Morning washing-The details of the washing

How does one wash his hands in the morning?
A. Pouring on one’s hands using a vessel: [1]

One must use a vessel to pour[2] the water on his hands for the morning washing.[3] 

 Q&A

May one use a disposable cup to wash Negel Vasser?[4]
Initially it is best not use a disposable vessel to wash with if there are other vessels available. However if there is no other vessel currently available then it may be used without question.

If one has no vessel available can he wash using the spout of the sink?[5]
Yes. One is to close and open the spout prior to each pouring on the hand.[6]

B. The order of the washing:
Pick up basin with right hand and pass to left:[7] Lechatchila[8] one is to take a vessel [filled with water[9]] with ones right hand and then place it in ones left hand.[10]
Which hand is one to pour on first?[11]  One must first pour the water on his right hand.[12]

 Q&A

Which hand is a lefty to pour on first?
Some Poskim[13] rule even a lefty is to wash his right hand first.[14] However others[15] rule a lefty washes his left hand first.

If another person is pouring on one’s hand from which hand should he pour?[16]
He should pour using his right hand being that the right side represents mercy.

C. Pouring three times on each hand in-consecutively:
How many times is one to pour the water on each hand?[17] The Talmudic[18] sages stated that the impurity does not [completely[19]] leave ones hands until one pours water on each hand three times. [Regarding the law if one does not have enough water available to wash each hand three times see Halacha 12]
Alternating hands between each pouring:[20]  The sages [of Kabala[21]] received a tradition that these three pourings on each hand [must[22]] be done inconsecutively [in order to completely remove all remnant of the impurity from ones hands[23]]. [Thus one must be very careful to pour the water on each hand inconsecutively even Bedieved.[24] Thus after pouring one time on the right hand, one then takes the vessel into his right hand[25] and pours one time on his left hand, and then repeats this for a total of three pourings on each hand.[26]]

Q&A

If one accidently poured the water consecutively three times on each hand what is he to do?
If he has more water available then he is to re-wash his hands three times inconsecutively. If he does not have any more water available, then he may recite a blessing on the washing. See Halacha 12 for the full details of this subject.

D. How much of one’s hand needs to be washed?[27]
One must be very careful to pour water over the entire hand, up until the wrist, as the impurity spreads up to that point. This applies even Bedieved.[28] [Thus even in a case that one does not have much water available it does not help to pour only on the fingers, and thus one may not make a blessing over the washing if he did so.[29]]
Yom Kippur and Tishe Beav:[30] On the morning of the 9th of Av and Yom Kippur one only washes his fingers, having intention to remove the impurity which they contain [as on these days the impurity does not extend past the fingers[31]]. [At the conclusion of Yom Kippur and Tishe Beav, prior to saying Havdala and Kiddush Levana, one washes his [entire] hand three times inconsecutively.[32]]

E. May someone pour the water over one’s hands or is he to do so himself?[33]
A person who has not yet washed his hands after awakening in the morning should not pour the water of morning washing on another person’s hands.[34] [However such a person may bring the water to him, for him to wash on his own[35], although it is an act of piety to be stringent even in this regard.[36]]

Q&A

Can a woman pour the water on a person’s hand if she already washed?[37]
One is not to have a woman which is a Niddah pour the water of the morning washing over one’s hands.[38] Furthermore even if the woman is pure she should not pour over a man’s hand [unless she is his wife or his daughter].[39]

Can a gentile pour the water on a person’s hands?[40]
One is not to have a gentile pour the water of the morning washing over one’s hands. [However the gentile may bring him the water.[41]]

Can a child pour on another person’s hands if he has not yet washed?[42]
No.

