Laws of Kashering-Entire Chapter

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Chapter 9:  Kashering:[1]

 

Introduction:

The laws of Kashering vessels are complex and hence it should only be done by one who is expert in these laws.[2]

One must be aware of the following details and be aware of their ramifications:

1.       Is the vessel made of a Kasherable material?

2.       How has the vessel been used? What form of Kashering is required for it? Libun? Hagala?

3.       What must one do if the vessel is rusty?

4.       How does one do Libun?

5.       How does one do Hagala?

6.       May the vessel be Ben Yomo?

7.       Must the vessel one is Kashering in, itself be Kashered?

8.       For how long must the vessels remain in the water?

9.       May many vessels be Kashered simultaneously?

10.   May one Kasher on Erev Pesach or Pesach?

1. What to do with Chametz vessels that one does not plan to Kasher:[3]

Cleaning the vessel: All Chametz vessels which one does not desire to Kasher for Pesach, or is unable to Kasher them, are to be cleaned from Chametz. One is to scrub them and slightly rinse them down from any recognizable Chametz.[4]  

Selling to a gentile: All vessels that are difficult to clean from Chametz, such as vessels used with dough and flour throughout the year, are to be sold to a gentile, or given to him as a present, and stored away as written next.[5] [However, initially one is to clean the pots to the best of his ability, even if he plans to sell them to a gentile.[6]] This, however, only applies to vessels that contain actual Chametz stuck to them. However, clean Chametz vessels are not required to be sold even though they contain Chametz absorbed within their walls.[7] [In the sale contract of the Alter Rebbe, recorded in his Shulchan Aruch, all Chametz vessels that contain actual Chametz on them are sold.[8] Chametz vessels that are sold to a gentile and remain in one’s home do not require Tevila after Pesach.[9]]

Putting them away: One is to hide the vessels in an area where he will not be accustomed to enter into throughout all the days of Pesach.[10] Furthermore, it is proper to place the vessels in a room [or closet] which will be locked, and then hide the keys, in order to prevent any possibility of entering there during Pesach. Those who are accustomed to place the vessels in a very high area which is visible, have upon what to rely[11], although one who is stringent to hide them away from sight will be blessed.[12]

If one did not clean his pots from Chametz? See chapter 3 Halacha 6!

 

Does one need to perform Bedikas Chametz towards Chametz vessels?

Some Poskim[13] rule that all Chametz vessels require a Bedika. Practically, the custom is not to perform a Bedika on vessels and to suffice with washing the utensils.[14]

 

2. Using Chametz vessels for cold Pesach foods:[15]

One may remove a clean Chametz vessel from its closed area in order to use it for cold Pesach foods, whether the food is dry of liquidly. However, on Pesach, past the 6th hour of Erev Pesach, this is only allowed to be done on occasion and is forbidden to be done on steady basis.[16] Before the 6th hour of Erev Pesach one may do so even on steady basis. At all times, prior to using the vessel, one must wash it well to verify it does not contain any visible Chametz.

Earthenware vessels: The custom is to avoid using Chametz earthenware vessels on Pesach for even cold Pesach foods, even on mere occasion.[17] This applies even if the Chametz vessel was only used for cold Chametz foods; nevertheless the custom is not to use it on Pesach even for cold foods.[18]

Knife:[19] It is permitted on Pesach on occasion to use a clean Chametz knife to cut cold non-Charif Pesach foods, if one stabs the knife in the ground ten times prior to using it. Before the 6th hour of Erev Pesach, one may use it even on steady basis through cleaning it in the above method.

3. Using Chametz vessels for non-eating purposes:[20]

It is permitted to use Chametz vessels on Pesach for non-food purposes, such as to heat up water for bathing and for laundry. [Thus, there is no need to purchase new Negel Vasser cups, basins, or garbage cans for Pesach. There is likewise no need to Kasher them, and they are simply to be well cleaned.[21]]

 

4. Buying and Kashering new vessels:

  1. Buying new vessels for Pesach rather than Kashering the Chametz vessels:[22]

There is no Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar involved in purchasing new vessels for Pesach rather than to Kasher one’s Chametz vessels, with exception to knives and all other vessels that are difficult to fully clean, in which case it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to by new one’s rather than to Kasher them. [However, some Poskim[23] write that it is better to have a separate set of Pesach vessels than to Kasher the Chametz vessels for Pesach.[24] Nevertheless, some Gedolei Yisrael were particular to Kasher at least one vessel for Pesach in order so the laws of Kashering not be forgotten.[25]

  1. Kashering new vessels:[26]

New vessels which are bought from a gentile do not need to be Kashered. Hence all vessels which appear new may be bought from a gentile store or company.[27] However, vessels sold by a gentile individual from his home are not to be purchased.

 

The law today-Must new pots or pans be Kashered or contain a Hechsher?

In the manufacturing process of cookware, it is common for oil-based primer and/or polish to used. Occasionally, this polish/primer is made from non-Kosher animal fats, and hence enters the cookware into the question of whether it is permitted to be used without Kashering.

The ruling: Many Poskim[28] rule that based on the current way that the non-Kosher oil is applied, there is no need to Kasher new pots, pans, or aluminum cookware, even if one knows for certain that a non-kosher-based oil was used as a primer or polish during the manufacturing process.[29] However, other Poskim[30] rule stringently that the pot requires Kashering. Some[31] say the pot requires Hagala, while others[32] suffice with Iruiy Keli Rishon. [The above reflects the current known method of pot manufacturing. In the event that cookware manufactures change how the oil-based polish is used, then this will also affect the law, whether for leniency or stringency.[33]]

The custom:[34] The widespread custom is not to require new cookware to be Kashered. However, in certain areas, such as Eretz Yisrael, many are accustomed to be stringent.[35] It is for this reason that there exists cookware, and aluminum pans, with Rabbinical certification. The Hashgacha of Rav Landau in Bnei Brak is accustomed to Kasher all new cookware and cutlery. 

Cast iron cookware: Cast iron cookware which is preseasoned, may only be used without Kashering if one verifies that a Kosher [non-animal based] oil was used for the seasoning. If one is unsure, and certainly if he knows for certain that it was seasoned using non-Kosher oil, then the pot must be koshered prior to use.[36]

 

 

5. Placing a covering on a non-Kashered surface:

A vessel or surface that is not Kosher, or was used for Chametz, must only be Kashered if food will come in direct contact with it, or will come in contact in a way that it can absorb taste from it, such as through liquid.[37] Thus, if one does not desire to Kasher a certain item, or the item is not Kasherable, then it suffices to properly cover the item with a material that will obstruct any transfer of taste. This can be accomplished by placing a sheet of metal [such as tinfoil], or other material [such as PVC, or a plank of wood[38]] over the surface.[39] [The material may be of any thickness, as long as it will not move or tear.[40] The surface must be cleaned of any visible food or Chametz prior to placing down the metal, and it must be dry. Likewise, throughout its use, one must make sure that water or other liquids do not enter in-between the covering and the surface if he desires to ever place hot Pesach food directly on it.[41] Practically, the suggested advice and custom is to Kasher all surfaces with Iruiy Keli Rishon and Even Meluban[42], including even surfaces made of material that cannot be Kashered.[43] One is then to dry the surface very well and cover it with PVC or a thick piece of tinfoil that will not tear.[44] One is to glue, tape, hammer, or staple the material onto the surface so it does not move. In addition to all the above, throughout Pesach it is proper to be careful not to place any hot food, or hot pot, directly on the covering, and is rather to place it on a trivet and the like.[45]]

Bed sheet:[46] A [thin[47]] bed sheet is not a valid interval to allow placing hot foods on a surface that has not been Kashered or that contains Chametz. Furthermore, even cold foods may not be placed on it during Pesach if there is Chametz under the sheet, on the vessel.

 

Summary:

All surfaces, including surfaces that cannot be Kashered, may be used over Pesach if they are covered properly. The order for achieving this is as follows:

1.       Pour hot water from a Keli Rishon and Even Meluban onto the surface.

2.       Dry the surface completely.

3.       Cover it with a thick piece of tinfoil, PVC, or wood.

4.       Fasten the covering material to the surface using tape, glue, staples and the like.

5.       Avoid placing hot foods or hot pots directly on the surface throughout Pesach, and is rather to place it on a trivet and the like.

Q&A

Should one cover surfaces with tinfoil, PVC, and the like even if they have been Kashered?

From the letter of the law, once these areas have been properly cleaned and Kashered they may be used for all foods without any cover.[48] However, some Poskim[49]  rule that one is to cover the surfaces even after they are Kashered due to suspicion that perhaps they still contain actual Chametz that was not properly removed. Practically, the widespread custom is to cover all items that contact food even after they have been cleaned and Kashered.[50]

 

 

6. Forms of Kashering:

The Torah taught us a great rule “Kebolo Kach Polto”; the same way the Issur has entered into the vessel is the same way that it can be removed. There are a thus number of different forms of Kashering that exist, each pertaining to the vessels quality of use with food. How each vessel is to be Kashered, and what level of Kashering it needs, is determined based on its past use.

The following are the different levels and forms of Kashering:

  1. Libun Chamor
  2. Libun Kal
  3. Hagala
  4. Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban
  5. Miluiy Veiruiy
  6. Hadacha

 

  1. Libun Chamor/Gamur:[51]

What is it? Libun Chamor is defined as torching the vessel until sparks fly from it, or alternatively, until a sheet of its metal peels off. [Practically, today the above does not occur to the metal, as it is much denser than in previous times. Accordingly, the following other signs should be used today: 1) If the metal becomes red it is considered to have reached Libun Chamor. 2) In degrees, if one heats the item until 400 degrees Celsius, it is considered to have reached Libun Chamor.[52]]

When is it required:[53] All Kasherable material vessels that had Chametz baked in them without liquids are disputed if they require Libun Chamur or Hagala and practically we rule that they need Libun Chamur.[54]

If Libun Chamor was not performed:[55] In all cases that Libun Chamor is required for Kashering for Pesach, and one only did Libun Kal or Hagala, then one may be lenient in a time of great loss or Simchas Yom Tov in a case that one already used the pot for cooking. However, by other Issurim one may never be lenient.

Libun Chamor on Chol Hamoed Pesach:[56] One may Kasher a vessel through Libun even on Pesach.

Ben Yomo:[57] Libun Chamur may be performed onto a Ben Yomo vessel, even initially.

 

Self cleaning oven:

An oven with self cleaning mode reaches a temperature of 900° F and is thus equivalent to Libun Chamur. This helps to perform Libun Chamor to itself, as well as to all Kasherable utensils that are placed in it while on a self-cleaning cycle. An oven with a “Continuous cleaning” cycle does not reach this level of heat and is not equivalent to Libun Chamur.

                                    

 

  1. Libun Kal:

Libun Kal is defined as torching the vessel on the inside[58] until its opposite side becomes Yad Soledes.[59] When burning Chametz from a rusty area or crack, the custom is to do so until the point that a piece of straw would burn if it were to be placed on other side.[60] [Placing a pot on a flame until the pot reaches Yad Soledes is not defined as Libun Kal, as the flame must be placed inside the pot, and pas sthrough every part of the inside.[61]]

When is it required: Libun Kal is as an alternative Kashering method to Hagala.[62] In certain cases, Hagala does not help, and thus Libun Kal must be used. For example, if a vessel contains cracks or rusty areas that cannot be cleaned, then those areas must have Libun Kal performed to them to burn any Chametz that they may contain.[63] Likewise, if a vessel is so long that part of its middle area will not enter the pot, then one may do Libun Kal to that area.[64] It is not valid to perform Libun Kal to a vessel which requires Libun Chamor, as explained in A.[65]

Ben Yomo:[66] Libun Kal may be performed even onto a Ben Yomo vessel, even initially.

 

  1. Hagala:

Hagala is defined as entering the vessel into a pot of boiling water. The detailed laws of Hagala are explained in Halacha 10!

When is it required:[67] All Kasherable material vessels that had Chametz cooked in them with liquids require Hagala [or Libun Kal]. It is not valid to perform Hagala to a vessel which requires Libun Chamor.

 

  1. Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban:[68]

Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban refers to pouring a direct[69] stream of hot water from a Keli Rishon[70] onto an item [i.e. Iruiy Keli Rishon], and then passing a red-hot stone or red-hot metal [i.e. Even Meluban] throughout the entire[71] vessel, hence causing the water to boil.[72] Bedieved, even if the water was poured from a Keli Sheiyni it is valid if it had the Even Meluban pass through and boil the water in the entire vessel.[73] Vessels that have protruding areas that prevent passing the stone over them, are invalid for this form of Kashering.[74] The detailed laws of Hagala, which apply likewise to Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban, are explained in Halacha 10!

When is it required:[75] This form of Kashering is a valid alternative of Hagala for all vessels that require Hagala, but cannot have Hagala done to them, such as they are too large and thus cannot fit into a pot, or are immobile [such as a counter.] Nonetheless, in all cases that it is possible to perform Hagala within a Keli Rishon, then one must do so and may not rely on Iruiy Keli Rishon and Even Meluban.[76]

 

 

Practical ways of performing Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even meluban:

Using an iron: A hot iron which causes the water to boil may be used as an Even Meluban. Hence, when Kashering through Iruiy with Even Meluban one is to pour hot water onto the surface and then pass the hot iron throughout the entire surface of that item, hence causing the water to boil. When doing so, one must observe when the iron has lost its power of heat to be able to boil the water, and consequently reheat the iron to its boiling power, and continue from where he left off.

