Material of the Tallis

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Introduction: The relevance of the Kashrus of the Tallis material plays a ramification on the following two matters. 1) Whether the four cornered garment may be worn without Tzitzis. 2) Whether one fulfills the Mitzvah of Tzitzis by wearing the four cornered garment with Tzitzis. Certain material four cornered garments are completely exempt from Tzitzis and one hence may wear them without Tzitzis, and the Mitzvah is not fulfilled if one places Tzitzis on them. Other garments are only Rabbinically obligated in Tzitzis, and hence, although one may not wear it without Tzitzis, he does not fulfill the Biblical Mitzvah of Tzitzis by wearing it. Other garments are disputed if they are obligated in Tzitzis and hence although one is to be stringent to not wear such a garment without Tzitzis, nevertheless one should not fulfill his Mitzvah of wearing Tzitzis with such a garment.

 

A. Wool and Linen:

Wool-The choicest material:[2] A wool garment is Biblically obligated to have Tzitzis according to all opinions.[3] Thus, those which desire to fulfill the Mitzvah of wearing Tzitzis on its highest standard[4] [i.e. according to all opinions[5]] are to be careful to wear a pair of Tallis Gadol/Katan that is entirely made from sheep wool. This means that both the garment and fringes are to made from sheep wool. By doing so one fulfills the Mitzvah of Tzitzis without any question.[6] [Practically, the Chassidic custom is to be particular to only wear wool Taleisim.[7]] Wool is only considered “Biblical” in this regard if it comes from a sheep.[8] The wool of a camel, goat or rabbit is not included in the wool referred to in the Torah and hence falls under the ruling of other materials.[9]

Linen:[10] A linen four cornered garment is Biblically obligated to have Tzitzis tied to its corners according to all opinions.[11] Biblically, it is even permitted to tie wool strings to the garment.[12] However, the Sages forbade placing Tzitzis on a linen four cornered garment.[13] This prohibition applies even against tying linen fringes [as opposed to wool] to its corners.[14] Thus, one is not to wear a four cornered garment made of linen, being that it is completely exempt from the Mitzvah of Tzitzis.[15] However in today’s times, if there is no other pair of Tzitzis available other than linen[16], one may wear a linen Tallis with linen fringes [that are spun and interwoven Leshma according to Halacha[17]] and recite a blessing over it.[18] [This applies both for a Tallis Gadol and Katan.[19]] Alternatively, if one desires he can make the corners of the Tallis out of leather, and then tie wool strings onto it.[20]

 

Q&A

May one wear a four cornered linen garment without placing Tzitzis on it?

In previous times, it was permitted to wear a four cornered linen garment without Tzitzis.[21] However seemingly today it is forbidden to do so, and one is hence to avoid wearing any four cornered garment made of linen.[22]

 

B. Other materials:[23]

If a Tallis is made of material other than wool or linen it is disputed as to whether it is Biblically obligated in the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, or only Rabbinically.[24] Practically, the main opinion follows those that rule that all materials are Biblically obligated.[25] Nevertheless, being there are opinions that argue, those which desire to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis on its highest standard[26] [i.e. according to all opinions[27]] are to be careful to wear a pair of Tallis Gadol/Katan that is entirely made from sheep wool, meaning that both the garment and fringes are made from sheep wool, and by doing so one fulfills the Mitzvah of Tzitzis without any question.[28] [Practically, the Chassidic custom is to be particular to only wear wool Taleisim.[29]] According to all opinions[30], a blessing may be recited over a Tallis made of other materials if one attaches Tzitzis of that material onto the garment. Thus, those that wear a silk garment with silk Tzitzis, or a cannabis material garment with cannabis Tzitzis [or a cotton garment with cotton Tzitzis], are to recite a blessing upon wearing it, if the fringes are made of their material.[31] [If however the Tzitzis is made of wool and the Tallis is of a different material, it is proper not to say a blessing upon wearing such a Tallis, as explained in Halacha 2A.]

