Kavod and Oneg

The mitzvah of Kavod and Oneg Shabbos:[1]

A Biblical or Rabbinical precept: There are two matters regarding Shabbos that were expounded on by the prophets. These are the Mitzvah to honor Shabbos [i.e. Kavod Shabbos] and Oneg Shabbos.[2] These two Shabbos obligations [to honor and enjoy it] are in truth rooted in a Biblical precept.[3] However there are opinions[4] which learn that these two above obligations contain no Biblical root and are rather of Rabbinical origin.[5] Nevertheless, even according to the latter opinion one must be very careful to fulfill these two obligations of honor and enjoyment on Shabbos, as Rabbinical precepts are of more severity than even Biblical precepts. [Practically in the laws of Yom Tov[6] Admur rules plainly like the latter opinion that the Mitzvos of Oneg and Kavod are Rabbinical precepts which have been explained by the prophets.[7]]

The reward: Whoever fulfills the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos his reward is explicitly mentioned in the Prophets that he will merit “basking in pleasure of G-dliness”. Furthermore, the sages state that whoever performs the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos all his sins are forgiven and he is saved from the judgment of Gehenom. 

 

What matters are included within the Mitzvah of Kavod and Oneg Shabbos?

  • Oneg Shabbos: Eating delicacies of food and beverages[8] was defined by the Sages as the requirement of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos[9] and it is the main aspect of Oneg.[10] The following sub-categories are included within this Mitzvah:
    • Eating 3 Shabbos meals with bread, as bread is the main part of a meal.[11]
    • Eating hot foods on Shabbos is included within honoring Shabbos and within Oneg Shabbos.
    • Lighting candles on the table in which one eats.[12]
    • Sleeping on Shabbos is included within Oneg Shabbos.[13]
    • Marital relations on Shabbos is included within the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos.[14]
    • Not to have any thoughts regarding mundane activities, and rather viewing all of one’s needs and worries as already taken care of by G-d, is included within Oneg Shabbos.[15]

       

  • Kavod Shabbos: Wearing clean [and elegant] clothing was defined by the Sages as the requirement of the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos. The following sub-categories fall under this Mitzvah:
    • Baking Chalas for Shabbos, as opposed to buying them from a bakery, is included in Kavod Shabbos and Yom Tov.[16] (Likewise even those which generally are lenient to eat Pas Akum bread are not to do eat it on Shabbos as this too is included in the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. Rather they are to eat from bread baked in their homes.[17])
    • Bathing: Bathing one’s body in hot water is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[18]
    • Removing cobwebs from walls and roofs is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[19]
    • Cutting ones hair and nails on Erev Shabbos is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[20]
    • Not to eat a meal on Erev Shabbos past the 10th hour, in order to be able to eat the Shabbos meal with an appetite, is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[21]
    • Setting the Shabbos table on Erev Shabbos for the Friday night meal is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[22]
    • Preparing on Erev Shabbos all the matters of one’s house that require preparation for Shabbos so that when one arrives from Shul it is already all arranged.[23]
    • Having a tablecloth cover ones table throughout the entire day of Shabbos is included within the Mitzvah of honoring Shabbos.[24]
    • Preparing Melaveh Malka after Shabbos is done in honor of Shabbos.[25]

 

Summary:

Is disputed if Kavod and Oneg Shabbos is a Biblical or Rabbinical obligation. Nonetheless according to all one must be very careful in fulfilling the Mitzvah, and one who does so basks in G-dliness in the future, has all his sins forgiven and is saved from the judgment of Gehenim.

 

Q&A

Why is no blessing said over the fulfillment of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos?

Various answers have been given towards this question:

  • As there is no specific food that one is required to eat in order to enjoy Shabbos.[26]
  • It is included in the blessing said over the lighting of candles.[27]
  • It is included in the blessing said over Kiddush.[28]
  • No blessing is said over the eating of the three Shabbos meals as we never say a blessing over a Mitzvah which is not fulfilled in one timeframe.[29]

 

Is there a Mitzvah of Simcha applicable on Shabbos?

There is no Mitzvah of Simcha explicitly mentioned regarding Shabbos.[30]


[1] 242/1

[2] As says the verse “And one calls enjoyment onto Shabbos, to sanctify the honored G-d”.

[3]As Shabbos is included within the group of days called “Mikraeiy Kodesh” or “A calling of holiness”, and the Sages have learned that the term “A calling of holiness” is coming to teach that one is to sanctify and honor the Shabbos with clean clothing, and to enjoy the day through pleasurable foods and drinks. [ibid] So rules Sefer Chareidim chapter 4

[4] Tosafos; Mahril

[5] As they learn that the wording of “A calling of holiness” is coming to teach that one is to sanctify the Shabbos through refraining from doing forbidden labor. [ibid]

[6] 529/5

[7] The Mishneh Berurah in Biur Halacha [250 “Yashkim”] sides that the eating of bread during the meal is Biblical while other delicacies are Rabbinical.

[8] Such as meat, fish and wine

[9] 242/1

[10] 288/3

[11] 529/3-4 regarding Yom Tov that this is the definition of Oneg. It requires further analyses why this was not mentioned regarding Shabbos, neither in 242 [which simply defines Oneg as eating delicacies] or in 274 1-4 which discusses the laws of having three meals on Shabbos. There it is mentioned that the obligation of eating bread is hinted to from verses in the Torah and no support for its obligation is brought due to it being considered part of Oneg Shabbos. Furthermore, the reason mentioned for ones obligation to eat bread is because of the verses discussing the “Mon” eaten in the desert and not because of the Mitzvah of Oneg Shabbos. Vetzaruch Iyun. To note that in 249/10 and 254/8 Admur mentions that eating bread is the main part of the Shabbos meal, although this does not necessarily connect to the idea of Oneg.

[12] 263/1

[13] 281/1

[14] 280/1

[15] 306/21

[16] 242/12

[17] 242/13; For the innovation of this ruling and as for why it was placed in parentheses-see Chikreiy Halachos 3 p. 30

[18] 260/1

[19] 262/2

[20] 260/1; 529/2 that this is included in the honor of Yom Tov

[21] 529/2 regarding Yom Tov that it is included in the honor of Yom Tov.

[22] 262/1

[23] 262/1

[24] 262/1

Rambam [30/2 ] mentions that wearing Tzitzis on Erev Shabbos and waiting for the coming of Shabbos is included in honoring Shabbos,

[25] 300/1

[26] Toras Shabbos 263/7

[27] Toras Shabbos 263/7

[28] Keren Ledavid 61

[29] Sdei Chemed Asifas Dinim Brachos 1/16

[30] 529/8; and so is proven from 242/1 that Shabbos does not have a Mitzvah of Simcha. However the Rebbe in Shaareiy Halacha Uminhag 1/127 writes that the reason that the Mitzvah of Simcha was not written regarding Shabbos is because it is nullified to the Mitzvah of Oneg applicable on Shabbos. However this requires further analysis as by Yom Tov there is also a Mitzvah of Oneg [Rabinically (529/5 as is the second opinion in 242/1), and if the Oneg involves Simcha-Biblically (242/1 KU”A 2)] and nonetheless Admur mentions also the Mitzvah of Simcha by Yom Tov. Thus omitting the Mitzvah of Simcha by Shabbos seems to imply it does not exist, as writes Admur explicitly in 529/7.

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