Using a water boiler “Kumkum”:[77] Water which is poured from an electric water boiler [“Kumkum”], while the heating coils are still on and the water is boiling, is considered like both Iruiy and Even Meluban, and hence when pouring from such a vessel there is no need to pass over the surface using a red-hot stone or metal. [This, however, can only be achieved while the boiler is still plugged in and attached to the heating element.]

 

Must the Even Meluban contact every part of the item being Kashered?

Yes.[78] However, some Poskim[79] rule that it suffices for the boiling water which hit the stone to spread to every area of the item, and it is not necessary that the actual stone contact all the areas. Thus, protrusions and the like which prevent placing the stone directly on them is only problematic if the water which hits the stone is unable to reach those areas. Whatever the case, using a water Kumkum while the water is still boiling with the heating element still on, can read all areas of the vessel, and be valid according to all.

 

 

  1. Miluiy Veiruiy Shalosh Peamim:[80]

This refers to soaking water in the vessel for 24 hours, three times. One fills up the vessel till it’s very top with even cold water, and lets it sit there for 24 hours or more, and then spills out the water. One does this for a total of three times, even inconsecutively.

When is it required: All Kasherable vessels which had Chametz soaked in liquid for 24 hours require Hagala, or have the alternative option of having water soaked in them three times for 24 hours. This form of Kashering is valid even for earthenware vessels which absorbed cold Chametz through having it soak in them for 24 hours. This form of Kashering is not a valid alternative for any of the previously mentioned forms of Kashering.

 

  1. Hadacha:[81]

This refers to Kashering through cleaning the vessel very well in order to get rid of any surface residue. It may be cleaned even with even cold water. One is to use soap and a scrub to remove the food and is then to wash the vessel in water to remove the dirt. Once it is clean of all food residue, Hadacha is completed.

When is it required: Those vessels that were only used for cold Chametz foods, and never had Chametz soaked in them for 24 hours, are to be Kashered through Hadacha. Once they have been thoroughly cleaned, one may use them on Pesach for even hot foods.[82] Likewise, Hadacha is valid for allowing one to place cold Pesach foods on a Chametz vessel, even if it requires Kashering and was not Kashered.[83] Nonetheless, in the latter case, this may only be done on mere occasion, as explained in Halacha 2!

Earthenware: If an earthenware dish was used for only cold Chametz, although it is permitted from the letter of the law to be used even with hot foods, the custom is not place even cold Pesach foods on it during Pesach.[84] Certainly this applies if the earthenware dish was used for hot Chametz foods.[85]

7. What form of Kashering does a vessel require-General rules-Summary of above?

*The below list only refers to the form of Kashering required for vessels made of Kasherable materials. For a list of those materials that are Kasherable and those materials that are not Kasherable-see Halacha 8! For a list of vessels and their specific Kashering Laws see Halacha 9!

Libun Chamor-A vessel that had Chametz baked in it without liquid:[86] All Kasherable material vessels that had Chametz baked in them [without liquids] are disputed if they require Libun Chamur or Hagala and practically we rule that they need Libun Chamur even Bedieved.[87] However, if one did Libun Kal or Hagala, then one may be lenient in a time of great loss, or Simchas Yom Tov, if one already used the pot for cooking. However, by other Issurim one may never be lenient.

Hagala/Libun Kal-A vessel that had Chametz cooked in liquid:[88] All Kasherable material vessels that had Chametz cook in them with liquids, require Hagala or Libun Kal.

The status of pots:[89] All Kasherable pots used to cook Chametz foods with liquid have the status of absorbing food through liquid, even if the food burnt inside the pot.[90] Thus, it does not require Libun Chamur but rather Hagala or Libun Kal. For this reason, a pot or pan used to fry Chametz foods with a nice amount of oil, only requires Hagala.[91] If, however, one fried food in it using very little oil, just enough so the food does not stick, then the pot requires Libun Gamur.[92]

Miluiy Veiruiy-Chametz soaked in the vessel:[93] All Kasherable vessels which had Chametz soaked in liquid for 24 hours require Hagala, Libun Kal, or to be soaked three times for 24 hours. This applies even for earthenware vessels which absorbed cold Chametz through having the Chametz soak in it for 24 hours. [Thus, for example, a container which held cold Chametz soup for 24 hours requires Hagala, or soaking three times for 24 hours.]

A vessel which was only on occasion used for hot Chametz foods or soaking:[94] It is disputed if the above required forms of Kashering apply even if the vessel is not Ben Yomo, and was only used for hot Chametz foods, or for soaking Chametz foods, on occasion, while its main usage is for cold foods.[95] Practically, we are initially stringent to require the above forms of Kashering for any food used even one time for hot Chametz or for soaking Chametz, even if the pot is not Ben Yomo.[96] However, Bedieved, if the food was already used for hot Pesach foods, then we are lenient to follow the majority usage of the vessel[97], if the vessel is no longer Ben Yomo. If, however the vessel is still Ben Yomo from its one-time Chametz use, then it must be Kashered according to all, and even Bedieved the food is forbidden.[98]

A vessel that absorbed hot Chametz but not of a Keli Rishon:[99] A vessel which was never used with hot Keli Rishon, or Iruiy Keli Rishon Chametz, but rather only with Keli Sheiyni Chametz, or Iruiy Keli Sheiyni Chametz, or Keli Shelishi or Revi Chametz, is disputed if it requires Hagala or simply washing it [Hadacha] suffices.[100] This dispute applies even if on occasion the vessel was used for hot Keli Rishon Chametz, so long as its main usage was for Keli Sheiyni and onwards and the vessel is not Ben Yomo of its Keli Rishon Chametz use, as explained above. Practically, in all cases that the vessel was used for hot Yad Soledes Chametz foods even on occasion, even of a Keli Revi’i, we are initially stringent to have Hagala done to it before Pesach even if the vessel is no longer Ben Yomo.[101] However, Bedieved, if one used the vessel for hot Pesach foods without doing Hagala, then if the vessel is not Ben Yomo of the Chametz use, the food remains permitted if its main use was for a Keli Sheiyni and onwards.[102] If the vessel was Ben Yomo of a Chametz use of Iruiy Keli Sheiyni and onwards, then in a time of great loss, or Simchas Yom Tov, one may be lenient to eat the food on Pesach.[103]

Hadacha-A vessel that was never used for hot or soaked Chametz: Those vessels that were only used for cold Chametz foods, and never had Chametz soaked in them for 24 hours, are to be Kashered through Hadacha. Once they have been thoroughly cleaned, one may use them on Pesach for even hot foods.[104] Likewise, Hadacha is valid for allowing one to place cold Pesach foods on a Chametz vessel, even if it requires Kashering and was not Kashered.[105] Nonetheless, in the latter case, this may only be done on mere occasion, as explained in Halacha 2! The above is with exception to earthenware. If an earthenware dish was used for only cold Chametz, although it is permitted from the letter of the law to be used even with hot foods after Hadacha, the custom is not place even cold Pesach foods on it during Pesach.[106] Certainly this applies if the earthenware dish was used for hot Chametz foods.[107]

What vessels may be assumed to have only been used with cold Chametz? Initially, one should suspect that all vessels which are left in a sink have absorbed Chametz and should hence be Kashered.[108] This is both due to the chance that the vessel soaked in the Chametz water for 24 hours, or was washed with Yad Soledes water together with other Chametz. Thus, cups are customarily Kashered, as explained in Halacha 9B. If, however, one is certain that a) the vessel never remained soaked for 24 hours in the sink, and b) was never washed with Yad Soledes water together with Chametz, and c) was never used with hot Chametz and never had a Chametz food soak in it for 24 hours, then from the letter of the law it may be washed and used for Pesach without Kashering.[109] Practically, however, it is difficult to ascertain the above as well as we suspect that perhaps a crumb of Chametz once fell inside, and therefore it is to initially be Kashered in all cases.[110]

Vessels that are too large, or immobile for Hagala:[111] All vessels that require Hagala, but cannot have Hagala done to them, such as they are too large and thus cannot fit into a pot, or are immobile [such as a counter], are to have Iruiy Keli Rishon and Even Meluban performed to them. However, in all cases that it is possible to perform Hagala within a Keli Rishon, then one must do so and may not rely on Even Meluban. A large pot is to be Kashered through boiling water inside of it until its very top and then throwing into the boiling water an Even Meluban [red hot stone or slab of metal] which will cause the water to overflow and splash beyond the rims of the pot.[112]

8. What materials may be Kashered?

Earthenware pottery, china, dishes: Earthenware can only be Kashered through placing it in an oven and heating it to the point that it can be reformed.[113] If an earthenware dish was used for only cold Chametz, although it is permitted from the letter of the law to be used even with hot foods, the custom is not place even cold Pesach foods on it during Pesach.[114] An earthenware oven can be Kashered through Libun Gamur.[115] Examples of earthenware vessels that cannot be Kashered: Crockpot; mugs, chinaware.

Sundried clay vessels:[116] Vessels made of sun dried clay are Kasherable

Rock/stone:[117] Slabs of rock and stone are Kasherable materials. [Thus, marble, such as a marble counter, is a Kasherable material.[118] However, engineered stone[119] is like earthenware and cannot be Kashered.[120] Many counters today are made of engineered stone.]

Wood vessels:[121] Wood vessels are Kasherable [so long as it does not contain uncleanable cracks and crevices[122]]. The custom is to Lechatchilah never use any wooden vessels which were used for flour consistently, even if one cleaned it and performed Hagala.[123] All wooden vessels may be sanded down and Kashered.

Metal vessels:[124] Metal vessels are Kasherable. If the vessel absorbed the Chametz through cooking in water, then it suffices for it to be heated to the point that its outside reaches the point of “Yad Soledes Bo”. This can be done by either using a torch [Libun Kal] or dipping it in boiling water [Hagala]. If the vessel absorbed the Chametz directly, without any liquid, then it requires “Libun Gamur, which means that it must be heated until sparks begin to fly off from it, or until a layer of it peels off.[125] This applies even Bedieved.

Glued vessels:[126] Hagala is invalid for a vessel put together using glue.[127]

Ceramic:[128] Ceramic materials are a form of earthenware and cannot be Kashered.

Enamel:[129] Enamel is a material disputed amongst the Poskim is to whether it has the status of earthenware, and hence may not be Kashered.[130] Practically, it is customary not to Kasher Enamel coated vessels for Pesach, although many are accustomed to Kasher it regarding other Issurim during the year.[131]

Porcelain:[132] Porcelain materials have the same status of earthenware and cannot be Kashered.

Teflon:[133]  Teflon coated vessels cannot be Kashered.[134]

Plastic:[135] There is a dispute amongst Poskim[136] as to whether plastic vessels is able to be Kashered. Practically, some are accustomed to Kasher plastic, while others are not.

 

9. Practical list of items and how they are to be Kashered:

Pots, Cutlery and Kitchenware

  1. Cutlery

Forks/Spoons:[137] All forks, spoons and other cutlery made of Kasherable material, such as silver or stainless steel, are to be Kashered through Hagala.

Knives:[138] It is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar for all those who have the capability of doing so, to buy new knives for Pesach. However, from the letter of the law, doing Hagala to them suffices [and one may certainly rely on this if it is not so feasible for him to get new knives]. One must sharpen the blade prior to doing Hagala in order to remove any rust the blade may contain.[139] If the knife contains a handle and the blade is inserted into the handle, then it cannot be Kashered due to the inability to remove the Chametz from in between the crevices.[140] Likewise, if the blade is attached to the handle with glue, it cannot be Kashered.[141]

  1. Cups:[142]

The custom is to Kasher cups through Miluiy Veiruiy or Hagala.[143] One may not swerve from this custom. [If, however, one knows for certain that the Chametz was never used with hot Chametz. such as it was never used with a hot Chametz drink, and was never washed with hot water in a Chametz sink, and never had cold Chametz, such as beer, soak in it for 24 hours, and it never soaked in the water of a Chametz sink for 24 hours, then it does not need to be Kashered. Practically, however, it is difficult to ascertain the above as well as we suspect that perhaps a crumb of Chametz once fell inside, and therefore it is to initially be Kashered in all cases.[144]]

Bedieved: If one used the cup for a hot Pesach drink without previously Kashering it, the drink remains Kosher [so long as the cup was not Ben Yomo of Chametz use at the time it was used for hot Pesach food].  

Glass cups: Glass cups are not Kasherable, as explained in the previous Halacha.

A Kiddush cup that contains an upper lip:[145] A Kiddush cup may be Kashered even if it contains an external lip.[146]

 

  1. Pots:

Whether or not a pot may be Kashered is dependent on the material that it contains and how it was used-See Halacha 7-8! If the pot is made of a Kasherable material, such as metal without a Teflon or enamel coating, then if it is used for cooking with liquid it requires Hagala. If used for baking or frying with minimal oil, then it requires Libun Chamor as explained next.

Teflon/Enamel: If the pot is coated with enamel or Teflon then it may not be Kashered. See Halacha 8!

