on the two opinions explained above in 17. Thus here too according to some it would be forbidden to return the chulent into the Crockpot even if all the other Chazara conditions have been fulfilled. However there is room to say that by a crock pot it is permitted completely according to all.

 

General Q&A on Chazara

Summary of the requirements needed to be allowed to add hot water to ones Chulent on Shabbos:[65]

  1. Both the water and the Chulent are fully cooked.[66]
  2. The water is poured directly from the boiler to the Chulent, without placing the water in any pot in-between. [However regarding using a spoon or ladle, see above Q&A15]
  3. The chulent pot is on a source of heat which is covered. If one is using a crock pot or electric plate which does not have variations of heat settings, it does not need to be covered.
  4. Pour the water in slowly in order so the chulent that is on the fire does not mix due to the pouring. Thus it is best, although not obligatory, to remove the chulent from the fire [fulfilling all the Chazara conditions], poor the water in it and then return the chulent to the fire.
  5. In order to keep the water boiler Parev, one must be careful to distance the boiler from the chulent to avoid it splashing onto the boiler. Likewise the steam of the chulent should not directly hit the boiler. Thus one should delay after uncovering the chulent for the steam to dissipate.

There is no problem involved with the fact that the stream of water from the Parev boiler is touching meat, as this is only problematic when the item being poured is cold. However when both are hot, as is the case here, this is allowed even initially.[67] [However there are Poskim[68] which are stringent in this matter to initially avoid pouring even from hot Parev to hot meat.]

 

If on Erev Shabbos one placed a pot on top of another pot, may he later on Shabbos place the upper pot on the blech or electric plate?

According to all if when one removed the upper pot from the flame and placed it onto the lower pot on Erev Shabbos he had fulfilled all the Chazara conditions [intention, did not let go in between] then he may place it directly on the blech on Shabbos

If the conditions of Chazara were not fulfilled then there is a dispute amongst Poskim as to the ruling.[69] Practically in a time of need for Oneg Shabbos one may be lenient to place it on the blech. Although it is best to place the pot on top of an upside down pot or plate, rather than directly on the blech or electric plate.

 

May one move a pot that is on a Blech from one area to another?[70]

If the entire blech has the ability to heat the food to the point of Yad Soledes it is permitted according to all.

If the area that the pot is now on is Yad Soledes but does not have the ability to heat the pot to Yad Soledes, then it is only allowed to move it to an area which can heat it to Yad Soledes if one had in mind when he placed the pot there to later place it by the hotter area. [71] Likewise this may only be done if the food is fully cooked.

If the area that the pot was on is not Yad Soledes at all, then it is prohibited according to all to move the pot to a hotter area.

 

May one place a dry cooked food [as opposed to baked or roasted] near an open fire?[72]

No as there is “Afiyah after Bishul”- “See The Laws of Cooking”!


[1] 253/15

[2]  Meaning even if the to be mentioned conditions of returning a pot to a Kirah are fulfilled.

[3] As perhaps in order to keep the food warm he may come to stoke the coals.

[4] 253/17

[5] Meaning that it is not an oven in today’s sense which is a hollow box of which one bakes food inside of, but rather is a flat piece of material, of which one cooks food on top of, similar to what we call stoves today.

[6] As this is similar to a Kirah oven which has good fuel which has not been covered, of which the law is that one may never place or return food to it on Shabbos.

[7] 253/14

[8]  This refers specifically to the olive waste and wood fuel. However the twigs and straw fuel do not have to be  removed or covered to fall into the above allowance.

[9] 253/14

[10] 253/14

[11]  So rules also the Magen Avraham and Shut Rav Poalim. However the Mishneh Berurah does not require this last condition, and thus allows to return the food even if it was poured into a second pot, however not if it was poured back into the first pot. The Igros Moshe and Sheivet Haleivi both rule like the Alter Rebbe in this. The Michaber holds it is allowed to return the pot even without this condition being fulfilled. [Shabbos Kehalacha pages 365-367]

[12] 253/14

[13] 253/14

[14] There it is explained that besides for it being fully cooked it must also a not contain liquid which has fully cooled down and b) Contain any fat and the like which will melt and c) Does not contain a prohibition of cooking after baking and the like. See there for the full details.