 

C. Leather:[32]

Leather four cornered garments are exempt from Tzitzis.[33] [Thus, one does not need to place fringes on leather four cornered garments and one who does so does not fulfill the Mitzvah.]

Mixed material with leather:[34] If a garment is made of mixed materials which include leather, then one follows the majority material. If majority of the material is made of leather, then the garment is exempt from Tzitzis. This applies even if the corners are made from other materials. If majority of the garment is made from other materials and minority is made from leather, then it is obligated in Tzitzis, even if the corners are made of leather.[35]

Two linings, one of leather:[36] If a garment contains two linings of clothing, as is common by coats, then we follow the outer lining. If the outer lining is made of a material that is obligated in Tzitzis then it requires Tzitzis. If the outer lining is made of leather and the inner lining is made of other material, then it is exempt from Tzitzis.[37] [If however this inner lining serves its own purpose, such as for extra warmth, then some[38] write it should have one corner rounded even if the outer garment is leather.]

 

Final Summary:

All four cornered garments are obligated in Tzitzis irrelevant of the material, with exception to leather. Nevertheless, a person who desires to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis according to all opinions is to be particular that his Tallis Gadol/Katan is made of sheep wool.

 

General Q&A

May one wear a cotton Tallis Katan?

From the letter of the law, one may be lenient to wear a cotton Tallis, even if it contains wool fringes.[39] However, initially it is proper [even in the summer[40]] to avoid wearing a cotton Tallis [whether of a Tallis Katan or Tallis Gadol, if a wool Tallis is available] even if the fringes are made from cotton.[41] If however the fringes are made from wool, then although the custom is to be lenient, every G-d fearing Jew is to be stringent upon himself to avoid wearing it [whether it is a Tallis Katan or Gadol] and if he does wear it, it is proper that a blessing not be recited.[42] Practically, the Chassidic custom is to be particular to only wear wool Taleisim.[43]

 

Nighttime: Some[44] learn that one may be lenient to wear cotton Tzitzis at night even if he is generally particular to only wear a wool Tallis, as stated above. The Chassidic custom is to be particular to wear wool Talleisim even at night.[45]

 

Is a four cornered inner lining of a garment obligated in Tzitzis?

If a garment such as a coat contains a four cornered inner lining that is made of material that is obligated in Tzitzis, and this inner lining serves its own purpose, such as for extra warmth, then if the lining is sewed onto the garment it is not obligated in Tzitzis.[46] If however the inner lining is detachable, as is common with many coats, then it should have one of its corners rounded.[47]

 

Machine made Tallis:

There is no restriction against making the Talleisim through a machine and so is done today in all places. Nevertheless, some Poskim[48] forbid using machine made Talleisim. It is unclear as to whether it is a matter of piety to be stringent like this opinion.[49]  

 

Q&A on Leather

May one wear a leather Tallis Katan?

Leather clothing are exempt from Tzitzis as stated above, and thus one does not fulfill the Mitzvah if he wears a Tallis Katan made of leather.

 

Is a four cornered woven[50] leather garment obligated in Tzitzis?

Some Poskim[51] rule it is not obligated in Tzitzis, even if made of woven leather threads.[52]

 

Is a four cornered fur coat obligated in Tzitzis?

No, as stated above. If however the coat contains a four cornered inner lining that is made of other material, and this inner lining serves its own purpose, such as for extra warmth, then some[53] write it should have one corner rounded.

 

Q&A on other materials

Is a four cornered felt[54] wool/cotton garment obligated in Tzitzis?[55]

Yes.[56]

 

Is a four cornered polyester garment [i.e. Rayon, Nylon, Acrylic; Sky; Dacron, Terylene] obligated in Tzitzis?[57]

Woven polyester: This matter is debated amongst Poskim, as explained next. Practically, to avoid the dispute, one is not to wear a four cornered garment made of these woven materials unless one of the corners are rounded or Tzitzis are tied to the corners.

Felt polyester: If the garment is made of felt polyester [not woven threads] it is exempt from Tzitzis.