Do the handles of pots and pans need to be Kashered?[147] From the letter of the law, the handles of the pot or pan do not need to be Kashered and certainly one need not worry of the cracks that they contain [which may have food in them].[148] Nevertheless, initially one is required to clean it and do Hagala to it, or do Iruiy Keli Rishon without needing a stone, as at times they are washed with hot Chametz.[149]

Do pot covers need to be Kashered?[150] The cover of a pot requires Hagala to be performed to it.

Baking pans:[151] Baking pans require Libun Chamor. ]Some[152] write  that they are therefore not Kasherable, as performing Libun Chamor would damage the pan.[

 

  1. Frying pans:[153]

A pot or pan used to fry Chametz foods with a nice amount of oil, requires Hagala.[154] If, however, one fried food in it using very little oil, just enough so the food does not stick, then the pot requires Libun Gamur.[155]

Teflon/Enamel: A frying pan/pot which contains an enamel or Teflon coating, may not be Kashered, as explained in Halacha 8.

  1. Must one Kosher his water urn to use on Pesach?[156]

Water urns are to be Kashered for Pesach. In the following cases, this may be required from the letter of the law:[157] a) The urn was placed down while hot onto Chametz; or b) The urn was washed in a sink with hot Chametz[158]; or c) One had Chametz soak in the urn for 24 hours[159]; or d) One poured hot water from the urn onto Chametz [such as onto instant noodles, a Chametz soup mix, or he poured the leftover hot water into a Chametz sink][160]; or e) One heated a Chametz food, such as bread, on top of the urn.[161] If one is certain that none of the above took place with the urn, then from the letter of the law, it is not required to be Koshered.[162] Practically, however, it is difficult to ascertain the above as well as we suspect that perhaps a crumb of Chametz once fell inside, and therefore it is to initially be Koshered in all cases.[163]

How to Kosher: If the urn is made of metal, then it is to be Kashered through Hagalah.[164] If it contains plastic, it is disputed if it can be Kashered, as explained in Halacha 8. In all cases, one must beware to remove the hardened calcium from the urn before Kashering.[165]

 

  1. Grater and grinder:

Grater:[166] A grater needs to be Kashered. The custom is to Kasher it with Libun Kal.[167] If it was used for Pesach foods without Kashering, the foods is forbidden to be eaten on Pesach.[168]

Grinder:[169] A grinder is to have Hagala performed to it.[170] If it was used for non-Charif cold Pesach foods without Kashering, the foods is permitted.[171]

 

Appliances and furniture

  1. The stove:[172]

The grates:[173] The grates of the stove need to be Kashered through Libun Chamur.[174] [If one cannot do Libun Chamor to the grates, then one is to clean them very well and wrap the grates in thick aluminum foil that will not tear throughout Pesach.[175] Practically, it is customary to cover all grates with tinfoil even if it was Kashered through Libun Chamur, as explained below]

Burners: The burners are to be Kashered through Libun Kal.[176] One is to first lean the burners well. It is advised to use toothpicks or needles to remove any dirt or food from within the gas holes of the burner. Afterwards, one is to turn on the fire for some time to accomplish Libun Kal.

Stove top surface: The stove top requires Iruiy Keli Rishon. One is to clean the stove surface well and then do Iruiy Keli Rishon to it. If the surface is made of non-Kasherable material, such as enamel, that it must be covered with aluminum. Furthermore, it is customary to cover all stovetops with tinfoil even if it is made of a Kasherable material, as explained below.

Knobs: One is to clean the knobs of the stove very well, cover them or attach clean replacement knobs.

Covering all items: Practically, the custom is that even after Kashering all the above parts of the stove, one covers all the surfaces with aluminum. [See Halacha 5 in Q&A]

  1. Oven:[177]

From the letter of the law, an oven requires Libun Chamur.[178] If one’s oven does not have a self clean cycle, it is very difficult to accomplish this. One cannot do Libun Chamur through using a blow torch, as the oven can break in the process.[179] One is thus to buy a Pesach oven or alternatively Kasher it in the following way:

  1. Clean the oven well using a Chametz killing agent such as bleach or oven stain remover.
  2. Wait 24 hours prior to Kashering.
  3. Turn the oven on for a period of at least one hour to its highest temperature or blow torch the oven from the inside.
  4. After the Kashering process is complete, one should cover the walls and floors with aluminum foil.

 

Self cleaning oven:

An oven with self cleaning mode reaches a temperature of 900° F and is equivalent to Libun Chamur. An oven with a “Continuous cleaning” cycle is not equivalent to Libun Chamur, and hence the above-mentioned method must be used.

                                    

  1. Electric hot plate [Shabbos Plata]:

Some Poskim[180] rule an electric plate requires Libun Chamur.[181] Others[182] rule an electric plate requires Libun Kal. Others[183] rule it requires Iruiy Keli Rishon. If the coating of the hot plate is made of enamel, then it is not Kasherable.[184] Practically, if possible, one is to purchase a new electric hot plate for Pesach.[185] In a time of need, one is to clean the entire hot plate, including the cord, its sides, and bottom areas, with a killing agent such as bleach.[186] After 24 hours pass[187], one is to then turn the hot plate on to its hottest setting for some time and then pour boiling water over it.[188] One is to then cover the hot plate with a thick piece of tinfoil.[189] For extra care, one can place a second sheet of tinfoil or aluminum pan on the hot plate.[190]

 

  1. Microwave:[191]

Does it need to be Kashered? Some Rabbanim[192] say that a microwave does not need to be Kashered at all prior to use for Pesach, and simply needs to be wiped clean.[193] The majority consensus of Poskim[194], however, is that a microwave requires Kashering, and thus cannot be used for Pesach in its un-Kashered state.[195] Practically, one must abide by the latter opinion, as the former opinion does not take all factors into account and is hence inaccurate.[196] According to all, a combination microwave oven, which is both an oven and a microwave, requires Kashering. We will now discuss if and how a microwave can be Kashered: 

How to Kasher it: Some Poskim[197] rule that it is not possible to Kasher a microwave.[198] Other Poskim[199] rule it can be Kashered through steaming water inside it.[200] This is accomplished through doing the following steps: The microwave is to be cleaned, not used for 24 hours[201], and have water with bleach or soap placed in it and heated for about 10-20 minutes[202], until it steams out.[203] Practically, one is to purchase a new microwave for Pesach.[204] If this is not possible, and one is in need to use the microwave, then one is to do as stated above, and use a hermetically sealed container to cook the food, as stated next.

Cooking in a hermetically sealed container:[205] In all cases, it is permitted to cook in a microwave, Pesach food that is contained within a hermetically sealed container which does not allow any vapor to escape or enter. This applies even if the microwave has not been Kashered, and certainly if it has been Kashered in the method mentioned above.[206] Some Poskim[207], however, discourage using the microwave in this method as it occurs that the hermetic sealing tears or opens during the cooking, which would then pose a Kashrus issue. It is therefore best to only use the microwave in this method after first Kashering it.

 

Summary:

Some Poskim rule it is not possible to Kasher a microwave. Other Poskim rule a microwave does not need to be Kashered at all. Other Poskim rule it can be Kashered through steaming water inside. This is accomplished through the following steps: The microwave is to be cleaned, not used for 24 hours and have water with bleach placed in it and heated for about 10-20 minutes, until it steams out. Practically, one is to purchase a new microwave for Pesach. If this is not possible, then one is to do as stated above, and use a hermetically sealed container to heat the food.

 

 

  1. K. Fridge:[208]

A fridge, and its various compartments, does not require Kashering [i.e. Hagala] but simply Hadacha [washing] as it is generally only used for cold foods. [One is to wash the fridge down very well using water and a Chametz killing agent, such as bleach and the like.] However, if one is accustomed to place foods into the fridge even while they are still hot [such as a pot of Chametz soup prior to cooling down] then the custom of all Jewry was to perform Iruiy Keli Rishon.[209]

The elastic insulating side: One must take special care to clean well from Chametz crumbs the elastic insulation that surrounds the doors of the fridge. A suggestive form of cleaning is to use Q-tips dipped in bleach.

The freezer: One is to defrost any ice from the freezer and clean it out.

Covering the shelves: The custom is to cover the shelves of the fridge. This is not required from the letter of the law. [See Halacha 5 in Q&A]

Bedikas Chametz: One is to  perform Bedikas Chametz to his fridge prior to entering the Pesach foods back into it, and prior to covering it shelves. [See Chapter 4 Halacha 2!]

Cord: One is to clean the electric cord of the fridge that enters into the outlet.

  1. L. Sink:[210]

The actual sink: A sink needs to be Kashered.[211] The Kashering of a sink is dependent on its material. A metal sink can be Kashered through Iruiy Keli Rishon. Most sinks, however, are made of porcelain or enamel which are non-Kasherable materials. Nevertheless, the custom is to do Iruiy Keli Rishon on even non-Kasherable material sinks. One then places a plastic sink insert into the sink which will be used throughout Pesach. [If one does not have a sink insert available, he is to cover the interior of the sink with tinfoil.]

The spout:[212] The custom is to clean and wash the spouts of the sink, as throughout the year they have been used with hands that are dirty from Chametz. [One is to pour boiling water over the spout, and leave it open with the hot water running for a few moments.[213]]

Knobs: One is to wash and clean the knobs of the faucet.

The drain: One should pour boiling water that contains bleach or Drano down the drain.

Metal strainer: The metal strainer which rests in the spout is to have Iruiy Keli Rishon performed on it.

Not to pour hot water in an unKashered sink on Pesach: One is initially to be careful not to use hot water that is over Yad Soledes [110° F] on Pesach, in a sink that is not Kasherable.[214] This applies even if one has a sink insert. Thus, one should not turn on the hot water to the point of Yad Soledes and is likewise not to pour hot water into the sink so long as it is Yad Soledes, even if it is in a Keli Shelishi or Revi’i.[215] [Accordingly, if one has a pot with hot water, he is to wait until it cools down prior to pouring it into a non-Kashered sink. One can mix cold water into the hot water in order to achieve this quicker.] If the water is warm, below Yad Soledes, it may be poured into the sink. Nonetheless, Bedieved, if one poured hot water into the sink, everything remains permitted, even it was very hot and was poured from a Keli Rishon.[216]

 

 

 

 

  1. Counters/tables:[217]

It is customary of all Jewry to Kasher counters and tables that are used with hot foods during the year.[218] Likewise, tables which are used without a tablecloth during the year, or are used with a thin cotton/linen/polyester tablecloth, are to be Kashered. However, tables that are only used with a thick or plastic/PVC tablecloth during the year, from the letter of the law do not need to be Kashered.[219]

How to Kasher: Counters and tables are to be Kashered with Iruiy Keli Rishon and Even Meluban.

Is my table/counter a Kasherable material? Marble counters, and wooden tables are Kasherable. Quarts counters [i.e. engineered stone] are not Kasherable. Plastic tables are disputed if they are Kasherable. [See Halacha 8!] Practically, in all cases that the counter/table cannot be Kashered one is to nevertheless Kasher them with Iruiy Keli Rishon and then cover them with tinfoil, or PVC, as explained next.

Covering the counter or table: If one covers his table or counter with a thick tablecloth, PVC, or tinfoil, then from the letter of the law it does not need to be Kashered, as explained in Halacha 5. Likewise, if the counter or table has been Kashered, then from the letter of the law it does not need to be covered. Nonetheless, the custom of Jewry is to do both; to Kasher the table/counter and then cover the surface with tinfoil or PVC, as explained in the Q&A.

The walls of the counter: The walls surrounding the counters are to have Iruiy Keli Rishon performed and are then to be covered.

 

Must one cover all kitchen surfaces such as tables, counters, cabinets, refrigerator shelves and the like?

From the letter of the law, once these areas have been properly cleaned and Kashered they may be used for all foods without any cover.[220] However, some Poskim[221]  rule that one is to cover the surfaces even after they are Kashered due to suspicion that perhaps they still contain actual Chametz that was not properly removed. Practically, the widespread custom is to cover all items that contact food even after they have been cleaned and Kashered.[222]

 

 

  1. N. Tablecloths:[223]

It is best to buy new tablecloths for Pesach.[224] Nevertheless, from the letter of the law, one may Kasher and use the tablecloths that he used during the year. The following is how they are Kashered: One is to wash them with hot water and laundry detergent.

  1. Teeth; Fillings and Braces:[225]

Natural teeth without fillings and the like: Teeth do not have to be cleaned or Kashered from the letter of the law.[226] Nevertheless, the custom is that after finishing eating Chametz on Erev Pesach, one brushes his teeth, and cleans and wash them well with water prior to the start of the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, to make sure that no crumb of Chametz has remained in one’s teeth.

Teeth with fillings:[227] Although there is much argument to be made that fillings do need not to be Kashered from Chametz, nevertheless, the Rabbinical directive given is to clean them out prior to the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, and then swish one’s mouth with the hottest temperature water from a Keli Sheiyni, that he can intake. It is best to not eat hot Chametz 24 hours prior to doing so. [Although this is a mere stringency and is not required.[228]]

Braces:[229] It is a Hiddur for one who wears braces to have the braces removed by a dentist before Pesach, and have them cleaned and Kashered. If this poses difficulty, then one is to clean them to the best of his ability, and follow the above-mentioned order for fillings.