[15] 253/18

[16]  110 degrees Fahrenheit

[17] 253/15, as well as 318/24

[18] 253/18

[19] Halacha 14: Literal Translation:

The reason for why intention helps is because:  [by having such intention] it ends up that the original stay of the pot [on the fire], which was placed on the Kirah from before Shabbos [and was thus permitted], was never nullified, as at the time that he removed it from the Kirah he did not have intention to remove it permanently from there, but rather [he took it off with intention] to return it afterwards.

The problem involved if one lacks any of the above conditions: However if to begin with when he took it off he did not have intention to return it to [the Kirah], or if he removed the pot from his hand one time [prior to wanting to replace it on the fire] or he removed the food content that was in the pot into a different pot, then [it is forbidden for one to return it on Shabbos to the fire]

The reason for this is: because the original stay of the pot on the fire has been nullified and thus now when he wants to return it to the fire it as if he is originally starting to place it on the fire on Shabbos, [in which case it is forbidden to be done] as the Sages only allowed one to return a food onto the fire, and not to begin placing the food on the Kirah on Shabbos now for its first time, even when there is no prohibition of cooking involved, such as if it is already fully cooked, in which we say [that even if it has cooled down, when a solid[19], that] there is no longer a prohibition involved in cooking a cooked food, and it is thus permitted to place it near a fire even if that area is Yad Soledes, nevertheless [even in such a case that there is no prohibition involved in heating up the food it is prohibited to place it over the fire on Shabbos for its first time, as] when one places it on the Kirah which is an area which is the common way for one to cook on, then it appears like one is initially cooking the food on Shabbos. [However when the pot was originally already on the fire and one is simply returning it there without having put it down or changed pots, then it does not appear like one is initially cooking it now on Shabbos and is thus allowed.]

[20] What is the reason that one may not initially place cooked food on Shabbos on a fire? [Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 341]

Alter Rebbe: There are two issues involved here. One is when the fire is uncovered in which case we prohibit it because may one come to stoke the coals [Chapter 253 Halacha 15, and Chapter 318 Halacha 24]. Another is that when the conditions of intention, same pot, still in hand are not fulfilled, it is prohibited because it appears like one is initially cooking the food on Shabbos [Halacha 14]. This is in accordance to the Alter Rebbe.

However there are those [Rashi, Ran and Mishneh Berurah] which learn that only the second reason applies even when the fire is uncovered. Meaning that the reason for why an uncovered fire is unacceptable is because it appears like one is initially cooking, and not because he may come to stoke the coals.

The Taz: The Taz learns that only the 1st reason applies. Meaning that the reason that the conditions of intention etc are required is because otherwise one may come to stoke the coals, and not because it appears like one is initially cooking on Shabbos.

[21] 253/16

[22] Regarding the reason for this prohibition see Hearos Ubiurim [Tzemach Tzedek] Vol. 6 p. 22 where it suggests that this is due to that it appears like cooking on Shabbos.

[23] 253/19

[24] 253/19

[25] 253/19

[26]  As opposed to telling others to be stringent, as already explained above that there is no need to protest others which are lenient.

[27]  Tzaruch Iyun why Tanur is being mentioned here, as it was never even included in the above leniency, as the above leniency only discussed returning it to the inside of a Kirah and not Tanur. Although perhaps it is referring to our Tanur today which have the same status as a Kirah.

[28]  Lit. Good

[29]  Seemingly, as Rav Farkash learns in Shabbos Kehalacha, this does not mean that one who wants to may be lenient. Rather that one is to be stringent to not return the pot unless all the conditions are fulfilled, and only when there is a great need and a pressing situation are there opinions which allow for one to Lechatchilah be lenient and rely on this latter opinion.  This especially holds true according to the Mishnah Berurah which holds that even according to the second opinion it was only allowed to return the pot to an area which is not Yad Soledes. [see Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 378]

[30] 253/14

[31] 253/14

[32] 253/14

[33] See SSH”K 1/19-20 which is lenient Bedieved to allow returning if some of these conditions are missing. However to note that in any event one may always place the food on an upside down pot and hence seemingly one is not to be lenient even Bedieved.

[34] Shabbos Kehalacha Volume 1 page 342.

[35] The Alter Rebbe rules in 253/15 that if the flame is uncovered, it is prohibited even if further cooking will damage it. However no mention is made regarding if the fire is covered, but the other conditions of Chazarah are not fulfilled. The Tehila Lidavid learns that there is no difference, and it is always forbidden.