 

Summary of how to wash:

  1. Prepare a full basin of water near the bed prior to going to sleep.
  2. Upon awakening immediately proceed to wash the hands.
  3. Take the basin of water with the right hand and pass it to the left hand.
  4. One then pours over ones entire right hand, up to his wrist.
  5. One then takes the vessel into his right hand and pours on his left hand. One repeats this order another two times, hence washing each hand three times inconsecutively.
  6. One then immediately proceeds to the bathroom, discarding the water into the sink or toilet.
  7. One then rinses his mouth.
  8. After using the bathroom one is to wash his hands a second time inconsecutively. A towel is used for this washing.
  9. One then rubs his hands together while still wet and dries his hands.
  10. After they are dry one lifts them separately to the height of his Peiyos [ears].
  11. One then recites the blessings of Al Netilas Yadayim, Asher Yatzar and Elokaiy Neshama.
  12. One then washes his face.

Summary of the laws applicable to the washing:

  • Any detail that invalidates the washing for bread likewise invalidates the morning washing, and a blessing may not be recited.[43]
  1. There must be at least a Revius of water within the vessel used to pour.
  2. Only water which is kosher for washing hands for bread may be used for this washing.
  3. The water must be poured from a vessel through the effect of a human. When having someone else pour on ones hands then only one who has already washed should pour.
  4. One may not have any interference on his hands.

Various laws relevant to the washing

Do the laws which apply when washing hands for bread likewise apply for the morning washing?[44]
All the laws which invalidate the washing for bread apply likewise for the morning washing. Therefore a blessing may not be recited over the morning washing if it is invalid for washing for bread.

 Important note:

It is beyond the scope of this website to bring all the details involved in the laws of washing for bread. Only general and selected laws will be brought. For further study on this subject, see Seder Netilas Yadayim of Admur and Shulchan Aruch Admur 159-162 for all the details.[45]  The laws which are pertinent only to the morning washing will be brought in their full length.

F. Having the water poured as a result of human action:[46]
The water must come on to one’s hand as a direct result of human action. [This comes to exclude dipping one’s hand in a vessel[47], or having an animal pour the water over one’s hands[48], or placing one’s hands under a waterfall.] This applies even Bedieved. [Thus if one is unable to wash as the result of human action a blessing may not be said over the washing. See Halacha 7A and Halacha 13.]

 G. Not to have any interference [Chatzitza] on ones hands:[49]
One may not have any interference on his hands while washing. [Thus women must remove their rings from their fingers[50], and each person should check his hands to make sure they are clean prior to washing.[51]] This applies even Bedieved.

 H. How much water must there be in the vessel used to pour?[52]
The vessel used to pour the water must contain at least a Revius[53] worth of water prior to beginning the first pouring. [If it does not contain a Revius worth of water the washing is invalid.[54]]
How much water must one pour each time?[55] The above obligation is only regarding how much water must initially be in the vessel before beginning the pouring. Regarding the amount of water one must pour each time on his hand, there is no minimum measurement of a Revius. [However one must pour the amount of water needed to wash ones entire hand, up until his wrist, by each pouring.[56]]

I. Using kosher water:[57]
Only water which is valid for washing hands for bread may be used for the morning washing. This applies even Bedieved.[58] [Thus one who washes with water which is invalid for washing for bread may not say a blessing on the washing. Nevertheless, if no other water is available, one is to wash his hands with the invalid water without a blessing.[59] If kosher water later becomes available one should wash his hands properly with a blessing.[60] Regarding saying a blessing if the water only became available after Shacharis-see Halacha 2 Q&A.]

 J. Not to touch the impure water on the vessel [or on the other hand]:[61]
One has to be careful that his hands do not touch the water that is on the other hand.[62] Thus one must be careful not to touch the area of the vessel that his wet hands grasped in order to pour on the other hand. [For this reason there are those which are accustomed to have a few handles on the washing cup, in order to avoid this problem.[63] Today our custom is to wash using a towel and thus avoid this issue all together.]