Dentures:[230] Dentures are preferably to be removed, cleaned and Kashered with Iruiy Keli Rishon before the 5th hour on Erev Pesach. If this is not possible, then one is to clean them to the best of his ability, and follow the above-mentioned order for fillings.

Toothbrush: It is customary to purchase a new toothbrush to use on Pesach.[231] However, from the letter of the law, it suffices to simply clean it properly before Pesach.[232]

Toothpaste: It is customary to purchase Kosher for Pesach toothpaste. See Chapter 5 Halacha 4 in Q&A!

 

  1. Pacifier:

Seemingly, a pacifier does not require Kashering as it is never used for hot Chametz.[233] However, it is best to clean it well and then Kasher it, or purchase a new one for Pesach.

  1. Broom stick:[234]

It is not necessary to clean or purchase a new broom stick for Pesach, as even if it contains Chametz, it is less than a Kezayis, is dirty, and are nullified. [See Chapter 3 Halacha 2!] Nonetheless, some are particular to buy a new broom for Pesach.

 

  1. Vacuum cleaner:

Based on the above law, it is not necessary to change the vacuum bag before Pesach, as even if it contains Chametz, the individual pieces are less than a Kezayis, are dirty, and are nullified. Nonetheless, the custom is to do so.


 

List of vessels and their Kashering status

 

Vessel Law
Aluminum Kasherable based on use
Baking Pan Libun Chamor [Are thus not Kasherable]
Burners of stove top Libun Kal
Ceramic Cannot be Kashered
China Cannot be Kashered
Counter Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban
Cups Cannot be Kashered unless made of metal, in which case needs Hagala
Earthenware Cannot be Kashered
Enamel Custom is not to Kasher for Pesach
Frying pan If coated with enamel or Teflon, may not be Kashered. If not coated, may be Kashered based on use.
Glass Cannot be Kashered
Grates of stove top Libun Chamur
Grinder Hagala
Marble Hagala
Oven Libun Chamur
Kiddush Cup [silver or metal] Hagala
Knives Best not to Kasher for Pesach; if Kasher needs sharpening and Hagala
Plastic Dispute amongst Poskim if may be Kashered.
Pot [not coated with enamel] Hagala. If used to fry without oil-Libun Chamor.
Porcelain Cannot be Kashered
Pyrex Dispute amongst Poskim if may be Kashered.
Silverware Hagala
Sink spout Clean and wash
Sink made of enamel/ceramic/glass/plastic Cannot be Kashered
Sink made of metal Iruiy with even Meluban
Skewer for barbecue Libun Gamor
Steel [including stainless steel] Kasherable [Hagala/Libun] based on use
Stove top [enamel] Cannot be Kashered
Stove top [stainless steel] Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban
Teflon Cannot be Kashered
Toaster Oven Do not Kasher. Sell to gentile and put away
Wood [without cracks] Hagala
Wood [with cracks] Cannot be Kashered

10. How to do Hagala:

*Important not: The laws here apply both to the regular Hagala, and to Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban, which can be done as an alternative to Hagala, when Hagala is not feasible.

  1. Having an expert do the Hagala:[235]

The laws of Hagala involve many details, and hence should only be performed by one who is expert in its laws.

 

  1. When to perform Hagala:[236]

It is proper for a person to be careful to perform Hagala to his vessels prior to the 5th hour on Erev Pesach [i.e. Sof Zman Achilas Chametz], in order to avoid the issues to be mentioned. Some (meticulous) individuals are accustomed to perform Hagala three days before Pesach. This applies likewise when performing Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban instead of Hagala.

Kashering on Erev Pesach past the 5th hour of the day: When doing Hagala to vessels on Erev Pesach past the 5th hour one must beware of the following issues from the letter of the law: 1) The vessel which is holding the Hagala water may not be Ben Yomo. If it is Ben Yomo it must be Kashered beforehand.[237] 2) If a Ben Yomo Chametz vessel is being Kashered, there must be a total of 60x in the Hagala water versus all the Ben Yomo vessels which are being Kashered in it.[238] 3) One is Lechatchila required to remove the vessel from the water as soon as one has estimated that it has finished expelling its absorbed taste. Likewise, it should be inserted and removed from the water while the water is still boiling. This applies even if the vessels are not Ben Yomo, and there is 60x in the water.[239] 4) One is Lechatchila not to immerse a vessel more than one time.[240] 5) One is Lechatchila not to immerse more than one vessel at a time if they absorbed a different amount of Issur.[241]

Kashering on Chol Hamoed Pesach:[242] One is unable to Kasher his vessels through Hagala once the night of Pesach enters being that Chametz is not nullified even in 1000x. This applies even if the vessels are not Ben Yomo and there is 60x in the water. Nonetheless, one may Kasher a vessel through Libun even on Pesach.

  1. Not to use the vessel for Chametz 24 hours before Kashering:[243]

The custom is to only do Hagala to vessels which are not Ben Yomo, which means that they have remained without use of hot Chametz, or soaking Chametz, for 24 hours. When Kashering on Erev Pesach past the 5th hour of the day, then from the letter of the law the vessels may not be Ben Yomo, unless one has a total of 60x in the Hagala water versus the total amount of vessels being Kashered. [Some Poskim[244] write that initially the vessel is to wait 24 hours from after it is cleaned. Other Poskim[245] rule this is not necessary.]

  1. Cleaning the vessels before Hagala:

All vessels must be scrubbed and washed well prior to Hagala in order so they contain no Chametz attached to them.[246]

Cleaning rust: One must remove any rust and dirt patches that are on the vessel prior to doing Hagala to it.[247] If one cannot remove the rust by hand, then one is to place a coal or flame on the rust spot until the other side becomes “Yad Soledes Bo”, or until a piece of paper touching the exterior gets scorched.[248] Only the rust that is on the inside of the vessel needs to be removed[249], and only if it has substance to it. However, if it is just coloring or a stain, then it does not need to be removed at all.[250] Bedieved, if one did the Hagala prior to the Libun, it remains valid.[251]

Cleaning cracks: If the vessel contains a crack which cannot be properly cleaned, then Hagala does not help for such a vessel until one first does Libun Kal to the crack.[252] This, however, only applies if the crack is in the interior of the vessel where it contacts food, however, a crack on the exterior of the vessel does not need to have Libun performed on it.[253] [Thus, for example, the company trademark that is on the interior of the vessel needs to be cleaned well, or have Libun Kal performed to it.] Bedieved, if one did the Hagala prior to the Libun, it remains valid.[254] If there are cracks in the vessel with Chametz in them, and they cannot be reached or burned then the vessel should be sold to a gentile over Pesach.[255]

Paint:[256] Paint is an interval between the water and the vessel, and prevents the taste from being expelled from the vessel as a result of the water. Thus, a vessel which has paint in its interior, and the paint was placed after it was already used, then it is to have Libun[257] performed to the painted area and only afterwards have Hagala performed. However, if the paint is only on its exterior where it is not used with food[258], or was placed when the vessel was new, then it does not require Libun and Hagala suffices in all cases.[259] The above only applies to actual paint, however if it is simply ink, such as a marker, then it may be Kashered through Hagala in all cases.[260]

 

  1. Drying the vessel before Hagala:[261]

After cleaning the vessel, it is to be dried very well before doing Hagala.[262]

  1. The Hagala vessel:

Kashering the vessel before the Hagala:[263] From the letter of the law, when Kashering prior to the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, one is not required to first Kasher the pot being used for Hagala even if it is Ben Yomo.[264] Nevertheless, the custom is to Kasher the Hagala vessel prior to using it, if it was used for Chametz, even if it is not Ben Yomo.[265] One is to spill out this water, and then reboil water in it for the Kashering.[266]

Kashering the vessel after the Hagala if wants to use on Pesach:[267] From the letter of the law, when Kashering prior to the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, one is not required to Kasher the Hagala pot a second time after the Kashering is finished, if it was already Kashered prior to the start of the Kashering [as explained above]. Nevertheless, the custom is to Kasher the Hagala vessel a second time after one finishes Kashering with it, if one plans to use it on Pesach. Thus, the vessel is Kashered twice; once before and once after the Kashering. This applies even if the Kashering was done before the 5th hour, and the vessels were not Ben Yomo, and one had 60x in the water. This applies even if the Hagala pot is only being used for Iruiy Keli Rishon.[268] It is not necessary to spill the Hagala water and reheat new water in the pot for the sake of the second Hagala, and rather one ay use this same water to use the Even Meluban to overflow it, as explained next.[269]

How to Kasher the Hagala pot:[270] Due to the size of the Hagala pot, it often cannot be Kashered through entering it into a larger pot of boiling water. Rather, it is to be Kashered through boiling water inside of it until its very top and then throwing into the boiling water an Even Meluban [red hot stone or slab of metal] which will cause the water to overflow and splash beyond the rims of the pot.

  1. The Hagala water:

Water versus other liquids:[271] It is disputed as to whether Hagala is valid inside liquids other than water.[272] Accordingly, one is to only perform Hagala in water, although Bedieved, it was performed in other liquids it is valid. Due to this, one is initially not to place ash [or any other substance] in the Hagala water, as they may neutralize the water’s ability to extract the taste from the vessels.[273] [Nonetheless, some are accustomed to place a spoiling agent, such as soap, into the water prior to Hagala, in order to make the water Pagum.[274]]

How much water:[275] If the vessels are not Ben Yomo, there is no need to have 60x in the water versus the vessels.[276] If the vessel is Ben Yomo, then if one is Kashering after the 5th hour on Erev Pesach[277], or is Kashering dairy and meat vessels simultaneously[278], then there must be 60x in the water versus the vessels.

Water must be boiling:[279] The water used for Hagala must be boiling, which is defined as bubbles bursting out from the surface of the water. It does not suffice for it to just be Yad Soledes. Furthermore, the water must remain boiling when the vessel is dipped into it. If the water stopped boiling after one vessel, then one must wait for it to boil before placing another vessel into it.[280] The boiling water must be within a Keli Rishon but is valid even if it is off the fire, so long as it is still boiling.[281]

For how long can the same Hagala water be used for?[282] If one Kashered many vessels in the water to the point that the water has the appearance of Tzir/gravy, then the water should no longer be used for Kashering, and is thus to be replaced.

May the Hagala water be used afterwards?[283] The Hagala water is to be spilled out after one completes the Kashering and is not to be used for any other purpose. This applies even if it had 60x the vessels that were inserted into it, and the vessels were not Ben Yomo, [and it is prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach].[284] [However, to make use of the water prior to the 6th hour on Erev Pesach, for non-Pesach foods, is permitted.]

 

  1. The Kashering:

How to enter the vessel into the boiling water:[285] One can use heat resistant gloves, or pliers, to enter the vessels one at a time into the water. One is to make sure to move the hands/pliers to a different area of the vessel while in the water. Alternatively, one is to use a perforated sack or basket to dip it in. This is the preferred method.

For how long is the vessel to remain in the boiling water? Some opinions rule that one should place the vessel in for as much time as he accesses is needed to remove the foods that it has absorbed. However, the custom is to place it in and then immediately take it out. Nevertheless, one should leave the vessel in the water at least momentarily in order to allow the heat to penetrate the vessels thickness.[286] When Kashering before the 5th hour, there is no need to be stringent to remove the vessels while the water is still boiling, or to leave the vessels in the water longer then they need to expel their taste.[287] However, when Kashering after the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, one is Lechatchila required to remove the vessel from the water as soon as one has estimated that it has finished expelling its absorbed taste. Likewise, it should be removed from the water while the water is still boiling. This applies even if the vessels are not Ben yomo and there is 60x in the water against them. [288]

Kashering many vessels simultaneously:[289] One may not Kasher many vessels together simultaneously in a sack or bag if the vessels touch each other.[290] One may not Kasher meat and dairy vessels simultaneously if they are both Ben Yomo, unless there are 60x the vessels in the water.[291] When Kashering vessels past the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, one may not immerse more than one vessel at a time if they absorbed a different amount of Issur.[292]

If the vessel is too large to fit into the Hagala pot: If the vessel is long and narrow, and one is able to partially fit into the Hagala pot but is unable to fit it in its entirety into it, then one may do Hagala to one side at a time until the entire vessel has entered into the water. If the vessel is so long that part of its middle area will not enter the pot, then one may do Libun Kal to that area.[293] If the vessel is too wide to fit at all into the Hagala pot, then is to have a direct stream of Iruiy Keli Rishon and Even Meluban performed to it. This means that one pours boiling water onto it from a Keli Rishon without letting the water being poured to be disconnected from the pot. Simultaneously, one takes a heated stone which has turned white and passes it over every area of the vessel while pouring the boiling water over it.[294]

  1. Washing the vessel after Hagala:[295]

The custom of all Jewry is to wash the vessel in cold water immediately after Hagala has been performed to it.

 

 

Hagala checklist:

1.       Review Hagala laws and verify if the vessel is Kasherable through Hagala

2.       Do not use the vessels with hot Chametz, or soaked Chametz, for 24 hours before Kashering.

3.       Clean the vessel with scrub and water. Remove rust and clean cracks, and do Libun Kal to required areas. Some say this should be done before it waits 24 hours.