[36] Rav Farkash leans to learn from the Alter Rebbe that this is allowed, and rules that in a very pressing circumstance one may be thus lenient against the Tehila Ledavid. See Shabbos Kehalacha Volume 1 page 342.

[37]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 345

[38] Such as one set up his electric plate to turn on for a half hour at the beginning of each hour to keep his food warm, but not burn the food.

[39] As we suspect one may come to adjust the time in a forbidden way in order so the food be ready on time.

[40]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 348

[41] 253/26; See next Halacha!

[42]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 345-348

[43] As requires the Igros Moshe and Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach in Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa that one must cover the flame.

Obviously one may not place the pot down and then cover the flame, as by doing so he loses one of the required conditions. Rather he is to call someone else to place the Blech back on while he holds the pot or try to juggle doing both simultaneously.

[44]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 351

[45]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 351

[46]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 352

[47]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 353

[48]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 354-357

[49]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 pages 357-360

[50] Based on 585/1; 607/7 that leaning is considered standing if one were to let go of the supporting item and he would still remain standing.

[51] Pirush Hamishnayos Rambam Shabbos 3; Mahram Shik 117

[52] Igros Moshe 4/74-33

[53]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 pages 361-364

[54]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 pages 364

[55]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 365-367

[56] Even according to the Mishneh Berurah it may not be returned, and certainly this is forbidden according o the Alter Rebbe.

[57]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 369-373

[58] See “The Laws of Cooking” Halacha 5 Q&A 10

[59]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 135-138

[60]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 383

[61] The Aruch Hashulchan rules that it is allowed, as only by ovens which one can also cook on its top, as the ovens of back then, was it prohibited to return the food into them on Shabbos. Based on this ruling the Sheivet Haleivi and Igros Moshe rule that even ovens which contain a stove top attached to them, since they are two separate entities of heat, there is no difference between the oven and the stove. It is thus permitted to return food to inside the oven on Shabbos just as it is permitted to return onto the stove. [However to do so one must make sure before Shabbos to cover the walls of the oven in the way explained in the beginning of the chapter in order so it have a status of  Ketumah.]

[62] Minchas Yitzchak argues that it remains prohibited to return food to inside any oven, even of today. So plainly rules Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa, and so seems to be the opinion of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach.

[63] As this makes the scenario more lenient according to some Poskim. 

[64]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 387

[65] Shabbos Kehalacha 9/40 [p. 389]

[66] If the water is being placed to prevent the food from burning, then it is considered fully cooked if it is Yad Soledes. If however it’s being placed to add the amount of gravy to be eaten, then according to some, it must have had previously boiled. However the main opinion is like the former.

[67] So rules Rav Farkash ibid.

[68] See Darkei Teshuva 105/96; Yad Yehuda Hakatzar 105/31; Peri Megadim 105 M.Z. 6. [See “A Semicha Aid for The Laws Of Taaruvos” Chapter 105 Halacha 4 for a full analysis on this subject!] Appendix!

Opinion of Admur: In 451/59 Admur rules that women are accustomed not to use on Pesach the urn they pour from in order to Kasher an item, being that the steam of the Chameitz vessel which is being Kashered becomes absorbed in the vessel. This implies that Admur is stringent even when pouring hot onto hot. [See Piskeiy Admur p. 330] Vetzaruch Iyun if anything can be deduced from this law as Admur writes only “there is an opinion which explains”, as well as it is merely a custom, as well as the upper vessel certainly should be permitted, as Bedieved we do not hold taste is transferred. Thus one must conclude that it is a Pesach stringency that is not relevant to other Issurim, and so writes Shabbos Kehalacha ibid, as is also evident from Darkei Teshuvah 105/99

[69] The Sheivet Haleivi and Shemiras Shabbos Kihilchasa both rule that it is forbidden to do so as the upper pot is not considered to have been on a fire when Shabbos began and thus it is considered as if he is initially placing it on the fire on Shabbos. However other Poskim allow this.

[70]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 pages 420-422

[71]  So comes out from the explanation of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach. However the Igros Moshe permits this even if one did not have intention when he placed the pot there, as long as the food is fully cooked.

[72]  Shabbos Kehalacha Vol. 1 page 423

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