 Q&A

If one touched the hand of a person who did not yet wash, must he re-wash his hands?
Some Poskim[64] rule one must rewash his hands three times inconsecutively if he touched the hands of a person that did not yet wash. This applies even if the hands are dry.[65] For this reason some would wear gloves when shaking the hands of someone who did not yet wash.[66] However it is evident from other Poskim[67] that the hands do not become impure and it is not necessary to re-wash the hands. If however one’s hands are still wet from the initial washing and he then touched another hand that was not yet washed, then he must rewash his hands, as is the ruling regarding washing for bread.[68] If one’s hands are dry and the other persons hands are wet-see footnote.[69]

May one wash his hands using the bathroom sink?[70]
One is to avoid washing his hands for the morning washing using a bathroom sink.[71] However in a time of need one may wash his hands for the morning washing inside a bathroom. One is to wash and then leave the bathroom to say the blessing. [The above is only with regards to sink water. However toilet water is invalid for washing hands even if it is clean.[72]]

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[1] Siddur Seder Netilah; Basra 4/1; 159/1 regarding washing for bread

Ruling of Admur in Kama 4/1: Admur in Kama 4/1 rules a vessel is needed to be used. In 4/2 he explains that this does not mean one needs to pour from the vessel but rather even dipping the hands into the vessel suffices. In 4/3 he explains that if one does not have any vessel available then he is to dip his hands in any body of water, even drawn water, and say the blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim, as the Sages did not differentiate [between the way he washes his hands] as nevertheless he is using water that is valid for washing. In the Siddur Admur argues on each one of these points.

Other Poskim: The Michaber 4/7 rules that initially one is to be careful to follow all the laws that apply when washing for bread. Hence according to the Michaber one is initially to use a vessel. The Rama rules that Bedieved a vessel is not needed, and so rules Admur in Kama ibid. The M”A 4/3 rules that one may even say a blessing on such a washing. The Kaf Hachaim 4/10 brings many Poskim that rule a blessing may not be recited and so concludes Kaf Hachaim being that Safek Brachos Lihakel. The following Poskim rule like Admur that one must use a vessel and otherwise the washing is invalid: Mor Uketzia [brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/27]; Zekan Ahron 2/1.

[2] May one dip one’s hand in the vessel? It does not suffice to dip ones hands into the water. So is implied from the wording in Kama and Basra 4/1 which states that just like a Kohen must pour from a Keli so too is the washing upon awakening, which is compared to the service of a Kohen. As well this is implied from Basra 4/2 which states that “the hands are only purified if one pours on them”. This negates dipping ones hands into the water. Likewise in the Siddur Admur rules that one needs human effort to place the water on his hands and thus it must be poured. However in truth in 159/17 Admur differentiates between dipping one’s hands into a puddle of water and into a vessel that contains water, as in the latter there are opinions which say that when dipping into a vessel one is not required to have human effort. In the Siddur Admur does not detail the law of dipping inside a vessel. Practically in 159/7 Admur rules to be stringent and dip without a blessing and in the Siddur he writes that all the laws which apply by washing for bread apply likewise for the morning washing.

Ruling of Admur in Kama: In Kama 4/2 Admur rules: “One does not need to pour the water onto his hands, rather he may even dip his hands into a vessel and rub them in the water, and it’s considered that he washed his hands“. Thus according to the Kama although one needs to use a vessel-if available- nevertheless even initially one does not need to pour from the vessel and rather one may even dip his hands inside. See Halacha 13 for further details on this matter.

[3] As just like the Kohen would pour on his hands from the Kiyur vessel [every day-Kama ibid] prior to his service, so too we must pour from a vessel onto our hands in order to sanctify them, as the entire reason behind the blessing said over the morning washing is to emulate the service of a Kohen. [based on Kama ibid] It is for this reason that the wording of the blessing said over the washing is “Al Netilas Yadayim” and not “Al Rechitzas Yadayim“, as the vessel used for washing is called by the sages a “natla”, and therefore the sages instituted the wording of the blessing to be “Netilas” in order to show that the washing needs to be done with a vessel. [Kama ibid]

[4] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 159/2; Vayan Yosef 1/65; Beir Moshe 1/49; Koveitz Mibeis Levi 3/70; Tzitz Eliezer 12/23; Az Nidbaru 6/45; Igros Moshe 3/39; Kinyan Torah 1/49

[5] Zekan Ahron 2/1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/7

[6] This is in order to fulfill the condition of “human action” which is required according to the Siddur as explained in 7F.

