Omitting Tachanun during Nissan

This Halacha is an excerpt from our Sefer


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Omitting Tachanun and other prayers of supplication in the month of Nisan:[1]

The custom in these provinces is to omit the following prayers throughout the entire month of Nissan:[2] 

  1. Tachanun: Tachanun is omitted daily, throughout the month. Vehu Rachum [added in Tachanun on Mondays and Thursdays] is omitted on Mondays and Thursdays.
  2. Kel Erech Apayim:[3] Kel Erech Apayim is omitted prior to the Torah reading on Mondays and Thursdays.
  3. Yehi Ratzon:[4] The Yehi Ratzon customarily said after Kerias Hatorah is omitted. [It is not the Chabad custom to recite Yehi Ratzon after the Torah reading throughout the ]
  1. Lamnatzeiach:[5] Is omitted daily prior to Uva Letzion, [however it is recited after Davening[6]].
  2. Tefila Ledavid:[7] The Psalm of Tefila Ledavid is omitted on all days that Tachanun is not recited.[8]
  3. Yizkor:[9] Yizkor is not recited throughout the month of Nissan, with exception to the last day of Pesach.
  4. Av Harachamim:[10] Is omitted on Shabbos before Musaf, [with exception to the last day of Pesach, due to Yizkor, for which it is recited[11]].
  5. Tzidkascha Tzedek: Tzidkascha Tzedek is omitted after Mincha Shemoneh Esrei of Shabbos.
  6. Tziduk Hadin:[12] One does not say Tziduk Hadin, and the Kaddish that follows it, throughout the month of Nissan. This applies even the person who died is a great Torah scholar and is the Gadol Hador.
  7. Eulogies:[13] Eulogies are not given throughout the month of Nissan, with exception to giving a eulogy for a Torah Scholar who passed away, prior to the burial. This applies even if the Torah scholar is not of the greatest caliber.
 

Cemetery:[14]

Some[15] are accustomed not to visit cemeteries throughout the month of Nissan. If one has the Yartzite of a parent, or other close relative, in the month of Nissan, he is to visit the grave on Erev Rosh Chodesh Nissan. Others[16] however are accustomed to visit cemeteries during the month of Nissan, just like any other time of the year, and hence of they have a Yartzite, end of Shiva or Shloshim during Nissan, they visit the grave as usual. Nonetheless, in all cases, one is to avoid crying.

Kivrei Tzaddikim:[17] There is no need to avoid visiting the gravesites of Tzaddikim during the month of Nissan.

May a Matzeiva [tombstone] be established during the month of Nissan?[18]

Some Poskim[19] rule one may not establish a Matzeiva in the month of Nissan. Other Poskim[20] rule it is permitted to do so, so long as eulogies will not take place during the occasion.

 

 

The reason for omitting Tachanun and not fasting:[21]

All the above[22] is not prohibited according to the letter of the law, but is rather a mere custom that was introduced in the later generations. It is based on the teaching of our sages, that starting from the first of Nissan the Nesi’im began bringing sacrifices for the inauguration of the altar. Each Nasi brought a Karban on his designated day until [but not including] the 13th of Nissan. The day that each Nasi brought his sacrifice was considered as his Holiday [and thus, up until the 13th of Nissan it was considered like a Holiday].[23] On the 14th of Nissan, all of Israel would bring their Pesach sacrifice, and thus it was a holiday for all Israel. [For this reason, we are accustomed to omitting Tachanun on these days]. [Now, with regards to the remaining days] since afterwards comes 8 days of Pesach, which are a Holiday, therefore it ends up that majority of the month is holy, as only the 13th, [and past the 8th day of Pesach] are non-holidays. Thus, the custom is to treat the entire month with holiness similar to a holiday and omit Tachanun and avoid fasting.

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[1] Admur 429:8; Michaber 429:2; Rokeaich 245 based on Miseches Sofrim 21:1-3

[2] The reason: See C!

[3] Siddur Tehillas Hashem [from 1978 and onwards with the Rebbe’s approval] based on Sichas Kodesh 6th Tishrei 1975 that the Rebbe equates Kel Erech Apayim with Lamnatzeiach. See Shulchan Menachem 3:293; Glosses of Rav Raskin p. 165; Hiskashrus 438 p. 17; To note however that the Rebbe himself did recite Kel Erech Apayim even when Tachanun was not recited. [Rav Raskin ibid]; See Kaf Hachaim 131:37; Piskeiy Teshuvos 429:5

Ruling of Admur in the Shulchan Aruch: In the Shulchan Aruch [429:12; 602:4] Admur rules that Kel Erech Apayim is recited with exception to Erev Pesach. This follows the ruling of the Hagahos Maimanis. [Some explain that it is for this reason that Admur in 602:4 placed this ruling in parentheses, as it is not brought in previous Poskim in Shulchan Aruch. [Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 2] Vetzaruch Iyun as it is brought by Admur in 429:12 without parentheses, and is likewise clearly implied from the Rama 429:2] To note, that also in the Siddur before Kel Erech Apayim Admur lists a number of days that it is to be omitted on, thus implying it is not always omitted when Tachanun is not said.