4.       Dry the vessel well.

5.       Kasher the Hagala vessel [if was used for Chametz] during the year, prior to placing Hagala water inside.

6.       Place clean water into Hagala pot without any other substance, and bring to a boil.

7.       Prepare a second pot with cold water.

8.       Insert the vessels to be Kashered into the boiling water. Only insert while boiling.

9.       One can use heat resistant gloves, or pliers, to enter the vessels one at a time into the water. One is to make sure to move the hands/pliers to a different area of the vessel while in the water. Alternatively, one is to use a perforated sack or basket to dip it in. This is the preferred method. One may insert many vessels at same time. One may insert meat and dairy utensils at same time if not Ben Yomo. May not insert many vessels in sack or box if touching each other.

10.   By a public Hagala, it is best to have two pots, one for meat and another for dairy vessels, or to never immerse more than one vessel at a time, or to make sure that all the vessels being immersed at one time are only meat or dairy, or are not Ben Yomo.

11.   The vessel is to remain a few moments in the boiling water.

12.   Immediately after removing the Kashered vessel from the boiling water, place it in cold water.

13.   Kasher the Hagala vessel if one wants to use for Pesach.

14.   Spill out the Hagala water to the drain.

 

Additional matters to beware if doing Hagala after 5th hour on Erev Pesach:

1.       Initially, always do Hagala before 5th hour on Erev Pesach.

2.       Remove the vessel from the water as soon as one has estimated that it has finished expelling its absorbed taste.

3.       The vessel should be inserted and removed from the water while the water is still boiling.

4.       The vessel is not to be inserted twice.

5.       One is not to immerse more than one vessel at a time if they absorbed a different amount of Issur.

 

Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban [i.e. counters/tables] checklist:[296]

1.       Review Hagala laws and verify if the vessel is Kasherable through Hagala

2.       Do not use the vessels with hot Chametz, or soaked Chametz, for 24 hours before Kashering.

3.       Clean the vessel with scrub and water. Remove rust and clean cracks, and do Libun Kal to required areas. Some say this should be done before it waits 24 hours.

4.       Dry the surface well.

5.       Kasher the Hagala vessel [if was used for Chametz] during the year, prior to placing Hagala water inside.

6.       Place clean water into Hagala pot without any other substance, and bring it to a boil.

7.       Prepare a second pot with cold water.

8.       Pour the boiling water directly from the Hagala pot onto the surface being Kashered.

9.       Use an iron to then boil/sizzle the water that was poured. Make sure to pass through every area of the surface. Alternatively, use an electric water boiler [“Kumkum”], while the heating coils are still on and the water is boiling.

10.   Immediately after finishing with the iron and hot water pouring, pour cold water onto it.

11.   Kasher the Hagala vessel if one wants to use for Pesach.

12.   Spill out the Hagala water to the drain.

 

_____________________________________________________________

[1] Based on Shulchan Aruch 451-452

[2] 452:30

[3] Admur 451:1; 447:3 regarding if Chametz was cooked in the pot on Pesach

[4] Although in 442:28 Admur rules that Chametz which is less than a Kezayis that is stuck to a vessel does not need to be cleaned off before Pesach. Perhaps here it refers to the custom mentioned there in 442:30 that Yisrael Kedoshim Heim and are accustomed to clean off all Chametz. Vetzaruch Iyun from the wording here of “need” which implies it is a requirement from the letter of the law. Perhaps then in truth the reason is because we suspect one may come to cook in such vessels either on Pesach or after Pesach [see Admur 451:3].

[5] Admur 442:31; See Admur 442:28 [brought in Halacha 4] that from the letter of the law it must only be sold if it contains a Kezayis.

[6] As perhaps the reason one is required to clean the pots is so one not come to cook in them [see coming footnotes], and hence selling them to a gentile and leaving them in one’s house, would not remove this worry. See Shaar Hakolel on Seder Mechira 17

[7] Admur 447:3

The reason: The Chametz taste that is absorbed in the pots [is not prohibited in ownership] being that it is not considered “found/matzuiy”, and thus one does not transgress Baal Yiraeh and Baal Yimatzeh upon owning it. Thus, one is allowed to own them throughout Pesach, as the sages were not worried that if one were to be allowed to own it then he may forget and come to cook in it on Pesach. However, they did decree against owning Chametz foods [that were nullified] due to worry that one may come to eat it. [Admur ibid]

[8] See Shaar Hakolel on Seder Mechira 17; Rebbe in Likkutei Sichos, printed in Shaarei Halacha Uminhag 2:194

[9] Rebbe in Likkutei Sichos, printed in Shaarei Halacha Uminhag 2:194; See Chapter 5 Halacha 2 in Q&A for the full details of this matter!

[10] Admur 451:1; 447:3

The reason: This is done in order so one not forget and come to cook in such vessels on Pesach. Now, although regarding Treif vessels we do not require them to be hidden during the year, as we do not suspect one will come to forget and use it, nevertheless, regarding Chametz we are stringent, as people are accustomed to eat it throughout the year. [Admur 451:1] This matter is not a decree from the times of the Talmud, but a stringency from the Sages of the later generations. [Admur 451:4]

[11] Admur 451:4

The reason: Although in general we rule that placing an item in a high visible area does not make it more lenient, nevertheless, since this requirement to hide the vessels is a stringency of the later generations, one may be lenient to do so. Furthermore, most of all the Chametz vessels put away are no longer Ben Yoman. [Admur ibid]

[12] Admur 451:4

[13] Chayeh Adam 119:10; Kitzur SHU”A 111:3

[14] Nitei Gavriel 18:8 footnote 14 and in Volume 3 Teshuvah 1

[15] Admur 451:2; 450:13

[16] The reason: This is due to suspicion one may come to use it for hot foods on Pesach. [Admur ibid]

[17] From the letter of the law this is permitted if the vessels is washed, as explained above. However, the custom is to forbid it. [ibid]

[18] Admur 451:43

[19] Admur ibid; Michaber Y.D. 121:7

[20] Admur 450:13; See M”B 450:27

[21] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 450:9

[22] See Admur 451:14 regarding knives that it is a Mitzvah Min Hamuvchar to buy new knifes being that knives are difficult to clean. This implies that other vessels contain no Hiddur in not being Kashered for Pesach;

[23] Yesod Veshoresh Haavoda Hagalas Keilim that G-d fearing Jews should not use the Kashered vessels as they are difficult to clean; Yerushas Hapleita 20; Meiam Loez Bo; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:2;

[24] This is to be done in order to avoid entering into Halachic questions regarding Kashering the vessels, which not all are experts in. Likewise, some vessels are difficult to properly clean, and hence Kashering them is to be avoided. [Yesod Veshoresh Haavoda ibid]

[25] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[26] Admur 451:5

[27] The reason: As if they appear new we do not suspect that perhaps the gentile used it to cook in one time. [Admur ibid]

[28] Minchas Yitzchak 4:112; Tzitz Eliezer 12:55; Mishneh Halachos 7:112; Yabia Omer 1:7; Rivivos Ephraim 6:212; The laws of Pesach [Blumenkrantz] p. 3-73; Rav Shmuel Furst in name of Rav Moshe Feinstein; See Koveitz Mibeis Levi 1:32; Avnei Yashpei 2:58 in name of Rav Elyashiv; Halichos Shlomo Moadim 2

[29] As the heat of the manufacturing process is so great that it would burn any possible non-Kosher fat. [The pot is commonly entered into an oven that is 500 degrees Celsius.] Furthermore, the fat is not edible even in its original state, as it is mixed with other items, and is hence deemed Nosein Taam Lepegam. [Poskim ibid]

[30] Mishmeres Shalom Yoreh Deah 121:12; Chazon Ish Moed 44; Har Tzevi Y.D. 110; Teshuvos Vehanhagos 1:422; Moadim Uzmanim 4:282; Kinyan Torah 4:92; See Seridei Eish 2:35; Rav Eli Landau Shlita informed me, based on directives of his brother, the Chief Rabbi of Bnei Brak and head of the Landau Hashgacha, that all new cookware must be Kashered, including spoons, forks, cups, and especially pots and pans. The reason for this is because they use hot non-Kosher animal oils to compress and polish the items, and some specifically use lard for this process.  

[31] Har Tzevi ibid; Chazon Ish ibid; Rav Wozner, Rav Elyashiv hold even for those who are stringent, it suffices to do Hagala on the inside; Rav Landau ibid; Regarding if Libun or Hagala is required when an item absorbs non-Kosher liquid directly, see Shach 121:8 in name of Rameh Mipuno 96; Rav Akiva Eiger 121; Aruch Hashulchan 121:11

Teflon: Rav Landau related to me that Teflon coated pans that have suspicion of having a non-Kosher oil primer placed under the Teflon coating, it requires Libun Kal, and hence is not Kasherable.

[32] Tzitz Eliezer ibid regarding those who desire to be stringent

[33] Minchas Yitzchak ibid

[34] Mishneh Halachos 7:112; The laws of Pesach [Blumenkrantz] p. 3-73

[35] Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:4; Kashrus Manual of the Eida Hachareidis;

[36] The reason: The seasoning that is added to a cast iron pot is very different than the polishing/premier added to regular pots, as a) The seasoning is not entered into a libun level oven which cures the pot and burns any of the Issur, and b) The seasoning is edible for a human and is not Pagum. [See Kinyan Torah ibid]

How to Kasher a preseasoned cast iron pot: There are several points that require clarification when Kashering such a pot, such as a) Must one first remove all the oil seasoning that is absorbed inside the metal of the pot, through scrubbing it with soap and detergent? b) Does Hagala suffice, or is Libun required. See Shach 121:8 and Rav Akiva Eiger there [concludes with Libun]; P”M 451 M”Z 16 [concludes with Hagala]. In order to Kasher according to all opinions, the pot is to be Kashered with Libun, and placed through a self clean oven cycle.

[37] See Admur 451:65; 67; Rama Y.D. 92:8; Taz Y.D. 92:29; M”B 451:34; Nitei Gavriel 77:3 footnote 7

[38] See Maharil Hilchos Hagala p. 21 “Or with a thick blanket or piece of wood”

[39] Admur 451:65 “A piece of iron, or other material which one is not using on Pesach”; See also Taz ibid

[40] Implication of Admur ibid and Taz ibid who do not mention any measurement; See however Admur 451:48 and 51 and 65 who invalidates a sheet and Admur 461:2 who rules that a new clay floor must be 2 centimeters thick, nonetheless one can differentiate between the cases, as a sheet is not a true cover, while the clay becomes attached to the surface and hence becomes part of it.

[41] If there is Chametz food, or any moisture between the surface and cover, the entire allowance that the cover provides is invalidated. See Admur 451:67; Chochmas Adam 45:19; Sheilas Yaavetz 1:113; Chavos Daas 92; Hakashrus 1:20; Pischei Halacha 1:30; Igros Moshe Yoreh Deah 1:40 and 59 regarding grates

[42] See Rama Y.D. ibid and M”B ibid that Lechatchila one should be stringent regarding relying on the “two pots touching each other” allowance, and hence, if it is Kasherable, one is to Kasher it. This especially applies regarding Pesach. However, see Admur 451:65 who permits placing a metal sheet a Chametz surface even initially without Kashering it. Some prove from here that it is thus allowed even initially. [Arugas Habosem 119; Mishnas Sachir 57]

[43] As many times it is Kasherable according to some opinions, and doing so certainly makes no harm.

[44] See Poskim brought in Q&A regarding why we cover it even if it was Kashered.

[45] This is due to suspicion that perhaps water or other liquids have traveled into the area underneath the cover, between it and the Treif surface, and if a moist hot food/pot is then placed on top of the cover, it can forbid everything there. [See Poskim ibid] Nonetheless, Bedieved, everything remains Kosher as we follow majority usage. [Admur 451:27 and 72]

[46] Admur 451:48 and 51 and 65

[47] See Maharil ibid

[48] Michaber 451:20; Admur 451:58

[49] M”A 451:38 in name of Maharil [even regarding tables]; Elya Raba 451:40 [only regarding shelves, not tables]; M”B 451:115 [brings both opinions]; Dvar Moshe Tinyana 98:36; See Nitei Gavriel 77:1 footnote 2

Does this law apply even to tables and counters or only to shelves? The M”A ibid applies the ruling of the Maharil to all surfaces that contact food, including tables. However the Elya Raba ibid limits this stringency of the Maharil to cabinets with shelves in which it is difficult to clean the corners of Chametz, and hence it is to be covered. However, a flat surface such as a table, even the Maharil agrees that there is no need at all to cover it. The M”B ibid brings both opinions and seems to side with the ruling of the Elya Raba. So also rules the Aruch Hashulchan 451:41. Nevertheless, it is customary of Jews, including Anash, to be stringent in this matter.