Other Opinions: The M”B 4/17 rules it is not necessary to close and open the spout between each pouring being he rules one does not need “human action”.

[7] Kama 4/10; Siddur; Seder Netilas Yadayim 5; Seder Hayom; Shaar Hakavanos of Arizal brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/12

[8] Siddur; In Kama 4/10 Admur writes “It is a good thing”

[9] Siddur

[10] Although the right hand needs to be washed prior to the left, being that we always give precedence to the right, nevertheless one is to first place the cup in the right hand and then give it to the left for the reason written in the Zohar. [Kama 4/10; Seder Netilas Yadayim 5] One is to intend that everything is included in the right side and from the right it comes to the left. [Kama 2/3] Seder Hayom: “One is to take the vessel in his right hand in order to draw down waters of kindness to purify himself with”; See also Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz 1/100: “In order to fulfill both the taking and the pouring with the right hand. In additional intent is because all the Hashpaos come from the right and especially Netilas Yadayim which is an Hamshacha of Mochin in Midos and the gate of this is the right”

[11] Kama 4/10; Siddur; Seder Netilas Yadayim 5

[12] The reason for giving the right side precedence is because we find that the Torah gives the right side importance regarding the service in the Temple, anointing of the Levim, purification of the Metzora, and Chalitza. [Basra 2/4; Kama 2/4]

[13] Peri Megadim 158 A”A 1; M”B 4/22 in name of Artzos Hachaim; Amudei Hashulchan 2/2; Kaf Hachaim 4/35; See also Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz 1/100; Miasef Lekol Hamachanos 4/53; Beir Moshe 2/1

[14] As one should pour from the right which is Chesed over the left which is Gevurah and hence overcome the Gevuros. [ibid; Seder Hayom based on Zohar]

[15] Tzemach Tzedek Orach Chaim 4/6 and 5/8 based on Admur 183/7 that a lefty is to hold the Kos Shel Bracha in his left hand; 651/14 that a lefty is to hold the Lulav in his left hand;  Siddur Shaar Menachem [Rabbi Levi Bistritzky]; See Sefer Dinei Iter p. 51-54

[16] Elya Raba 4/5 brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/36

[17] Kama 4/4, Basra 4/2, Siddur; Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz 1/100

Other Opinions-Pouring four times: Some Poskim rule that one is to pour four times on each hand. [Gr”a; Kav Yashar 13; Darkei Chaim Veshalom 2] The reason for doing so is because they hold the water of the third washing is impure and hence needs to be washed off with a fourth washing. This custom is brought down in many Sefarim of Minhagim and is followed by many, and so is the proper custom to follow. [Kaf Hachaim 4/8; Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/7 footnote 87] However this is not the custom of Chabad Chassidim and rather we specifically wash only three times on each hand. [Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rayatz 1/100]

[18] Basra 4/2; Tractate Shabbos 109a

[19] Basra 4/2. This implies that even one pouring removes some part of the impurity. [Ketzos Hashulchan 2 footnote 11]

[20] Basra 4/2, Siddur; Kama 4/4: “One should not pour on his hands three times consecutively, rather he is to pour once on the right and once on the left and so on and so forth for a total of three times.”; Arizal in Shaar Hakavanos based on Zohar

Other Opinions: Many Poskim rule like Admur and Arizal that the pouring must be done three times inconsecutively. [Olas Tamid 17; Beis Oveid 4; Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 1] However there are Poskim that rule one is to pour three times consecutively on each hand. [Kneses Hagedola; Seder Hayom; Elya Raba 4/5; See Artzos Chaim 10] Some rule that one who desires to be stringent like both opinions is to pour three times consecutively and then pour another two times inconsecutively on each hand. [Zachor Leavraham 1/50; Chesed Lialafim; Artzos Chaim brought in Yifei Laleiv 1/7, brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/12; Likkutei Mahrich] Alternatively one is to pour three times consecutively and then three times inconsecutively. [Kaf Hachaim 4/12; Yaavetz in Siddur; Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] 18/22; Yifei Laleiv ibid; Mishmeres Shalom 1/5] Practically the main opinion follows the Arizal that once one has poured three times inconsecutively all the impurity has left. [Kaf Hachaim 4/12; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/7 footnotes 79-80]