Ruling and explanation of Divrei Nechemia: The Divrei Nechemia 131:9 brings three opinions regarding the saying of Keil Erech Apayim: 1) It is only omitted by a day that Hallel is recited or a day that has the status of a Yom Tov like Erev Pesach. [This is the opinion of the Rama 429:2] 2) It is omitted on every Erev Yom Tov and on Isru Chag. 3) Every day that Tachanun is omitted so is Lamnatzeiach. [so rules Peri Chadash 131] The Divrei Nechemia concludes that regarding Lamnatzeiach we rule like the third opinion, however regarding Keil Erech Apayim we rule like the opinion that rules it is to be recited.

The reason behind the Rebbe’s ruling: The Rebbe explains that the ruling in the Shulchan Aruch of Admur follows the ruling of the Rama that differentiates between the laws of Tachanun and that of Lamnatzeiach. However, according to Admur in the Siddur who rules Lamnatzeiach is always omitted when Tachanun is not said, then likewise Kel Erech Apayim is to be omitted in all days that Tachanun is not said. [Sichas Kodesh ibid, printed in Shulchan Menachem ibid] As for the reason why Kel Erech Apayim is omitted this is because it mentions sin, and we do not desire to mention sin on any day that Tachanun is omitted. [See Shaar Hakolel 36:2; Shulchan Menachem ibid footnote 5]

[4] Recited in many communities after the Torah reading. It is not the Chabad custom to recite these prayers anytime during the year.

[5] Admur in Siddur based on Kneses Hagedola 131:3; Peri Chadash 131:1; Mamar Mordechai 131:6 that whenever Tachanun is omitted Lamnatzeiach is omitted;  Divrei Nechemia 131:9; Kaf Hachaim 131:37; 581:78 states that so is the custom of Sephardim; See Kneses Hagedola 131; Ben Ish Chaiy; Chazon Ovadia Haggadah that so is Sephardic custom

Ruling of Admur in Shulchan Aruch and other Poskim: Admur rules in 429:12 that Lamnatzeiach is recited during the month of Nissan with exception to Erev Pesach. This follows the ruling of the following Poskim: Rama 131:1 and 429:2; Maharil Nissan; Minhagim Tirna p. 167

[6] Sefer Hamamarim 1948 p. 268; Sefer Haminhagim p. 19; This Takana began on the 2nd of Nissan 1944 based on what the Rebbe Rayatz heard in Gan Eden

[7] Siddur Admur

[8] The reason: The reason for this is because this Psalm represents supplications and is hence omitted by times of joy. [Shaar Hakolel 11:23 based on Seder Hayom]

[9] Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov 429:7

[10] Admur 429:8 in parentheses; Likkutei Maharich

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule Av Harachamim is recited on Shabbos, during the month of Nissan. [M”B 284:17]

[11] Implication of Admur ibid that this statement is also going on Av Harachamim

[12] Admur ibid; Rama ibid

[13] Admur ibid; Michaber ibid; Rokeiach ibid; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 429:3

[14] Nitei Gavriel Pesach 3:8 [p. 54]; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 429:4

[15] See Gesher Hachaim 1 p. 259; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:65; Nitei Gavriel ibid;

[16] Gesher Hachaim 1 p. 259; Orchos Rabbeinu 2:305

[17] Dvar Yehoshua 2:80; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 783; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; The Rebbe was accustomed to visit the Tziyon of the Rebbe Rayatz in the month of Nissan on various occasions.

 [Otzer Minhagei Chabad 15 p. 13]

[18] See Nitei Gavriel 16:3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 429 footnote 17; 697:1

[19] Minchas Yitzchak 3:51 based on Levushei Mordechai Y.D. 2:140

[20] Kinyan Torah 2:122

[21] Admur 429:9; M”A 429:3; Peri Chadash 429:2; Olas Shabbos 429:2; Miseches Sofrim 21:3

[22] Meaning the omission of Tachanun and the ruling that one is not to fast.

[23] Customarily, the day that each person brought a sacrifice was considered a holiday for him.

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