Opinion of Admur: Admur ibid completely omitted the ruling of the Maharil; M”A and Elya Raba. He only mentions the necessity to cover an item in 451:48 regarding vessels made of wood that are constantly used with dough and flour; and in 451:65 regarding an oven that was not Kashered. No mention is made anywhere regarding covering an already Kashered table or cabinet. Nevertheless, it is customary of Jews, including Anash, to be stringent in this matter. [See Nitei Gavriel ibid]

[50] M”A ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:44

[51] Admur 451:13

[52] See Ohel Yaakov Hagalas Keilim p. 24-25 for a discussion on this matter

[53] Admur 451:13; Michaber Y.D. 121:4

Regarding Basar Bechalav: A [non-earthenware] pot which absorbed meat and then milk or vice versa never needs Libun Chamor. [Admur 451:13 in gloss; Shach 121:7] However, an earthenware oven requires Libun Chamur. [Admur 494:16; 461:1] An earthenware pot cannot be Kashered. [Admur 451:9]

[54] Background: If the vessel absorbed the Chametz directly, without any liquid involved, such as by a baking pan, then a dispute exists as to what type of Kashering it needs. Some say that even Hagala [placing it in boiling water] suffices. Their reasoning is because Chametz before Peach is permitted, and therefore does not require such extreme heat to be Kashered. However, other Poskim rule that it requires “Libun Gamur” which means that it must be heated until sparks begin to fly off from it, or until a layer of it peels off. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, even bedieved [such as that one already used the pot to cook in] that it needs libun gamur. [Admur ibid]

[55] Admur ibid; See Rama 451:4; M”B 451:32

[56] Admur 452:19

[57] See Admur 452:19

[58] Admur 4651:10 “Fill the inside with coals”; Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rashab 5:226; See Tosafus Avoda Zara 33b; Smag Lo Sasei 148; Sefer Hateruma 161; Hagahos Maimanis Machalos Assuros 11:15; Or Zarua Avoda Zara 2:169; Hagahos Ashri 2:22

[59] Admur 451:10 and 37; See Igros Kodesh Rebbe Rashab 5:226; Vetzaruch Iyun from 451:44 that implies the other side must have straw burn on it

[60] Admur 451:16 and 19 and 38

[61] See Admur ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:18

[62] See Admur 451:10 and 37; Taz 451:8; Rama 451:4; Igros Kodesh Rashab 5:226; Ohel Yaakov Hagalas Keilim p. 27 who writes that Libun Kal is better than Hagalah; Nitei Gavriel 65:13

[63] Admur 451:16 and 19 and 38

[64] Admur 451:37

[65] Admur 451:13; Rama 451:4; M”B 451:32

[66] See Admur 452:19

[67] Admur 451:13-14

[68] Admur 451:27-31; 58; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:30

[69] Admur 451:29-30; This refers to “Lo Nifsak Hakiluach” in its Hebrew term and means that the water was still attached to the Keli Rishon pot by the time it hit the surface of the vessel. See next footnote for the full details of this requirement.

[70] It is disputed amongst Poskim as to whether one must pour from a Keli Rishon when using Even Meluban, as in any event the stone will re-boil the water, and hence should be valid even if the water is poured from a Keli Sheiyni or Nifsak Hakiluach. Practically, while the custom is to be lenient, initially it is proper to be stringent in all this. [Admur 451:30]

[71] Admur 451:27 “Al Pnei Kulah”

[72] Admur 451:27; See Q&A!

[73] Admur 451:30

[74] Admur 451:27

Other opinions: Some Poskim invalidate the use of Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban as an alternative for Hagala. [See M”B 451:51]

[75] Admur 451:27

[76] The reason: As some Poskim rule Iruiy with Even Meluban is not a valid alternative to Hagala. [Admur ibid]

[77] See Sefer Hakashrus [1 footnote 22] who compares this form of Kashering to Iruiy with Even Meluban. So also seems logical being that the coils inside the boiler are constantly boiling the water which is coming into contact with the item. It is hence just like placing an Even Meluban over the water, as the entire point of the Even Meluban is to heat it to the point of a Keli Rishon. [See Admur 451:27 and 30 that the entire purpose of the Even Meluban is to boil the water, and hence what difference does it make if it boils it from close or from far.]

[78] Admur 451:27

[79] M”B 451:53; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:30

[80] Admur 451:60

[81] Admur 451:2; 43; Michaber Y.D. 121:1

[82] Admur 451:43

[83] Admur 451:2

[84] Admur 451:43

[85] Admur 451:2

[86] Admur 451:13

[87] Background: If the vessel absorbed the Chametz directly, without any liquid involved, such as by a baking pan, then a dispute exists as to what type of Kashering it needs. Some say that even Hagala [placing it in boiling water] suffices. Their reasoning is because Chametz before Peach is permitted, and therefore does not require such extreme heat to be Kashered. However, other Poskim rule that it requires “Libun Gamur” which means that it must be heated until sparks begin to fly off from it, or until a layer of it peels off. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, even bedieved [such as that one already used the pot to cook in] that it needs Libun Gamur. [Admur ibid]

[88] Admur 451:13-14

[89] Admur 451:36

[90] The reason: As there is always some moisture found on the bottom of the pot, even when the food burns. [Admur ibid]

[91] Admur 451:37; This applies only when Kashering for Pesach, however by other Issurim, the pot needs Libun. [Admur ibid]

[92] Admur 451:36

[93] Admur 451:60

[94] Admur 451:26-31; 72 regarding cups

[95] Background: Some Poskim rule that we follow the main usage of a vessel and hence if the majority usage is only for cold or Keli Sheiyni foods, then all one needs to do is to wash them spotlessly clean, and they may then be used for even hot foods. [1st opinion in Admur 451:26; Rif; Rambam] The reason for this is because in any event a non-Ben Yomo item is only Rabbinically forbidden, and hence the Sages decided to be lenient to follow the majority usage by non-Ben Yomo vessels. [Admur 451:31] However, other Poskim rule that one must do Hagala to all vessels that were used even one time with hot Chametz, as even after a single usage the taste absorbs into the pot, and the Sages forbade even non-Ben Yomo vessels. [2nd opinion in Admur ibid; Machzor Vitri; Tosafos; Ravaya; Hagahos Maimanis]

[96] Admur 451:27 “One is to be initially stringent, and so is the custom, and one may not swerve from the custom.” [Admur ibid]; Vetzaruch Iyun if we are stringent to require even Libun Chamur for minority usage. See Admur 451:36-37 who implies Libun Gamur is required; However, see M”B 451:48 that Libun Kal suffices

[97] Admur 451:28

[98] Admur 451:31; M”B 451:46

[99] Admur 451:32-34

[100] Some Poskim rule a Keli Sheiyni and onwards cannot transfer taste into a vessel. Others rule a Keli Sheiyni can transfer taste into a vessel, but not Iruiy Keli Sheiyni and onwards. Others rule that all Yad Soledes foods can transfer taste to a vessel even Keli Revi. [See Admur 451:33-34; Poskim in Y.D. 105:2]

[101] Implication of Admur 451:33 regarding Keli Sheiyni and 451:34 regarding Keli Shelishi and onwards, that on Pesach we Lechatchila suspect for the stringent opinions. Vetzaruch Iyun, as perhaps the stringency of Admur in 451:33 regarding Keli Sheiyni only applies it has minority usage of Keli Rishon. Likewise, perhaps the stringency of Admur in 451:34 regarding Keli Shelishi only applies on Pesach itself if the vessel is Ben Yomo. Vetzaruch Iyun! See Nitei Gavriel 65:7

[102] Admur 451:33

The reason: As we have three opinions to rely upon to say that no Chametz transfer of taste has occurred: 1) The main opinion rules that non-Be Yomo does not prohibit even on Pesach. 2) Some rule Keli Sheiyni and onwards does not transfer taste even if Ben Yomo; 3) Some rule we follow majority usage if not Ben Yomo. [Admur ibid]

[103] See Admur 451:34

[104] Admur 451:43 and 72

[105] Admur 451:2

[106] Admur 451:43

[107] Admur 451:2

[108] See Admur 451:21 regarding the handle of a pot and the same should apply here as well.

[109] See Admur 451:43 and 72

[110] Admur 451:21 regarding the handle of a pot and the same should apply here as well; Admur 451:46 regarding a grinder

[111] Admur 451:27

[112] Admur 452:1 and 24

[113] Admur 451:9

[114] Admur 451:43

[115] Admur 451:6-7; 461:1; 494:16

[116] Admur 451:25

[117] Admur 451:25; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:44

[118] Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:44

[119] Engineered stone is widely used today for counter material in contrast to marble. Engineered stone is a composite material made of crushed stone bound together by an adhesive, (most commonly polymer resin, with some newer versions using cement mix). The two common stones used in producing these products are marbles and quartz. The quartz-based product is used primarily for kitchen countertops. Related materials include geopolymers and cast stone. Unlike terrazzo, the material is factory made in either blocks or slabs, cut and polished by fabricators, and assembled at the worksite.

[120] Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:33

[121] Admur 451:25

[122] M”B 451:56; See Admur 451:19

[123] Admur 451:50

Background: From the letter of the law a vessel used for only cold Chametz, such as flour, may be used even for hot Pesach food as long as it was cleaned well. Nevertheless, the custom is to Lechatchilah never use any wooden vessels which were used for flour consistently, even if one cleaned it and did to it Hagala. The reason for this is because we suspect that perhaps some Chametz has remained in the vessel. [Admur ibid]

[124] Admur 451:25

[125] Admur 451:13

Background: If the vessel absorbed the Chametz directly, without any liquid involved, such as by a baking pan, then a dispute exists as to what type of Kashering it needs. Some say that even Hagala [placing it in boiling water] suffices. Their reasoning is because Chametz before Peach is permitted, and therefore does not require such extreme heat to be Kashered. However, other Poskim rule that it requires “Libun Gamur” which means that it must be heated until sparks begin to fly off from it, or until a layer of it peels off. Practically, we rule like the latter opinion, even bedieved [such as that one already used the pot to cook in] that it needs libun gamur. [Admur ibid]

[126] Admur 451:20

[127] The reason: As the heat can easily ruin it and there is thus suspicion that to prevent this one will not heat the water enough for the Hagala. [Admur ibid]

[128] What is ceramic? A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous. Because most common ceramics are crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as opposed to the non crystalline glasses.

[129] Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:49

What is enamel? Vitreous enamel, also porcelain enamel in U.S. English, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between 750 and 850 °C (1380 and 1560 °F). The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating on metal, and also glass or ceramics, although the use of the term “enamel” is often restricted to work on metal, which is all that this article covers; enameled glass is also called “painted”.

[130] Some Poskim rule it retains the status of earthenware and is not Kasherable. [Tuv Taam Vadaas Kama 183; ] Other Poskim rule it is a metallic type of coating and is hence Kasherable with Hagala. [Maharash Engel 5:96; Avnei Nezer Y.D. 2:112] Other Poskim rule it is Kasherable with Libun Kal. [Pischeiy teshuvah Y.D. 121:2 in name of Chasam Sofer Y.D. 113; Mahariy Asad 76; Imrei Yosher 2:144]

[131] Shevet Halevi 2:43; Cheshev Haeifod 1:117; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[132] M”B 451:163; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:56; See Darkei Teshuvah Y.D. 121:26; Sdei Chemed Mareches Hei 30

What is porcelain? Kaolin clay is the primary material from which porcelain is made, even though clay minerals might account for only a small proportion of the whole. The word “paste” is an old term for both the unfired and fired material. A more common terminology these days for the unfired material is “body”, for example, when buying materials a potter might order an amount of porcelain body from a vendor.

[133] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:35

What is Teflon? Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic of that finds numerous applications. The most well known brand name of PTFE is Teflon by DuPont Co. PTFE is a solid, as it is a high- compound consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is neither water nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high of fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction against any solid. PTFE is used as a coating for pans and other . It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength and so it is often used in containers and pipe work for reactive and corrosive chemicals.

[134] The Poskim suggest several reasons behind why it is not Kasherable: a) As one uses it to fry things without any oil and it hence requires Libun Chamor, which cannot be done due to fear of destroying the pan. B) As Teflon is a very absorbent material and contains the same characteristics as earthenware. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 187]    

[135] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:53

[136] Some Poskim rule it has the same status as earthenware, and is thus not Kasherable. [Igros Moshe 2:92; Kinyan Torah 2:84; Lehoros Nasan 6:69] Others rule it is Kasherable. [Chelkas Yaakov 2:163; Minchas Yitzchak 3:67; Tzitz Eliezer 4:6; Chazon Ovadia; Beir Moshe 2:53; ]

[137] Admur 451:26

Background: According to some Poskim, one only needs to wash them spotlessly clean, and may then use them for even hot foods. The reason for this is because we judge after majority usage, and the above items are majority only used for cold or Keli Sheiyni foods. However, today the custom is to do Hagala to all dishes and cutlery as we suspect for the opinion who says that we judge even after the minority usage of the vessels. [Admur ibid]

[138] Admur 451:14

[139] Admur 451:15

[140] Admur 451:19-20

[141] Admur 451:20

[142] Admur 451:72

[143] The reason: As at times Chametz soaks for 24 hours inside the liquid that is in the cup and it is considered like the Chametz was cooked in it. This is certainly possible by wine or [hot tea] of which it is common to dip biscuits or pastries inside of them and perhaps some crumbs have remained in their liquid for the above amount of time. Likewise, some people drink beer in their cups and the beer remains in the cup for 24 hours. Now, although this is only the minority use of the cup, while its majority use is for cold foods, nevertheless, it is subject to the dispute in Poskim as to whether we follow majority or even minority use, of which we conclude that Lechatchila we suspect for the stringent opinion. [Admur ibid; See Admur 451:26-31] Likewise, as times one washes the cup with hot water together with other Chametz, and at times the cup soaks in the Chametz sink water for 24 hours. [See Admur 451:21]

[144] Admur 451:21 regarding the handle of a pot and the same should apply here as well; Admur 451:46 regarding a grinder

[145] Admur 451:19

[146] The reason: As the lip is external and there is thus no worry that Chametz entered inside. [Admur ibid]

[147] Admur 451:21; Chok Yaakov 451:40

[148] Admur ibid; Rama 451:12; Taz 451:17

[149] Admur ibid; Peri Chadash 451:!3; Chok Yaakov 451:40

[150] Admur 451:41

[151] Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:10

[152] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[153] Admur 451:36-37; ; Michaber Y.D. 121:4

[154] Admur 451:37; This applies only when Kashering for Pesach, however by other Issurim, the pot needs Libun. [Admur ibid]

[155] Admur 451:36

[156] See Even Yisrael 7:21; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:14; Nitei Gavriel 84:8

[157] Nonetheless, even in these cases it is subject to dispute, as some Poskim rule we follow majority usage. However, according to the final ruling that we are accustomed to suspect for minority usage, then the above cases become an obligation to Kosher due to the custom. [See Admur 451:26-27]

[158] See Admur 451:21

[159] See Admur 451:60 and 72

[160] See Admur 451:51 regarding Minhag Nashim to not use the pot used to Kosher with Iruiy Keli Rishon due to Nitzuk Chibur; See Rama Y.D. 105:3; Darkei Teshuvah 105:96-100

[161] See Shach Y.D. 105:23; P”M 173 A”A 1 that it possibly transfers 60x since there is liquid inside; Maharsham 5:76 that it only transfers a Kelipa

[162] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid who records a dispute regarding if we suspect that perhaps a crumb of Chametz fell into it, however, from Admur 451:21; 43 and 72 it is implied that there is no room for such suspicions, and only if there is probable cause is there reason to be stringent. However, see Admur 451:46 regarding a grinder, that initially we do suspect for a crumb of Chametz. Vetzaruch Iyun.