 

May one wear a woven[58] polyester Tallis Katan [i.e. Rayon, Nylon, Acrylic; Sky; Dacron, Terylene]?

Some Poskim[59] rule that polyester four cornered garments are exempt from Tzitzis.[60] Other Poskim[61] however rule that they are obligated in Tzitzis and one may hence wear a polyester Tallis Katan for the sake of the Mitzvah.[62] Practically, one is to be stringent to avoid wearing a Tallis Katan made of polyester materials.[63] Nevertheless, those who are lenient have upon whom to rely, although a blessing over the Tzitzis is not to be said in such a case.[64] However some[65] are lenient to allow even a blessing to be recited over a polyester woven Tallis Katan.

Felt Polyester:[66] If the garment is made of polyester felt then it is exempt from Tzitzis and it is forbidden to recite a blessing over such Tzitzis.

 

May a Tallis be made from wool of a non-kosher animal?[67]

Yes.[68]

May one use Tzitzis made from the wool of a non-Kosher animal for a garment made of that material?[69] Yes. However some Poskim question this matter.[70]

 

Sparks of Chassidus:[71]

The main mitzvah is to have a woolen white Tallis. This corresponds to the verse “Levusheiy Kateleg Chiveir”. This corresponds to the level of Sovev Kol Almin. The fringes on the other hand correspond to the 32 paths of wisdom, which represent the level of Mimalei Kol Almin.


[1] Admur 9/4; Michaber 9/1 and 6

[2] 9/4; Michaber 9/1 and 6; Ketzos Hashulchan 6/1

[3] Admur ibid; Michaber 9/1

[4] Lit. Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. However the Michaber ibid writes “Every G-d fearing Jew is to…” Vetzaruch Iyun as to what the difference is between the wording of Admur and that of the Michaber. The wording of the Michaber suggests that every G-d fearing Jew must do so, while the wording of Admur suggests that this matter is optional to each person. Vetzaruch Iyun! Perhaps the explanation is that in truth we [Ashkenazim] hold mainly like the opinions that rule that all materials are a Biblical obligation, as rules Rama 9/1 unlike the Michaber 9/1, and hence Admur does not use the same wording as the Michaber and rather uses a more lenient wording.

[5] Michaber ibid

[6] Admur ibid; Michaber 9/6 in name of Igur and Rabbeinu Yeshaya and Maharil; M”B 9/5; Kitzur SHU”A 9/12; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 1; Kaf Hachaim 9/5; Halichos Shlomo 3 footnote 25; Or Letziyon 2/2 footnote 3; Igros Moshe 1/2; 2/1; 3/1; Yoreh Deah 3/52

The reason why the Beged/Tallis is to be made of wool: There are opinions [Gemara Menachos 39b; Rif; Rambam] which hold that Biblically, only a Tallis made of wool or linen is obligated to have fringes placed on it, while a Tallis of any other material is only required to have fringes due to a Rabbinical injunction. Therefore, one who desires to fulfill the highest level of the Mitzvah of wearing Tzitzis [Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar] is to wear a Tallis of wool material. [Admur ibid]

Why the Tzitzis is to be made of wool: If the garment is made of wool then the fringes are to also be made of wool. The reason for this is because the only material that is valid to be tied to a wool garment is wool. This matter will be explained in Halacha 2!

[7] See Igros Kodesh 14/229 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 1/44 footnote 14]

[8] This includes the wool of a ram, which is a male sheep. [M”B 9/1]

[9] Admur 9/8 as is brought in Yorah Deah chapter 298

[10] 9/2; Rama 9/6; Menachos 40a; Yevamos 90b; Shabbos 25b as ruled by Rabbeinu Chananel; Smag; Smak; Ran in name of Razah

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule that we do not rule like the above opinion and hence it is permitted from the letter of the law to wear a linen garment with linen Tzitzis. [Michaber 9/6; Beis Yosef 9 in name of Rashi; Mordechai in name of Rabbeinu Shimshon]  The Gr”a was known to rule that one may even initially wear linen Tzitzis today, being that it does not get as dirty as wool. [Sefer Halikutim in new Maaseh Rav]