[21] Siddur; Shaar Hakavanos of Arizal; Peri Eitz Chaim 3; Matza Shemura 3 [brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/12]; In Basra 4/2 it is implied that this applies also according to the Sages of the Talmud, although in truth one can read it differently. In Ketzos Hashulchan 2 footnote 11 he writes that according to the Talmud inconsecutive pourings are not needed to remove the impurity. In Kama 4/4 no mention is made regarding who instituted the inconsecutive pourings.

[22] Siddur and Basra 4/2; Kama 4/4 mentions this as a separate point, without stating that if done consecutively that the impurity will not be removed. Regarding if one may make a blessing if he washed consecutively and no longer has anymore water to wash with-See Q&A  below!

[23] Siddur and Basra 4/2; This implies that even one pouring removes some part of the impurity. See Chapter 3 Halacha 7B that in such a case one is no longer liable to beware of the Kabalistic restrictions that apply prior to washing although he is to be stringent regarding the Talmudic restrictions due to doubt.

[24] Siddur; Vetzaruch Iyun on the meaning of Bedieved, as in the Siddur Admur rules that if one does not have enough water to wash three times then washing one time suffices and he is to say a blessing. Perhaps however this means that the Talmudic restrictions still apply.

[25] Handing the vessel from the left hand to the right hand: Some people are careful to never hand the cup of water from the left hand to the right hand and hence they first put the basin down and the take it with the right hand. However they make sure to directly hand it from the right hand to the left hand when it comes the turn for the water to be poured on the right hand. The reason for this is to show that the right is a master to the left. [Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 1; Kaf Hachaim 4/13]

[26] Ketzos Hashulchan 2/3

[27] Siddur based on Peri Eitz Chaim Shaar Brachos 3; unlike ruling in Kama 4/7 that it is only proper to do so.

Ruling in Kama: In Kama 4/7 Admur rules “One only needs to wash his fingers [until his knuckles], although it is good to wash up to ones wrist.”

Other Opinions: Many Poskim rule like Admur in Kama that it suffices to wash up until the knuckles in a time of need, and a blessing may be recited. [Artzos Hachaim; Shaareiy Teshuvah 5; M”B 4/9; Kitzur SH”A 2/3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/7 footnote 89; Kaf Hachaim 4/3] The following Poskim rule like Admur in the Siddur that one must wash up until the wrist: Olas Tamid 18b; Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 2; Beir Heiytiv 4/6.

[28] So is implied from Admur in Siddur which writes that if one does not have much water available he is to pour one time over the entire hand rather than three times only over the fingers. [Ketzos Hashulchan 2 footnote 10]

[29] Ketzos Hashulchan 2 footnote 10; See previous footnotes for other opinions.

[30] 613/2

Does this ruling apply even according to the Siddur? This ruling is going in accordance to the ruling of the Mahadurah Kama 4/7 that there is no obligation to wash past the fingers. This is opposed to the ruling in the Siddur that one must wash up until the wrist [and thus there is room to say that according to the Siddur even on these days one should wash until his wrist], nevertheless the custom according to all on Yom Kippur and Tishe Beav is not to wash past the fingers, and so ruled the Previous Rebbe. [Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag Vol. 2 page 181]

[31] Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag Vol. 2 page 182; Ketzos Hashulchan 2 footnote 10

The reason for this is because the Mekubalim explain that on Yom Kippur the spirit of impurity does not have much power. While on Tishe Beav since there is not much purity on that day, therefore it does not seek much nurture of holiness from the hands, and thus only dissipates to the fingers. [Rebbe ibid]  [Alternatively] on Tishe Beav, the entire day belongs to the impure side, and thus the impurity does not care to nurture from such a minute amount of holiness found past the fingers. [Ketzos Hashulchan ibid; brought also in Kaf Hachaim 4/14 and Ben Ish Chay Toldos 2]