[163] Admur 451:21 regarding the handle of a pot and the same should apply here as well; Admur 451:46 regarding a grinder; See previous footnote

[164] An electric urn can be Koshered through boiling water inside of it until its very top and then throwing into the boiling water an Even Meluban [red hot stone or slab of metal] which will cause the water to overflow and splash beyond the rims of the pot. [Admur 452:1 and 24]

[165] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[166] Admur 451:54

[167] The reason: As we suspect it was used to grind Chametz, or to grind a Charif food [such an onion] which was cut with a  Chametz knife. [admur ibid]

[168] The reason: As we suspect that a crumb of Chametz remained on the grinder and has now gotten into one’s food. [Admur ibid]

[169] Admur 451:46

[170] The reason: From the letter of the law, it does not require Kashering if it was not used to grind bread or other Chametz, however initially it is good to Kasher it due to suspicion that perhaps one time a crumb of Chametz fell inside, and it was then ground with a Davar Charif. [Admur ibid] Certainly, if one grinds onions and garlic, or other Charif foods, in this grinder, and the foods were cut with a Chametz knife, then the grinder must be Kashered from the letter of the law. [See Admur 451:54 regarding a grater]

[171] The reason: As a) Everything is cold and does not transfer taste. B) From the letter of the law we do not need to suspect that a crumb of Chametz fell inside. [Admur ibid] c) We follow majority usage Bedieved. [Admur 451:28]

[172] Piskeiy Teshuvos 551:19

[173] Admur 451:24; Rav Wozner in Kuntrus Mibeis Levi 1:29

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule it only requires Libun Kal. [M”B 451:34; Igros Moshe 1:124; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid]

[174] The reason: As at times [Chametz such as] dough spills onto them and they absorb Chametz directly without liquid. [Admur] Now, although we rule that two pots which touch each other do not transfer taste without liquid [Admur 451:67] perhaps we suspect that liquid may spill onto while cooking and make everything prohibited according to our custom to prohibit the food even if the pot is not be Ben Yomo.

[175] See Admur 451:65; 67; Rama Y.D. 92:8; Taz Y.D. 92:29; M”B 451:34; Halacha 5 above!

[176] In any event the pots never touch the burners and there is thus no suspicion that Chametz absorbed without liquid will transfer into the food in the pot. Nevertheless, Libun Kal is to be performed in order to destroy any Chametz Beiyn from inside, and Kasher it from majority usage.

[177] Admur 461:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 551:10

[178] The reason: As the Chametz at times falls onto the floor of the oven and the oven walls receive Chametz taste directly without liquid [Admur ibid] and we are initially stringent to follow minority usage. [Admur 451:27] Now, although we rule that two pots which touch each other do not transfer taste without liquid [Admur 451:67] perhaps we suspect that liquid may spill onto while cooking and make everything prohibited according to our custom to prohibit the food even if the pot is not be Ben Yomo.

[179] The heating elements are very delicate and can burn due to the heat of the blow torch. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 39]

[180] Admur 461:1 regarding oven floor; Nitei Gavriel 79:7; Shevach Hamoadim p. 178 [regarding an electric stove top];

[181] The reason: As whenever Chametz is heated on a vessel without water it requires Libun Chamor. [Admur 451:13] And at times one places Chametz, such as Challahs, directly on the hot plate [see 451:58] and we go after Miut Tashmish on Pesach [Admur ibid; 451:26] and it is thus similar to the stovetop grates which require Libun Chamor. [Admur 451:24] However Tzaruch Iyun, as according to this then also counters and tables should require Libun Chamor, and in 451:58, even according to the stringent approach, it only requires Iruiy with Even Meluban. Perhaps the explanation is that only when there is fire directly touching the vessel does it require Libun Chamor, and thus by a table, despite it having hot Chametz directly on it, it does not need Libun Chamur, as there is no actual fire touching it. Vetzaruch Iyun regarding a Plata, as although there is no fire, nevertheless there is electric heat directly under the metal and it is thus similar to baking Chametz on an electric stove top. 

[182] M”B 451:34 and Igros Moshe 1:124 regarding grates; Opinions brought in Siddur Pesach Kehilchaso 7:4; Hagalas Keilim 13:381; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:19; Hakashrus 6:22

[183] Opinions brought in Siddur Pesach Kehilchaso 7:4; Hagalas Keilim 13:381; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:19; Hakashrus 6:22

[184] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:49; Hakashrus ibid footnote 61

[185] Harav Asher Lemel Hakohen told me that he suggests to all to purchase a new one for Pesach as it is very difficult to clean.

[186] As by doing so all the Chametz is considered destroyed even if some Chametz was unable to be removed and went unnoticed.

[187] As all vessels are to be non-Ben Yomo when Kashered through Hagala or Iruiy Keli Rishon [Admur 452:15]

[188] Brought in Siddur Pesach Kehilchaso 7:4; Hagalas Keilim 13:381; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:19; Hakashrus 6:22

[189] By doing so one secures that even if the Plata was not Kashered properly, such as according to those who require Libun Chamur, then it is nevertheless useable due to the metal interval. Nevertheless, one is to also Kasher the hot plate beforehand even though he plans to cover it as at times the tinfoil tears and liquid comes in between.

[190] To secure that even if the bottom tears and receives liquid, there is nevertheless an upper interval.

[191] See Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:22; Sefer Hakashrus [Fuchs] 1:47-50 [pp. 48-49]; Nitei Gavriel 80:16; See also Hadarom Choveret 6 Nissan 5722; Kovetz Beis Aaron Yisrael 4:3

How does a microwave cook? A microwave is a rapid cooking element, which can warm and cook food much quicker than traditional cooking methods. Now, how does the microwave achieve its rapid cooking? The microwave does not use the heat of a fire or electricity to cook but rather cooks the food using radiation, or radio electromagnetic waves, which is projected from a vacuum tube and bounced off the metal lined walls of the microwave which penetrate the food from all sides. These waves hasten the movement of the water molecules in the food to atomic levels hence generating heat. [Heat is generated from movement and friction.] This form of cooking, cooks the food much quicker than fire or electricity, as the radioactive waves hits the food equally in all areas and furthermore, penetrates the inside of the food molecules hence making the entire mass of the food an equal recipient of the heat. This is unlike fire or electric cooking which heats the external part of the food, and that heat then must travel to the inner part of the food in order to cook it. Likewise, this form of cooking only heats the actual food, as it does not actually send heat to the food but causes the food to heat itself up. Accordingly, all other areas and items of the microwave might remain cold, including the walls and certain plastic or glass containers which cover the food. The only way these items will become hot is if they are in contact with the food itself. The radio waves harmlessly pass through these containers into the food and do not cause any heating within them being they do not contain water molecules or other polar charge component. [See Hakashrus ibid footnote 100; See here for an educational video on how a microwave works. https:::www.youtube.com:watch?v=kp33ZprO0Ck]

[192] Rav Yitzchak Yosef, the current Chief Rabbi of Israel

[193] The reason: As the actual walls of the microwave do not heat up at all, and only the food itself heats up.

[194] See all Gedolei HaPoskim mentioned in Hakashrus ibid and Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid, which include Rav Wozner, Rav Elyashiv, Rav Sheinberg, Rav Halbershtam; Nitei Gavriel ibid footnote 26 in name of Rav Neiman of Montreal

[195] The reason: a) Although the walls of the microwave do not heat up, nevertheless, the steam and spills of the food make the walls absorb the food and hence it must be Kashered. [Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; See Admur 451:41, Michaber 451:14, and M”B 451:81 that a vessel which absorbed the steam of an Issur requires Hagala] b) As there is a vent duct in the microwave that contains actual steam of food, and that area is not Kasherable. [Rav Neiman ibid]

[196] As although the walls don’t heat up, the microwave receives steam from the foods and hence must be Kashered.

[197] See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Siddur Pesach Kehilchaso 8:3 that it can only be Kashered through Libun, Hagala or Iruiy Keli Rishon and Even Meluban

[198] The reason: a) Although the walls of the microwave do not heat, nevertheless the steam and spills of the food inside make the walls absorb the food and hence it must be Kashered. Now, it is not possible to Kasher the microwave, as one cannot blow torch it, or place it in boiling water, and many Poskim rule an item cannot be Kashered through steaming water inside it. [See Shoel Umeishiv Telisa 3:125; Sdei Chemed Mareches Hei 24; Chametz Umatzah 17:12 that it is not possible to Kasher through vapor] It therefore has no viable path for Kashering. A second reason is b) As there is a vent duct in the microwave that contains actual steam of food, and that area is not cleanable or Kasherable. [Rav Neiman ibid]

[199] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:212; Yalkut Yosef Pesach p. 360; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid regarding Shaas Hadechak

[200] The reason: As we rule that it is possible to Kasher an item through steam, and just like the microwave absorbed the food through steam, so too it can be Kashered through steam. [See Peri Chadash 121; P”M  Y.D. 94 M”Z 1; Tevuos Hasadeh 3:3]

[201] See Hakashrus ibis footnote 105 that so ruled Rav Wozner, Rav Shternbuch and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu

[202] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid writes to leave it on for one hour; Sefer Hakashrus ibid writes [based on Mitbach Kehalacha p. 58 and Techumin 8:21] to enter a half a liter of water and leave the microwave on until it steams out; Rav Yitzchak Yosef says to leave it on for six minutes

[203] Teshuvos Vehanhagos 2:212; Koveitz Mibeis Levi 3:22; 7:25; Yalkut Yosef Pesach p. 360; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Hakashrus ibid

[204] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid; Hakashrus ibid footnote 105; Nitei Gavriel ibid concludes that due to the many opinions, one is not to use it for Pesach without directive from a Rav

[205] Hakashrus ibid; Nitei Gavriel ibid in name of Rav Neiman

[206] Pischeiy Halacha Kashrus p. 28; Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnote 106

[207] See Kovetz Mibeis Levi 3:22-9; Hadarom ibid; Beis Aaron Veyisrael ibid

[208] Admur 451:58; Nitei Gavriel 76:4

[209] The reason: As at times the hot Chametz soup spills onto the shelves. [Admur ibid] This is no longer widely practiced today, seemingly due to that we are careful never to place hot foods in a fridge, or due to that anyways we are accustomed to cover the shelves.

[210] Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:11

[211] The reason: As it has likely absorbed Chametz through a) Pouring hot Chametz, or Chametz water into it [i.e. draining the pot of pasta]; b) Having Chametz soak in it for 24 hours. C) Washing Chametz dishes with Yad Soledes water. [See Admur 451:21 regarding the handle of a pot and the same should apply here as well; Admur 451:46 regarding a grinder] and we are initially stringent to follow minority usage. [Admur 451:27] Now, if it is not Kashered, we suspect that perhaps one will pour hot Pesach food into it [Nitzuk], or have Chametz vessels soak in it for 24 hours, or wash Pesach dishes with hot water, during Pesach and make everything prohibited according to our custom to prohibit the food even if the pot is not be Ben Yomo. [However, if its majority usage is with cold, then the food remains Kosher.]

[212] Admur 451:77 regarding the spouts of wine barrels

[213] Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid

[214] The reason: As the sink has absorbed Chametz, as stated above, and on Pesach we are initially stringent even regarding a Keli Sheiyni transfer and even if not Ben Yomo, and even if the Chametz absorption was only due to minority usage. [Admur 451:27 and 33; 72]

[215] See Admur 451:34

[216] As Bedieved we follow majority usage by a non-Ben Yomo Chametz vessel [Admur 451:27 and 31 and 72] and hence since the sink’s majority use is with cold products, it is therefore Kosher Bedieved.