[11] Admur ibid; Michaber 9/1

[12] Biblically, it is permitted to wear a linen garment and tie wool Tzitzis [such as Ticheles] onto its corners. Now, although it is Biblically forbidden to wear a garment that contains wool and linen together [known as Shatnez] nevertheless this prohibition of Shatnez is pushed off in face of the Mitzvah of Tzitzis. [See Yevamos 4a that learns this from the proximity of the verses discussing the two laws]. It is for this reason that the Torah commands to tie a string of Techeiles, which is a wool string that is dyed blue, even onto a linen garment, as Biblically the prohibition of Shatnez does not apply by Tzitzis. [Admur 9/2] See Rambam 3/6 that from the allowance to tie Ticheiles to a linen garment we learn that there is no Shatnez prohibition involved in tying wool to linen by Tzitzis, and one may hence tie wool Tzitzis to a linen garment, or linen Tzitzis to a wool garment. Nevertheless, the Rambam concludes that the one is not to do so, being one is able to tie other material strings to the garment, and hence fulfill both commands of Shatnez and of Tzitzis. [See Rambam 3/6; Aruch Hashulchan 9/16]

[13] The reason: Despite the above Biblical allowance of Shatnez by Tzitzis, the Sages decreed against tying any Tzitzis, even of linen, onto four cornered linen garments. The reason for this is due to worry that one may come to place wool Tzitzis onto a garment of linen that is defined as “Kesus Laylla/Night garment”. A night garment is exempt from Tzitzis even during the day, and if one ties wool strings to it he will transgress wearing Shatnez being he is not fulfilling the Mitzvah of Tzitzis with this garment. [Admur ibid; Menachos 40b; There is a dispute as to the definition of Kesus Layla. Some Poskim rule it refers to a Beged that is designated for only night use. In such a case one who wears these Tzitzis, even during the day, since he is not fulfilling the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, transgresses the command against wearing Shatnez. Others however hold that Kesus Layla means that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis does not apply at all at night to any garment, but does apply to night garments that are worn during the day. Accordingly, the suspicion would be that one may come to wear any pair of wool and linen Tzitzis at night, when the Mitzvah no longer applies, and hence transgress the command against wearing Shatnez. See Tosafus Menachos 40b]

[14] The reason: The decree of the Sages extended even against placing linen fringes onto a linen garment. The reason for this is because in previous times there was an obligation to place a Techeiles string onto the corners, and Techeiles is made of wool. Hence, the Sages suspected that if they allowed one to place linen fringes onto a linen garment he may add a string of Techeiles, which is wool, within the fringes, and hence come to wear a pair of Tzitzis made of linen and wool, of which the Sages decreed against as explained above. Thus, they forbade placing any fringes, whether wool or linen, onto the garment. For this reason one is not to make a Tallis of linen at all being that the Sages completely exempted it from Tzitzis. [Admur ibid; Geonim and Rabbeinu Tam brought in Tur 9; Beis Yosef ibid]

[15] Admur and Poskim ibid based on Gemara ibid; Siddur Admur [Letter 30 in Raskin] “One is not to make a Tallis of linen at all”

As wool and linen strings are invalid due to the decree, and other material strings are only valid for a garment made of their material, as explained in Halacha 2!