Why don’t we wash the entire hand as does a Kohen? The Ketzos Hashulchan ibid asks that although from the impurity perspective there may not be a need to wash past ones fingers on these days, nevertheless being that another [main-Kama] reason for the morning washing is to prepare for prayer/serving G-d like a Kohen, therefore there should still be an obligation to wash the entire hand, as a Kohen must wash his entire hand prior to service. He concludes with a Tzaruch Iyun. [To note however that this question is not only with regards to Yom Kippur, as it should also be asked on the ruling of Kama 4/7 that the every day washing is only required until the knuckles. To also note from the Siddur that the only reason why Admur require the washing until the wrist is, as he states, “because the impurity dissipates until the wrist”. Thus there is no opinion that says washing the entire hand is required due to exemplifying a Kohen.]

[32] Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag Vol. 2 page 183

[33] Kama 4/11; Michaber 4/11; Seder Hayom

[34] As the verse states “The pure shall pour on the impure”. [ibid]

Does this apply also when washing hands for bread? There are Poskim which likewise rule that one should not have another person wash someone’s hands for bread unless he has already washed. [Taz 4/7] The Achronim however have negated this opinion. [Elya Raba 4/6; Yad Ahron; Mamar Mordechai 4/6; Peri Megadim 4 M.Z. 7; Nehar Shalom 4/1; Kaf Hachaim 4/39]

[35] Ashel Avraham Butchach 4; Kaf Hachaim 4/37; M”B 4/23

[36] Ashel Avraham Butchach ibid concludes that it is best to set up the water the night before.

[37] Kaf Hachaim 4/38; Admur in Seder 16 regarding washing for bread writes that there are those that are stringent to avoid having a Niddah, such as one’s daughter, pour on ones hands. He concludes it is proper to suspect for their words. In the Siddur Admur writes that all the laws which apply by washing for bread apply likewise for the morning washing.

[38] Morah Bietzba 2/1; Kesher Gudal 1/2; See Ashel Avraham Butchach 4; Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/15

[39] Yafei Laleiv 1/15 based on Even Haezer 21/5; Seder 16 regarding washing for bread in which Admur writes “Such as his daughter” thus implying that one may not do so from other women even if she is not a Niddah.

The reason: From the letter of the law it is permitted for a woman to pour the morning washing water over a man’s hands as this is not being done for pleasure and hence does not fall under the prohibition mentioned in Even Haezer ibid. Nevertheless it is a proper guard to avoid doing so. [Kaf Hachaim 4/38]

[40] Lev Chaim 1/68; Ruach Chaim 5/6; Moreh Baetzba 2/51; Kaf Hachaim 4/38; Admur in Seder 16 regarding washing for bread writes that there are those that are stringent to avoid having a gentile pour on ones hands. He concludes it is proper to suspect for their words. In the Siddur Admur writes that all the laws which apply by washing for bread apply likewise for the morning washing.

Other Opinions: Ashel Avraham Butchach 4 suggests that perhaps since a gentile is not required to wash hands therefore he may wash someone’s hands.

[41] Ashel Avraham Butchach 4

[42] Seder Hayom

[43] Siddur

[44] Siddur Seder Netilah; Mor Uketzia brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/27; Kaf Hachaim 4/10

Ruling of Admur in Kama: As is evident from numerous rulings of Admur in Kama [4/2-regarding vessel; 4/3-regarding Revius and invalid water] the laws of morning washing differ from those of washing for bread. The Shaar Hakolel 1/4 explains that in the Shulchan Aruch Admur ruled like the Poskim while in the Basra he rules like the Mekubalim, and it is for this reason that he was stringent in the Siddur to equate all the laws of morning washing to the laws of washing for bread. See P”M 4 A”A 1 that according to the Rosh any water suffices while according to the Rashba all the laws of washing for bread apply. [brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/6] See also Tzemach Tzedek 1 that according to the Rashba’s understanding of the Gemara all the laws of washing for bread apply.