[217] Admur 451:58 regarding tables; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:44

[218] The reason: As at times people place a hot pot on them, and the pot spills, thus requiring Kashering of Iruiy Keli Rishon [according to the Poskim who rule we follow minority usage]. Furthermore, at times, people place actual hot Chametz directly on the counter, and it hence requires Hagala, or Iruiy Keli Rishon with Even Meluban. [Admur ibid] Nonetheless, Bedieved, if one placed a hot pot/food directly on the table or counter without Kashering it, everything remains Kosher as we follow majority usage by a non Ben Yomo item. [Admur 451:27 and 72]

[219] See Admur ibid that if it is not common to place hot foods on them, then Kashering is not necessary; See Halacha 5 for the law of a covering and the differences between materials!

[220] Michaber 451:20; Admur 451:58

[221] M”A 451:38 in name of Maharil [even regarding tables]; Elya Raba 451:40 [only regarding shelves, not tables]; M”B 451:115 [brings both opinions]; Dvar Moshe Tinyana 98:36; See Nitei Gavriel 77:1 footnote 2

Does this law apply even to tables and counters or only to shelves? The M”A ibid applies the ruling of the Maharil to all surfaces that contact food, including tables. However the Elya Raba ibid limits this stringency of the Maharil to cabinets with shelves in which it is difficult to clean the corners of Chametz, and hence it is to be covered. However, a flat surface such as a table, even the Maharil agrees that there is no need at all to cover it. The M”B ibid brings both opinions and seems to side with the ruling of the Elya Raba. So also rules the Aruch Hashulchan 451:41. Nevertheless, it is customary of Jews, including Anash, to be stringent in this matter.

Opinion of Admur: Admur ibid completely omitted the ruling of the Maharil; M”A and Elya Raba. He only mentions the necessity to cover an item in 451:48 regarding vessels made of wood that are constantly used with dough and flour; and in 451:65 regarding an oven that was not Kashered. No mention is made anywhere regarding covering an already Kashered table or cabinet. Nevertheless, it is customary of Jews, including Anash, to be stringent in this matter. [See Nitei Gavriel ibid]

[222] M”A ibid; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:44

[223] Admur 453:23-24; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:42

[224] The reason: As it is very difficult to ascertain that not even one crumb of Chametz will remain stuck to the cloth. [Admur ibid regarding the sacks for flour]

[225] See Yad Yitzchak 3:78; Darkei Teshuvah 89:11; Sdei Chemed 4:24; Minchas Yitzchak 8:37; Minchas Shlomo 2:46; Shevet Halevi 1:148; 4:74; Tzitz Eliezer 9:25; Mishneh Halachos 3:56;  4:68 and 93; Piskeiy Teshuvos 451:23; Nitei Gavriel 78

Background: The idea of Kashering teeth, fillings or dentures is not recorded in the Talmud or classical Poskim and was first dealt with amongst the more recent authorities. Aside for the status quo custom to not make an issue of this throughout the year regarding meat and milk, the Poskim suggest various explanations for why they do not pose a Halachic problem that require Kashering, such as 1) The material of the teeth, filling or dentures are smooth and do not absorb; 2) One never enters hot food in his mouth of a temperature that can transfer taste. Practically, while the Poskim agree that from the letter of the law no Kashering is required, regarding Pesach, it is proper to be stringent. [See Piskeiy Teshuvos ibid footnotes 107-110]

[226] Setimas Haposkim who all omit any obligation or reminder of cleaning the teeth prior to the 5th hour on Erev Pesach.

[227] Darkei Chaim Veshalom 568; See Poskim ibid

[228] As even by actual Chametz vessels waiting 24 hours prior to the 5th hour is a mere custom and is not required from the letter of the law.

[229] Nitei Gavriel 78:4

[230] Poskim ibid

[231] See Admur 451:54 regarding a grater that we suspect a Chametz crumb has been leftover, and it hence requires Libun Chamor

[232] Nitei Gavriel 78:3

[233] We do not suspect that perhaps hot Chametz spilled on it the same way we do not suspect this for a cup or any other item that was only used with cold Chametz!

[234] See Nitei Gavriel 76:6

[235] Admur 452:30

[236] Admur 452:21

[237] Admur 452:8; However, if the vessel used for the Kashering is not Ben Yomo, then from the letter of the law it does not to be Kashered beforehand, [Admur 452:12] although the custom is to do so even before the 5th hour of the day. [Admur 452:15]

The reason: As a Ben Yomo vessel can forbid the water that is in it, and thus forbid all the pots that are placed inside to be Kashered. [Admur ibid]

[238] Admur 452:9-11

If one removes the vessel right away or water is boiling: Some Poskim rule that when Kashering Ben Yomo vessels past the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, there must always be 60x in the water against all the vessels even if the water is boiling and one removes the vessel right away. Other Poskim, however, rule that as long as the vessels do not stay longer than estimated in the boiling water, it is not necessary to have 60x in the water against all the vessels. This is due to the rule is that so long as the vessel is expelling its absorbed taste, it will not absorb anything else. However, if the vessels do stay longer than needed to expel their absorbed taste, then even according to this opinion, there would need to be 60x in the water versus the total amount of vessels. However, there are Poskim who rule that even if the vessels stay in the water longer than needed to expel their taste, it is not necessary to have 60x in the water against them, so long as the water is boiling, as when the water is boiling it cannot transfer taste into the vessels. However, even according to this opinion, if the water stops boiling, then it absorbs. Thus, one must be careful to remove the vessels before the water stops boiling. Practically, we follow the first opinion. As well, Lechatchilah we are stringent like the latter two opinions and require that the vessel does not stay in the water longer than needed for it to expel its taste, as well as that it should be entered and removed from the water while it is boiling, in all cases even if the vessels are not Ben Yomo and have 60x in the water. Thus, we do not place into the water simultaneously, two vessels which have a different amount of time needed to expel their taste. [Admur 452:16-21]

If the vessel is not Ben Yomo: If the vessels are not Ben Yomo, then there is no need for there to be 60x in the water against them, being that its “Nat Bar Nat Dihetera/pgam.” [Admur 452:11]

[239] See previous footnote

[240] Admur 452:17 and 21

[241] Admur 452:17 and 21

[242] Admur 452:19 and 20 that we rule like first opinion

Other opinions: According to the two other opinions mentioned in the previous footnotes, it is possible to Kasher a vessel even on Pesach if it is not Ben Yomo, or there is 60x, and one removes the pot while the water is boiling, or removes it prior to finishing its expelling. [Admur 452:19] We do not rule like their opinion. [Admur 452:20]

[243] Admur 452:9-15; Rama 452:2

Background: From the letter of the law, the Chametz vessels being Kashered before the 5th hour on Erev Pesach may be Ben Yomo and even in such a case it is not necessary for there to be 60x amount of water in the Hagala vessel versus the vessel being Kashered. The reason for this is because Chametz before the 5th hour is still permitted, and thus it has the status of Nat Bar Nat Dihetera. [Admur 452:13] However, the custom is to that all vessels being Kashered are to be not Ben Yomo, even when Kashering before the 5th hour on Erev Pesach and even if there is 60x the amount of water against all the vessels. The reason for this stringency is because we suspect that perhaps one of the vessels may have absorbed Issur, and is Ben Yomo, in which case if there is not 60x in the water then it forbids all the other pots, as it is a case of Nat Bar Nat Dissurah. [Admur 452:15] If, however, one is doing Hagala after the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, then the vessels may not be Ben Yomo unless there is a total of 60x in the water. [Admur 452:9-10]

Kashering meat and milk vessels: Even before the 5th hour, if the vessels are Ben Yomo and there is not 60x in the water against the total amount of vessels being Kashered, then one must be careful to not kasher milk and meat vessels simultaneously. However, they may be placed one after the other, as its Nat Bar Nat Dihetera. [Admur 452:14]

[244] M”B 452:20

[245] Implication of Admur ibid; Chok Yaakov, brought in Shaar Hatziyon 452:25

[246] Admur 452:7; However, from the letter of the law, Stam Keilim are considered clean. [Admur ibid in parentheses]

[247] Admur 451:15

The reason: The reason for this is because we suspect that perhaps some food has been left on the vessel, under the dirt or rust. [Admur ibid]

[248] Admur 451:16

[249] Admur 451:17

[250] Admur 451:18

The reason: As there is no suspicion that there is any food stuck under it. [Admur ibid]

[251] Admur 451:19

[252] Admur 451:19

[253] Admur 451:17 regarding rust

[254] Admur 451:19

[255] Admur 451:51                                                    

[256] Admur 451:38-40 regarding a metal patch; See Admur 451:18; Nitei Gavriel 68:10

[257] Some Poskim rule it requires Libun Gamur. Other Poskim rule it requires Libun Kal. Practically, we rule like the lenient opinion, although it is good to be stringent like the first opinion if possible. [Admur 451:38]

[258] Admur 451:38 in parentheses and 17 regarding rust

[259] Admur 451:38

[260] See Admur 451:18

[261] Admur 452:7

[262] The reason: As if they are wet, their cold water will cool off the Hagala water. [Admur ibid]

[263] Admur 452:13 and 15; 451:59 regarding vessel used for Iruiy Keli Rishon

Background: From the letter of the law, before the 5th hour on Erev Pesach the Chametz vessel being used to hold the boiling Hagala water may be Ben Yomo and does not need to be Kashered prior to use. The reason for this is because Chametz before the 5th hour is still permitted, and thus it has the status of Nat Bar Nat Dihetera. [Admur 452:13] However, the custom is to Kasher the vessel being used for the Hagala even if it is not Ben Yomo, even when Kashering before the 5th hour on Erev. [Admur 452:15] Past the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, then from the letter of the law the vessel must be Kashered prior to use if it is Ben Yomo. [Admur 452:8] Furthermore, it is to have Hagala performed onto it two times if one desires to use it on Pesach, if one is Kashering it through boiling water inside of it. [Admur 452:2 and 22 in parentheses]

[264] Admur 452:13

[265] Admur 452:15

[266] Admur 452:8

[267] Admur 452:22

Background: From the letter of the law, before the 5th hour on Erev Pesach the pot never needs to be Kashered a second time if it was Kashered before the Hagala. However, the custom is to Kasher the vessel that was used for the Hagala a second time even if its Kashered vessels were not Ben Yomo, and the Kashering was done before the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, and the vessel itself was not Ben Yomo when it was first Kashered. However, when Kashering past the 5th hour on Erev Pesach, then from the letter of the law the vessel must be Kashered a second time after the Kashering, if it had Chametz Ben Yomo vessels Kashered in it and did not have 60x them in the water, or if the pot was Ben Yomo and one Kashered it the first time through boiling water inside of it. [Admur ibid]

[268] Admur 451:59 regarding the custom of women not to use it on Pesach

[269] Admur 452:24

[270] Admur 452:1 and 24

[271] Admur 452:28

[272] The debate is regarding if other liquids have ability to extract the taste from the vessel. [Admur ibid]

[273] Admur ibid; M”A 452:10; M”B 452:27; Kaf Hachaim 452:53; Nitei Gavriel 71:1; Piskeiy Teshuvos 452:5-2

[274] Michaber Y.D. 95:4 and so is the custom of Sephardim as heard from Rav Yaakov Yosef; Poskim in Nitei Gavriel ibid

[275] Admur 452:9-13

[276] Admur 452:11; See Piskeiy Teshuvos 452:5-5

[277] Admur 452:10

[278] Admur 452:14

[279] Admur 452:3

[280] If the water was not boiling and one placed in it a [Ben Yomo Treif] vessel which had majority of its use as a Keli Rishon, then the water becomes forbidden [if there is no 60x] and the vessels is not Kashered. [Admur ibid]

[281] Admur 451:14; When Kashering for Chametz and Basar Bechalav it suffices to use a boiling Keli Rishon even if is off fire. When Kashering a vessel from other Issurim one is to be stringent that the pot of boiling water be on fire. [Admur ibid]

[282] Admur 452:29

[283] Admur 452:6

[284] The reason: As if one would benefit from the water it would be considered Bittul Issur Lechatchilah. [Admur ibid]

[285] See Biur Halacha 452 1 “Tzarich”; Piskeiy Teshuvos 452:5-9

[286] Admur 452:4

[287] Admur 452:21

Other opinions: Some Poskim rule one is to be stringent in this matter even when Kashering before the 6th hour. [See M”B 452:13; Piskeiy Teshuvos 452:5]

[288] Admur 452:21 in conclusion to be stringent like both opinion; See footnotes in B!

The reason: As we suspect for the opinions who rule that the vessel will begin reabsorbing their expelled taste if removed after they stop expelling or after the water stops boiling, and it is forbidden to initially cause an Issur even if not Ben Yomo. [Admur ibid]

[289] Admur 452:25

[290] The reason: As the Hagala water must reach all areas of the vessels, and the boiling heat of the water is unable to penetrate in the areas that the vessels are touching each other. [Admur ibid]

[291] Admur 452:10

[292] Admur 452:17 and 21

[293] Admur 451:37

[294] Admur 451:27

[295] Admur 452:5

[296] See M”B 452:20

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