[16] Admur ibid; Rama ibid; However in the Siddur [Letter 30 in Raskin] Admur writes “In a time of great need”

[17] Siddur Admur [Letter 30 in Raskin]

[18] Admur ibid; Siddur Admur ibid; Rama ibid; M”A 9/7

The reason: The above prohibition against tying even linen strings to a linen garment was only in previous times when Ticheiles was available, and hence we worried that one may come to tie wool Techeiles to a linen garment. However in today’s times, being that wool fringes of Techeiles is no longer available and it is no longer relevant to decree against linen strings due to Techeiles, one may be lenient and wear a linen four cornered garment, if there is no other clothing available. [Admur ibid]

[19] Siddur Admur ibid; See Siddur Raskin footnote 164 for the novelty of this ruling

[20] Admur ibid; See Yoreh Deah 300/5

Why there is no Shatnez prohibition: There is no Shatnez prohibition involved in having two of the four sets of corners made of only wool and the other two of the four sets of corners made of only linen and have them placed on a non wool/linen garment, as the custom is to be lenient to not consider this form of attachment as Shatnez. [Rama 299/2 as rules Rosh and Beis Yosef that there is no Shatnez involved in having wool and linen attached to opposite sides of a garment; Shach 299/2 that so should apply even in accordance to the Michaber in 300/5]

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it is forbidden to have any wool and linen both attached to a garment even if they are not touching each other and is on opposite sides of the garment. [Michaber 299/2 as rules Rambam Kilayim 10/7] The Shach ibid questions this ruling stating the Michaber later contradicts himself in 300/5.

[21] Ruling of Gemara/Tosafus: The Gemara Yevamos 90b [and Shabbos 25b; Menachos 40a] rules that one may wear a linen blanket without Tzitzis. This is due to the decree of the Sages which forbade placing Tzitzis on it. [Rashi ibid; Menachos 40a] and the sages have the power to uproot a Mitzvah in a way of Shev Veal Taaseh. [Gemara ibid] Tosafus Yevamos 90b “Kulhu” however asks that by wearing the linen Tallis one actively uproots the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, and it is not Shev Veal Taaseh. Tosafus ibid answers that the Mitzvah of Tzitzis only begins after one wears the garment, and by that time the making of Tzitzis already becomes “Shev Veal Taaseh”.

Ruling of Admur: Admur rules “One is not to make a Tallis of linen at all being that it is exempt from Tzitzis completely” hence implying one is never to wear a four cornered linen garment. One cannot wear it with fringes, to fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, being that the Sages forbade and exempted it from the Mitzvah and hence he does not fulfill the Mitzvah at all. Seemingly, one also cannot wear it without fringes being that Biblically one is obligated to place fringes on it and hence by wearing it without fringes he is actively uprooting the Biblical command due to the command of the Sages. [as asks Tosafus ibid] On the other hand one cannot say that Admur is arguing on the Gemara ibid which permits doing so. Some [Chikrei Halachos 1/8] explain that the words of Admur “being that it is exempt from Tzitzis completely” is coming in truth to answer the initial question of Tosafus as to how it is allowed to wear the Tallis without Tzitzis, as since the Sages exempted it from Tzitzis completely, it is hence like any other garment that does not require Tzitzis which may be worn. The Sages have the power to nullify an item from being within the obligation of the Mitzvah and doing so is not considered a prohibition of “Lo Sigara”. [Chikrei Halachos 1/8 as learns Rashba R”H 1st Perek, unlike Avnei Nezer 418] Hence according to Admur there is no Halachic issue with wearing a linen garment without Tzitzis, and the meaning of the words “One is not to make a Tallis of linen at all” is referring to the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, that one is not to make a four cornered linen garment to fulfill the mitzvah of Tzitzis, as in truth it is completely exempt. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[22] As a) There are opinions in Rishonim that rule a Tallis of linen is obligated in Tzitzis and so rules Michaber 9/6; and b) Even according to Rama and Admur ibid that rule like the opinion that exempts it from Tzitzis, they themselves conclude that in a time of need one may make a linen garment and place Tzitzis and say a blessing. Hence, how can one today Lechatchila wear a linen four cornered garment without Tzitzis [based on its exemption], if he himself would be allowed to wear it with Tzitzis and say a blessing in a time of need! Accordingly, one should never wear a four cornered garment of linen that does not have Tzitzis. Vetzaruch Iyun!