Other Opinions: The Michaber 4/7 rules that initially one is to be careful to follow all the laws that apply when washing for bread. The Rama rules that Bedieved the washing is valid, and so rules Admur in Kama ibid. So rules also M”B 4/17;

[45] These details include: The laws of a Kosher vessel [159; Seder 12-15] The laws of Kosher water. [160; Seder 7] The laws of a Chatzitza. [161; Seder 6] The laws of rubbing the hands together. [162; Seder 3]

[46] Siddur Seder Netilah; 159/14 and Seder Netila 15 regarding washing for bread; Implied also from Basra 4/1

Ruling of Admur in Kama: In Kama 4/2 Admur rules: “The water does not have to touch a person due to the action of a human.”

Other Opinions: The Michaber 4/7 rules that initially one is to be careful to follow all the laws that apply when washing for bread. The Rama 4/7; M”B 4/17 rule that Bedieved one does not need human action involved in the pouring, as so rules Admur in Kama ibid. The M”A 4/3 rules that one may even say a blessing on such a washing. The Kaf Hachaim 4/10 brings many Poskim that rule a blessing may not be recited and so concludes Kaf Hachaim being that Safek Brachos Lihakel.

[47] See 159/17 and Halacha 13A!

[48] Siddur Seder Netilah states “power of a human” this excludes animals. In 159/20 regarding washing for bread Admur records a dispute in this matter. In Seder Netila 15 Admur writes “human power”.

[49] Siddur Seder Netilah; 161/1 and Seder Netila 6 regarding washing hands for bread

Other Opinions: Ashel Avraham Butchach rules that it is permitted to have interferences on the hands when washing in the morning.

[50] 161/7 regarding washing for bread

[51] Seder Netila 6 regarding washing for bread

[52] Siddur Seder Netilah; Kama 4/1; 159/3; 160/16; and Seder Netila 12 regarding washing for bread.

[53] The Grach Naah writes that it is 86 Milliliters or 2.9 fluid ounces. This is the same Gematria as the word Kos. [Shiureiy Torah 3/6]; Others say that it is 105 Milliliters [3.5 fluid ounces]. Others say it is 109 milliliters or 3.7 fluid ounces. Others say it is 115 milliliters. Others say that it is 128 mil or 4.3 fluid ounces. [See Koveitz Yagdil Torah NY 60 p. 263-264 in a Ksav Yad of Tzemach Tzedek in name of Admur; See Kitzur Hilchos Shabbos Miluim p. 18] Practically the widespread custom is like the ruling of the Grach Naah.

[54] Based on Siddur Seder Netilah; and so rules: Biur Hagra 4/7 in name of Rieh; Rashash in Nehar Shalom; Ruach Chaim 5/5; Kaf Hachaim 4/26

Background of ruling of Siddur:

Admur writes in the Siddur that all the laws of washing for a meal equally apply for the morning washing. In 159/3 and 160/16 Admur rules regarding washing for bread that the vessel must contain a Revius of water for it to be valid and hence the same would apply for the morning washing.

Ruling of Kama: In Kama 4/3 Admur rules: “If one does not have a Revius of water available he may nevertheless wash with a blessing being that the Sages did not differentiate [in the amount of water], as one is nevertheless washing with valid water.” This follows the ruling of Michaber 4/6

[55] 160/16 regarding washing for bread

[56] Siddur; See Halacha C!

[57] Siddur Seder Netilah; Unlike Kama 4/3 which differentiates regarding one who will be Davening right away or not.

Ruling of Admur in Kama: In Kama 4/3 Admur rules that if one only has water that is invalid for washing for bread then if he plans on guarding his hands until Shacharis then he may say a blessing on the washing. However if he does not plan to Daven right away and will thus not be guarding his hands, hence needing to rewash prior to davening, then he may not recite a blessing when washing with this water. 

Other Opinions: Michaber 4/1 rules that water for morning washing is not required to be valid for washing for bread. Nevertheless he brings that some argue that a blessing may not be said over such a washing. The M”B 4/7 rules that the Achronim arbitrated that one may wash with a blessing. So rules M”A 4/5. The Derisha and Levush rule he is to say the blessing of “Al Nekiyas Yadayim. From Kama it is implied the regular blessing of Al Netilas Yadayim is said. The following Poskim rule a blessing may not be said, as rules Admur in Siddur: Peri Tzaddik 74; Mamar Mordechai 4/3; Nivei Shalom 4/2; Kaf Hachaim 4/11; Mor Uketzia brought in Kaf Hachaim 4/27.