[23] 9/4

[24] Some Poskim rule it is only Rabbinically obligated in Tzitzis. [Gemara Menachos 39b; Rif; Rambam 3/2; Michaber 9/1] Others rule all materials are Biblically obligated in Tzitzis. [Tosafus; Rosh; Smag; Mordechai; Rama 9/1]

[25] Rama 9/1; Admur in Kuntrus Achron 9/1 “and so is the main opinion”; Admur in 9/1 learns the verses in a way that shows all garments are Biblically obligated

[26] Lit. Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar. However the Michaber ibid writes “Every G-d fearing Jew is to…” Vetzaruch Iyun as to what the difference is between the wording of Admur and that of the Michaber. The wording of the Michaber suggests that every G-d fearing Jew must do so, while the wording of Admur suggests that this matter is optional to each person. Perhaps the explanation is that in truth we [Ashkenazim] hold mainly like the opinions that rule that all materials are a Biblical obligation, as rules Rama 9/1 unlike the Michaber 9/1, and hence Admur does not use the same wording as the Michaber and rather uses a more lenient wording.

[27] Michaber ibid

[28] Admur ibid; Michaber 9/6 in name of Igur and Rabbeinu Yeshaya and Maharil; M”B 9/5; Kitzur SHU”A 9/12; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 1; Kaf Hachaim 9/5; Halichos Shlomo 3 footnote 25; Or Letziyon 2/2 footnote 3; Igros Moshe 1/2; 2/1; 3/1; Yoreh Deah 3/52

[29] See Igros Kodesh 14/229 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 1/44 footnote 14]

[30] So explains Admur in Kuntrus Achron 9/2. However see M”A 9/3 in name of Bach that a blessing is to only be said on a wool garment with wool Tzitzis.

[31] 9/5

The reason: This ruling is obvious, as even according to the Rif and Rambam which argue that such materials are not Biblically obligated in Tzitzis, they nevertheless agree that it is Rabbinically obligated, and hence a blessing may be made just as a blessing is made over any Rabbinical command. [Kuntrus Achron 9/2]

Other opinions: Some write that although the custom is to recite a blessing, a G-d fearing Jew should not do so being this matter is under dispute. [Kaf Hachaim 8/27 in name of Chesed Lealafim 8/5]

[32] Admur 10/7; Michaber 10/4; Levush 10/4; based on Rava Menachos 40b; Chayeh Adam 11/6; M”B 10/11; Aruch Hashulchan 10/9

[33] The reason: As the verse only obligates garments that are considered “clothing” “Kanfei Bigdeihem. Now, leather material is not considered clothing, as only clothes which are woven are considered clothing. [Admur ibid; Levush ibid; Menachos ibid] The verse explicitly excludes leather materials from “garments” as it states in Vayikra 13/49 “Beged or leather”. [Aruch Hashulchan ibid]

[34] 10/8; Michaber 10/4; M”A 10/4; Menachos 40b

[35] The reason: As we follow the main material of the clothing, as the verse states “Asher Techaseh Bah” hence implying that the Tzitzis obligation on a garment is dependent on the portion of the garment that covers the main part of the body. [Admur ibid]

[36] 10/9; M”A 10/5; M”B 10/11

[37] The reason: As the inner garment is always secondary to the upper garment. [ibid]

[38] Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/5 based on Mor Uketzia 10

[39] As according to all, cotton material is at least Rabbinically obligated in Tzitzis, and it is only a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to wear wool. [9/4] Likewise, even if the fringes are made of wool, the custom is to be lenient to tie even wool strings to a cotton pair of Tzitzis, and only a G-d fearing Jew is to be stringent. [9/4]

[40] Igros Moshe brought in next footnote

[41] Admur 9/4; Michaber 9/6; M”B 9/5; Kitzur SHU”A 9/12; Ben Ish Chaiy Noach 1; Kaf Hachaim 9/5; Halichos Shlomo 3 footnote 25; Or Letziyon 2/2 footnote 3; Igros Moshe 1/2; 2/1; 3/1; Yoreh Deah 3/52

[42] Admur 9/5 as brought in Halacha 2A!

The reason: If the fringes of the cotton Tallis is made of wool [as is the commonly sold material of all Tzitzis today] then some Poskim [Maharam Merothenberg] rule that the Tzitzis is invalid, and it is as if one is wearing a four cornered garment without Tzitzis. Now, although in conclusion we rule that the custom is to be lenient, nevertheless every G-d fearing Jew is to be stringent. [9/4]

Other opinions: Some Poskim are lenient to even initially allow one to wear a cotton Tallis Katan, even if the fringes are made from wool. [Gra in Maaseh Rav 17 and in M”B 9/6; Chazon Ish brought in Orchos Rabbeinu 1/18]

[43] See Igros Kodesh 14/229 [brought in Shulchan Menachem 1/44 footnote 14]

[44] Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/2, based on Ashel Avraham 21 that states “I was accustomed to wear a Tallis Katan of linen at night” and hence certainly he would allow one to wear cotton, of which from the letter of the law is obligated in Tzitzis at least Rabbinically. However Tzaruch Iyun as how one can learn from this anything as he himself writes that he is disturbed if this is proper, being that perhaps this makes it appear like Baal Tosif.

[45] Heard from Rav Eliyahu Landa Shlita

[46] As stated above in C that we always follow the outer lining.

[47] Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/5 based on Mor Uketzia 10

[48] Divrei Nechemia 1-8

[49] See Shulchan Menachem 1/44 footnote 14; Oholei Lubavitch 45-57

[50] Meaning the leather was turned into thread and then woven into a garment.

[51] Igros Moshe 2/1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/1 based on Bartanura on the Mishneh Keilim 27/1; M”B 10/11; See also Har tzevi 1/9; Az Nidbaru 7/52; Lehoros Nasan 2/3

[52] The reason: As since leather is not usually woven, it is not considered clothing at all, and so rules Rav Bartanura ibid regarding Tumah. [ibid]

[53] Piskeiy Teshuvos 10/5 based on Mor Uketzia 10

[54] Felt is a garment or mat made by pressing together the cloth materials. It does not contain weaving in the process. This is referred to in Hebrew as Leved or Levadim. See Yoreh Deah chapter 301.

[55] Lehoros Nasan 2/3; Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/1

[56] Based on Rambam Keilim 1/11 that Leved has the same status as woven clothing. Now, although leather is exempt from Tzitzis being it is not woven, nevertheless felt is similar to weaving as the items are pressed together. This is in contrast to leather which is one single entity.

[57] Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/2; See Poskim in next Q&A!

[58] However if it is made of polyester felt then it is exempt from Tzitzis and it is forbidden to recite a blessing over such Tzitzis.

[59] Igros Moshe 2/1; See also Divreiy Yatziv 1/3; Or Letziyon 1/3; Even Yisrael 9/1; Tzitz Eliezer 12/3; Az  Nidbaru 7/52-54

[60] The reason: Polyester material has the same status as leather and is hence exempt from Tzitzis.

[61] Mahariy Shtief 28; Halichos Shlomo 3/16 in name of Rav SZ”A; Har Tzevi 1/9; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1/34

[62] The reason: As woven polyester garments are made of woven threads and is thus not similar to leather, but rather is similar to cotton garments which are obligated in Tzitzis.

[63] Even Yisrael 9/1; Lehoros Nasan 2/1-4

[64] Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/1

[65] Halichos Shlomo ibid

[66] See Poskim ibid in the lenient opinion

[67] Admur 9/8 regarding the wool of camels and rabbits; Pischeiy Teshuvah 9; Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/4

[68] As silk is also made by worms, and everyone agrees that silk material is obligated in Tzitzis. [Pischeiy Teshuvah ibid]

[69] P”M 32 M”Z 48; Chasam Sofer 39; Ginas Veradim 15

[70] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 9/4

Other opinions: It is discussed amongst Poskim whether by Tzitzis the material must be made from Kosher products. Practically, one is to be stringent, although those that are lenient have upon whom to rely.

[71] Likkutei Torah Korach page 104

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