[58] It is beyond the scope of this book to bring all the details involved in the laws of water that is invalid for washing for bread. For further study on this subject, see Seder Netilas Yadayim 7 and Shulchan Aruch Admur 160 for all the details. The following are the categories of invalidations mentioned there: The water changed color. [160/1] One did work with the water. [160/2-9] Water that is not drinkable. [160/10-12] Liquids other than water. [160/15]

[59] Shaareiy Teshuvah 4/4; Ketzos Hashulchan 2/4; Seemingly this is done in order to be allowed to pray and learn Torah. Alternatively it is to suspect for those opinions which validate the washing.

[60] Ketzos Hashulchan 2/4 based on Admur in Siddur that the first washing was completely invalid.

Other Opinions: The Shaareiy Teshuvah 4/4 rules that if valid water later becomes available one is to wash without a blessing as the impurity has already been removed and hence the blessing has been lost. The Ketzos Hashulchan 2 footnote 16 argues that by morning washing everyone’s is accustomed to only say the blessing after using the bathroom and hence we do not say that too much time has passed since the first washing to be able to say a blessing. So asks also Birchas Habayis 32/5; Minchas Elazar 2/44; Biur Halacha 4 rules that one is to use the bathroom prior to prayer and then wash with a blessing.

[61] Siddur Seder Netilah; See also Elya Raba 4/4 that due to this suspicion he rules one is to wash in the morning, each hand, three times consecutively.

[62] As this water is impure and the successive pourings cannot remove the impure water of another hand. Meaning if impure water of the right hand got on the left finger, the left hand will remain impure even if he pours on it three times, as the impurity of the right hand cannot be washed off the left hand. [162/2; Seder 2]

[63] Ketzos Hashulchan 2/14

[64] Ruach Chaim 4/6; Lev Chaim 1/65; Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] 8/4; Ben Ish Chaiy Toldos 12; Kaf Hachaim 4/17; See also Yabia Omer 9/108; Az Nidbaru 12/54 : This applies even if both hands are dry.

[65] Yabia Omer ibid; and so is also evident from Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] ibid who states he would wear gloves to avoid this issue.

[66] Kaf Hachaim [Falagi] ibid

[67] Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/11; So seems obvious from the fact such a law is not mentioned in Shulchan Aruch or any of the classical commentators. See also Artzos Chaim 51 regarding that touching the impure water does not make one’s hands impure as one cannot create novelties of his own in matters of  Ruach Raah.

[68] Seder Netilas Yadayim 3; and so is evident from the ruling of Admur in J; so also rules: Makor Chaim [Chavos Yair] brought in Piskeiy Teshuvos 4 footnote 125; Az Nidbaru 12/54

[69] On the one hand we rule by washing for bread that in such a case the person’s hands become impure and require re-washing. [Seder 3] On the other hand perhaps this form of impurity is not the same as that of washing for bread as clearly rules Artzos Chaim ibid that the impure water does not make one’s hands impure. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[70] Oas Chaim 43/1; Minchas Yitzchak 4/36; Chelkas Yaakov 2/162; Piskeiy Teshuvos 4/19; Kaf Hachaim 4/11

Background:

Although there is no prohibition in doing a Mitzvah within a bathroom [Darkei Teshuvah Yoreh Deah 19/21] nevertheless the question is raised whether the water in a bathroom is able to purify one’s hands as one who enters a bathroom [even without doing his needs] is impurified.

[71] As a bathroom is a place of impurity and hence how can washing in it remove the impurity. [Minchas Yitzchak ibid in name of Poskim]

[72] Ben Ish Chaiy Achreiy 13; Kaf Hachaim 4/11 based on that this water is considered repulsive just like water which a pig drank from, and hence may not be used.

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